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new Hexapods for robot soccer. - Electrical _ Computer Engineering

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					 Research on
Robot Soccer
and what PSU
   can do
     The perceptions
 Three perceptions: see, hear and
  sense_body.
 All related to one system of perception.
 Representation of perceptions:
    (see 1 (ball …) …)
     Visual Perception
 see.
   List of objects recognized:
    – type,
    – direction,
    – distance,
    – speed,
    – number.
   Lines, gates, boundaries, ball.
              sense_body
 Force detection
 Energy available.

                     Actions
   Principal actions:
    – dash,
    – kick,
    – turn
    – say.
Variants
                                               Role level
of
Control
structure


 – Role level      : Determines the roles of each robot.
                   (defender, attacker and goal keeper)
 – Action level     : Selects actions of each robot.
                   (shooting, blocking, dribbling, etc)
 – Behavior level : Move and obstacle avoidance
 – Execution level : Motor control
Classification of Robot Soccer
           Systems

                                                 Vision-based system
                                                   – Remote brainless system
                                                   – Brain-on-board system


                                                 Robot-based system


     The system can be classified using the
         location of intelligence

    Selection guidelines
       – Developer’s interests           – Capabilities of the robots
       – Computational capabilities of   – Cost
         host computer and vision system
Remote-Brainless System
                                             A type of vision-based system

                                             Intelligent part is implemented
                                              in the host computer.




    Centralized system
    Simple and inexpensive            Easy to develop the robot
    No local sensors.
    Fast computing time
                                       High cost vision system and host computer
     and sampling time
    Easy to debug and upgrade the program
                                                                            Remote-
                                                                           Brainless
                                                                            System



   Robots
     The robots consist of driving mechanism, communication part, and computational part for velocity and
        for processing the data received from a host computer
   Host computer
     All the calculations for vision data processing, strategies, position control of robots and so on, are done
         in the host computer which controls robots like radio -controlled car
Brain-on-board system
                                               A type of vision-based system

                                               Intelligence is partially implemented
                                                in the host computer and robots.




   Intermediate level between the centralized and the distributed systems / between
    the remote-brainless and the robot based systems.
   Robots can use local sensors to move to the goal and to avoid the opponent.
   Can decompose the system into high level (host computer)
                                                                     Easy to make
        and low level (robot systems).                              the system in modular form
                                                                                   Brain-
                                                                                    on-
                                                                                   board
                                                                                  system




   Robots
     The robots have functions such as velocity control, position control, obstacle avoidance, etc.
   Host computer
     The host computer processes vision data and calculates next behaviors of robots according to strategies
        and sends commands to the robots using RF modem.
Robot-based system
                                                 Distributed system

                                                 Intelligent part is
                                                  implemented in the robots.




    Suitable when the large number of agents exist
    Complex and expensive
    Need communication among robots
     Robot-
     based
    system

   Robots
    The robots decide their own behavior autonomously using the received vision data, own
      sensor data and strategies.
   Host computer
    The host computer processes only vision data
    can be considered as a kind of sensor.
                      Main PC
   Serial Port
     – Select the serial communication port
   Home Goal                                        EXAMPLE
     – Select the home side on the screen
   Find Objects
     – Check the box of which you like to find on the field
   Initial Position: tell the vision system the initial position
                     of each object
     – E.g.) for the ball
       i) turn on the radio button of ‘Ball’
       ii) place the mouse on the ball and press the left button
     – Repeat above procedure for another object
                     Main PC
                                               EXAMPLE
   Select Situation
    – The situation in which the game is about to start
   Command
    – Click ‘Ready’: the vision system starts finding the objects
                  on the field
    – Click ‘Start’ : the vision system starts sending commands
                  to the robots
    – Click ‘Stop’ : the vision system stops finding objects
                  and sending commands
Communication (Infra-red)
     Infra-red Communication
                                                0,0cm                                130cm
         Transmitter
                                                                                        Y

                                                           35cm,35cm     35cm,95cm


                       q t ,q r : View angle
             qt


                       qr

                                                           115cm,35cm   115cm,95cm
                                               150cm




                       Receiver
                                                       X




       – Four transmitters are used to cover the whole field


                                                                        EXAMPLE
Communication
   Both teams share the same transmitter via a mediator

            PC 1 (Team A)         Transmitter           PC 2 (Team B)



                                                   Infra-red
                                                    module

                                                                      EXAMPLE
   Communication Packet
0xFF       0xFF   0xFF   0x0F   VL1   VR1   0xAA     VL 2      VR 2   0xAA   VL3   VR 3   0xAA



       –    Three 0xFFs: the start of a packet
       –    0x0F (0xF0): Team A (Team B)
       –    VLi , VRi: left and right wheel velocity of robot i
       –    0xAA: end of velocity data of each robot
Tough, practical problems to be
            solved
   Real-Time image processing
   Sensor fusion (sonar, touch, vision,
    light, other).
   Motors, batteries.
   Sophisticated control strategies
   Radio communication
   Agent communication
            Problems
   Players do not know absolute locations.
   Points of reference are: boundaries,
    lines and gates.
   Conflicts of players
 Limited visibility
 Limited communication
          Software
   Real-Time Problem, rule-based, agent
    behavior.
   Dynamic planning and execution of plans
    in real-time.
   Cooperation and competition.
   No precise information
   Non-deterministic behavior:
    – results of actions are uncertain.
Software potentials (cont.)
   Voice comunication of players
   Various players have different rules and
    behaviors, different strategies and
    implementations - rule-based, neural nets,
    fuzzy logic, etc.
   multi-agents: competition versus
    collaboration.
   on-line versus off-line,
   individual versus group behaviors.
        FIRA and the
ECE 478/ECE 479 class at PSU
 Class project and in future Capstone Project
  (if a company will sponsor)
 High-School project
 Portland Cyber Theatre
 Experience in Visual C++, Basic, Lisp and
  Prolog programming.
 A lot of fun.
 Travel to Japan or Korea?
Does PSU team has a chance?
 1. Professor Kim from KAIST in Korea
  invited us to create a new league of
  walking robots
 2. We have experience with walking robots
 3. We will try to propose new competition
  ideas and have a leverage of knowing them
  earlier.
    – Besides, our students are smart…..?

          Let us look to our robots…...
What we propose
            Sports
            commentator


                    Robot soccer system
                      – Intelligent control system
                      – Multi-agent system


                    Composition of robot soccer system
                      –   Mobile robots
                      –   Host computer
                      –   Vision system
                      –   Communication module

  Walking
  robots
         Team One
 Complex robots
 8 to 12 servos
Our walking quadrupeds and hexapods
             Multi-national team
                            Collaborations:
                            ATR, Japan
                            Technical University
                            of Warsaw, Poland
                            Technical University
                            of Gliwice, Poland
                            KAIST, Korea
Quadruped
Basic Radio-Controlled Spider
    Hexapod with Gripper
Spider with a camera
New soccer-specialized
      hexapod
Hexapod’s Soccer Kicker
        Team Two
 Simple robots - hexapods
 2 servos
SoccerBot
Final design of a quadruped
           walker
 Block Diagram of the
Simple Robot System
        Communication
           Signal
                                                      Motor
                                                      Power
                     Communication
                        Module
                                                      Battery



                                                      Voltage
                     Micro-Controller
                                                     Regulator
                                                      Logic
                                                      Power

        PWM Left                         PWM Right

                   Motor        Motor
       Motor                                  Motor
                   Driver       Driver

    Motor Part
Sport Commentators

             Bug
Virginia Woolf
Jonas
Marvin the Crazy Robot
       Class Projects -
     Winter/Spring 2002
 1. Robot position, orientation and conflict
  detection using top-mounted camera
 2. Ball recognition and vision interface to the
  server
 3. Server and user interface
 4. Egoistic soccer-playing strategy
 5. Collaborative soccer-playing strategy
 6. Recovery from body conflicts such as leg
  entanglements of robots
  Class Projects -
Winter/Spring 2002
 7. Design of robo-head sport
  commentator: speech and natural
  language generation.
 8. Mechanical improvements to robots
 9. Design of a special soccer player
  hexapod.
Image Processing: find position, orientation
and conflicts of a walker
Filtering, histogramming, Hough transform, equations
Localization, orientation, conflicts (leg entanglements)
Robo Soccer - Why is it
      so cool?
 Is Robot Soccer useful?
 Is the result of Robot Soccer useful?
 Is Robot Soccer the worlds largest
  playground?
 Is there money to be made with robots
  to play sports?
Why are Robot Sports so cool?
    Captures the essence of soccer. (That’s why
     there can be a lot of people cheering on the
     teams)
    ”Hacker-party” more than a dull academic
     conference….that is, it is a lot of activity.
    Interesting problem in co-ordinating 11
     processes to achieve a common goal.
    The width of the field, from Robotic-nerds
     to Sociologists.
Why are Robot Sports so cool?
   In the simulator league, you are forced to learn
    many concepts:
    – for example network communication, multi-threading,
      agents, hardware, etc.
 Testbed for AI-algorithms, sociological
  theories.
 Fairly simple environment.
 A limited set of rules (also predefined), but
  always close to real world problems.
    What are the problems with
      Robot Competitions ?

 Too much work before reaching an interesting
  research level
 Too much focus on low level implementation
  (still)
 Still focus on competing instead of comparing
  of strategies.
            Research
   We do research in several areas:
    – Machine learning (constructive induction)
    – Decision theory
    – Social agents
    – walker’s gaits evolution
    – +more
   In all of the above we plan to use robot
    sports as a testbed, or applied area.
          Conclusion
 Robot sports areTHE new standard
  problem within AI.
 1500 researchers world-wide.
 Focuses on interdisciplinary co-operative
  work between the researchers as well as
  co-operation between the agents.
 New experience for PSU
                    Current class
 4 ME students
 3 CS students
 3 EE students
                                 ME students develop 2
                                 new robot prototypes
Using existing robots CS and     and kits with good
EE students develop software     documentation

CS and EE students build new
robots from kits               ME students adopt software to
                               new robots and learn
                               programming

6 robots of two types build
and tested in July
                    Current class
 4 ME students
 3 CS students
 3 EE students
                                 ME students develop 2
                                 new robot prototypes
Using existing robots CS and     and kits with good
EE students develop software     documentation

CS and EE students build new
robots from kits               ME students adopt software to
                               new robots and learn
                               programming

6 robots of two types build
and tested in July
    Let us go deeper
           Technical Publications
   Hiroaki Kitano, Masahiro Fujita, Stephane Zrehen , and Koji
    Kageyama, "Sony Legged Robot for RoboCup Challenge",
    – In Proceedings of the IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON
      ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, IEEE, 1998, pp.2605-2612
    Manuela Veloso, William Uther, Masahiro Fujita, Minoru
    Asada, and Hiroaki Kitano, "Playing Soccer with Legged
    Robot",
    – In Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON
      INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS, 1998, pp.437-442
How to find more about
      RoboCup?
   Web Pages:

    http://medialab.di.unipi.it/Project/Robocup

 http://www.robocup.org
 http://www.dsv.su.se/~robocup

				
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posted:6/15/2011
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