20010_11 AP Biology John

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					                    Dominican International School




                                  AP BIOLOGY

GRADE LEVEL: AP                                                             SY: 2010-2011
TEACHER: John Dixon                                      email: j_j_dixon2002@yahoo.co.uk



Course Description
AP Biology is a wide-ranging survey of general biology that includes biochemistry,
cellular biology, molecular genetics and heredity, biotechnology, diversity, structure and
function of organisms, and ecology and evolution. It is a challenging course which will
help students not only to memorize science but to experience it. Experimental and
descriptive exercises are integral part of the curriculum.

AP Biology course is an equivalent of a two semester college introductory course usually
taken by biology majors during their freshman year. The primary purpose of the AP
Biology course is to equip students with the theoretical, factual and analytical skills
necessary to deal critically with the fast changing science of biology. The course
emphasizes the recognition of evolution as the basis of modern biological models and
thoughts

Advance Placement Program Biology is and Introductory College level course which
provides an in depth, college level study of biological sciences. This course will also help
students develop college level critical thinking skills, writing skills and study habits. It
will also help students prepare for the comprehensive AP biology exam given in May, so
that they may score a 3 or above and earn college credits for this year of study and hard
work.

The textbook for the course is the eighth edition of Neil A. Campbell and Jane B. Reece‟s
Biology. The first semester begins with orientation and a discussion on how to use the
Campbell/Reece textbook, emphasizing the “Ten Themes in the Study of Life,” which are
very similar to the “eight major themes” found in the official curricular requirements of
AP Biology.

The eight major themes, as put forth by the College Board, are:
1. Science as a Process
2. Evolution
3. Energy Transfer
4. Continuity and Change
5. Relationship of Structure to Function
6. Regulation
7. Interdependence in Nature
8. Science, Technology, and Society

Unit Information
FIRST SEMESTER:
The Chemistry of Life - 7% (Percentage Goal of the Course)
Cells & Cellular Energies - 18 %
Ecology - 10%
Heredity & Molecular Genetics- 17%
Evolutionary Biology - 8%

SECOND SEMESTER
Biological Diversity - 8%
Plant Form & Function - 12%
Animal Form & Function - 20%

Content:
Unit and Key Points                       Lab work and Tests
                                           st
                                       1 Quarter
Weeks 1-2
Essential Question: What is Life?               Lab - Reversible reactions
1A. The Chemistry of Life
A. The Study of Life                            Lab - Effect of growth of Elodea by Acid
B. The Chemical Context of Life                 precipitation.
C. Water and the Fitness of the
Environment                                     Unit Test – Biochemistry (Chapters 2-5)
D. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of
Life
E. The Structure and Function of
Macromolecules


Textbook Chapters: 1-5



Weeks 3-6                                       AP Lab.1 (from AP Biology Lab Manual)
What are the structures and functions of        Diffusion and Osmosis
life’s building blocks?
II. The Cell                                    AP Lab 2 - Enzyme Catalysis
A. Cell and Membrane Structure
B. Cellular Respiration                         AP Lab 4 - Plant pigments and photosynthesis
C. Photosynthesis                               .
D. Cell Communication and the Cell Cycle        Unit Test - Cells (Ch. 6, 7,11,12,)
E. Metabolism                                   Unit Test - Cellular Energetics (Ch. 6,8,9,10)

Chapter 6-12
Weeks 7-9
Essential Question: Why do biotic and
abiotic factors interact to create the     AP Lab 12 - Dissolved Oxygen
ecological problems that exist on earth
today?
III. Ecology                               Unit Test Ecology ( Ch 52-56)
A. Biosphere Ecology
B. Behavioural Biology                     Quarter Exam
C. Population Biology
D. Community Ecology
E. Ecosystems
F. Conservation Biology

Chapter 50 - 55

                                      2nd Quarter
Weeks 10-15                                AP Lab 3 - Mitosis and Meiosis
Essential Question: Why do hereditary
units and events produce genetic           AP Lab 6 - Molecular Biology
variation?
IV. Genetics                               AP Lab 7: Genetics Of Drosophila
A. Sexual Life Cycles
B. Genes and Chromosomes                   Unit Test – Heredity (Ch 13,14,15)
C. Inheritance                             Unit Test – Molecular Genetics (Ch 16-21)
D. Protein Synthesis
E. Viruses and Bacteria
F. Eukaryotic Genomes
G. DNA Technology

Chapter 13- 21



Weeks 16-19
Essential Question: Why is evolution the   AP Lab 8 - Population Genetics and
foundation of all biology?                 Evolution
V. Evolution
A. Darwin
B. Population Evolution                    Unit Test - Evolution (Ch 22-25)
C. Speciation
D. Phylogeny                               Quarter Exam

Chapter 22- 25


                                      3rd Quarter
Weeks 20-24
Essential Question: How does the           AP Lab 5 - Cellular respiration
phylogeny of plants and animals reveal
evolutionary relationships?                Lab – Gram Staining
V. Biological Diversity
A. Origin of Life                          Lab – Bread Mold
B. Prokaryotes
C. Eukaryotes                              Lab – Earthworm dissection;
D. Fungi                                   Lab – Crayfish dissection
E. Plants
F. Animal Evolution                        Unit test – Biological Diversity (Ch 26-34)
G. Invertebrates
H. Vertebrates

Chapter 26-34


Weeks 25 - 28
Essential Question: What adaptations       AP Lab 9 - Transpiration
have enabled plants to flourish on land?
VI. Plants                                 Lab - Flower Dissection
A. Structure and Growth                    Lab - Fruit seeds
B. Transport                               .
C. Nutrition                               Unit Test – Plants (chapters 35-39)
D. Reproduction and Development
E. Control Systems

Chapter 35-39

                                      4th Quarter
Week 29 - 35                               AP Lab 10 - Physiology of the Circulatory
Essential Question: How do species of      System
diverse evolutionary history and varying
complexity solve problems to all?          AP lab 11 - Animal Behaviour
VII. Animals
A. Structure and Function                  Lab - Sheep‟s Brain and Cow‟s Eye
B. Nutrition
C. Circulation and Respiration             Unit 7A Test - Animal Systems 1 (chapters
D. Body‟s Defence                          40-45)
E. The Internal Environment                Unit 7 B Test - Animal Systems 2 (Chapters
F. Chemical Signals                        46-51)
G. Reproduction
H. Development
I. Nervous System                          Quarter exam
J. Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
K. Behaviour

Chapter 40 – 51


                                      AP EXAM
Activities, assignments and assessments:
The School year is divided into four quarters. In addition to the external AP Biology exam
in May, there will be an internal exam at the end of each quarter. The students grade for
each quarterly exam constitutes one third of their grade for that quarter. The rest is from:
     homework, seatwork and projects (1/3)
     other quizzes/ tests (1/3)

The student‟s lab reports for the AP Labs and others will contribute to the homework,
seatwork and project grade. The resources; Practising Biology, Biological Inquiry and the
AP Biology textbook‟s accompanying CD-Rom will often be used for assessed
homeworks (See course materials). Each quarter will also include at least one group
project and one individual research assignment.

For the Quizzes and Tests, there will be Unit Tests throughout the year whenever we reach
the end of unit. The units correspond to the eight main AP biology topics listed under
„Unit information‟ above.
There will also be regular short quizzes, every week unless there is a unit test, these may
take the form of multi-choice questions, short answers or compiling a concept map for a
given topic.

Students will be given a reading schedule and reading their textbook out of class is an
expectation of the course that is ongoing through the year.

A more detailed breakdown of the year is given below:

First Quarter

Week     Chapter                                            Topic                 Main Assessments
   1           1     Themes in the study of Life
               2     Chemical Context of Life
                                                                    Quiz Ch 1,2
     2           3   Water and the Fitness of the Environment
                 4   Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life     Update thematic grid (groups)
                 5   Structure and Functions of Macromolecules      Unit Test - The Chemistry of Life
     3           6   A Tour of the Cell
                 7   Membrane Structure and Function                AP Lab 1 Diffusion and Osmosis
                                                                    Quiz Ch 6,7

     4           8   An Introduction to Metabolism                  AP Lab 2 Enzyme Catalysis
                 9   Cellular Respiration
                                                                    Quiz Ch 8,9
     5          10   Photosynthesis                                 AP Lab 4 Photosynthesis
                11   Cell Communication
                                                                    Quiz Ch 10,11
     6          12   The Cell Cycle
                                                                    Update thematic grid (groups)
                                                                    Unit Test - The Cell
    7           52   An Introduction to Ecology
                53   Population Ecology                             Essay Questions
                54   Community Ecology                              Quiz Ch 52,53,54
    8           55   Ecosystems                                     AP Lab 12 Dissolved Oxygen
                56   Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology   Update thematic grid (groups)
                                                                    Unit Test - Ecology
    9   Revision                                                    Quarter Exam




Second Quarter

Week    Chapter                                             Topic             Main Assessments
  10         13      Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles                 AP Lab 3 Mitosis and Meiosis
             14      Mendel and the Gene Idea
                                                                    Quiz Ch 13 14
   11           15   The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
                16   The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
                                                                    Quiz Ch 15 16
   12           17   From Gene to Protein

                                                                    Quiz Ch 17
   13           18   Regulation of Gene Expression

                                                                    Quiz Ch 18
   14           19   Viruses
                20   Biotechnology                                  AP Lab 6 Molecular Biology
                                                                    Quiz Ch 19,20
                                                                    AP Lab 7 Genetics of
   15           21   Genomes and Their Evolution                    Organisms
                                                                    Update thematic grid (groups)
                                                                    Unit - Test Genetics
   16           22   Descent with Modification
                23   The Evolution of Populations                   AP Lab 8 Population Genetics
                                                                    Quiz 22,23
   17           24   The Origin of Species                          Essay Questions

                                                                    Quiz 24
   18           25   The History of Life on Earth
                                                                    Update thematic grid (groups)
                                                                    Unit Test - Mechanisms of
                                                                    Evolution
   19   Revision                                                    Quarter Exam




Third Quarter

Week    Chapter                                             Topic                Main Assessments
  20         26      Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
             27       Bacteria and Archaea
                                                                         Quiz Ch 26, 27
   21        28       Protists

                                                                         Quiz Ch 28
   22        29       How Plants Colonized Land
             30       The Evolution of Seed Plants
                                                                         Quiz Ch 29, 30
   23        31       Fungi                                              AP Lab 5 Cell Respiration

             32       An Introduction to Animals Diversity
                                                                         Quiz Ch 31, 32
   24        33       Invertebrates
             34       Vertebrates                                        Update thematic grid (groups)
                                                                         Unit Test - Evolutionary History
                                                                         of Biological Diversity

   25        35       Plant Structure, Growth and Development
                      Resource Acquisition and Transport in
             36       Vascular Plants                                    AP Lab 9 Transpiration
                                                                         Quiz Ch 35,36
   26        37       Soil and Plant Nutrition

             38       Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology          Essay questions
                                                                         Quiz Ch 37,38
                      Plant Responses to Internal and External
   27        39       Signals
                                                                         Update thematic grid (groups)
                                                                         Unit Test - Plant Form and
                                                                         Function
   28   Revision                                                         Quarter Exam




Fourth Quarter

Week     Chapter                                                 Topic                Main Assessments
  29          40       Animal Form and Function
              41       Animal Nutrition
                                                                         Quiz Ch 40, 41
                                                                         AP Lab 10 Circulatory
   30            42    Circulation and Gas Exchange                      Physiology
                 43    The Immune System
                                                                         Quiz Ch 42, 43
   31            44    Osmoregulation and Excretion
                 45    Hormones and the Endocrine system
                 46    Animal Reproduction                               Quiz Ch 44, 45, 46
   32            47    Animal Development                                Update thematic grid (groups)
                 48    Neurons, Synapses and Signaling                   Essay Questions
                 49    Nervous Systems                                   Quiz Ch 47, 48, 49
    33                                     Easter Vacation
    34         50   Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
               51   Animal Behavior                                AP Lab 11 Animal Behavior
                                                                   Unit Test - Animal Form and
                                                                   Function
    35                                                             Quarter Exam
                                                                   AP Exam

    36



    37



    38




AP Labs
Laboratory activities are an integral component of any college level Biology course. These
activities allow students to process data, formulate hypotheses, and apply what they
have learned from a lecture or reading assignment. The College Board has developed 12
exercises that are both hands-on and high-level, to provide students with an opportunity to
gain experiences offered at the college level.

Content and/or Skills Taught:
Laboratory 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
Overview
In this lab you will investigate the movement of water across semi-permeable membranes.
You will also examine the effect of solute concentrations on water potential as it relates to
living plant tissues.

Objectives
* Describe the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis
* Describe how solute size and molar concentration affect the process of diffusion through
a selectively permeable membrane
* Design an experiment to demonstrate and measure water potential
* Relate osmotic potential to solute concentration and water potential (Mr. Knight‟s Notes
on Water Potential)
* Describe how pressure affects the water potential of a solution
* Describe the effects of water gain or loss in animal or plant cells
* Calculate the water potential of living plant cells from experimental data

Laboratory 2: Enzyme Catalysis
Overview
In this lab you will measure the rate of a reaction in the presence and absence of a catalyst.
The catalyst, (catalase), is an enzyme in cells that catalyzes the breakdown of toxic H202.

Objectives
* Graph data from an enzyme experiment
* Determine the rates of enzymatically catalyzed reactions 6
* Discuss the method for determining enzyme activity
* Discuss the relationship between dependent and independent variables
* Discuss the effect of initial reaction rates produced by changes in temperature, pH,
enzyme concentrations, and substrate concentrations
* Design an experiment to measure the effect of enzyme activity produced by changes in
temperature, pH, enzyme concentrations, and substrate concentrations

Laboratory 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
Overview
In this lab you will study plant mitosis using prepared slides of onion root tips and will
calculate the relative period of the phases of mitosis in the meristem of root tissue. You
will also study the crossing over and recombination that occurs during meiosis.

Objectives
* Compare the events of mitosis in plant cells with those of animal cells
* Demonstrate the procedure to stain tissue for the identification of cells in the various
stages ofmitosis
* Calculate the relative duration of mitosis

Laboratory 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
Overview
In this lab you will separate plant pigments using paper chromatography. You will also
measure the rate of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts using a measurement technique
that involves the reduction of the dye, DPIP. The transfer of electrons during the light-
dependent reactions of photosynthesis reduces DPIP and changes its color from blue to
colorless.

Objectives
* Understand the principles of chromatography
* Calculate Rf values
* Design an experiment in which chromatography is used as a separation technique
* Describe a technique for determining photosynthetic rate
* Understand the relationship between dependent and independent variables
* Describe how light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature can affect
photosynthesis
* Design an experiment to measure how light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature
can affect photosynthetic rates

Laboratory 5: Cell Respiration
Overview
In this lab you will measure oxygen consumption during respiration as a change in gas
volume in germinating and non-germinating peas at two different temperatures.

Objectives
* Discuss the gas laws as they apply to the function of a respirometer
* Interpret data related to the effects of temperature on cell respiration
* Interpret data related to the effects of germination or nongermination on cell respiration
* Explain or determine the significance of a control
* Explain the relationship between dependent and independent variables
* Calculate a rate of cell respiration by utilizing graphed data
* Design an experiment to use a respirometer to measure cellular respiration

Laboratory 6: Molecular Biology
Overview
In this lab you will investigate some basic principles of genetic engineering. Plasmids
containing specific fragments of foreign DNA will be used to transform E. coli cells,
conferring antibiotic (ampicillin) resistance and the Lac + phenotype (ability to metabolize
lactose). Restriction enzyme digests of phage lambda DNA will also be used to
demonstrate techniques for separating and identifying DNA fragments using gel
electrophoresis.

Objectives
* Discuss the principles of bacterial transformation
* Describe how to prepare competent E. coli cells
* Discuss the mechanisms of gene transfer using plasmid vectors
* Discuss the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and tell how to select positively for
transformed cells that are antibiotic resistant
* Discuss the mechanisms of action for restriction endonucleases
* Discuss how a plasmid can be engineered to include a piece of foreign DNA that alters
the phenotype of the transformed cells
* Understand and be able to explain the principles of electrophoresis as they pertain to
separating and identifying DNA fragments

Laboratory 7: Genetics Of Drosophila
Overview
In this lab you will use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to do genetic crosses. You
will learn how to collect and manipulate fruit flies, collect data from F1 and F2
generations, and analyze the results from a monohybrid, dihybrid or sex link cross.

Objectives
* Conduct a genetics experiment for a number of generations
* Compare predicted results with actual results
* Explain the importance of Chi-Square analysis
* Design genetic crosses in an experiment to illustrate independent assortment and sex
linkage
* Discuss the life cycle of the fruit fly, recognize the sex of fruit flies, and recognize
several types of classic mutations

Laboratory 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
Overview
In this lab you will learn about Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium and study the
relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequency by using your class as a
sample population.

Objectives
* Calculate allele and genotype frequencies using the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
* Discuss the effect of natural selection on allelic frequencies
* Explain and predict the effect of allelic frequencies of selection against the homozygous
recessive
* Discuss the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequencies, as
measured by deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium
Laboratory 9: Transpiration
Overview
In this lab you will apply what you learned about water potential from Lab 1 (Diffusion
and Osmosis) to the movement of water within the plant. You will study the organization
of the plant stem as it relates to these processes by observing sections of fresh tissue.

Objectives
* Describe how differences in water potential affect the transport of water from roots to
stems to leaves
* Relate transpiration to the overall process of water transport in plants
* Discuss the importance of properties of water - including hydrogen bonding, adhesion,
and cohesion - to the transport of water in plants
* Quantitatively demonstrate the effects of different environmental conditions on the rate
of transpiration in plants
* Identify the vascular tissues of the plant stem and describe their functions

Laboratory 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
Overview
You will learn how to measure blood pressure and measure pulse rate under different
physiological conditions: standing, reclining, after the baroreceptor reflex, and during and
immediately after exercise. The blood pressure and pulse rate will be analyzed and related
to a relative fitness index.
You will also measure the effect of temperature on the heart rate of the Daphnia magna,
and calculate a Q10 for the relationship between temperature and heart rate.

Objectives
* Measure pulse rate
* Measure blood pressure
* Describe the relationship between the changes in heart rate and blood pressure relative to
changes in body position
* Describe the relationship between changes in heart rate and exercise
* Determine the "fitness index" for an adult human
* Perform statistical analysis on class data
* Define Q10
* Determine the Q10 of heart rate in a living organism such as Daphnia

Laboratory 11: Behavior: Habitat Selection
Overview
In this lab, you will examine the habitat preferences of the brine shrimp, Artemia. You
will use controlled experimentation to determine the thermal, pH, and light environments
selected by Artemia.
Based on your experience with this lab, you will design an experiment that could be used
to survey other variables and other organisms.

Objectives
* Describe the relationship between dependent and independent variables
* Discuss the value of comparing experimental results with control results
* Graph an interpret histogram data
* Measure the volumes, distances, and temperature using metric scales
* Design and conduct an experiment to measure the effect of environmental variables on
habitat selection

Laboratory 12: Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity
Overview
You will measure and analyze the dissolved oxygen concentration in water samples using
the Winkler technique. You will also measure and analyze the primary productivity of
natural waters or lab cultures

Objectives
* Describe the physiological importance of carbon and oxygen in an ecosystem
* Understand the physical and biological factors that affect the solubility of dissolved
gases in aquatic ecosystems
* Describe a technique for measuring dissolved oxygen
* Define primary productivity
* Describe the relationship between dissolved oxygen and the processes of photosynthesis
and respiration as they affect primary productivity in an ecosystem
* Design an experiment to measure primary productivity in an aquatic ecosystem
* Understand the effect of light and nutrients on photosynthesis


Textbooks
Title:Biology (8th Edition)
Publisher: Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Published Date: 13 December, 2008
Author: Neil A. Campbell
Second Author: Jane B. Reece
Description:

Title:Study Guide for Biology
Publisher: Pearson Publications Company
Published Date: January, 2008
Author: Martha R. Taylor
Second Author: Campbell
Description:

Other Course Materials
Title: AP Biology Lab Manual
Publisher: The College Board
Published Date: 2001
Author: The College Board

Title: Biological Inquiry – A workbook of Investigative cases
Publisher: Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Published Date: 2005
Author: Margaret Waterman
Second Author: Ethel Stanley
Description: Case studies related to topics from main text.
Title: Practising Biology – A Student workbook
Publisher: Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Published Date: 2005
Author: Neil A. Campbell
Second Author: Jean Heitz

Title:AP Biology (8th Edition) Student CD-Rom

				
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