REMOTE CONTROLLING

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                               REMOTE CONTROLLING
             A SHORT RANGE APPLICATION IN WIRELESS




 Abstract
                                               of wireless telegraphy early on; now the
The term "wireless" came into public use
                                               term is used to describe modern wireless
to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver
                                               connections such as in cellular networks
(a dual purpose receiver and transmitter
                                               and wireless broadband Internet. It is also
device), establishing its usage in the field
                                               used in a general sense to refer to any
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type of operation that is implemented           devices that directed German naval
without the use of wires, such as               vessels to crash into Allied boats during
"wireless remote control", "wireless            WWI. In WWII, remote controls
energy transfer", etc. regardless of the        detonated bombs for the first time. The
specific technology (e.g., radio, infrared,     end of the great wars left scientists with a
ultrasonic, etc.) that is used to accomplish    brilliant technology and nowhere to apply
the operation. Remote control is an             it. Sixty years later, some of us spend an
electronic device used for a remote             hour looking for the remote before we
operation of a device. The world's first        remember there are buttons on the TV.
remote controls were radio-frequency




                                                  (thousands or even millions of kilometers
Introduction
                                                  for radio communications). When the
The term wireless is normally used to refer       context is clear the term is often simply
to any type of electrical or electronic           shortened to "wireless". Wireless
operation which is accomplished without the       communications is generally considered to
use of a "hard wired" connection. Wireless        be a branch of telecommunications.
communication is the transfer of information      It encompasses cellular telephones, personal
over a distance without the use of electrical     digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless
conductors or "wires". The distances              networking. Other examples of wireless
involved may be short (a few meters as in         technology include GPS units, garage door
television remote control) or very long           openers and or garage doors, wireless

                               2
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computer mice and keyboards, satellite               radio frequency communication,
television and cordless telephones.                  microwave communication, for
                                                      example long-range line-of-sight via

     Handheld wireless radios such as this            highly directional antennas, or short-

Maritime VHF radio transceiver use                    range communication, or

electromagnetic waves to implement a form            Infrared (IR) short-range

of wireless communications technology.                communication, for example from
                                                      remote controls or via IRDA,
                                               Applications may involve point-to-point

Wireless operations permits services, such     communication, point-to-multipoint

as long range communications, that are         communication, broadcasting, cellular

impossible or impractical to implement with    networks and other wireless networks.

the use of wires. The term is commonly used    The term "wireless" should not be confused

in the telecommunications industry to refer    with the term "cordless", which is generally

to telecommunications systems (e.g., radio     used to refer to powered electrical or

transmitters and receivers, remote controls,   electronic devices that are able to operate

computer networks, network terminals, etc.)    from a portable power source (e.g., a battery

which use some form of energy (e.g. radio      pack) without any cable or cord to limit the

frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light,   mobility of the cordless device through a

visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to       connection to the mains power supply. Some

transfer information without the use of        cordless devices, such as cordless

wires. Information is transferred in this      telephones, are also wireless in the sense

manner over both short and long distances.     that information is transferred from the

Wireless communication may be via:             cordless telephone to the telephone's base

                               3
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unit via some type of wireless
communications link. This has caused some
disparity in the usage of the term "cordless",   Applications of wireless
for example in Digital Enhanced Cordless
                                                 technology
Telecommunications.
In the last 50 years, wireless
communications industry experienced
                                                 Remote control
drastic changes driven by many technology        A pile of various remote controls
innovations.




                                                 A remote control is an electronic device
                                                 used for the remote operation of a machine.
                                                 The term remote control can be also
                                                 referred to as "remote" or "controller" when
                                                 abbreviated. It is known by many other
                                                 names as well, such as the "clicker",

                               4
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"channel-changer", "splat", "magic hand",       Tesla, and described in his patent, U.S.
etc. Commonly, remote controls are used to      Patent 613,809 , named Method of an
issue commands from a distance to               Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of
televisions or other consumer electronics       Moving Vehicle or Vehicles.
such as stereo systems and DVD players.         In 1903, Leonardo Torres Quevedo
Remote controls for these devices are           presented the Telekino at the Paris Academy
usually small wireless handheld objects with    of Science, accompanied by a brief, and
an array of buttons for adjusting various       making an experimental demonstration. In
settings such as television channel, track      the same year, he obtained a patent in
number, and volume. In fact, for the            France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United
majority of modern devices with this kind of    States. The Telekino consisted of a robot that
control, the remote contains all the function   executed commands transmitted by
controls while the controlled device itself     electromagnetic waves. It constituted the
only has a handful of essential primary         world's first apparatus for radio control and
controls. Most of these remotes                 was a pioneer in the field of remote control.
communicate to their respective devices via     In 1906, in the presence of the king and
infrared (IR) signals and a few via radio       before a great crowd, Torres successfully
signals. They are usually powered by small      demonstrated the invention in the port of

AAA or AA size batteries.                       Bilbao, guiding a boat from the shore. Later,
                                                he would try to apply the Telekino to
                                                projectiles and torpedoes, but had to

History                                         abandon the project for lack of financing.
                                                The first remote-controlled model aeroplane
One of the earliest examples of remote
                                                flew in 1932, and the use of remote control
control was developed in 1893 by Nikola
                               5
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technology for military purposes was           Television Remote Controls
worked intensively during the Second World
                                               Some televisions were previously
War, one result of this being the German
                                               manufactured with hard wired remote
Wasserfall missile.
                                               controls which plugged in to a receptacle or
By the late 1930s, several radio
                                               jack in the television whereas more modern
manufacturers offered remote controls for
                                               televisions use wireless (generally infrared)
some of their higher-end models. Most of
                                               remote control units
these were connected to the set being
controlled by wires, but the Philco Mystery
Control (1939) was a battery-operated low-
frequency radio transmitter , thus making it
the first wireless remote control for a
                                               There are 11 various remote controls for
consumer electronics device.
                                               TV-, VHS- and DVD-devices shown here
                                               The first remote intended to control a
                                               television was developed by Zenith Radio
                                               Corporation in 1950. The remote —
                                               officially called "Lazy Bones" was
                                               connected to the television set by a wire. To
                                               improve the cumbersome setup, a wireless
                                               remote control called "Flashmatic" was
                                               developed in 1955 which worked by shining
                                               a beam of light onto a photoelectric cell.
                                               Unfortunately, the cells did not distinguish
                                               between light from the remote and light
                               6
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from other sources and the Flashmatic also        naturally occurring noises, and some people,
required that the remote control be pointed       especially young women, could hear the
very accurately at the receiver.                  piercing ultrasonic signals. There was even a
The Zenith Space Commander 600 remote             noted incident in which a toy xylophone
control                                           changed the channels on these types of TVs
In 1956 Robert Adler developed "Zenith            since some of the overtones from the
Space Command", a wireless remote. It was         xylophone matched the remote's ultrasonic
mechanical and used ultrasound to change          frequency.
the channel and volume. When the user             Jerrold remote control by General
pushed a button on the remote control it          Instrument from the late 1970s
clicked and struck a bar, hence the term          The impetus for a more complex type of
"clicker". Each bar emitted a different           television remote control came in the late
frequency and circuits in the television          1970s with the development of the Ceefax
detected this noise. The invention of the         teletext service by the BBC. Most
transistor made possible cheaper electronic       commercial remote controls at that time had
remotes that contained a piezoelectric            a limited number of functions, sometimes as
crystal that was fed by an oscillating electric   few as three: next channel, previous channel,
current at a frequency near or above the          and volume/off. This type of control did not
upper threshold of human hearing, though          meet the needs of teletext sets where pages
still audible to dogs. The receiver contained     were identified with three-digit numbers. A
a microphone attached to a circuit that was       remote control to select teletext pages would
tuned to the same frequency. Some                 need buttons for each number from zero to
problems with this method were that the           nine, as well as other control functions, such
receiver could be triggered accidentally by       as switching from text to picture, and the

                               7
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normal television controls of volume,
station, brightness, colour intensity and so   The emission spectrum of a typical sound
on. Early teletext sets used wired remote      system remote control is in the near infrared.
controls to select pages but the continuous    The modulation of the IR diode varies by
use of the remote control required for         button.
teletext quickly indicated the need for a      Most control remotes for electronic
wireless device. So BBC engineers began        appliances use a near infrared diode to emit
talks with one or two television               a beam of light that reaches the device. A
manufacturers which led to early prototypes    940 nm wavelength LED is typical. This
in around 1977-78 that could control a much    infrared light is invisible to the human eye
larger number of functions. ITT was one of     but carries signals that are detected by the
the companies and later gave its name to the   appliance, as well as by the sensor of a
ITT protocol of infrared communication.        digital camera.
                                               With a single channel (single-function, one-
                                               button) remote control the presence of a
Technique                                      carrier signal can be used to trigger a
                                               function. For multi-channel (normal multi-
                                               function) remote controls more sophisticated
                                               procedures are necessary: one consists of
                                               modulating the carrier with signals of
                                               different frequency. After the demodulation
                                               of the received signal, the appropriate
                                               frequency filters are applied to separate the
                                               respective signals. Nowadays digital


                               8
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procedures are more commonly used. One           circuit board that contains the electronics
can often hear the signals being modulated       and the battery contacts.
on the infrared carrier by operating a remote
control in very close proximity to an AM
radio not tuned to a station.




Working of a television
remote control:
Let’s take a normal television remote control
as in the figure
                                                 The components that you see here are
                                                 typical for most remotes. You can see an
                                                 integrated circuit (also known as a chip)
                                                 labeled "TA11835". The chip is packaged in
                                                 what is known as an 18 pin Dual Inline
                                                 Package, or a DIP. To the right of the chip
The remote control's job is to wait for you to
                                                 you can see a diode, a transistor (black, with
press a key, and then to translate that key-
                                                 three leads), a resonator (yellow), two
press into infrared light signals that are
                                                 resistors (green) and a capacitor (dark blue).
received by the TV. When you take off the
                                                 Next to the battery contacts there is a
back cover of the control you can see that
                                                 resistor (green) and a capacitor (tan disk). In
there is really just 1 part visible: a printed
                                                 this circuit, the chip can detect when a key is

                               9
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pressed. It then translates the key into a         connect them to the copper wires.
sequence something like morse code, with a
different sequence for each different key.
The chip sends that signal out to the
transistor to amplify the signal and make it
stronger.



                                                   When you look at the board, you can see a
The Circuit Board                                  set of contact points for the buttons. The
                                                   buttons themselves are made of a thin
When you unscrew the circuit board and
                                                   rubbery sheet. For each button there is a
take it out, you can see that the circuit board
                                                   black conductive disk. When the disk
is a thin piece of fiber glass that has thin
                                                   touches the contacts on the printed circuit
copper "wires" etched onto its surface.
                                                   board, it connects them and the chip can
Electronic parts are assembled on printed
                                                   sense that connection.
circuit boards because they are easy to mass
produce and assemble. In the same way that
                                                   At the end of the circuit board there is an
it is relatively inexpensive to print ink onto a
                                                   infrared LED, or Light Emitting Diode.
sheet of paper, it is inexensive to "print"
                                                   You can think of an LED as a small light
copper wires onto a sheet of fiber glass. It is
                                                   bulb. Many LEDs produce visible light, but
also easy to have a machine drop the parts
                                                   a remote's LED produces infrared light that
(the chips, transistors, etc.) onto the sheet of
                                                   is invisible to the human eye. It is not
fiberglass and then solder them on to
                                                   invisible to all eyes, however. For example,
                                                   if you have a camcorder it can see the
                              10                           10
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infrared light. Point your remote at the
                                                 Applications
camera and push a button. You will be able
to see the infrared light flashing in the        Industry
viewfinder. The receptor in the TV is able to
                                                 Remote control is used for controlling
see infrared light as well.
                                                 substations, pump storage power stations
So the basic operation of the remote goes
                                                 and HVDC-plants. For these systems often
like this: You press a button. When you do
                                                 PLC-systems working in the longwave
that you complete a specific connection. The
                                                 range are used.
chip senses that connection and knows what
button you pressed. It produces a morse-
code-line signal specific to that button.
                                                 Emergency
                                                 Remotely controlled machinery is used in
                                                 radioactive or toxic environments to avoid
                                                 human casualties and to prevent damage to
                                                 human health. For example, remotely
                                                 controlled robots were used during
The transistors amplify the signal and send      liquidation of circumstances of Chernobyl
them to the LED, which translates the signal     disaster.
into infrared light. The sensor in the TV can
see the infrared light and "seeing" the signal
reacts appropriately.                            Military
                                                 In World War I the Imperial German Navy
                                                 employed FL-boats (Fernlenkbootes) against

                              11                           11
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coastal shipping. These were driven by          Space
internal combustion engines, and controlled
                                                Remote control technology is also used in
remotely from a shore station through
                                                space travel, for instance the Russian
several miles of wire wound on a spool on
                                                Lunokhod vehicles were remote-controlled
the boat. An aircraft was used to signal
                                                from the ground. Direct remote control of
directions to the shore station. EMBs carried
                                                space vehicles at greater distances from the
a high explosive charge in the bow and
                                                earth is not practical due to increasing signal
traveled at speeds of thirty knots.
                                                delay times.
The Soviet Red Army used remotely
controlled teletanks during 1930s in the
Winter War against Finland and the early        Video games
stages of the Great Patriotic War. A teletank
                                                Video game consoles had not used wireless
is controlled by radio from a control tank at
                                                controllers until recently, mainly because of
a distance of 500–1,500 meters, the two
                                                the difficulty involved in playing the game
constituting a telemechanical group. The
                                                while keeping the infrared transmitter
Red Army fielded at least two teletank
                                                pointed at the console. Early wireless
battalions at the beginning of the Great
                                                controlers were cumbersome and when
Patriotic War. There were also remotely
                                                powered on alkaline batteries, lasted only a
controlled cutters and experimental remotely
                                                few hours before they needed replacement.
controlled planes in the Red Army.
                                                Some wireless controllers were produced by
                                                third parties, in most cases using a radio link
                                                instead of infrared. Even these were very
                                                inconsistent, and in some cases, had
                                                transmission delays, making them virtually

                              12                           12
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useless. The first official wireless controller   CONCLUSION:
made by a first party manufacturer was the
                                                  Wireless communication is an electronic
WaveBird for Nintendo Gamecube. The
                                                  operation which is accomplished without
Wavebird changed the face of wireless
                                                  any hardware connections has many
technology in video game consoles. In the
                                                  applications in our day to day life Remote
current generation of gaming consoles,
                                                  control is a short range wireless technology
wireless controllers have become the
                                                  used for operation of a machine i.e. one can
standard.
                                                  communicate with machines up to certain
                                                  range by passing signals through the remote
Toys                                              control. . Most importantly remote control
                                                  has its own application in industry, space,
Remote control toys, such as racing cars,
                                                  toys , vedio games.. By using keys present
boats and even aircraft are a favorite pastime
                                                  on the remote control the infrared light can
of many people.
                                                  be transmitted and is received by the
        Audience response
                                                  machine.
        Remote keyless system
        Telecommand
        Remote-controlled animal
        Control Car Remote Control
         Locomotive
        Garage door opener




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REFERENCES:

  1. www.wikipedia.com
  2. ATIS Committee T1A1 Performance
        and Signal Processing. ANS T1.523-
        2001, Telecom Glossary 2000
        http://www.atis.org/tg2k/
  3. Story, Alfred Thomas (1904). A story of
        wireless telegraphy. New York, D.
        Appleton and Co..
  4. "Electromagnetic fields". World Health
        Organization. Last retrieved September
        24, 2007.
  5. "Consensus Statement on
        Electromagnetic Radiation (Draft)".
        Collaborative on Health and the
        Environment. October 10, 2006.
  6.    United Kingdom National Physics
        Laboratory report.
  7.    Bees Vanish, and Scientists Race for
        Reasons. New York Times. Retrieved
        on 2007-10-23.




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