Elements and Principles of Design - PowerPoint by pengtt

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									Elements and Principles of
 Elements of design

Design elements are the basic
   units of a visual image.
• Color is seen either by the way light reflects off a surface, or in
  colored light sources.
• Red colors seem to come forward while blue seems to recede
  into the distance
• Color and particularly contrasting color is also used to draw the
  attention to a particular part of the image.
• There are primary colors, secondary colors, and tertiary colors.
• Complementary colors are colors that are opposite to each other
  on the color wheel. Complementary colors are used to create
• Analogous colors are colors that are found side by side on the
  color wheel. These can be used to create color harmony.
• Monochromatic colors are tints and shades of one color.
• Warm colors are a group of colors that consist of reds, yellows,
  and oranges.
• Cool colors are group of colors that consist of purples, greens,
  and blues.
Color - basic color theory
             • We respond to color on many
               levels. Color can be used
               simply to describe an object. It
               can also be used emotionally
               (blue for sadness, red for
               angry), symbolically
               (associated with a flag's color,
               sports team) and
             • The painting by Phyllis
               Bramson (left) has intense,
               complimentary colors that
               equate to strong conflicting
             • The other work, by Alphonse
               Mucha, uses subdued,
               analogous color to create a
               very different feeling.
• Line is the basic element that refers to the
  continuous movement of a point along a
  surface, such as by a pencil or brush. The
  edges of shapes and forms also create lines.
  It is the basic component of a shape drawn on
  paper. Lines and curves are the basic building
  blocks of two dimensional shapes like a
  house's plan. Every line has length, thickness,
  and direction. There are curve, horizontal,
  vertical, diagonal, zigzag, wavy, parallel,
  dash, and dotted lines.
• A mark with greater length than width.
  Lines can be horizontal, vertical or
  diagonal, straight or curved, thick or thin
      Line - the path of a point

• In the first image, Leonardo da Vinci used a soft, sensitive soft line
  to create a graceful image. The center image has the same subject.
  However, the artist Willem DeKooning has created a very different
  feeling by using a heavy, gestural line. The woman's face in the third
  image is created with a mechanical line creating an emotionally-
  detached feeling. Although the subject matter is the same in all three
  works, the differences in line quality have created works with very
  different impact. How you use line is one of the most important
  decisions to be made in creating a work of art - this is true whether
  you are using a pencil point or a cursor on a monitor.
• A shape is defined as an area that stands out from
  the space next to or around it due to a defined or
  implied boundary
• Shapes can also show perspective by overlapping.
• They can be geometric or organic.
• Shapes in house decor and interior design can be
  used to add interest, style, theme to a design like a
• Shape in interior design depends on the function of
  the object like a kitchen cabinet door. Natural shapes
  forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase
  visual appeal in interior design.
• In a landscape, natural shapes, such as trees
  contrast with geometric such as houses.
• A closed line. Shapes can be geometric,
  like squares and circles; or organic, like
  free formed shapes or natural shapes.
  Shapes are flat and can express length
  and width.
        Shape - perceivable area.

• The shapes in the image on the left are clearly defined. By
  contrast, the ship's shape on the right is barely discernable.
  This difference in clarity of shape is part of the meaning of
  these works - one conveys a sense of orderliness and
  confidence, while the other communicates a sense of
  vulnerability and uncertainty. The shapes of the objects that
  you create or place in your images are positive shapes. The
  spaces around these shapes are the negative spaces. the
  negative space is just as important as the positive shapes.
• Value is an element of art that refers to the
  relationship between light and dark on a
  surface or object and also helps with Form. It
  gives objects depth and perception. Value is
  also referred to as tone.
• Texture is perceived surface quality. In art,
  there are two types of texture: tactile and
  implied. Tactile texture (real texture) is the
  way the surface of an object actual feels.
  Examples of this include sandpaper, cotton
  balls, tree bark, puppy fur, etc. Implied texture
  is the way the surface on an object looks like
  it feels. The texture may look rough, fizzy,
  gritty, but cannot actually be felt. This type of
  texture is used by artist when drawing or
• Surface quality that can be seen and felt.
• Textures can be rough or smooth, soft or
• Textures do not always feel the way they
  look; for example, a drawing of a
  porcupine may look prickly, but if you
  touch the drawing, the paper is still
• Form is any three dimensional object.
• Form can be measured, from top to bottom
  (height), side to side (width), and from back to
  front (depth).
• Form is also defined by light and dark.
• There are two types of form, geometric (man-
  made) and natural (organic form).
• Form may be created by the combining of
  two or more shapes. It may be enhanced by
  tone, texture and color.
• It can be illustrated or constructed.
• Three-dimensional shapes, expressing
  length, width, and depth. Balls, cylinders,
  boxes and triangles are forms.
• Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. It
  may have two dimensions (length and width), such as
  a floor, or it may have three dimensions (length,
  width, and height). Space includes the background,
  foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the
  distances or areas around, between or within
  components of a piece. There are two type of space:
  positive and negative space. Positive space refers to
  the space of a shape representing the subject matter.
  Negative space refers to the space around and
  between the subject matter.
• is the area between and around objects.
  The space around objects is often called
  negative space; negative space has
  shape. Space can also refer to the feeling
  of depth. Real space is three-dimensional;
  in visual art when we can create the
  feeling or illusion of depth we call it space.
• Balance can be either symmetrical or
• Balance also refers to a sense that dominant
  focal points don't give a feeling of being pulled
  too much to any specific part of the artwork.
• Balance can be achieved by the location of
  objects, volume or sizes of objects, and by
• It can also be achieved by balancing lighter
  colors with darker colors, or bold colors with
  light neutral colors.
     The principles of design
• Govern the relationships of the elements
  used and organize the composition as a
• Successful design incorporates the use of
  the principles and elements to serve the
  designer's purpose and visual goals.
• There are no rules for their use.
• The designer's purpose and intent drives
  the decisions made to achieve harmony
  between the elements.
• Unity refers to a sense that everything in a
  piece of work belongs there, and makes a
  whole piece.
• It is achieved by the use of balance,
  repetition and/or design harmony.
• is the feeling of harmony between all parts
  of the artwork creating a sense of
   • Some artists, such as Andy Warhol,
     have emphasized repetition to make a
     statement about the prevalence of
     mass-production in our society. Most
     artists, however, seek a more equal
     balance between unity and variety in
     their work. For example, the three-tined
     shape of the pitchfork in Grant Wood's
     painting (left) in repeated exactly in the
     clothing. It is also repeated in the
     windows and vertical lines in the house.
     On the other hand, curved shapes
     surround the woman's head - in the
     broach, curved edge of her dress and
     background trees. This repetition of
     shape unifies the painting, while the
     differences between the vertical and
     curved shapes give the painting a
     balancing sense of variety.
• The use of dissimilar elements, which
  creates interest and uniqueness.
• Variety like a painting or some reflective
  wood panels added on a plain wall may be
  used to reduce monotony.
• Helps infuse color to house decor to
  attempt to increase design beauty.
• is the use of several elements of design to
  hold the viewer’s attention and to guide
  the viewer’s eye through the artwork.
• is the repeating of an object or symbol all
  over the artwork.
• Contrast is the occurrence of differing
  elements, such as color, value, size, etc. It
  creates interest and pulls the attention
  toward the focal point.
• the distribution of the visual weight of objects,
  colors, texture, and space.
• If the design was a scale these elements should
  be balanced to make a design feel stable.
• In symmetrical balance, the elements used on
  one side of the design are similar to those on the
  other side; in asymmetrical balance, the sides
  are different but still look balanced.
• In radial balance, the elements are arranged
  around a central point and may be similar.
• a feeling of visual equality in shape, form,
  value, color, etc.
• Balance can be symmetrical or evenly
  balanced or asymmetrical and un-evenly
• Objects, values, colors, textures, shapes,
  forms, etc., can be used in creating a
  balance in a composition.
Balance - equalizing the visual
     weight of elements
    •   .The cross on the left is symmetrically (formally)
        balanced - one half mirrors the other. Religious and
        significant objects are often given a symmetrical balance.
        The painting by Mary Cassatt, (on the right) depicts an
        ordinary moment. Appropriately, it is asymmetrically
                              •The two women on one side are
                              balanced by the large silver service and
                              fireplace on the other -with the area of
                              highest value contrast (the woman in dark
                              with the near-white saucer and cup) only
                              slightly off-set from the center. Although
                              asymmetrical balance may appear more
                              casual and less planned, it usually take
                              greater experience to utilize the
                              psychological and felt nuances of
                              balancing a few larger objects against
                              many smaller objects, or large areas of
                              muted color against smaller areas of
                              intense color, nearly centered objects
                              balanced against objects positioned near
                              the picture's edge, etc.
• works with pattern to make the artwork
  seem active. The repetition of elements of
  design creates unity within the artwork.
• The recurrence of forms within a work
• Any element that occurs is generally
  echoed, often with some variation to
  maintain interest.
• Rhythm in interior design also may be
  used to reduce randomness.
• is created when one or more elements of
  design are used repeatedly to create a
  feeling of organized movement.
• Variety is essential to keep rhythm exciting
  and active, and moving the viewer around
  the artwork.
• Rhythm creates a mood like music or
• Emphasis refers to areas of interest that guides
  the eye into and out of the image
• May give direction and organization to a design,
  and avoid subconscious confusion to sometimes
  improve the design's visual appeal and style.
• Emphasis hierarchy or focus is not giving each
  object in a project equal dominance within a
  piece of work.
• Can be increased by making the object larger,
  more sophisticated, more ornate, by placing it in
  the foreground, or standout visually more than
  other objects in a project.
• is the part of the design that catches the
  viewer’s attention. Usually the artist will
  make one area stand out by contrasting it
  with other areas. The area will be different
  in size, color, texture, shape, etc.
• Direction is the visual path our eye will follow. Emphasis refers to the
  object or element which first catches our attention. Unlike sequential
  or time-based art forms such as music or film, a painting such as The
  Moulin Rouge (above) is seen instantaneously. The whole work is
  revealed to us simultaneously. An artist needs to create an area of
  emphasis -a focal point that begins the path our eyes will follow as we
  take in the whole art work. In this painting, our eye is first drawn to the
  woman's face on the right edge. It isn't by chance that we see her first
  - the artist, Toulouse-Lautrec, has heighten the value contrast, color
  intensity, color contrast (orange hair and bright red lips contrast with
  the green of her forehead), and proportion (she is the largest person).
  In addition, she is staring directly at us. Basically, we are first drawn to
  the area of greatest contrast. Our eye then sweeps across the canvas,
  taking in the other figures (which include the artist).
• Achieved through the sensitive balance of
  variety and unity.
• Color harmony may be achieved using
  complementary or analogous colors.
• Harmony in design is similarity of components or
  objects looking like these belong together.
• May be visually pleasing and harmony is when
  some of the objects share a common trait. A
  common trait between objects could be: color,
  shape, texture, pattern, material, theme, style,
  size, or functionality.
• The relationship of size between objects.
• Proportion is also relative sizes of surface
  areas of different colors.
• Depends on functionality of object. Art
  painting can be given the correct size in
  relation to room to make it an effective
  decorating component or source of color.
• is the feeling of unity created when all
  parts (sizes, amounts, or number) relate
  well with each other. When drawing the
  human figure, proportion can refer to the
  size of the head compared to the rest of
  the body
Proportion - relative size of objects
      within the work of art.
      • In his painting of a bedroom ( bottom left), Rene
        Magritte has created a surreal situation simply by
        manipulating the proportions of common objects.
        There are no clues that tell us if we are in a normal-
        sized room or a dollhouse. In the other painting,
        Andrew Wyeth has used the proportion very
        differently - the small farmhouse against the largeness
        of the field created a sense of isolation.
• is the path the viewer’s eye takes through
  the artwork, often to focal areas. Such
  movement can be directed along lines
  edges, shape and color within the artwork.
• Proper functionality is simply the best
  possible design and best possible location
  of this design that the occupant requires.
• Great functionality and best possible
  materials for the function usually also
  increases visual appeal.
• Proximity is the placing of similar objects
  closer together physically, and unlike
  objects further apart. This aids in creating
• For example, different furniture styles with
  different colors compressed in a small
  bedroom does not look as nice as the
  same furniture placed further apart in a
  very large living room.
                  Color theory
• Color theory in interior design includes the color wheel.
• Involves the idea of how color affects human thoughts
  and emotions
• A pleasing combination of colors and the amount of
  these colors in a design.
• A visually pleasing color combination that enhances the
  style and character of a design like a home interior
• Using a limited number of colors in a color palette
  usually seven or less initially to help preserve design
• A visually pleasing color combination may be chosen for
  the color palette of a room for a particular age group and
P & E in Design Layout
     Balance usually
  comes in two forms,
    symmetrical and
   asymmetrical, and
  provides a sense of
 (or lack of) equilibrium
that can create tension

  and visual weight.
     The “Manhattan Edition”
      design makes use of a
  regular rhythm in the upper
part of the page as well as in
   the right-hand navigational
 elements of the design. This
creates a sense of movement
  in the sky and adds a good
     amount of texture to the
        overall design. It is
complemented by the texture
     in the buildings, and the
   texture created by the font
    chosen for the title of the
 page and major headings. It
 is contrasted with the overall
  smoothness of the black on
  the lower parts of the page,
    and the soft glow used for
          content areas.
   “Museum” is a good example of how
  proportion can be used in a design to
   draw the eye to specific areas on the
   page, specifically through the use of
       small silhouettes standing in the
     environment in the design. The top
     image leads you into the setting by
     drawing your eye back towards the
      opening in the wall where the first
   silhouette is standing. Scrolling down
   you find that the content in the page
  follows more of these silhouettes, and
     you are drawn towards the tension
 created by their comparison with that of
   the content frames. You also get the
sense that the silhouettes are looking at
    the frames on the wall, in an almost
     implied sense of continuance. The
  comparison of scale draws the eye in,
and the implied continuance leads you to
                  the content.
  The “Pretty in Pink” design makes
 use of dominance to place emphasis
   on certain parts of the page. The
right-most column, where the content
is, is the dominant part of this design.
   It is the largest area of color and
 makes use of big, reversed out, text
     for major headings. The center
      navigation column is the sub-
    dominant part of the page. It still
   comes forward in space and calls
 attention to itself, but uses less color
 and smaller text in a slightly smaller
  space—relegating it to the second
   degree of dominance. Finally, the
  left-most column with the logo and
  explanatory text is the subordinate
  object on the page. It falls farthest
    back in space, and importance.
   “Subway Dream” uses line in a
number of different ways. First, as
 a rigid element to help frame the
   page and separate the content
 areas from the background. Next,
     the illustrations that are used
  throughout the page rely heavily
 on line, and they have an organic
    quality about them that almost
 makes them feel like a sketch or
  drawing. The lighter elements in
     the middle-ground, drawings
     behind the woman, lines and
    navigational icons are entirely
 based on contour. The woman in
the foreground has more form, yet
 still relies heavily on contour and
   line to help establish that form.
   Finally, the font chosen for the
 major headings is dominantly an
  organic line that helps to accent
   the overall design of the page.
    There is a definite sense of three
 dimensions in “Hedges,” despite the
fact that we our frame of reference is
two dimensional. There are a couple
    of techniques used to create this
  illusion. First, the imagery is drawn
   in perspective using two points in
     space to establish the angles at
       which all of the elements are
 aligned. Second, a good amount of
      value differentiation is used to
    establish highlights and shadows
 and to make the title text appear to
 be sitting on the ground. Finally, the
     use of the small figures helps to
   establish a sense of environment,
     making the overall illusion more
        believable. The figures are
 interacting with the forms, standing
   on top of them or digging holes in
     them, which helps to extend the
  sense of space in the composition.
     Color is the eye’s
response to wavelengths
 of radiation in the visible
   There are three main
components of color: hue,
   value and saturation.
 Hue is where the color is
  positioned on the color
   wheel and what most
people think of when they
       think of color.
 Value is the lightness or
 darkness of a color, how
  much black or white is
       mixed with it.
Saturation is the intensity
         of a color.
   P & E In Landscape Design
• Simplicity is the essence of design. This is
  an objective that I have always tried to
  achieve in all of my previous residential,
  commercial, institutional and recreational
  projects. How a designer creatively
  combines plant material and other design
  components into a simple, unified scheme
  is always an exciting challenge.
Simplicity is the essence of design.
Effective use of circulinear line form.... Vancouver Parks Board.
Weak, scallopy edges leave a lot to be desired.
Linear / curvilinear lines at Sissinghurst.
Sculpture / maze garden in Japan. Elevated pieces of sculpture
              create emphasis in the landscape.
 Ornamental        virginiana
 grasses and     (Ironwood) A
  herbs are     native tree that
complimentary        exhibits
  in texture.       excellent
                          Warm colors
Vigorously use color
                       advance...Salt Lake
 in the landscape.
                           City, Utah.
Informal balance...Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario
    Repetition of     The repetitious use
 diamond flagstones     of paving stone
creates movement in   creates unity in the
   paving pattern.         landscape.
A variety of forms creates significant landscape interest.
This moon gate is in perfect proportion to its setting.
Repetitious use of sculpture in landscape reduces monotony
         and results in the establishment of rhythm.

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