Chapter 4 of Dissertation by rolly2812

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									                             CHAPTER IV
      This chapter presents the data gathered from the secondary schools in the

Division of Laguna. Explanation is supplemented by the use of tables. The

discussion followed the sequence of the Research Problem posted in Chapter I.

      To answer the specific questions raised in Chapter 1, the data are

presented in the form of tables with statistical interpretation and descriptive


      The components of Intelligent Leadership and Competency of principals

which were assessed are presented in this chapter in the sequence of the

problem posed in Chapter 1, as follows:

Problem 1: What is the level of Intelligent leadership of school principals as

perceived by themselves and their teachers in terms of:

      1.      Sharing vision and objectives

      2.      Leading

      3.      Following

      4.      Interacting

      5.      Situationing

      6.      Formulating teams

      7.      Getting results

      8.      Managing values and culture

      9.      Organizing

      10.     Globalizing

       Data reveals in Table 6 the overall responses made by school principals

and teacher-respondents in twenty four (24) selected schools in the Division of


       The school principals are described by the teachers and themselves as

“very intelligent”. They are rated as 3.88 (by teachers) and 4.19 (by school

principals), which suggest a high level of Intelligent Leadership. They are “very

intelligent” in all ten indicators of their Intelligent Leadership Levels.

                                        Table 6

    Levels of Intelligent Leadership of School Principals as Perceived by
                        Themselves and Their Teachers
                         __                             __
       Intelligent        X of School Descriptive        X of      Descriptive
      Leadership           Principals    Meaning      Teachers       Meaning
1. Sharing vision &                         Very                        Very
                              4.22                       3.86
  objectives                             intelligent                 intelligent
2. Leading                                  Very                        Very
                              4.30                       3.91
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
3. Following                                Very                        Very
                              4.31                       3.91
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
4. Interacting                              Very                        Very
                              4.20                       3.86
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
5. Analyzing situations                     Very                        Very
                              4.22                       3.87
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
6. Formulating teams                        Very                        Very
                              4.20                       3.89
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
7. Getting results                          Very                        Very
                              4.02                       3.84
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
8. Managing values &                        Very                        Very
                              4.28                       3.87
culture                                  intelligent                 intelligent
9. Organizing                               Very                        Very
                              4.08                       3.89
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
10. Globalizing                             Very                        Very
                              4.10                       3.89
                                         intelligent                 intelligent
Intelligent                                 Very                        Very
                              4.19                       3.88
Leadership                              intelligent                 intelligent

       In terms of sharing vision and objectives, the computed means of 4.22 and

3.86 by teachers and school principals, respectively reveal that it is contributory

to schools current stature. A leader should usually have a strong vision and

should be able to sell that to others. In every case it is important that the vision is

shared and everyone is committed to it. Without real commitment the vision is

not guiding our work. It is very difficult to get a group of people to work efficiently

together without a clear vision.

       The leading level of intelligent leadership is likewise rated with “very

intelligent”. Although the teachers rated it a little lower (3.91) than the principal’s

rating (4.30), still the weighted mean are interpreted as “very intelligent”.

       Leaders are certainly the key players in the leadership process. They

have the responsibility to create a process that works well, because usually they

have more authority and power and they exert more influence than do followers.

However, it is important to remember that everyone can have both leader and

follower roles in different contexts and situations; you are a leader in some

relationships and a follower in others.

       Following, with an overall mean of 4.31 (from principals) and 3.91 (from

teachers), although the same overall mean as Leading, are still interpreted as

“very intelligent”. Followers are active.     They share the responsibility of the

leadership process. Followers can become leaders and leaders can become

followers in any leadership relationship. Followers do not do followership, they

do leadership. They are in leadership relationship together. This is shared and

collaborative leadership. Followers and leaders develop a relationship wherein

they influence one another as well as the organization and society.

      The principal disposes “very intelligent” in terms of interacting indicator.

There are high means of 4.20 and 3.86 as quantified from the responses of

teachers and principals. Leaders and followers are the people in this leadership

interaction which on its best can be described as a dialogue. Interaction means

that team members (leaders and followers) are capable to suspend and enter

into a genuine thinking and learning together.

      Both parties are active and know their roles.         Interaction is based on

influence relationship, multidirectional and non-coercive. The interaction aims as

achieving the objectives effectively.   Result orientation is a typical feature of

leadership which differentiates leadership relationship from other kind of

relationship. Leadership interaction should try to reach the kind of dialogue that

Senge (1990) describes as follows: “The purpose of a dialogue is to try to go

beyond any one individual’s understanding. In dialogue, individuals gain insights

that simply could not be achieved individually.” Marquardt (2002) has stated that

“The discipline of dialogue involves learning to recognize the patterns of team

interaction that may promote or underline learning…. Dialogue is the critical

medium for connecting, inventing and coordinating learning and action in the


      The situationing indicator of the principal is perceived as “very intelligent”.

The computed values of 4.22 and 3.87 strengthened the said claim. Although

the teachers yielded lower mean of 3.87 than the principals themselves (4.22),

both weighted means are still interpreted as “very intelligent”.

       The readiness of leader’s means, how able, willing and flexible they are to

use different kinds of leadership styles. The readiness of followers means, how

able and willing they are to share the leadership responsibilities and tasks.

       In terms of formulating team indicators, the computed weighted means of

4.20 (from principals) and 3.86 (from teachers) attest the efficiency of principals

along this dimension.

       Leadership is a team (communal) relationship. In fact according to Frost

(1989) it occurs within a community of believers. Many times the most important

learning and performing unit of an organization is a team. We should be able to

lead teams and lead within teams efficiently. Team as a social system is a very

important element of an intelligent leadership. The maturity level of teams should

be able to assess by measuring their management and leadership competencies.

       Foremost, principals are rated with “very intelligent” in Getting Results...

Their computed means of 4.02 (from principals) and 3.84 (from teachers) attest

this claim.

       Leaders and followers intend to achieve real results or change. This kind

of result orientation is a typical feature of leadership. The quality of leadership

can be assessed at the interaction level and at the result level. At result level we

can be successful or unsuccessful. The successful results can be effective or

ineffective. The case when intended results are achieved in the expense of the

follower’s motivation is an example of this.

        Managing Values and Culture have a very crucial role in intelligent

leadership. The same was strengthened by the computed means of 4.28 (from

principals) and 3.87 (from teachers).          The principals are rated as “very


        Leadership has a moral dimension. It should always be based on same

universal principles like respect, service, justice, honesty and community. The

leader should follow these principles and also help followers to assess their own

values and needs in order to raise them to a higher level. The moral dimension of

leadership can also be clarified by applying Koestenbaum’s (1991) leadership


        In the intelligent leadership culture the following features are true:

        1. a leader always responds to the facts, for realism means to have no


        2. a leader always initiates, acts and take risks, for courage means to act

            with sustained initiative

        3. a leader is always sensitive to values, for ethics means to be of service

        4. a leader always sees the larger perspective, for dreaming means to

            think big and new.

        In terms of organizing, principals were rated by themselves (4.08) and

teachers (3.89) as “very intelligent”.

        Every organization has its own values, culture and structure. A leader

should be flexible enough to apply his/her leadership behavior to the features of

the organization or clever enough to understand that a certain organization is not

suitable for her/him. There must be a certain fit between the manager and the

organizational environment (Boyatzis 1982).

       Intelligent leadership also underlines the importance of different levels of

leadership, which are individual, team organization and society. At individual

level we should focus on self mastery, at team level the focus is on social

synergy, at organizational level the focus is organizational learning and at the

society level the focus is on sustainable development.

       In terms of globalizing, principals were rated by themselves and their

teachers as “very intelligent”, 4.10 and 3.89 respectively.

       The leadership process happens in an organization which is a part of an

industry or a branch. Organizations are a part of societies, countries, continents

and so on. All this happens in our “global village” which in a way has become

smaller and smaller and is a bigger system within which we work. In intelligent

leadership it is important to see the big picture.            We should lead in a

comprehensively simplified way.        We should develop a global balanced

scorecard which should include financial, political, technological, social,

ecological and spiritual factors (Sydaanmaanlaka 2000).

2.     What is the level of leadership Competency of school principals as

perceived by themselves and their teachers in terms of:

          1.     Professional Competency

          2.     Interpersonal Competency

          3.     Technical Competency

          4.     Efficiency Competency

              5.   Wellness Competency

              6.   Self-Confidence

        Table 7 disposes that both teachers and principals rated the leadership

  competency of principals as “very competent”. The six dimensions of leadership

  Competencies were individually rated in a scale of 5 by both principals and


                                       Table 7

          Levels of Leadership Competency of Principals as Perceived by
                          Themselves and Their Teachers
                        __                          __
   Leadership           X of       Descriptive       X of         Descriptive
  Competency          School        Meaning        Teachers        Meaning
1. Professional
                        4.45     Very competent      4.04       Very competent
2. Interpersonal
                        4.02     Very competent      3.82       Very competent
3. Leadership
                        4.08     Very competent      3.86       Very competent
4. Efficiency
                        4.08     Very competent      3.87       Very competent
5. Wellness
                        4.26     Very competent      3.99       Very competent
6. Self-
                        4.39     Very competent      3.97       Very competent
                        4.21     Very competent      3.92      Very competent

        More specifically, the Professional Competency garnered a weighted

  mean of 4.45 (from principals) and 4.04 (from teachers). The “very competent”

  shows that the principal is working in a job where he/she finds fulfillment to the

  maximum extent possible. He/she is motivated, has clear objectives and enough

  competency, gets feedback and feels that she has challenging tasks and can

develop herself continuously. Quinn et. al. (1996) suggests both the possession

of knowledge and the behavioral capacity to act appropriately. So to develop

competencies you must be both introduced to knowledge and the behavioral

capacity to practice your skills.

       The principal is rated “very competent” on its Interpersonal Competency.

This is based on the computed means of 4.02 and 3.82 which were reported by

principals and teachers respectively.

       Interpersonal competency describes a person’s ability to communicate

positively in stressful situations; express openly and honestly her thoughts and

feelings to others in a way that also takes into consideration the thoughts and

feelings of others.    He/she should be able to understand another person’s

thought feelings and behavior, to place him/her to their position and see things

from their point of view.

       The school manager must be able to communicate efficiently (including

body language); clearly, precisely, consistently and with many channels. He/she

must be able to affect others positively and efficiently, receive and give feedback

continuously and are open to new ideas. Most importantly, he/she must be able

to continuously build and maintain friendly contacts and networks with people

which someday maybe useful in their work.

       Goleman, Boyatzis and Mckee (2002) have defined emotional intelligence

domains and associated competencies in their new book “Primal Leadership”.

They separate personal competency and social competency.                 Personal

competency is divided into self-awareness (emotional self-awareness, accurate

self-assessment and self confidence) and self-management (emotional self-

control, transparency, adaptability, achievement, initiative and optimism). Social

competency      is   divided   into   social    awareness       (empathy,      organizational

awareness and service) and relationship management (inspirational leadership,

influence, developing others, change catalyst, conflict management and

teamwork and collaboration).

       The teachers and principals reported the techn
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