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									                                 Chapter III
                                 METHODOLOGY

       This chapter presents the research locale, the research design, research

variables, respondents of the study, sampling procedures, research instruments,

validation of the instruments, the data gathering procedures and the statistical

treatment of data.

Research Locale

       This study was conducted in twenty four (24) selected schools in the

Division of Laguna before the end of school year 2004-2005 (March 15 – April

15, 2005). There were 24 principals and 841 teacher respondents of public

secondary schools. A map on Figure 4 is presented to give the readers a picture

of a part of province of Laguna where the study was conducted.

Research Design

       This study used the descriptive correlation method of research and.

McMillan and Schumacher (1989) define descriptive research as a descriptive

study, which asks “What is,” it reports things the way they are. It describes

existing achievement, attitudes, behaviors or other characteristics of a group of

subjects. It is concerned primarily with the present and does not involve

manipulation of independent variables. Best and Kahn (1986) pointed out that the

survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of cases at a

particular time. It involves a clearly defined problem and definite objective. It

requires expert and imaginative planning, careful analysis and interpretation of

the data gathered, and logical and skillful reporting of findings.
                                                106




 18




Figure 3. Vicinity Map of the Research Locale
                                                                               107


      This descriptive research described in details the intelligent leadership and

competency of principals performed based on the administrative and

management functions each school leader has in his/her own workplace.

      With regard to the relationship between intelligent leadership and

competency, McMillan and Schumacher (1989) stressed that correlation design

is concerned with assessing relationships between two or more phenomenon.

This type of study usually involves a statistical measure of the degree of

relationship called correlation. The relationship that is measured is a statement

about the degree of association between the variables of interest.

      This study attempted to describe first the intelligent leadership and

leadership competency of principals as perceived by the principal respondent

and the teachers. Then the relationship of intelligent leadership and leadership

competencies were further investigated.

Research Variables

      The key variables in this study were defined operationally as follows.

1. Principal’s Intelligent Leadership

      The principal’s intelligent leadership behaviors considered in this study are

those behaviors along the dimension of ten (10) variables of the intelligent

leadership model as perceived by the principals themselves and their teachers:

through the administration among them of the intelligent leadership questionnaire

which contain items as:

      a. Sharing vision and objectives

      b. Leading
                                                                            108


      c. Following

      d. Interacting

      e. Analyzing situations

      f. Formulating teams

      g. Getting results

      h. Managing values and culture

      i.   Organizing

      j.   Globalizing

2. Principal’s Leadership Competency Behavior

      The principal’s Leadership competency behavior along the dimension of

Six (6) Leadership competency as perceived by the principal’s themselves and

their teacher subordinates and measured through the administration among them

of Leadership competency questionnaire which contains items as:

      a. Professional competency

      b. Interpersonal competency

      c. Technical competency

      d. Efficiency competency

      e. Wellness competency

      f. Self-Confidence

      For purposes of comparison in the study in as for as the relationship of

variables are concerned, only the responses of the principals and teachers were

taken. First, it is the principal who is the point of reference in as far as the

leadership and management are concerned and the teachers are the biggest
                                                                               109


number of respondents and their frequent association with the principals put

them more in a position to their respective principals.

       The fact that, the responses of the principals and teachers alone can

stand to give an over all picture of the Intelligent leadership and Leadership

competency of principals, were affirmed by three (3) research experts of the

Philippine Normal University and by the research advisers.


Respondents of the Study

       This study was designed for a population of secondary school Principals

and teachers from Division of Laguna.

       To identify the respondents of the study, the following steps were taken.

First, a pre-survey was conducted to choose principals who had at least three

years of experience in their respective schools at the time of study. This

prerequisite is important to ensure accurate information on principal’s intelligent

leadership and Leadership competency. Second, due to variations in the number

of teachers per school the researcher selected twenty four (24) schools based on

the criteria of school effectiveness.

Profile of the Respondents

Personal Variables

       The data showed (Figure 4) that the bulk of the participants belong to 31-

40 age group followed by 41-50brackets, it is apparent the school is manned by

principal by teachers who have spent considerable amount of time in the

teaching profession. They composed the majority of the respondents (59.2%).

Only 2% are due for retirement.
                                                                            110


       It can be readily gathered that the sample is dominated by female gender

with a difference of 73% over their male counterpart (Figure 5).

        Majority of the participants are married with 74.9% share of population

(Figure 6).    Only 3.7% are widow, 1.2% separated while 20.3% are still single.

Both groups of teachers can be expected to contribute a lot in the development

of the learners.




                                       2.0%
                   1 .3
                    9  %                                     9
                                                            1 .5%




               3
              2 .8%
                                                                5
                                                               3 .4%




                   21 - 30   31 - 40    41 - 50   51 - 60     61 - 70




   Figure 4. Graphical Representation of the Participants in terms of Age
                                                                        111




                                                    13.5%




                        86.5%




                                   Male   Female




Figure 5. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Gender
                                                                              112




                            1.2% 3.7%                    20.3%




                  74.9%




                   Single     Married   Separated   Widow/er



Figure 6. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Civil Status
                                                                                              113




                           1.6% 1%3.4%
                       3.7% 1%
                   2.7%
                3.1%




                                                                  83.5%




   Catholic   Iglesia Ni Cristo   Protestant   Born Again   Aglipay   Baptist   Christian   Others

   Figure 7. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Religion



        Most of the teachers and principals are Catholics as they comprise

83.5% of the total participants. The Born Again comprises 3.7% followed by

Iglesia Ni Cristo at 3.1%.           The protestants comprise 2.7% while 1.6% for

Aglipayans. One percent of the total population was Baptist and Christians while

3.4% did not specify their religion.
                                                                                       114




                                         .8%
                                     1.8%
                                  2.2%
                         9.6%

                                                                               43.8%




                 41.9%




                 Bachelors Degree               Bachelors Degree w/ MA Units
                 Masters Degree                 Masters Degree w/ Doctoral Units
                 PhD/ED D                       Post Doctoral Studies

   Figure 8. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Highest

                                  Educational Attainment



       Among the participants 56.2% have pursued their graduate studies to

further their knowledge and position in their respective career ladder. In both

categories. Majority has Bachelor’s degree with advance units leading to

Master’s Degree.

       Majority (61.9%) of the participants are considered to be young

professionals.     However it is interesting to note that 38.1% are nearing the

retirement age and the influx of new teachers is only 8.3%.
                                                                                                115




                                      14.5%                 1.2%

          15.9%




                                                                      68.4%




      State Colleges / University   Private (Sectarian)   Private (Non-Sectarian   Vocational

   Figure 9. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Type of

                                    School Last Attended



      Most of the participants acquired good education from the premier State

Colleges or Universities.       This background greatly helps them in providing a

better education to their students, thus enhancing the reputation of the

Department of Education.
                                                                          116




                         11.1%




                                                     88.9%




                      Teachers Board   Civil Service Professional



 Figure 10. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Eligibility


      A large number of participants (88.9%) have earned their jobs the

traditional way that is having Education degrees and consequently passing the

board examination for teachers. Minority of the faculty has been hired because

of their specialization. They have to be eligible for government employment by

passing the Civil Service Professional Examinations.
                                                                             117




                                               2.4%       6.5%


                                                                    22.8%




            68.3%




                           85 - 89   80 - 84    75 - 79   70 - 74

Figure 11. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Ratings in

                            Government Examination



       Consequently since all of the participants are eligible, they have passing

marks in the professional examination. A score of 70% was adjudged passing.

The respondents respectively are said to have average ratings. In fact majority

of the participants (68.3%) scored within the lowest interval of 70 – 74.
                                                                                         118




                                                           8.3%
                                                                              16.3%
         38.1%




                                                                              18.6%
                                        18.7%




             0 - 2 yrs.    3 - 6 yrs.   7 - 10 yrs.   11 - 14 yrs.   15 yrs/ and above

  Figure 12. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Years of

                          Teaching/Administrative Experience



      Majority (61.9%) of the participants are considered to be young

professionals.   However it is interesting to note that 38.1% are nearing the

retirement age and the influx of new teachers is only 8.3%.
                                                                                  119




                            3.2%
                        1.9%
                                       2.5%
                     1.7%




                                                       90.7%




              Teacher   Chairperson   Master Teacher   Head Teacher   Principal

  Figure 13. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Position

                          Held Before Present Position



      Majority of the participants (90.7%) held teaching position before their

current position. This shows that Administrators or Principals have experienced

coming from the levels of teaching prior to their promotions.
                                                                                       120




                                                       10.5%
           29.6%
                                                                            13.4%




                                                                        18.5%
           10.7%
                                        16.3%




            TLE    Science   Filipino    Mathematics   Physical Education    English



Figure 14. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Area of

Specialization

      The participants are distributed to six different subject areas as their

specialization. There are 29.6% who are teaching English subject while 18.5%

are teaching Filipino. Adding the numbers of those teaching English and Filipino,

they make up 48% of the total teaching force of the school while the other 52%

are evenly distributed to Mathematics (16.3%), Science (13.4%), Physical

Education (10.7%) and TLE (10.5%).
                                                                                  121




                             8.9%        1.7%       5.7%
                                                                    12.8%




                         70.9%




     18000 and up   15000 - 17999   12000 - 14999    9000 - 11999    8999 and below

  Figure 15. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Income

       More than seventy percent (70.9%) of the participants are earning at the

range of 9000 – 11999, while about 20% are earning 12,000 and above. This is

due to the fact that no teachers received salary adjustment thru step increments

and promotions. Above 8.9% are considered to be newly hired.
                                                                            122




                               7.4%      .2%
             14.5%




          9%

                                                                    68.9%




                          10 or more   7- 9    4- 6   1- 3   None

      Figure 16. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of

                        Seminars/Trainings Attended



       The professional growth of the participants is sustained through training

and seminar. Majority of the respondents (68.9%) have attended more than ten

seminars. Their frequent attendance and participations to seminars are borne

out of faculty development program of DepEd.
                                                                                 123




                                                          14.3%
          31.8%                                                       4%




                                                                         25.9%


                           24%




           Very Much Involved       Much Involved             Slighty Involved

           Passively Involved       Not at all Involved

 Figure 17. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Extent Of

                    Involvement To Religious Organization



      The involvement of the participants in religious organization is slight only.

This means that they devote little time to fulfill member’s obligation to any

religious organization because most of them are housewives and they devote

their weekend time at home doing household chores.
                                                                                 124




                       16.4%                              17.2%


                                                                          5.5%




            32.6%
                                                                  28.3%




          Very Much Involved       Much Involved             Slightly Involved
          Possively Involved       Not at all Involved

 Figure 18. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Extent Of

                        Involvement To Civic Organization



       Most of the participants are active in their organization, although in

different levels, ranging from passive to heavy involvement, while 16.4% were

not at all involved in the activities. Based on the result, 28.3% of the participants

who are included in the sample, a noteworthy count, are slightly involved with the

civic organizations activity.
                                                                                       125




                            12.7%                          13.8%


                                                                            8.8%




         34.3%


                                                                    30.4%



          Very Much Involved         Much Involved                 Slightly Involved
          Passively Involved         Not at all Involved



 Figure 19. Graphical Representation of Participants in terms of Extent Of

                   Involvement To Professional Organization



      The involvement of the participants to any professional organization is

somewhat slight with 58% cumulative share. Either this particular professional

organization has yet to inform and motivate the members to participate more

actively or they are aware of the existing professional organizations where they

are qualified to be members.

      Only 13.8% are very much involved in the professional organization. This

number is negligible compared to the number of those who have at least slight in

involvement.     It means that the teacher’s even if they reported to be official

members of the professional organization. Their involvement is not remarkable.
                                                                                 126


Such kind of membership would contribute nothing to their professional growth

eventually.

Sampling Procedures

         To identify the respondents of the study, a list of all public secondary

schools in the Division of Laguna was secured from the Division office. Twenty

four school principals based on criteria of school effectiveness were selected for

the study. The teacher respondents in each school were selected based on

stratified random sampling.     However principals of the schools under study

requested that all teachers be given questionnaires.

         This study attempted to describe first the intelligent leadership and

leadership competency of principals as perceived by the principal respondent

himself/herself, and by the teachers themselves. Then the relationship of

intelligent leadership and leadership competencies were further investigated.



Research Instruments

Personal and Professional Characteristic of Principals

         This study tapped secondary school principals. This section described the

principals in terms of their personal characteristics (age, gender, civil status) and

professional characteristics (educational characteristics and number of years of

respondents).

         Table 1 showed the summary of age of the principal respondents in the

study.
                                                                                          127


                                               Table 1

                               The Population and the Sample

      Schools             Population                 Sample                  Percentage
        NHS          P       T         Total    P      T       Total    P        T        Total
1. Balian            1       51          52     1     26        27     100       51         52
2. Banca-Banca       1       13          14     1     11        12     100       85         86
3. Bigaa             1       19          20     1     17        18     100       89         90
4. Biñan             1       99         100     1     34        35     100       34         35
5. Cabuyao           1       99         100     1     61        62     100       62         62
6. Calumpang         1       30          31     1     12        13     100       40         42
7. Dayap             1       32          33     1     32        33     100      100        100
8. Gulod             1       32          33     1     19        20     100       59         61
9. Lingga            1       26          27     1     12        13     100       46         48
10. Los Baños        1      101         102     1     38        39     100       38         38
11. Mabitac          1       17          18     1     13        14     100       76         78
12. Masapang         1       11          12     1     11        12     100      100        100
13. Masico           1       11          12     1     11        12     100      100        100
14. Maulawin         1       29          30     1     16        17     100       57         59
15. Plaridel         1       20          21     1     12        13     100       60         62
16. Pulo             1       56          57     1     28        29     100       50         51
17. Pulo Sta. Cruz   1       27          28     1     25        26     100       93         93
18. Rizal            1       27          28     1     27        28     100      100        100
19. San Antonio      1       12          13     1     12        13     100      100        100
20. San Francisco    1       14          15     1     12        13     100       86         87
21. San Juan         1       25          26     1     16        17     100       64         65
22. Siniloan         1       46          47     1     15        16     100       33         34
23. Talangan         1       22          23     1     19        20     100       86         87
24. Wawa             1       23          24     1     15        16     100       65         67

     TOTAL           24     841        865      24       494   518     100      59         60




              The participant consisted of principals and their respective teacher

      subordinates of secondary schools in the Division of Laguna. The Principals

      were selected purposively. The sample comprised 100% of the population. The

      teachers corresponding to the number generated were included in the sample.

      The sample of the teacher comprised 59.88%.
                                                                                 128


Principals’ Intelligent Leadership Questionnaire

           The researcher formulated the questionnaire based on the ten (10)

   variables of the intelligent leadership model. The different categories included

   in the intelligent leadership questionnaire according to respective dimensions

   were:

              a. Sharing vision and objectives

              b. Leading

              c. Following

              d. Interacting

              e. Analyzing situation

              f. Formulating teams

              g. Getting results

              h. Managing values and culture

              i.   Organizing

              j.   Globalizing

           The responses used in the questionnaires were the following:


                   Scale               Continuum          Descriptive Rating

                      5                 4.50-5.00            Highly Intelligent

                      4                 3.50-4.49             Very Intelligent
                      3                 2.50-3.49                Intelligent
                      2                 1.50-2.49         Moderately Intelligent
                      1                Below 1.50             Not Intelligent
                                                                              129


Principals’ Leadership Competency Questionnaire

      The    researcher   used    the    Leadership   competency     questionnaire

formulated by the author of the intelligent leadership model Petti Sydamaanlakka.

However the researcher modified some of the items and validated to adapt to

Philippine setting. The different categories included in the Leadership

competency according to respective dimensions are:

             a. Professional competency

             b. Interpersonal competency

             c. Technical competency

             d. Efficiency competency

             e. Wellness competency

             f. Self-confidence

          The responses used in the questionnaires were the following:




              Scale               Continuum             Descriptive Rating

                1            4.50-5.00                 Highly Competent
                2            3.50-4.49                 Very Competent
                3            2.50-3.49                 Competent
                4            1.50-2.49                 Moderately Competent
                5            Below 1.50                Incompetent
                                                                                 130


          Below is the table of specification showing the number of items per

intelligent leadership and Leadership competency, percentage distribution of the

items and the page number.

Validation of the Instruments

          For its content validity and appropriateness, the school heads Intelligent

Leadership questionnaire and Leadership competency questionnaire were

submitted to three (3) University Professors who are experts in the field and the

two (2) secondary school principals in the Division of Calamba, as directed by the

research adviser. The aforementioned questionnaires were consequently revised

and polished based on the feedback of the experts to eliminate irrelevant and

ambiguous items.



                                     Table 2
                             Table of Specification
                Principals Intelligent Leadership Questionnaire

   Test no.         Description     Item                  No. Of
                                    Placement             Items       Percentage
      1          Sharing vision          1-10               15            10
                 and objectives
      2          Leading                 16-32              17              11
      3          Following               33-47              15              10
      4          Interacting             48-62              15              10
      5          Analyzing               63-79              15              10
                 situations
      6          Formulating             80-89              12              8
                 team
      7          Getting Results        90-98               9                6
      8          Managing               99-118              20              14
                 values and
                 culture
      9          Organizing             119-132             14              10
     10          Globalizing            133-148             16              11
                                                                       131



                                Table 3
                         Table of Specification
           Principals Leadership Competency Questionnaire

Test no.       Description           Item      No. Of       Percentage
                                  Placement     Item
     1     Professional             1-10            10         6.25
           competency
     2     Interpersonal                                      18.75
           competency                         30
           Assertiveness            11-15          5
           Empathy                   16-20         5
           Communication             21-25         5
           Orientation               26-30         5
           Openness                  31-35         5
           Network Building          36-40         5
     3      Technical                                          18.75
           competency                         30
           Visioning                41-45          5
           Achievement              46-50          5
           Empowerment              51-55          5
           Team Leadership          56-60          5
           Teaching                 61-65          5
           Change Management        66-70          5
    4      Efficiency                                         18.75
           competency                         30
            Perception             71-75           5
            Analytical Thinking    76-80           5
            Decision-making        81-85           5
            Drive                  86-90           5
            Time management        91-95           5
            Renewal                96-100          5
     5     Wellness                                            31.25
           competency                         50
            Physical Condition     101-110         10
            Mental Condition       111-120         10
            Social Condition       121-130         10
            Spiritual Condition    131-140         10
            Stress Condition       141-145         5
            Humbleness             146-150         5
    6      Self-confidence                                     6.25
                                              10
                                                                              132


        The researcher used the item placement in the table of specification as

guide but was not followed in order when the final questionnaire is made. They

were placed in random order.

Inter-Item / Item-total Correlation

        Inter-item / Item total correlation were computed to establish the

appropriateness of each item and the over-all adequacy and truthfulness of the

whole instrument. The complete analyses were done using the SAS programs

from UP Computer Center at Diliman, Quezon City.

       The obtained correlation values in terms of Pearson rxy were interpreted

using the following:

                       (0.00, + 0.20)      Low negligible

                       (+ 0.20, + 0.40)    Present but slight

                       (+ 0.40, + 0.70)    Marked or substantial

                       (+ 0.70, + 1.00)    High to very high

       Data Gathering Procedures:

        Permission was sought from the office of DepEd Schools Division

Superintendent in the Division of Laguna.         After the approval, letters were

prepared for the principals of the respondent’s schools and teachers requesting

for their participation and cooperation in the study.

        The researcher personally conducted the survey to all the identified

respondents.
                                                                                   133


                                 Table 4
     Over-all Summary of Item-total Correlation Analysis on Intelligent
                               Leadership

                                         Verbal            Level of
Intelligent Leadership        rxy                                        Interpretation
                                      Description       Significance
1. Sharing vision and
                             .702   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
objectives
2. Leading                   .781   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
3. Following                 .834   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
4. Interacting               .839   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
5. Situationing              .820   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
6. Formulating teams         .874   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
7. Getting results           .794   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
8. Managing values
                             .861   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
and culture
9. Organizing                .859   High to very high        .001       Very Significant
10. Globalizing              .841   High to very high        .001       Very Significant



         From the results, all of the items had significant relationship with the total

score.     All the items yielded a marked substantial or high to very high

relationship. More detailed item-analyzed dimensions of Intelligent Leadership

and Leadership Competency can be seen in the Appendix.
                                                                               134


                                 Table 5
    Over-all Summary of Item-total Correlation Analysis on Leadership
                              Competency

      Leadership                       Verbal           Level of
                            rxy                                      Interpretation
     Competency                      Description      Signifance
1. Professional            .713   High to very high       .001       Very Significant
2. Interpersonal           .791   High to very high       .001       Very Significant
3. Technical               .844   High to very high       .001       Very Significant
4. Efficiency              .851   High to very high       .001       Very Significant
5. Wellness                .758   High to very high       .001       Very Significant
6. Self-Confidence         .789   High to very high       .001       Very Significant



Statistical Data:

   1. Frequency and percentage were computed and presented using

      frequency distributions to describe the profile of the respondents.

   2. The weighted mean and the standard deviation were computed to

      ascertain the levels of Intelligent Leadership and Leadership Competency

      and the assessment of the Principals themselves. Thus independent t-

      test was done.

   3. The Pearson’s Correlation coefficient was computed to determine the

      relationship between the effectiveness of the managers on their Intelligent

      Leadership and leadership Competency. The dimensions of Intelligent

      Leadership were correlated to each of the aspects of the Leadership

      Competency.

      The data were encoded and computerized at the UP Computer Center

   Diliman Quezon City using SAS Program.
135

								
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