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Living Organisms Topic list Teaching English handouts

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                   Living Organisms Wordlist
          Word                           Definition                                            Contextual
                                        sentence                 Translation
abdomen      1 the front part of the body below the         In a test called amniocentesis,
             chest and above the pelvis. It contains        a fine needle is passed through
             the stomach and several other organs,          the abdomen of a pregnant
             including the intestines and the liver.        woman into the amnion.
             noun [count]

             2 the back part of the three parts into        Grasshoppers and other insects
             which the body of insects or some other        have breathing holes along the
             arthropods is divided. The other parts are     sides of their abdomen.
             the head and the thorax. noun [count]

absorb       1 to absorb liquid into a living cell          Root hairs absorb water
             through its cell membranes, for example        containing plant nutrients.
             by osmosis. noun [uncount]

             2 to take in nutrients through the walls       Special lymph cells in the small
             of the intestines into the blood               intestine absorb fats.

anus         the opening at the end of the alimentary       Undigested food is passed out
             canal through which solid waste passes         through the anus as faeces.
             out of the body. noun [count]

bladder      the part inside the body like a bag where      The ureter takes urine from
             urine collects before being passed out of      the kidneys to the bladder.
             the body through the urethra.
             noun [count]
blood        the red liquid that is pumped around the       Oxygen is carried in the blood.
             body from the heart. Blood carries
             oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the
             various parts of the body, and also helps
             to get rid of waste products. It consists of
             plasma which contains red blood cells
             and white blood cells, and platelets.
             noun [uncount]

brain        1 the organ inside the skull in vertebrates    The illness had affected his
             that controls physical and nervous             brain.
             activity and intelligence. noun [count]

             2 the place in the bodies of some              The ‘brains’ of some
                 invertebrates that is the main centre of      invertebrates are no more than
                 nerve tissue. noun [count]                    a network of nerve fibres.

breathe          to take air into the lungs through the        We begin the exercise by
                 nose or mouth and let it out again.           breathing deeply (=breathing
                 verb [intransitive/transitive]                large amounts of air).

bronchial tube   one of the tubes in the chest through         In a mammal each lung is
                 which air goes into the lungs.                linked to the trachea by a
                 noun [count]                                  bronchial tube.

bronchus         one of the two main tubes coming from
                 the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
                 It has many smaller tubes called
                 bronchioles connected to it. (plural
                 bronchi) noun [count]

carbon dioxide   the gas that is produced when humans          Carbon dioxide dissolves in
                 and other animals breathe out and when        rainwater to form weak
                 fossil fuels are burned. It is used by        carbonic acid.
                 plants in the process of photosynthesis.
                 Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.
                 Chemical formula: CO2 noun [uncount]

cell             the smallest unit from which all living       The brains of mammals contain
                 things are made. All cells have a cell        millions of brain cells.
                 membrane, and plant cells also have a
                 cellulose cell wall. A cell also has a
                 nucleus that contains the organism’s
                 genetic information, cytoplasm, and very
                 small parts called organelles.
                 noun [count]

cell membrane    the outer layer surrounding the               New viruses burst out through
                 cytoplasm of all cells. The cell membrane     the cell membrane, destroying
                 controls which substances go in and out       the cell.
                 of the cell. noun [count]

cellular         relating to the cells of living things.       Oxygen is used up by cellular
                 adjective                                     respiration.

cellulose        a substance that forms the walls of plant     Cows have micro organisms in
                 cells and plant fibres. It is insoluble in    their stomachs to help them
                 water, and is used to make plastics,          digest cellulose.
                 explosives, paper, fabrics, and other
                 products. noun [uncount]

cell wall        a strong layer that surrounds each cell in    Chlorella is a plant-like protist
                 organisms other than animals, protecting      with a cellulose cell wall and a
                 them and giving them shape. In most           chloroplast.
                 plants, the cell wall is made of cellulose,
                 and in fungi it is made of chitin.
                 noun [count]

chloroplast      the part of the cells of plants where         Each cell of Spirogyra has a
                 photosynthesis takes place. It is shaped      spiral-shaped chloroplast.
                 like a very small bag and it contains
              chlorophyll.
              noun [count]

chromosome    a structure that looks like a very small
                                                             During cell division each
              piece of string and that exists, usually as
                                                             chromosome makes an exact
              one of a pair, in the nucleus of all living
                                                             copy of itself.
              cells. Chromosomes contain the genetic
              information that says whether a person,
              animal etc. is male or female and what
              characteristics they get from their
              parents. noun [count]

circulatory   relating to the movement of blood
                                                             Smoking can lead to circulatory
              around the body. adjective
                                                             problems.

cytoplasm     the substance inside the cells of living       Many chemical reactions take
              things, apart from the nucleus. It             place in the cytoplasm.
              contains several different chemicals and
              structures. noun [uncount]

digest        to break down food in the alimentary
                                                             Pepsin works in the stomach to
              canal into soluble substances that the
                                                             digest protein.
              body can absorb. verb [transitive]

digestion     the process by which food is broken down       Enzymes speed up the process
              by the body into simple soluble                of digestion.
              substances that the body can absorb and
              then use for growth and as fuel for
              energy. noun [uncount]

digestive     relating to digestion. adjective               The digestive system is a tube
                                                             running from the mouth to the
                                                             anus.

duodenum      the first section of the small intestine,      The bile duct carries bile from
              just below the stomach. noun [count]           the gall bladder to the
                                                             duodenum.

enzyme        a protein produced by all organisms that       Each enzyme does a particular
              behaves as a catalyst (=a substance that       job, e.g. sucrase breaks down
              speeds up chemical reactions but does          sucrose.
              not itself change.) noun [count]

epithelial    relating to the epithelium. adjective          ...


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