Is the time period
conception to birth .
Is the union of a
sperm and egg.
Also known as:
Although a dozen sperm may be close to penetrating at the
same time, when one finally succeeds a remarkable
thing happens: The ovum's outer wall changes its chemical
composition and shuts tight, preventing any of the other
sperm from entering. Once the head
of the sperm has pushed its way
through the inner wall of the
ovum, its tail breaks off.
The Fertilization Process:
1 – Sperm pass through the uterus & move up
the fallopian tube.
2 – The egg is ready for discharge from the ovary.
3 – The egg enters the fallopian tube.
4 – A sperm penetrates & fertilizes the egg.
5 – The zygote divides into two cells.
6,7,8 – The zygote has 64 cells by the time it enters
9 – The zygote becomes a blastocyst. Multicelled
10 – The blastocyst implants in the uterine wall. This
happens approximately a week after fertilization.
Called an Embryo 6 Weeks
Heartbeat Arms, Fingers, Ears
Brain forming & Toes
1/4 inch long
8 Weeks Movement felt
Now called a FETUS 3 inches long
1-1/2 inches long First external
1/30 of an ounce Signs of sex appear
19-21 inches long
Full term pregnancy
Organs can function
on their own
Is the single cell that is
formed from the union of
the sperm and egg.
Is the mass of cells during
the first eight weeks after
The developing of cells from the
eighth week of conception until
An organ that attaches
the egg to the inner wall
of the uterus.
A ropelike structure through
which the mother and the
developing baby exchange
oxygen, nutrients and
A thin membrane filled with
fluid in which the developing
Also serves as a cushion to
help protect the baby.
Signs of Pregnancy
1- Period is late or missed
2-Abnormal period, lighter or
shorter than usual
3- Breast tenderness or fullness
4- Nausea & sometimes vomiting
5- Changes in appetite
7-Fatigue or tired
Urine Test- to detect the
presence of HCG, a hormone that is
produced when a woman is pregnant.
Pelvic Exam- to check the size
of the uterus.
Blood Test- confirms pregnancy
The zygote implants in the
Surgery is sometimes necessary
to remove the zygote.
The embryo or fetus is expelled
from the uterus prematurely.
May be caused by a genetic defect,
illness in the mother, or drugs the
mother has taken . Miscarriages
usually occur during the first three
months of pregnancy.
The pregnant woman has high
blood pressure, swelling, & protein
in the urine.
This can be treated in the hospital.
If not treated can result in
convulsions, coma, death of mother
and or fetus.
A baby is born before it is fully
developed. A baby may be
considered premature if it is born
before the 37th week of pregnancy.
Premature babies are placed in
incubators, which are special containers
that protect the baby while developing.
A woman’s blood produces a
substance that attacks a substance
in the fetus’s blood.
This may occur if the woman is Rh – and
the fetus is Rh+. This can be avoided
by injections that prevent a woman’s
blood from making Rh substance.
A fully developed fetus is
If delivery through the birth
canal is considered dangerous for
any reason, an operation called a
cesarean section is performed.
An incision is made through the
abdomen & uterus, & the baby
is taken from the mother’s body.
Is a birth with the feet or
buttocks coming out first.
A baby is to come out head
Two or more infants are born together.
- Two infants are called twins
Fraternal twins – two zygotes
Identical twins – one zygote splits
Polar Identical twins – one egg splits
fertilized by two different sperm.
- Three are called triplets
- Four are called quadruplets
- Five are called quintuplets
Uses high frequency sound
waves to take an image of the
fetus which can determine the
size & position of the fetus.
Ultrasound 1st trimester
A long needle is inserted into
the mothers abdominal & uterine
walls into the amniotic sac &
draws out 3 to 4 teaspoons of
fluid, which is tested for birth
is the process by which a
baby moves from the uterus to
the outside world.
The following might occur
The mother may experience
Discharge of blood will come from
The amniotic sac will break & cause
water to flow out.
Is a series of 3 stages that
result in the birth of the baby.
Effacement is the thinning &
shorting of the cervix.
Contractions of the uterus cause the
cervix & cervical opening to dilate &
stretch. This allows the babies head
to enter the vagina.
(This can last from an 1 hour to 15 hours or
The baby moves out the uterus & into
the birth canal. The mother pushes
during uterine contractions to move
the baby through the birth canal.
When the babies head is seen at the
opening of the vagina, the baby will
soon be delivered.
Lasts about 30 minutes to 1 ½ hours.
The afterbirth is expelled during
The afterbirth is the
placenta & other membranes that
support the fetus.
This lasts about 10 to 30 minutes
This is a scoring system to
rate the health of the a
is the 6 to 8 week period after
the birth of a baby.