Legacies of the by mikeholy

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									“When the going gets tough, the weird turn pro”
                        Hunter S. Thompson




        Legacies of the 1960s

                   Terry Bunde
                     J-Term
                      2011
                  Carrying On
Everything changed; the world turned holy;
      and nothing changed:
There being nothing to change or needing
  change; and everything
Still to change and be changed….
                     Thomas McGrath

By 1972 it was not safe for women to walk in Peoples Park
  at night because of rapes that were occurring.
  General Trends in the 1960s
• Organizations moved from marches,
  economic boycotts, and demonstrations to
  more violent confrontation to armed
  conflict
  – SDS  Weatherman
  – SNCC  Black Panthers
• America‟s Big Cities Explode (1964-1967)
• Economic Boom ended and jobs became
  more important (Oil Crisis of 1973)
              Basic Equation

• Altamont              Weather Underground
 ------------------- = -------------------------------
 Counterculture          Student Movement

“…the splattering rage of the „death culture‟
  lodged in the very heart of the „life force‟”
                               Todd Gitlin
“Rights” Groups from the 1960s
• Women‟s Rights
• Gay-Lesbian Rights - Gay Pride –Stonewall Inn
• Mental Health Rights – Mad Pride
    – Judi Chamberlain (Mental Patients Liberation Front)
•   Disability Rights
•   Economic Rights (second Civil Rights)
•   Ecology Movement (Earth‟s Rights)
•   Migrant Laborer Rights (Cesar Chavez)
•   Elder Rights – Gray Panthers (Maggie Kuhn)
     New Women‟s Movement
• Radicals out of the other two social movements
  joined the fight for equal rights for women. They
  created grassroots organizations for battered
  women‟s shelters, rape crisis hotlines, women‟s
  clinics for reproductive planning
• 1972 Title IX passed as part of Education Bills to
  promote equal access to educational programs;
  doubled the number of women in professions
  previously associated with men. It also
  drastically increased the number of women
  competing in sports on campuses (to 1/3)
 Equal Rights Amendment of 1972
• The Equal Rights Amendment was re-
  introduced (first in the 1920s) in 1972 and
  passed Congress.
• The House passed the ERA by 354-24
• The Senate passed the ERA by 84-8
• It was sent to the states to be ratified
  (required 38 states). The senate set 8
  years for ratification (arbitrary time).
Wikipedia, 2007
  The Equal Rights Amendment
• Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be
  denied or abridged by the United States or by any state
  on account of sex.
• Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to
  enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this
  article.
• Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years
  after the date of ratification.
• Congress passed the ERA in March 1972, the statute
  was ratified by only 35 of the 38 states necessary to
  become the 28th Amendment to the Constitution. So it
  did not become an amendment.
 Opposition to the ERA Ratification
• Phyllis Schafly, The Eagle Forum,
  organized opposition to ratifying the ERA
  by the states. She opposed the access to
  abortion that she thought passage would
  bring. She also was concerned about
  effects of the amendment on all aspects of
  American society. She claimed advances
  of women were brought about by the
  clothes dryer and paper diapers not NOW.
Historical Reasons for Opposing an
     Equal Rights Amendment
• If women go to college their reproductive
  organs will shrink (I just report it…I don‟t believe it)
• If women work outside the home there will
  be a disintegration of the nuclear family
• If women participate in sports they might
  perspire and that is unladylike
• If women are allowed the vote they will
  elect poor candidates
Income Statistics
            Women‟s Rights
• “The women‟s movement extended far beyond
  the original feminist and New Left circles; the
  explosions of utopian and revolutionary
  sentiment, once channeled, drove the engines of
  reform. With the help of affirmative action,
  women broke into politics, law, pulpits,
  occupations, sports; to varying extents they
  changed the habits of speech, in the household
  and in the bedroom.”
                         Todd Gitlin, The Sixties
               Gay Rights
• “Homosexuals, still embattled, could begin
  to claim self-respect and civil rights long
  denied them. Gay Pride was no empty
  phrase when it took the form of mass
  marches, political blocs, and visible turf in
  San Francisco, Greenwich Village, NY,
  West Los Angeles, et. al..”
                     Todd Gitlin, The Sixties
       Where Did “They” Go?
• The end of the 1960s saw an increase in
  campus protest, a shift of students against the
  war in Viet Nam, and a decrease in the central
  organization of the movements as more violent
  elements split off and tried other methods of
  protest.
• The invasion of Cambodia on April 30th, 1970
  led to more protest where buildings were burned
  on campuses
• Kent State and Jackson State killings bracketed
  the National Mobilization on campuses
Others Join the Student Movement
• The lobbying in Washington by students like the
  SDS included many new groups for the first time
  in 1970:
  –   Thousands of lawyers
  –   33 university presidents
  –   Architects
  –   Doctors and Nurses
  –   Corporate executives
  –   Hundreds of State Department and Foreign Service
      officers
 Congressional Efforts to Stop the
              War
• Cooper-Church amendment to end the
  war died in committee
• McGovern-Hatfield bill to cut off funding for
  the war failed 55-39
• Student led activism against the war effort
  never regained the momentum it had prior
  to 1970. Press coverage of the protests
  decreased as the president ended the
  draft.
        The REAL draft options
•   Stay in college (8 semesters)
•   Obtain a Conscientious Objector Status
•   Gain deferment for protected jobs
•   Exemption for homosexuality
•   Actual or feigned medical conditions
•   Exemption for mental illness
    – Alice‟s Restaurant
• Refuse the draft (prosecute 8,700 out of 570,000
  resisters
Infiltration of Resistance Groups
• Justice Department – wiretaps, campus spies,
  antiradical grand juries, heavy surveillance of
  radical groups
• Armed Forces – infiltration of vast array of
  meetings and demonstrations, used dummy
  journalists to gain access
• FBI – used newspaper leaks of disinformation,
  harassed celebrity supporters of the movements,
  faked letters to sow discord between balck and
  white groups
• White House – phone taps, break ins, mail
  openings, informers all authorized
      Counter-Demonstrations
• May, 1970 in New York, 200 hard-hatted
  construction workers demonstrated against
  students shouting “kill the Commie Bastards”.
  Seventy students were beaten by the counter-
  demonstrators
• VP Spiro Agnew called for “separating the
  impudent snobs from our society with no more
  regret than we should feel over discarding rotten
  apples from a barrel.”
• Ronald Reagan (gov CA) in reference to
  campus militants: “If it takes a bloodbath, let‟s
  get it over with. No more appeasement.”
Gitlan‟s Appraisal of the Decline
• “No one should belittle the emotionally and
  financially draining trials (and fear of
  trials), the millions of dollars drained into
  bail bonds, the wiretaps and fear of
  wiretaps, the infiltrators (and fear of
  infiltrators), the bullets, and fear of bullets.”
• Same effect of lynchings, arson attacks,
  shootings on black demonstrators in the
  civil rights
         Todd Gitlin Analysis
• “…once the SDS imploded, there was no
  national organization to keep the student
  movement boiling, to channel anti-war
  energy into common action, to keep local
  organizers in touch with one another, to
  provide continuity from semester to
  semester. The women‟s movement was
  alive, but there was no intellectual center
  for a more general politics which was at
  once radical and practical.”
             Other Factions
• The women‟s movement continued with former
  SDS organization. The original meetings were
  small and highly personal
• The first Earth Day (April 22, 1970) brought
  environmental concerns to the political
  mainstream without any student campus
  involvement and organization
• Large anti-war gatherings continued (March on
  Washington in April 1971) but not with campus
  organizations providing the lead
       The Military: Post-1970
• Active duty soldiers deserted, went AWOL, filed
  as conscientious objectors, published
  underground newspapers, used drugs and
  alcohol to abuse, demonstrated (even in
  uniform), rioted, sought out sanctuary,
  committed acts of violence (fragging), and used
  acts of insubordination both in the States and in
  Viet Nam
• The same state-side movements were seen in
  Viet Nam: black nationalism, counterculture,
  radicals of every stripe were seen in the military
       The State of the Military
• “…the morale, discipline, and battle worthiness
  of the United States armed forces are, with few
  salient exceptions, lower and worse than at any
  time in this century, and possible in the history of
  the United States.” Marine Colonel (retired)
• “During fiscal year 1971, for every 100 soldiers,
  there were 7 desertions, 17 AWOL incidents, ,
  20 regular marijuana users, and 10 used opium
  or heroin regularly.” Todd Gitlin
           Pentagon Papers
• Daniel Ellsberg released the Pentagon Papers
  to the press, providing evidence that the
  government had engaged in organized
  deceptions, misinformation about the war and
  war planning.
• The Pentagon Papers were a top-secret study of
  VN-US relations from 1947 to 1967. The report
  documented secret attacks on North Viet Nam,
  Cambodia and Laos. The report also showed
  CIA involvement in the overthrow of Ngo Dinh
  Diem.
     Why Did Activists Leave?
• People were pushed away by infighting
• People were turned off by power moves
• People were repelled by the harsh
  rhetoric, sense of futility
• They were drawn to the satisfaction of
  private life, getting on with their lives
• They were drawn to the “householding”
  stage of life                   Todd Gitlin
               Hindsight View
• In the early 1970s after US troops were brought
  home from Viet Nam, there was a cultural and
  political shift to view the 1960s as an alternative
  lifestyle. The failings of the liberal New Left
  advocates coupled with the increasing inflation
  and scarcity of oil, energized the political Right
• The Right had several symbols
   – Symbols of a wounded powerful nation
   – Symbols of the marketplace (pro-business)
   – Symbols to appeal to family (family values)
   Where Did the Students Go?
• Though the war was ending, students still distrusted
  authority and government, so they gravitated to
  environmental and alternative political organizations like
  the Sierra Club and the Ralph Nader. Others returned to
  union organizing and grass-roots politics. Still others
  moved into fighting nuclear power, prison reform.
• Stagflation proved that the age of affluence was over.
  Students scrambled for the high paying jobs in medicine,
  law, and joining their former professors in colleges and
  universities.
• As Todd Gitlin puts it: “There was no war to galvanize
  opposition, no compelling black movement to inspire
  white conscience.”
                  Burn Out
• Many veterans of the civil rights and anti-war
  movements were simply burned out after a
  decade of work. They became disillusioned that
  they could not keep the gains in civil rights and
  could not stop the war earlier. The demands of
  the constant struggle to live while devoting your
  life to the big issues.
• The collapse (“We were overcome”) was mostly
  psychological and spiritual and not just physical
  What Replaced the Activism?
• For many veterans of the civil rights and anti-war
  organizations, the future became cloudy; they
  began to focus inward on what has been called
  “human potential movements”
• This focus inward led to eastern mystical
  techniques (Zen, Japanese cults), to encounter
  groups, to alternative therapies, bioenergetics,
  medication, yoga breathing, alternative medical
  therapies like rolfing and massage. Native
  Americans returned to ghost dance ceremonies.
         Post-Woodstock Music
•   Bob Dylan –”Nashville Skyline”
•   Joan Baez – went country
•   The Band – muted Rock
•   Creedence Clearwater Revival
•   Arlo Guthrie – Alice‟s restaurant to gospel
•   Balladeers
    – Carole King, Carly Simon, Elton John, James Taylor,
      Cat Stevens
• Bridge Over Troubled Waters, You‟ve Got a
  Friend, Help me Make It Through the Night,
            Musical Activists
•   Neil Young
•   John Mellancamp
•   John McCutcheon (different issues)
•   Pete Seeger (still)
•   Many contemporary groups protest the
    wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
   Counterculture Movements
• Communes
• Cooperatives – moneyless exchange of
  goods and services
• Alternative Press
• Free Schools
• Crafts Cooperatives
• Eco-politics and Organic Farms
• The Whole Earth Catalogs
        Business Acumen-Social
              Conscience
•   Silicon valley entrepreneurs
•   Celestial Seasoning Tea
•   Ben and Jerry‟s Ice Cream
•   Snapple
•   Toms of Maine
•   Hundreds of organic produce/products
    companies
   Prices Paid by the Excesses
• Booming teenage pregnancy rate
• Resistant venereal disease and AIDS
• Damage done by excessive drug use
  – Health issues
• Undermining of the traditional family
• Psychological changes of hippie to yuppie
• Chaos sent people to cults like Jim Jones
  for some “stability” and “authority”
                 Politics
• Viet Nam Syndrome
  – Committee on the Present Danger
• Congressional investigations of the CIA
• President Carter‟s emphasis on human
  rights around the world
• Three Mile Island Incident – worry about
  nuclear power
• Real estate speculation

								
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