Communicator December 2006

Document Sample
Communicator December 2006 Powered By Docstoc
					                      NCIL O



                      TE SCH
                                     Council of Graduate Schools
                                     w w w. c g s n e t . o r g                Vo l u m e 3 9 , N u m b e r 1 0 • D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 6

                                    Online Graduate Education
  Graduate education provided online via the                      (15,000+ enrollment), all sized schools reported an
Internet is a fast-growing phenomenon. The Sloan-C                equal or greater rate of online courses being taught
national survey shows that 65% of schools offering                primarily by core faculty compared to their face-to-
graduate face-to-face courses also offer graduate                 face courses (Sloan-C, 2005). Thus, students have a
courses online1 (Sloan-C, 2005). Among all schools                greater chance of being taught by a core faculty
offering face-to-face master’s degree programs, 44%               member when enrolling in an online course than
also offer master’s programs online (Sloan-C, 2005).              they do a face-to-face course.
The overall percent of schools identifying online                   Another myth that the Sloan-C data dispels is
education as a critical long-term strategy grew from              about the quality of online instruction. Responses
49% in 2003 to 56% in 2005 (Sloan-C, 2005). This                  from 75% of the academic leaders at public colleges
online enrollment growth rate is over 10 times that               and universities who responded to the survey
projected by the National Center for Education                    endorsed the statement that online learning quality
Statistics for the general post-secondary student                 equals or surpasses face-to-face instruction. In fact,
population. A recent survey of interest in E-learning             the larger the school, the more positive the belief in
conducted by Eduventures shows that on-line                       the quality of online learning compared to face-to-
education has the potential to grow significantly                 face learning (Sloan-C, 2005). Perhaps the
further, with approximately half of the potential                 disappearance of individual contact and
college students surveyed indicating an interest in               communication in the very large face-to-face classes
earning a degree online.                                          found at large institutions contributes to this
  Overall enrollment in online courses increased                  outcome as online classes foster individual
from 1.98 million in 2003 to 2.35 million in 2004,                communication, both peer-to-peer and student-to-
an overall annual growth rate of 18.2% (Sloan-C,                  faculty. The fact that core faculty are more likely to
2005). The authors’ institutions have shown similar               be teaching an online course may also influence this
growth rates. At East Carolina University the first DE            outcome.
courses were offered as far back as 1946, although                  Another indicator of the perceived quality of online
online degrees were not approved until 1996.                      instruction is that more than 66% of survey
Longwood began offering online classes in Fall,                   respondents saw no difference between an online
2004. Enrollment in graduate online courses has                   and a traditional graduate
tripled at Longwood in two years, increasing from                 degree in terms of academic        continued on next page
332 to 996 student credit hours. East Carolina
University has shown similar growth, increasing
from 11,033 graduate student credit hours in 2000-
01 to 40,283 in ’05-’06.
  One myth that the Sloan-C data dispels is that
online courses are primarily taught by adjunct or                                           INSIDE
part-time faculty. In fact, 65% of higher education                 Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
institutions report using primarily core faculty to
teach online courses compared to 62% that report                    Position Advertisements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5,6,7
using primarily core faculty to teach face-to-face                  McNair Memos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
courses. In addition, 74% of public colleges report
their online courses are taught by core faculty, as
opposed to only 61% of the face-to-face courses
(Sloan-C, 2005). Except for the largest schools
continued from previous page                                            Revenue generation from online course fees may be used
Online Graduate Education                                            to directly support online course development. For example,
                                                                     at Longwood a $40 per credit hour fee is charged for each
                                                                     online course. This fee then supports faculty development
quality, starting salary after graduation, and quality of job        institutes, an instructional designer, specialized software and
after graduation. In discussions held on Sloan-C listservs,          hardware needed for various classes, upgrades to learning
there was debate on this outcome, particularly if the online         management systems such as Blackboard, professional travel
degree holder was attempting to get a job at a traditional           related to professional development or presentation of
higher education institution. In some disciplines in some            research related to the online instruction, and administrative
higher education institutions, these degrees are not yet as          costs. At Longwood graduate revenue from online courses
readily accepted as they are in the business and social              tripled from the 2004-05 to the 2005-06 academic year from
services environments. Higher education may be losing out            $13,280 to $39,240. Graduate courses represented about
on some talented individuals with a rigid adherence to               one-third of the online courses scheduled.
traditional doctoral training paths.                                    There are several faculty support and course development
  There are several models for providing online instruction          models in online instruction.
in graduate higher education with different implications for
graduate education enrollment, revenue and control. Three               1. No formal institutional support
of the most common models found in institutions that are                Courses developed in this model are developed by faculty
not 100% online are described here.                                  with an interest in online instruction or in integrating use of
                                                                     learning management system and Internet into their
   1. Independent Continuing Education                               instruction without formal institutional support. These
   In the Independent Continuing Education model, an                 faculty may or may not have training in online pedagogy, or
entity that has ties to the university, but which may be semi-       have the technical skills, software and hardware necessary to
autonomous and required to be self-supporting through its            create a quality learning environment. Blended or hybrid
own tuition and fees, establishes the online courses,                courses which are partly online and partly face-to-face are
contracts with faculty outside of their regular workload to          often found in this model. Department chairs may not have
teach the courses, and pays the course development costs,            the knowledge necessary to accurately evaluate this form of
perhaps in a cost/revenue sharing agreement with individual          instruction or course evaluations use face-to-face course
departments, programs or faculty.                                    evaluation forms without assessment of the unique online
   2. Integrated Academic Division                                   components.
   In the Integrated Academic Division model, a division                2. Voluntary workshops on specific topics
within the university, perhaps Academic Affairs, Graduate               No formal training is required of faculty to teach online in
Studies or academic colleges themselves, becomes the                 this model. There is little or no instructional design or
administrative unit for online courses and the courses are           technical support for faculty. A faculty development center
treated as any other class, e.g., being part of the regular          or instructional technology center offers workshops in a
faculty workload. Funding to support course and faculty              variety of topics including topics related to teaching online.
development is allocated administratively in unit budgets.           Attendance is voluntary. Course evaluation follows
   3. Self-Supporting Academic Division                              traditional methods.
   In the Self-Supporting Academic Division model, online               3. Required training in online instruction
instruction is partially or wholly self-supporting, using               In this model, faculty are required to attend training in
course fees attached to the online courses and is located            teaching an online course before they are approved to do so.
administratively in an academic unit such as Graduate                Training curriculum includes topics such as online pedagogy,
Studies, Academic Affairs or an academic college. Faculty            building an online community, online communication,
may be assigned either within or outside regular workload,           online evaluation, building an online syllabus, policies and
depending upon whether the online course was scheduled in            procedures, intellectual property, “fair use” laws, technical
the regular, summer or intersession terms. Revenue                   skills in using a learning management system, podcasts,
generated by course fees supports faculty and course                 blogs, wikis, etc. Instructional design and technical support
development, a major component that sets online                      is provided so that faculty can concentrate on creating the
instruction apart from face-to-face course development.              content within an instructionally effective environment. A
   Both the Integrated and Self-Supporting Academic                  stipend is provided for faculty attendance at training
Division models have content and curriculum development              workshops and a stipend or reassigned time is provided for
decision authority within academic units as it is for face-to-       course development. Course evaluation utilizes assessment
face classes. While the Continuing Education model                   instruments specific to online instruction and department
encourages credit and non-credit online course development           chairs are trained in their use.
which may or may not be linked to particular programs, the              4. Central development team
academic models focus primarily on online credit courses                With a central development team model, the faculty is the
usually closely linked to graduate programs.                         Subject Matter Expert (SME) who focuses only on the
                                                                                                                   continued page 5

DECEMBER 2006                                                    1
                                                                 2                                            VOLUME 39. ISSUE 10
Data Sources: Changes in Policies                                                                   of three-year degrees from 2005 to 2006.
                                                                                                        The survey results demonstrate that evaluating the
Regarding Bologna Three-Year                                                                        applications from prospective international students with
                                                                                                    Bologna three-year bachelor’s degrees has become a less
Bachelor’s Degrees, 2005 to 2006                                                                    controversial issue than previously reported. As Table 1 shows,
                                                                                                    the percentage of survey respondents who said that the Bologna
   On June 19, 1999, 29 European Ministries of Higher                                               bachelor’s degree was “not an issue” on their campuses rose
Education and major representatives of the European higher                                          from 41% to 56% between 2005 and 2006. At the same time,
education community met in Bologna, Italy, to sign an                                               the share of respondents who said their institutions were now
agreement that would establish a European Higher Education                                          using approaches that could result in their evaluation of
Area by 2010 (Yopp, 2003). This agreement, referred to as the                                       applications from prospective students with Bologna degrees
“Bologna Process,” now includes 45 European countries that                                          increased from 71% to 82%; that is, the percentage who said
have pledged to work together to           Table 1. Changes in Institutional Policies Regarding Bologna 3-Year Bachelor's Degrees, 2005-                 they would not consider
make higher education across the                                                                                                     2005 2006           admissions applications from
continent more effective through           Three-Year Degrees as an Issue on Campus                                                                      prospective international students
                                              Major Issue                                                                             18%     12%
greater transparency, mobility, and           Minor Issue                                                                             41%     32%        with only Bologna three-year
                                              Not an Issue                                                                            41%     56%
collaboration. As part of this             Single Institution-wide Policy or Policies Vary By Department
                                                                                                                                                         bachelor’s degrees fell from 29% to
harmonization effort, these                   Single                                                                                  62%     62%        18%, and the graduate schools
                                              Different                                                                               16%     18%
countries have pledged to adopt a             Combination                                                                             22%     21%        that offer only provisional
three-year bachelor’s degree that is Approach to Evaluating Three-Year Degrees                                                                           acceptance of international
                                              Do not accept                                                                           29%     18%
to be recognized as an equitable              Provisional acceptance                                                                  9%       4%        applicants with these degrees
                                              Evaluation for equivalency                                                              40%     49%
credential within each of the 45              Determination of individual's competency to succeed                                     22%     29%
                                                                                                                                                         declined from 9% to 4%.
member nations (Jaschik, 2006).                                                                                                                             These results suggest that over
                                           Source: Findings from the 2006 CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey III: Admissions and Enrollment
   The Bologna Process could have                                                                                                                        the past year discussions of three-
wide ranging effects on higher education throughout Europe.                                         year degrees have led to the adoption of policies that permit the
When fully implemented, it may include 4,000 institutions that                                      acceptance of international students with Bologna degrees into
enroll 16 million students (Adelman, 2006). The three-year                                          the majority of American graduate schools, under specified
undergraduate degree has thus become an increasingly                                                circumstances. Our nation’s graduate schools generally appear
prominent issue as the majority of Europe adopts it.                                                to have begun to think about the potential benefits of changes
   How should U.S. graduate schools recognize and evaluate the                                      in their international admissions policies. These changes could
applications from prospective international students with                                           have positive effects on both the number and quality of
“Bologna” bachelor’s degrees? The Bologna Process and the                                           international students considered for enrollment in the future
issues surrounding three-year degrees have generated many                                           (Denecke, forthcoming).
questions about how U.S. graduate schools should construct                                              There do, however, appear to be some differences in how
admissions policies for applicants from Europe (Denecke,                                            public and private colleges and universities have resolved issues
forthcoming).                                                                                       regarding admission of students with Bologna bachelor’s
   CGS has responded to members’ concerns about Bologna                                             degrees. As Table 2 illustrates, a majority (55%) of public
three-year bachelor’s degrees by undertaking an important                                           colleges and universities said they held discussions among
examination of the current                                                                                                                                        graduate school staff at
policies and practices used Table 2. Processes or Procedures Undertaken in the Past Two Years Regarding the Issue of the Bologna                                  some point in the past
by graduate schools to         Three-Year Degrees, by Institutional Control                                                                                       two years regarding
                                                                                                    Public                   Private                 Total - All  policies or procedures for
consider international                                                                           Institutions             Institutions              Institutions
student applications. This     Discussions among graduate school staff                               55%                      41%                       52%       evaluating students with
                               Discussions among graduate council members                            34%                      10%                       28%       Bologna three-year
appraisal has been             Dicussions with faculty and/or departments                            42%                      27%                       38%
conducted through CGS’s        Enacted admission or enrollment policy changes                        15%                       2%                       12%       degrees. A smaller share
annual International           None of the above                                                     26%                      34%                       28%       (41%) of private
Graduate Admissions III        Source: Findings from the 2006 CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey III: Admissions and Enrollment
                                                                                                                                                                  institutions had held such
surveys in 2005 and 2006.                                                                                                                                         discussions (136 public
One part of the International III surveys asks graduate deans to                                    and 41 private colleges and universities responded to the most
report on the procedures their institutions have used to evaluate                                   recent International III survey). In addition, about 42% of the
applications from international students who hold Bologna                                           public university survey participants held discussions with
three-year bachelor’s degrees. Responses to these questions                                         graduate school faculty and/or department personnel, versus
provide valuable information needed to measure empirically                                          27% of those from private institutions. And roughly one-third
how U.S. graduate schools are evaluating three-year degrees and                                     of respondents from public institutions said they held
how they anticipate evaluating them in the future (Redd and                                         discussions among graduate school council advisory members
Neubig, 2006).1 Below is a description of the changes in                                            (faculty members who advise the graduate school on matters
institutional policies and procedures regarding the acceptance                                      related to curriculum and degrees), compared with about 10%
                                                                                                                                                                continued on page 4

CGSNET.ORG                                                                                   3                                                                      DECEMBER 2006
continued from page 3                                                     students with these degrees to whom they have offered
                                                                          admission has not been adversely affected.
Data Sources                                                                Over the past year, the majority of U.S. graduate schools have
                                                                          adopted policies that permit the evaluation of international
of private universities (respondents may have selected multiple           students with Bologna degrees under specified circumstances.
responses).                                                               American graduate schools appear to be adopting a policy of
   Public institutions were more likely to use these discussions          being open to considering students with these degrees, but this
to create changes in admissions policies regarding students with          policy is supplemented by maintaining high standards with a
Bologna degrees; about 15% of public colleges and universities            close examination of prospective students’ eligibility for
had instituted policy changes sometime within the past two                graduate study. Greater acceptance of international student
years. Only 2% of private colleges and universities said they             applicants with three-year bachelor’s degrees, balanced with
enacted such changes. Finally, 26% of public institutions had             quality considerations, may be a major issue for U.S. graduate
not done any of the listed activities regarding the issue of three-       schools in the future.
year degrees; about 34% of all private institutions said they had             1A full report on the survey results is posted on the CGS
not undertaken these activities.
   The comparison of activities initiated by public and private           Web site at
colleges and universities to review processes and procedures    
involved with Bologna degrees is not intended to be a measure
of quality or performance between these school types. Rather, it            By Kenneth E. Redd, Director, Research and Policy Analysis,
suggests that public institutions (which tend to enroll a larger          Council of Graduate Schools
number of international graduate students) may have faced
these issues earlier, and had to engage their faculty and staff             References
more fully in developing policies to evaluate, admit, and enroll            Adelman, C. 2006. “Border Blind Side: What the Higher
international students with these degrees. As the most recent             Education Commission Didn’t See.” Education Week, (26)11: 30,
International III survey report shows, the institutions with the          40.
largest enrollments were more likely than smaller schools to                Brown, H. 2005. Findings from the 2005 CGS International
have undertaken discussions on the Bologna degrees (Redd and              Graduate Admissions Survey II: Final Applications and
Neubig, 2006). Because most of the largest institutions are               Admissions. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.
public colleges and universities, it is likely that the differences         Brown, H and Neubig, E. 2006. Findings from 2006 CGS
between these colleges are accounted for by enrollment size               International Graduate Admissions Survey, Phase II: Final
more than by any other factor.                                            Applications and Offers of Admission. Washington, DC:
   The overall growth in the percentage of institutions that have         Council of Graduate Schools.
discussed or adopted policies related to Bologna degrees,
                                                                            Denecke, D. Forthcoming. “The Bologna Process, Three-Year
combined with the sharp decline in the percentage of programs
                                                                          Degrees, and U.S. Graduate Admissions.” In EUA Bologna
that do not accept students with such degrees, indicates that as
                                                                          Handbook: Making Bologna Work, edited by E. Froment, K.
time passes and more international students enter larger and
                                                                          Jurgen, L. Purser, and L. Wilson. Stuttgart, Germany: RAABE
smaller colleges and universities, more institutions of all types
                                                                          Academic Publishers.
and enrollment sizes will expand their current policies or
implement new ones.                                                         Jaschik, J. (6 November 2006). “Making Sense of ‘Bologna
   However, one fear sometimes expressed about the growing                Degrees.’” Insider Higher Ed. On-line. Available:
acceptance of students with Bologna three-year degrees is that it
might lead to a decline in the quality of international graduate             Redd, K.E and Neubig, E.H. 2006. Findings from The 2006
students enrolling at American universities. However, evidence            CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey Phase III:
from prior CGS international surveys suggests that this fear has          Admissions And Enrollment. The overall growth in the
been unfounded. The 2005 and 2006 CGS international                       percentage of institutions that have discussed or adopted
graduate applications and admissions survey results show that             policies related to Bologna degrees, combined with the sharp
admissions selectivity (the percentage of applicants who were             decline in the percentage of programs that do not accept
offered admission) remained at 24% from last year to this year            students with such degrees, indicates that as time passes and
(Brown, 2005; Brown & Neubig, 2006). Further, the 2006 CGS                more international students enter larger and smaller colleges
International Graduate Student Admissions Survey II report                and universities, more institutions of all types and enrollment
found that the vast majority of respondents (88%) indicated               sizes will expand their current policies or implement new ones.
that the quality of new international admits was “about the                 Yopp, J.H. 2003. “Changes in European Higher Education
same” this year as it was in 2005 (Brown, 2006). In other                 and Their Implications for U.S. Graduate Education.” CGS
words, while more graduate institutions reported increasing               Communicator, (36)10: 1-2, 4-5.
willingness to consider students with Bologna degrees, graduate
deans have indicated that the overall quality of the international

DECEMBER 2006                                                         4                                                       CGSNET.ORG
continued from page 2                                               online instruction while others have strongly encouraged
Online Graduate Education                                           it. For example, among the 114 business schools offering
                                                                    online MBA programs, 50% are accredited by a business
                                                                    accreditation agency such as the AACSB. However, only
creation of content and learning resources relevant to the          13% of the students enrolled in online MBA programs
online course. An instructional designer and technician             attend an accredited program. Among all schools offering
provide the course infrastructure and do the actual course          a face-to-face business degree program, 43% also offer an
design and production. Typically, faculty complete a                online business program. Alternatively, all but one online
template or questionnaire designed by the instructional             nursing degree program is accredited by national nursing
team in order to provide all the information necessary to           accrediting bodies.
design the course. Course evaluation utilizes assessment
                                                                       1The   Sloan Consortium, funded by the Sloan
instruments specific to online instruction. Department
chairs may be trained in their use.                                 Foundation, conducts research and annual surveys of
                                                                    online learning. The statistics provided in this report are
  There can be many challenges and barriers to overcome             from the 2005 annual Sloan-C national survey of online
to develop graduate online courses and programs                     learning. “Survey of Interest in E-Learning Sows Potential
including University cultural values, faculty and                   for Significant Growth in Online Education”
administrator attitudes towards online instruction,         
academic policies and procedures, fee structures,
technical and instructional design assistance and support,            By Deirdre M. Mageean, Vice Chancellor - Research &
expectations and evaluation criteria for obtaining                  Graduate Studies, East Carolina University and
promotion and tenure, accreditation criteria, etc. Some               C. Sue McCullough, Dean of Graduate Studies, Longwood
accrediting bodies have been slow to accept or evaluate             University

 UCSF is currently seeking an innovative and energetic academic leader, committed to service, growth and expansion, to serve
as its Dean, Graduate Division. This is an exciting opportunity for an experienced faculty member to play a critical role in
shaping the future direction of UCSF's Graduate Programs.
The UCSF Graduate Division encompasses graduate academic degree programs and graduate students in the four schools
(Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy). The Dean of Graduate Studies is responsible for the administration of graduate
degree programs in accordance with academic policies established by the Academic Senate, the Graduate Council and the
University of California. The Dean oversees graduate admissions; academic progression and student records; and fellowships
and student support programs. The Dean also has administrative responsibility for the appointment of postdoctoral scholars,
the academic review of graduate programs, and dispute resolution involving graduate students and postdoctoral scholars. The
Dean reports to the Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost (EVC) and is the primary advisor to the EVC and Chancellor on
matters related to graduate studies and postdoctoral affairs.
Required knowledge and expertise include: Ph.D. or equivalent doctoral level degree; familiarity with the philosophy and
principles of graduate education and academic program planning and review; three to five years of administrative and
management experience in a large, complex academic setting; excellent leadership, communication and management skills; and
knowledge of technical requirements related to Graduate education.
UCSF seeks candidates whose experience, teaching, research, or community service has prepared them to contribute to our
commitment to diversity and excellence.
Please submit a cover letter and curriculum vitae or resume to Kimberly Newman, Coordinator, Office of the Executive Vice
Chancellor and Provost, 513 Parnassus Avenue Box 0400, San Francisco, CA 94122 or by e-mail to by January 30, 2007. Inquiries about this position should also be directed to Ms. Newman at
415-476-1660 or the email above.
UCSF is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate against individuals on the basis of race, religion, national
origin, sexual orientation, gender, marital status, age, disability or veteran status, including veterans of the Vietnam era.

CGSNET.ORG                                                      5                               COUNCIL OF GRADUATE SCHOOLS
                                  University of Colorado at Boulder
                       Vice Chancellor for Research/Dean of the Graduate School

The University of Colorado at Boulder invites applications and nominations for the position of Vice
Chancellor for Research/Dean of the Graduate School.
The Vice Chancellor for Research/Dean of the Graduate School, who reports to the Provost, serves as the
chief research and graduate studies officer for the university. Responsibilities include recruiting and
retaining outstanding faculty, researchers, students, and staff; facilitating interdisciplinary research
collaborations; representing the Graduate School and research enterprise within the university community
and with federal and state agencies; effectively managing the financial resources of the Graduate School;
and engaging in successful fundraising activities. The anticipated starting date for the position is July 1,
For more information about the position and application process, please visit the link to Officer and
Exempt Professional positions at
The University of Colorado at Boulder is committed to diversity and equality in education and employment.

DECEMBER 2006                                        6                                           CGSNET.ORG
McNair Memos                                                     The Directory includes student names, contact
                                                               information, undergraduate major and graduate field
                                                               of interest identified by the GRE taxonomy codes,
  The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate                      undergraduate research area, and name of faculty
Achievement Program is the single largest federal effort       mentor. By searching the database by the GRE codes or
to encourage and prepare low income, first-generation-         by state, deans can directly recruit students interested
to-attend-college, and minority students to pursue             in a particular area of study or from a particular
graduate education. The 179 McNair programs can be             region. By sorting on area of interest or research area,
found in 46 states as well as Puerto Rico and serve over       you can send relevant names to department chairs to
4,000 students. Funded through the U.S. Department of          share with faculty.
Education's TRIO programs, the McNair Program                    In October, the 2006 – 2007 McNair Directory was
provides participants with research internships, access        made available for downloading at the Council’s
to faculty mentors, opportunities to present and publish       webpage at In addition, there is a link
results of their research, undergraduate teaching              to the McNair Directory on the CGS website
experiences, and assistance with applying to and               ( A letter describing the Directory
preparing for graduate school.                                 with the URL location will be distributed to all CGS
  Annually, the Council of Graduate Schools and the            member schools deans and associate deans. Due to
Council for Opportunity in Education (COE)                     popular demand, we will seek to make future postings
collaborate to create the McNair Senior Scholars               and correspondence regarding the McNair Directory
Directory. The Directory is a database of Ronald E.            available in August of each year.
McNair scholars projected to graduate the following              Please visit the Council’s website to download the
year. The database serves as a valuable recruitment tool       database; for more information, you may contact
by allowing graduate deans and fellowship programs to          Kelley Downs at the Pell Institute, Council for
directly contact a cohort of highly talented and               Opportunity in Education by phone at (202) 638-2887
motivated students.                                            or by email at

Communicator                                                                                                  Presorted
Council of Graduate Schools                                                                                First Class Mail
                                                                                                            U.S. Postage
One Dupont Circle NW, Suite 430                                                                                  PAID
Washington, DC 20036-1173                                                                                   Merrifield, VA
                                                                                                           Permit No.1502

DECEMBER 2006                                              8                                                GGSNET.ORG