University of Gondar

Document Sample
University of Gondar Powered By Docstoc
					       UNIVERSITY OF GONDAR




RESEARCH AND COMMUNITY SERVICE CORE
          PROCESS OFFICE



ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS PRESENTED DURING
  ANNUAL ACADEMIC STAFF AND STUDENTS' RESEARCH
  CONFERENCE OF UNIVERSITY OF GONDAR, 2004-2009

                   VOLUME-I




                    COMPILED BY:   TESFAMICHAEL FENTAW
                                   WASSIE MOLLA (Dr.)


                                       MARCH, 2011
                                       GONDAR
                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, we would like to express our gratitude to the Academic, Research and
Community Service Vice President Office and all individuals, who actively participated
in the preparation of this research report. We are especially indebted to W/ro Abeba
Kassahun, Secretary of Research and Community Service Core Process Office and
officers in this office namely Mr. Taddesse Kassahun, Mr. Addisu Adem and Mr. Malede
Birhan who were with us in the process.




                                           ii
                                       FORWARD


The University of Gondar (UoG) was officially established with its current status and
autonomy in 2004. In 1954 the university, primarily, established as a Public Health
College and Training Centre (PHC & TC); now known as College of Medicine and
Health Sciences. It is the oldest medical training institution in the country, located in the
historical town of Gondar. The establishment of the PHC & TC was dictated by the
pressing and enormous health problems that existed in the forties and early fifties. The
aim of the Public Health and Training Centre was training of teams of middle-level health
personnel. This was the start of the philosophy of team approach and community based
teaching of health professionals. Until 1960, the Ministry of Health was responsible for
the college. In 1961, the college joined the then Haileselassie I University, now known as
Addis Ababa University, by the act of internal decree known as "Charter of Hailesellassie
I University”. In 1978, announcements were made for the establishment of a Medical
Faculty in the Gondar College of Public Health and Training Centre by bilateral
agreement reached between Karl Marx‟s University in Germany and Addis Ababa
University. It was a landmark in the lengthy history of the College as it was a major
transformation that resulted in the practical establishment of the medical education. In the
academic year 1980/81, the name Gondar College of Medical Sciences was given to the
Gondar Public health college and training center (GPHC&TC). Training was given by
German medical experts. It was also an opportunity for successive training of Ethiopians
in Germany to substitute the German specialists to whom the college‟s success is fully
attributed. The college was given autonomy to stand by itself (separated from Addis
Ababa University) in 1992.
In 2001, the first new faculty, i.e. the then Faculty of Management Sciences and
Economics (recently renamed as Faculty of Business and Economics) was opened. In the
spring of 2003, the name of the college was changed into Gondar University College. It
was also at this time that two new faculties, i.e. the then Faculty of Applied Natural
Sciences(recently renamed as Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences) and the
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, were added. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
and the then faculty of Law (recently renamed School of Law) were opened by 2003 and
2005 respectively. Furthermore, one new faculty namely Faculty of Agriculture and two
schools namely School of Technology and School of Education are opened 2009.
As research is one of the three fundamental tasks, the University of Gondar has a
longstanding tradition of undertaking research. The college, faculties and schools are
engaged in research undertakings in their respective field. To enhance the research
undertakings, the university has established a research center at Dabat. In carrying out
research, the University has been collaborating with different national and international
institutes. The University‟s Research and community service core process coordinates the



                                             iii
various research activities and creates conducive environments for the dissemination of
research outputs. The research activities at the University of Gondar are aimed to:
    Contribute towards the overall development of the country and the region.
    Produce professionals with basic knowledge and skills in research.
    Help in health research capacity building of the region and the country.
    Generate knowledge that lead to understanding of multi-disciplinary issues of the
     community.
    Produce knowledge that helps the regional as well as federal governments to
     formulate appropriate socio-economic development policies and strategies.

This Volume-I synthesis of abstracts, prepared by the Research and Community Service
Core Process Office of the University, incorporates all the research abstracts undertaken
by the university staff members and students (both undergraduate and post graduate)
form 2004 to 2009. The research abstracts focused mainly on health, medicine, science
and technology, social issues, business, economy, tourism, finance, veterinary medicine,
agriculture, etc. The main objective of this compilation, therefore, is to let the university
community and other interested parties know what activities are being done in the
university with regard to research and provide their feedback to the university and
researchers in doing problem solving researches to the community and the nation at large.




                               Dessalegn Mengesha (Dr.)
                  V/P for Academic, Research and Community Services




                                             iv
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................ ii
FOREWORD .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................. v

COLLEGE OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES.......................................... 1

Spectrum of Opportunistic Conditions among Inpatient HIV/AIDS Patients at GCMS
Hospital ............................................................................................................................... 1
Prevalence of HIV and Intestinal Parasitoris in Tuberculosis Patients and the Clinical
Manifestations of Tuberculosis in HIV Infected and Uninfected Adult Ethiopians,
Northwest Ethiopia ............................................................................................................. 1
Surgery and HIV/AIDS in Gondar ..................................................................................... 2
Intestinal Parasite Infection among School Children Aged 9-14 Years: A Cross-Sectional
Survey in Ebinat General Primary School. ......................................................................... 3
Molecular Characterization of Super Oxide Dismutase Genes from Leishmaniasis .......... 3
Common Bacterial Isolates of CSF and their Antibiotic Sensitivity .................................. 4
Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in
Cohort of Factory Workers, Akaki & Wonji, Ethiopia, 1997 – 2002 ................................. 5
Unmet Need for Contraception among Married Women of Ebinat Town ......................... 6
Comparison of Drug Treatment Cost and Missed Opportunity Using IMCI Strategy
versus Existing Traditional Childhood Illness Treatment in Ebinat and Addis Zemen
Health Centers. .................................................................................................................... 6
Health Seeking Behavior Treatment Source and Compliance on STI among Females
(Age 15-49 Years) in Shehedi Town .................................................................................. 7
Assessment of Safe Delivery Service Utilization among Women of Childbearing Age in
North Gondar Zone, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia .................................... 7
Eye Injuries in Small Scale Industries in Gondar Town Northwest Ethiopia..................... 8
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Trachoma in Children 1-15 Years and KAP of Female
Caretakers towards the Trachoma in Ebinat Town, Northwest Ethiopia............................ 9
Analysis of Endoscopic Findings of 500 Patients in Gondar University Hospital, 2003-
2004..................................................................................................................................... 9
Analysis of Patients with Acute Abdomen in Tikur Anbessa Hospital ............................ 10
Assessment of Quality of EPI Service in Metema Woreda .............................................. 10
Distribution of HIV-1 Subtypes and Prevalence of Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in
Treatment Naïve Patients in Gondar, Ethiopia ................................................................. 11
A Case of Shigellosis with Intractable Septic Shock and Convulsions, University Of
Gondar Teaching Hospital ................................................................................................ 11
Cases of Human Fascioliasis in North-West Ethiopia ...................................................... 12
The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitosis among Salji Elementary School Students, Kolla
Diba ................................................................................................................................... 12
Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites in Food Handlers in Gondar,
Northwest Ethiopia. .......................................................................................................... 13
Prevalence of Blood Transfusion Transmissible Viral Infections in Blood Donors in
Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia ............................................................. 13


                                                                    v
Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Lifestyle among Dyspeptic Patients Attending Gondar
University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia .......................................................................... 14
Risk Factors for Abnormal Cervical Cytological Screening in an Area with High
Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma...................................................................................... 14
The Distribution of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Women with Cervical
Histological Abnormalities from an Area with High Incidence of Cervical Cancer ........ 15
Prevalence of Teenage Pregnancy and Its Complication in Kolla Diba Town and Salji
Farmers Association.......................................................................................................... 16
Meningitis in Children beyond the Neonatal Period in Gondar University Hospital ....... 16
Risk Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Related to HIV/AIDS
Standards among Students of Dessie Town Northeast Ethiopia ....................................... 17
Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates of Mental Distress in People Living with
HIV/AIDS in Jimma Town ............................................................................................... 18
Assessment and Comparison of Prostate Gland Size Using Abdominal Ultrasound and
Post Operative Measurement in Gondar University Hospital........................................... 18
Surgical Management of pelvic organ prolapsed in Gondar University Hospital ............ 19
Outcomes of Pregnancy in Severe and Complicated Malaria in Gondar Hospital ........... 19
Neurological Manifestations Predicting Outcomes of Severe and Complicated Malaria in
Adults at GCMS Hospital ................................................................................................. 20
Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women of Girarge Kebele
and Chuahit Town, Dembia District ................................................................................. 20
Prevalence of HIV and Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Street Dwellers in Gondar
Town, Northwest Ethiopia ................................................................................................ 21
The Outcome of Severe Malnutrition in Northwest Ethiopia Retrospective Analysis of
Admission ......................................................................................................................... 22
Prevalence and Causes of Blindness in Dabat Woreda, North Gondar ............................ 22
The Impact of Integrated Food Security Program on Nutritional Status of Under Five
Children in Drought Affected Districts of the Amhara Regional State ............................ 23
Ethnopharmacological and Pharmaceutical Studies of Medical Plants in Dabat District 24
Effect of Catha Edulis Forest (Khat) Extracts on Male Rat Sexual Behavior .................. 25
Assessment of Prevalence of Work Related Injuries among Small and Medium Scale
Industrial Workers in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Regional State ................................ 25
The Effect of Ethanol and Khat (Catha Edulis Foresk) on the Cerebellar Cortex of Early
Postnatal Rats .................................................................................................................... 26
Micronutrient Malnutrition during Tuberculosis and HIV Infections .............................. 27
A Comparative in Vitro Evaluation of Anti Hypertensive Drug Products (Methyldopa,
Furosemide and Propranolol Tablets) from Local Market, Addis Ababa ........................ 27
Assessment of Malaria Prevalence and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards
Malaria Prevention and Control in Gondar Town, North Ethiopia .................................. 28
Seroprevalence of Syphilis and HIV-1 during Pregnancy in a Teaching Hospital,
Northwest Ethiopia ........................................................................................................... 29
Skin Sensitivity Reactions to Allergens in Different Population Groups of Ethiopian
Subjects. ............................................................................................................................ 29
How safe is Safe-Strategy of International Trachoma Initiative: Adverse Effects of
Azitromycin. ..................................................................................................................... 30




                                                                   vi
Assessment of Utilization of Health Information System at District Level with Particular
Emphasis to HIV/AIDS Program in North Gondar Zone Amhara National Regional State,
2005/2006. ........................................................................................................................ 31
In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Albizia Gummifera and Croton
Macrostachyus against Clinical Isolates of Nessieria Gonorrhea ..................................... 32
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) among HIV/AIDS Patients
during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ........ 32
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Pulmonary Tuberculosis among
Adults in Arbaminch Town and Arbaminch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Goffa Zone SNRP,
Ethiopia May 2007 ............................................................................................................ 33
Assessment of Optimal Breast Feeding Practice in Farta District, Amhara Region ........ 34
Investigation on Parasite, Vector and Reservoir Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in
Addis Ababa, Silti, Merabete and Awash Valley ............................................................. 35
Assessment of HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Its Influencing Factors among Late
Window of Hope Population in Axum Town, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia .... 36
Sexual Practices and Contraceptive Usage among School Youth in North Gondar ......... 36
Epidemiology of Intestinal Helminthic Infections and their Relationship to Clinical
Patterns of Malaria in South Ethiopia ............................................................................... 37
Immunization Status in Janguamariam Kebele in March 2007 ........................................ 38
Interaction among Atopy, Serum Immunoglobulin E, and Intestinal Parasites in Ethiopian
Subjects ............................................................................................................................. 39
Primary Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Ethiopian Patients Histopathologic Analysis
of 50 Cases Diagnosed in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, 1999-2005. ... 39
Research Report on Attitude and Practice on Traditional Medicine Debark District....... 40
Prescribing Pattern Assessment of the Different Lines of ART Regimen in Gondar
University Hospital as of end of Yekatit, 1999 (March 10, 2007) ................................... 40
Prevalence of Bad Foot Odor, and Anti-Foot Odor Effect of Tomato among Preparatory
School Students................................................................................................................. 41
Prevalence of Khat Chewing and Associated Risk Factors among School and Out of
School Youth in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia ........................................................ 41
Substance Use among the Students of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences,
University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia ....................................................................... 42
Determinants for Suicidal Attempt and Ideation in Adults Who Attend Psychiatric
Consultation at Gondar University Hospital ..................................................................... 43
Practicing and Learning Dermatology in Ethiopia – Challenges and Rewards ................ 43
Prevalence of Perceived Adverse Effects of Modern Contraceptives and its Role in
Unwanted Pregnancy ........................................................................................................ 44
ART Laboratory Services in Gondar University Hospital ................................................ 45
Changes in HIV-1 RNA Viral Load in Patients with or Without Intestinal Parasites
during Treatment of Tuberculosis in Gondar, Ethiopia .................................................... 45
Deficient Serum Retinol Levels i n HIV Infected and Uninfected Patients with
Tuberculosis in Gondar, Ethiopia ..................................................................................... 46
A Preliminary Study on Isolation and Identification of Candida Species from the Oral
Cavity of Patients with HIV Infection, Addis Ababa ....................................................... 47
Quantitative Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water in Amhara
Region, Ethiopia ............................................................................................................... 48



                                                                  vii
Prevalence of Serogroups, Serotypes and Ant Microbial Resistance of Shigella Isolates at
Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia ............................................. 49
High Level of Anti Microbial Resistance in Shigella Species Isolated from Diarrhoeal
Patients in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia........................... 50
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Simon Gebretsadik, Gashaw
Andargie, Wubet Birhan, Netsanet Worku, Moges Tiruneh ............................................ 50
Identification of Candida Species from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected
Patients in Ethiopia by Combination of Chromagar, Tobacco Agar and PCR of the
Amplified Internally Transcribed RNA Spacer Region.................................................... 50
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS,............................ 50
University of Gondar ........................................................................................................ 50
Adherent Lactobacilli to Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Did Not Induced Intestinal
Mucin Secretion ................................................................................................................ 51
Assessment of physicochemical value and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking
water in three sites of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia .................................................... 52
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, CMHS, University of Gondar ............... 52
Molecular Characterization of Human Papilloma Virus from Precancerous and Cancer
Specimens of the Uterine Cervix among Women in Ethiopia and the Sudan .................. 53
Absence of Pathogenic Escherichia Coli O157:H7 among Diarrheal Patients in University
of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia........................................................... 53
Seroprevalence of multiple sexually transmitted infections among antenatal clinic
attendees in Gondar Health Center, northwest Ethiopia ................................................... 54
Prevalence, Predictors and Allergic Consequences of Intestinal Helminthes Infections in
the Butajira Birth Cohort, Ethiopia ................................................................................... 55
Bacterial Infection of Lungs from Maedi-Visna Seropostive and Seronegative Sheep at
Debre-Berhan Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. ................................................... 55
Inhibiting HIV Transmission from Dendritic Cells to T Cells ......................................... 56
Host Factors Influencing HIV Infection ........................................................................... 57
Virus-Host-Interaction Laboratory, Fraunhofer Institute – Cell Therapy and Immunology,
Leipzig, Germany ............................................................................................................. 57
Sexual Practices and Contraceptive Usage among School Youth in North Gondar ......... 57
Assessment of Byssinosis and Other Respiratory Symptoms among Production Workers
in Akaki Textile Factory, Akaki-Kality Sub-city, Addis Ababa, 2006/ 2007. ................. 58
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Diabetic Patients in University of Gondar Teaching
Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia ............................................................................................ 59
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors among Students of Atse
Fasil General Elementary School at Azezo Town, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. ............ 60
Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Chance of Survival or Death Status among HIV
Positive People under the ART Programming University of Gondar Teaching Hospital 60
Effects of Honey on Candida Species Isolated From Oral Cavity of HIV/AIDS Infected
Patients, Northwest Ethiopia ............................................................................................. 61
Clinical Improvement and Drug-Adverse Effects among Patients Taking Anti
Tuberculosis Drugs ........................................................................................................... 61
The Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs of Female Students about Menarche Age of
Menarche in Kola Diba High School, Northwest Ethiopia............................................... 62




                                                               viii
Factors Associated with Induced Abortion in Bahir Dar City, North West Ethiopia: A
Case Control Study. .......................................................................................................... 63
Dabat Rural Health Project, North West Ethiopia: Report of the Baseline Survey.......... 63
Investigating the Impact of Missing-ness on Surrogacy Using Longitudinal Surrogate of
Longitudinal True End Points. .......................................................................................... 64
Assessment of Rational Drug Use Using WHO Core Drug Use Indicators in University of
Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. .............................................................. 65
Risk of HIV/AIDS Transient with PMTCT in Exposed Infants Who Had Follow-up and
Factors Affecting Transmission in Gondar University Hospital ...................................... 66
Evaluation of Direct Colorimetric MTT Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampicin and
Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ....................................................... 66
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Related to HIV/AIDS and Other STIs among
Preparatory Students of Gondar Town. North West Ethiopia ......................................... 67
A Retrospective Study on Prevalence of Syphilis among Pregnant Women Attending
Antenatal Care at University of Gondar Hospital ............................................................. 68

FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS ..................................................... 69

A Study on Governance and Ownership Structure of Selected Micro Finance Institutions
in Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................... 69
Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study of Hero Honda Motors-Lesson to be
learnt by Ethiopian Industrialists ...................................................................................... 70
2007 ................................................................................................................................... 71
Trends and Dimensions of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Ethiopia ........................ 71
Determinants of Demand for Money in Ethiopia. ............................................................ 71
Gender Differentials in Urban Ethiopia ............................................................................ 72
Negative Sides of Expatriate Teachers in Ethiopia........................................................... 73
Problems of Higher Education Teachers in Ethiopia ........................................................ 74
Need for Mobile Libraries in Ethiopia .............................................................................. 75
Problems of Attrition in Ethiopian Universities ............................................................... 75
Need for Mobile Education System in Ethiopia ............................................................... 76
Higher Education for Sustainable and Economic Development (Case Study of Ethiopia)
........................................................................................................................................... 77
Managerial Performance Appraisal System in Transport Organization –A New Approach
........................................................................................................................................... 78
The Essence of Continuous Assessment in Schools ......................................................... 78

FACULTY OF NATURAL AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES .................... 79

Diversity, Regeneration Status and Socio- Economic Importance of the Vegetation in the
Islands of Lake Ziway, South- Central Ethiopia............................................................... 79
Velocity Structure of the Upper Crust across the Main Ethiopian Rift ............................ 80
Diversity and Regeneration Status of Tara Gedam and Abebaye Forests, Northwest
Ethiopia ............................................................................................................................. 80
Numerical Taxonomy of Phenotypic Characters of Rhizobium Leguminosarum var
viceae Isolated from Some Faba Bean Growing Regions of Ethiopia.............................. 81


                                                                     ix
Empirical Impact Assessment of Business Development Service in Micro and Small
Enterprises in the Case of Amhara National Regional State Towns ................................ 81
Factors that Affect the Success of Students at the University of Gondar Atse Tewodros
Campus: the Case of Third Year Students of Applied Sciences. ...................................... 84
Status of Plant Biotechnology Research and Development in Ethiopia ........................... 84
Delay of Patients in Outpatient Departments of University of Gondar Teaching Hospital
by Using Queuing Model .................................................................................................. 85
A Comparison of Alternative Estimators of Macroeconomic Model in Ethiopia ............ 86
Empirical Assessment of Living Cost of Population: The Case of Gondar ..................... 87
Analysis of Soil in Addisgae Village ................................................................................ 87
The Impact of Chewing Khat on the Academic Performance and Health Status of
Graduating Students (A Case of Atse Tewodros Campus Students). ............................... 88

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ................................... 89

Predisposing Factors to Early Sexual Engagement and Its Psychosocial Effects on Female
Children: The Case of Some Selected Sites in Addis Ababa............................................ 89
An Assessment of Health Care Seeking Behavior of People in and around Gondar ....... 90
Socio-Economic and Demographic Differentials of Fertility Preferences in Ethiopia: The
Case of Amhara Region .................................................................................................... 90
Impediments to Cooperative Housing in Amhara Region: The Case of Bahir Dar City .. 91
Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing and Environmental Education 92
Affordability, Accessibility, and Availabilities of Water in Gondar City ........................ 92
A Socio-Cultural Study in the Transmission, Prevention & Treatment of Malaria: The
Case of Debre Elias Woreda, East Gojjam Administrative Zone, Ethiopia ..................... 93
Care and Support Services for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and AIDS
Orphans in Religious Institutions: The Case of Dessie Town .......................................... 94
Women‟s Educational Participation in Amhara National Regional State: a Case Study in
Lay Armachiho Woreda .................................................................................................... 95
The Role of Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Tourism Development and Cultural
Conservation: The Case of Gondar Town ........................................................................ 96
Displacement- induced Resettlement in Jawi; Beles Valley Area of North Western
Ethiopia ............................................................................................................................. 97
MICE Tourism in Ethiopia, Challenges and Prospects .................................................... 98
Information Minorities: knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Hearing Disabled Students
about HIV/AIDS Preventive Measures. The Case of some selected Schools in Addis
Ababa. ............................................................................................................................... 98
Students‟ Perception of Quality Teacher and its Impact on Academic Outcome............. 99
Integration of GIS and Remote Sensing for Landuse/Landcover Change Detection and
Flood Risk Assessment in Fogera Woreda, South Gondar ............................................. 100
Resettlement as a Viable Strategy towards Food Security in Ethiopia: a Case in the
Amhara National Regional State .................................................................................... 101
The Ethiopian Calendar and Intangible Assets of Northern Ethiopia: Brief Historical
Perspectives and Symbolic Interpretations ..................................................................... 102
Ethnography of Indigenous Institutions/ Associations for Promoting Local Development:
Y-Sebat Bet Agaw Feresegna Mahiber, Awi Zone, Amhara Region ............................. 103



                                                                   x
Promoting Intangible Cultural Heritage Potentials of Northern Ethiopia: Brief Historical
Overviews and Symbolic Interpretations ........................................................................ 104
The "Sip" In Developing Skills of Life against Aids ...................................................... 105
The Roles and Problems of Cooperatives as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction in Amhara
National Regional State: the Case of Lay Armachiho Woreda ...................................... 105
The Dynamics of Multi-Ethnicity: the Other Side of Socio-Economic Segregation of
Weyto in Bahir Dar Town............................................................................................... 106
Searching for the Route of Tewodros Mortar: Historic Archaeological Survey from Gafat
to Maqdala ...................................................................................................................... 107
An Exploration of Teachers‟ Feedback on Students‟ Errors in WRITING: A Focus on
Preparatory Schools. ....................................................................................................... 108
The Attitude of English Language Teachers by Gender and its Impact on Female
Students‟ Classroom Interaction ................................................................................... 109
Effectiveness of Listening Skills of Trainees in Learning the English Language: A Case
of Study at University of Gondar .................................................................................... 109
An Assessment of the English Language Needs of Law Students: Gondar University in
Focus. .............................................................................................................................. 110
Evaluation of Counseling Services in the University of Gondar, Ethiopia .................... 111
Conceptualization of Childhood and Children in Amhara Society a Comparative Study in
the Town of Debre Markos and the Adjacent Rural Areas ............................................. 112

FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE ............................................................ 113

Major Causes of Organ and Carcass Condemnation and its Economic Importance, in
Small Ruminants Slaughtered at Helmex Abattoir, Ethiopia. ........................................ 113
Study on Caprine Tuberculosis in Mid- Rift Valley Area of Ethiopia ........................... 113
Circadian Behavior in Young Ostrich (Struthios Camelus Domesticus) in Captivity.... 114
Studies on Tsetse-Transmitted Trypanosomosis in New Settlement Areas of Jawi and
Quara Districts of Amhara Region Northwest Ethiopia ................................................. 115
Salmonella Serovars in Apparently Healthy Slaughtered Cattle at Bahir Dar Abattoir,
Ethiopia ........................................................................................................................... 115
Study on Bovine Tuberculosis in and Around Holeta Town, Central Highland of
Ethiopia. .......................................................................................................................... 117
Study on Bacterial Pathogens of Fish in Southern Gulf Of Lake Tana with Special
Reference to Aeromonas Hydrophila and Edwardsiella Tarda....................................... 117
Occurrence and PCR Based Detection of Arcobacter Species from Foods of Animal
Origin and Various Sources in Bareilly, India ................................................................ 118
The Importance of Animal Behavior and Welfare as a course in Veterinary Curriculum
......................................................................................................................................... 119
Hemicelluloses, Cellulose and Lignin Nutrient Contents of Some of Feed Stocks Used for
Dairy Cattle in Gondar Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ............................................. 120
Surgical Correction of an Unusually Large Congenital Ruminal Hernia by Rumenotomy
and Herniorrhaphy in a calf: A Case Report .................................................................. 120
Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in the Yerer Watershed, Oromiya Region,
Ethiopia. .......................................................................................................................... 121




                                                                     xi
Nutrient Contents of Some Livestock Feeds Used for Dairy Cattle and /or Ruminants in
Gondar Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ...................................................................... 123
Agro-industrial Livestock Feed Stock Assessment in Gondar Town and Near by Woreda,
Amhara Region, Ethiopia................................................................................................ 124
Lactation Performance of Dairy Cows in the Yerer - Watershed, Oromiya Region,
Ethiopia ........................................................................................................................... 125
Some Mineral Contents of Selected Livestock Feeds Used for Dairy Cattle and or
Ruminants in Gondar Town Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ................................................. 126

SCHOOL OF LAW ...................................................................................................... 128

Students Rights and Disciplinary Proceedings in University of Gondar. ....................... 128
Implementation of Rights Old-age People in Ethiopia ................................................... 128

REFERENCES...............................................................................................................130




                                                                  xii
              COLLEGE OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES

                                          2004
Spectrum of Opportunistic Conditions among Inpatient HIV/AIDS Patients at
GCMS Hospital
      Ermias Diro, Asfawessen G/Yohannes, Belete Ayele, Dereje Ketema
      Department of Internal Medicine, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
HIV disease progress from clinically silent infection detectable only by laboratory tests to
severely damaged immunologic function resulting in AIDS. During the course of the
disease a variety of clinical syndrome occurs. But many of these are not diagnosed
because of limited diagnostic facility and trained personnel. AIDS is the symptoms
complex that occurs in the late stage of HIV disease. The objective of the study is to
describe the presentation of patients with HIV infection and opportunistic conditions
associated with AIDS in our hospital, which is very important source of information for
those dealing with the disease. Cross sectional study of 104 HIV infected patients
admitted to the medical wards of GCMS hospital from Jan. 1 to Aug. 31, 2003. The socio
demography, clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome of the patients was collected
using a questionnaire and analyzed by Epi info version 6 statistical package to see the
common presentations and associated opportunistic conditions. Out of the 104 patients
64(61%) were females with 83(79.1%) urban dwellers and 56(55.3%) married. Mean age
of the females was 30 and that of the males 36 years. Cough, unilateral body weakness
and diarrhea were the most common presenting complaints in their order. Disseminated
tuberculosis was found to be the commonest diagnosis (25%), followed by ICSOL (21%)
and pulmonary tuberculosis (19%). Weight loss, prolonged fever, cough and diarrhea
persisting more than a month and dermatologic manifestations were seen in the majority.
The findings of the study match with findings in other African countries and Addis
Ababa. As there is no similar study done before at Gondar comparison was not possible.
This can be used as a source of information for physicians and those who are addressing
the problems of HIV/ AIDS. It will be very wise to perform similar study on higher
number of patients and with a better diagnostic facility.

Prevalence of HIV and Intestinal Parasitoris in Tuberculosis Patients and the
Clinical Manifestations of Tuberculosis in HIV Infected and Uninfected Adult
Ethiopians, Northwest Ethiopia
       Belete Ayele, Afework Kassu, Firew Mekonnen, Ermias Diro, Belete Ayele,
       Dereje Ketama,Getahun Mengistu, Feleke Moges, Assefa Getachew, Bahiru
       Ergicho
       Department of Internal Medicine, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem globally. Its high prevalence in
developing world has been suggested to be associated with HIV pandemic and the high
burden of parasitic infections. In Ethiopia too, the prevalence of TB, HIV and intestinal


                                             1
parasitoses is very high. Yet information regarding their interrelation and clinical
presentation is very scarce. The objective the study was to assess the magnitude of HIV
infection and intestinal parasitoses in tuberculoses patients and to describe the clinical
manifestation of tuberculosis in HIV infected and uninfected TB patients. The
methodology used was a hospital based cross-sectional study of TB patients regarding
their clinical presentation, HIV serostatus and intestinal parasitoses. TB was diagnosed
by combination of clinical, bacteriological, radiological and histological criteria. Parasites
were detected by stool microscopy and the HIV serostatus was checked by ELISA. Two
hundred fifty seven TB patients were included in the study out of which 152 (59.1%)
were females. The total seroprevalence of HIV in the study population was 52.1%
(134/257). The highest TB and HIV co-infection was found in the age group 25-44 years.
No significant association was found between sputum smear positivity and HIV
serostatus. Pulmonary TB (PTB) and Extra Pulmonary TB (EPTB) were diagnosed in
51.8% and 48.2% of the patients respectively. No significant difference was observed in
the clinical presentation between HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculoses patients.
Forty point nine percent of the patients (105/257) were found to be infected with one or
more species of intestinal parasites. Strongyloides stercoralis showed a strong association
with HIV seropositivity. The prevalence of intestinal parasitoses and of HIV-TB co-
infection was very high in the TB patients. This indicates an increased morbidity and
highlights the importance of continued HIV sero-surveillance and stool analysis in-
patients with TB. Incorporating all TB patients in voluntary counseling and testing for
HIV is recommended as a possible point of intervention.

Surgery and HIV/AIDS in Gondar
      Mohammed Kedir
      Department of Surgery, CMHS, University o f Gondar
      e-mail:Muheet2000@yahoo.com

Abstract
With an objective of determining the magnitude of HIV/AIDS patients in the surgical
department of Surgery of Gondar Medical Sciences (GCMS) Hospital and the pressure
these patients exert on the surgical work, as they may need prolonged hospitalization
because of the nature of their illness, 604 consecutively admitted patients were tested
from October 2001 up to May 2002. Excluded were 86 patients out of the whole 690
admissions (12.5%). They were either discharged or died within not more than two days
before blood testing could be accomplished. HIV/AIDS affected predominantly the
sexually active age group (p<or=to 0.01). No significant difference was observed
between the sexes. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS was 17.1% and 5.8% for the urban and
rural patients respectively. A statistically significant difference, p<or=to 0.01. After
grouping the patients under four major diagnosis categories, the patients with infectious
surgical conditions manifested the disease significantly with a prevalence rate of 24.3%,
p<or= to 0.01.Patients who especially came due to soft tissue, perianal, intramuscular,
intrathoracic (tb) and intrabdominal suppurations appeared to show feature of surgical
AIDS. It has been recommended that resistance against appropriate surgical and
antibiotic therapy deserve administration of antiretroviral drugs.




                                              2
Intestinal Parasite Infection among School Children Aged 9-14 Years: A Cross-
Sectional Survey in Ebinat General Primary School.
        Anteneh Alemayehu, Asmare Emagnew, Bazezew Fekad, Belsty Andualem,
        Endale Sisay, Sisay Tefera, Alemayehu Mekonnen, Biju Gopitan
        Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
This is a cross-sectional study designed to study the prevalence of intestinal parasite
infections and possible risk factors among students of general primary school in Ebinat
town, south Gondar. Study subjects were selected by stratified sampling technique. A pre
tested, standardized and self administrated questionnaires and stool examinations were
used to collect data from two hundred and thirty eight students. The prevalence of
intestinal parasites in the study population was 69%, the commonest parasite being A
lumbricoides (47.5%) followed by Hook worm (8.4%). Double infection was observed in
7.56%.There was significant negative association between paternal & maternal literacy
level and presence of Ova or parasite among students. There was significant positive
association between unboiled water consumption and presence of ova or parasites in the
stool. Intensive health education on preventive measures and further study in the area to
identify possible risks for infection are recommended.

Molecular Characterization of Super Oxide Dismutase Genes from Leishmaniasis
Aethiopica
      Abebe Genetu, Abraham Assefa, Mekuria Lakew, Lashitew Gedamu
      Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
      Of Gondar

Abstract
In order to escape from the host immune response and survive inside host cells,
Leishmaniasis utilizes several evasion mechanisms. One among these is the
detoxification of oxygen radicals produced by the immune cells. The metalloenzyme,
super oxide Dismutase (SOD) is used in the first stage of this process. The enzyme
converts super oxide to hydrogen peroxide. This study aimed at identifying and
characterizing the genes that code for super oxide Dismutase in Leishmaniasis
Aethiopica. The study involved three main steps: specimen collection and parasite
isolation, species typing, and molecular characterization of the SOD genes. A total of 20
suspected coetaneous Leishmaniasis patients were enrolled in the study. Clinical and
epidemiological information was collected from all the subjects including age, sex,
address, duration of the lesion, and site of lesion. Skin scrapping was taken from the
active lesion(s) and was subjected to in vitro parasite culture on NNN medium.
Promastigote stage of Leishmaniasis was then isolated and characterized. Species typing
was done on the isolate using isoenzyme electrophoresis and PCR-RFLP. Total genomic
DNA was extracted from the Promastigote and then the SOD genes were amplified using
polymerase chain reaction. The amplified fragments were sequenced and the sequence
information was analyzed using vector NTI software. The study subjects came from
different parts of the country including Addis Ababa. The mean age of the patients was
25.6 years with a range 7 to 65 years. Out of 20 skin scrapping specimens cultured, five


                                           3
(25%) were found to be positive for motile Promastigote. Isoenzyme electrophoresis and
PCR-RFLP results of one isolate (1093/02) confirmed that the isolate is L. aethiopica.
The SODB genes amplified from Promastigote of L. aethiopica were similar in size as the
SODB genes of other Leishmaniasis species. Nucleotide sequences of LaethFeSODB1
showed 94.9% and 73% identity with LcFeSODB1 and LmFeSODB1 respectively. On
the other hand, predicted amino acid sequence comparison indicated that LaethFeSODB1
had 89.8% and 90.8% identity with LcFeSODB1 and LmFeSODB1 respectively. The
high degree of amino acid sequence similarity of L. aethiopica SODB genes with those of
other species has an important implication in the use of new antileishmanial drugs that
are targeting SODs of other Leishmaniasis species to treat cutaneous Leishmaniasis in
Ethiopia. On the other hand, the discrepancy in the nucleotide sequence of LaethFeSODB
and other Leishmaniasis species could be utilized to develop PCR based diagnostic
techniques that differentiate L. aethiopica from other species.
Key words: Leishmania aethiopica, superoxide dismutase, Ethiopia.

Common Bacterial Isolates of CSF and their Antibiotic Sensitivity
    Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Belay Tessema
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
    of Gondar
    Tel. +251-911-721167

Abstract
Bacterial meningitis remains a common disease worldwide. Its most frequent causes are
Nessieria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumonias, and Haemophilus influenza.
Information on the relative frequency of isolation and drug resistance patters of these
pathogens is scarce in Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to determine the
prevalence of anti microbial drug resistance of isolates from cerebrospinal fluid of acute
bacterial meningitis. A retrospective analysis of 390 cerebrospinal fluid specimens
submitted for culture and antibiotic sensitivity patterns to bacteriology laboratory,
Gondar University Hospital between September 2002 and August 2003.Bacterial
pathogens were isolated from 22 patients showing an isolation rate of 5.6%. The most
commonly isolated bacteria, in order of decreasing frequency were; Nessieria
meningitides 10(45.5%); Streptococcus pneumonia 7(31.8%); Staphylococcus aureus
2(9%); Haemophilus influenzae, proteus species and Eschercia coli 1(4.5%). Multiple
drug resistance was observed in 50% of the isolates. No organism was found to be
resistant to ciprofloxacin. The isolation rate of bacterial pathogens from cerebrospinal
fluids was low. However, the frequency of single as well as multiple drug resistance was
very high among the bacterial isolates. Ciprofloxacin may be used for empirical treatment
of bacterial meningitis before a culture and sensitivity report is available for adult
patients. To prevent the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant microorganism a
rational use of drugs should be practiced

Key words: Bacterial meningitis, drug resistance, Nessieria meningitides, Streptococcus
pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Eshericia coli,
Ciprofloxacin.



                                            4
Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection
in Cohort of Factory Workers, Akaki & Wonji, Ethiopia, 1997 – 2002
       Yenew Kebede, Wendelien Domingo, Yohannes Mengistu, Yared Mekonnen,
       Dawit Wolday, Eduard Sanders, Tesehaynesh Messale, Nicole Duckers
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
       o f Gondar

Abstract
Infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) can cause significant morbidity and
fuels the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia data on HSV-2
prevalence and incidence are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine
prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infections and to see risk factors for seroconversion
to HSV-2 and HIV-1. Retrospective cohort study (1997-2002) was conducted to
determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for Herpes simplex virus type 2
(HSV-2) infections among factory workers at two sites in Ethiopia. Plasma samples of
1713 factory workers were tested for HSV-2 antibodies (HerpeSelectTM2 ELISA, Focus
Technologies). When negative at intake, the last follow-up sample was tested. For
seroconverters, all follow samples were tested to determine the moment of
seroconversion. The serologic status of each stored plasma sample for HIV and syphilis
has been routinely determined. Risk factors for prevalent and incident infections were
assessed by logistic regression and Cox Proportional hazard analysis models respectively.
For data analysis, Stata Intercooled version 6 (Stata corporation, College station, Texas,
USA) was used. Among enrolled participants in a cohort study of HIV incidence and
disease progression, 1222 (71.3%) were males and 491 (28.7%) were females. The
median age was 35 years for males (range, 19-62) and 33 years (range, 19-46) for
females. The HSV-2 prevalence at enrollment was 41.1%, 57.2% among females and
34.6% among males (p<0.001). Seventeen-percent of females and 9.7% of males younger
than 25 years had evidence of HSV-2 infection. Independent risk factors for HSV-2
seropositivity were HIV seropositivity, positive TPPA serology, older age, female sex,
and ever being married. The incidence of HSV-2 during follow-up was 1.2/100 person-
years (95%CI, 1.0-1.4), 2/100 person-years (95% CI, 1.2-3.2) among females and 0.9/100
person-years (95%CI, 0.7-1.3) among males (p=0.02, assuming Poisson distribution).
Positive HIV serology at enrollment was an independent risk factor for HSV-2
seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6). Most of HSV-2
infections were asymptomatic or had minor symptoms, which were not recognized. The
study showed high prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infection. This large number of
herpes infected individuals may continue to engage in unprotected sexual activity despite
their infection facilitating the sexual transmission of HSV-2 and HIV making the vicious
cycle. In the absence of protective vaccine or effective antiviral therapy, prevention of
HSV-2 infection will rely on the widespread use of condoms and reduction in the number
of sexual partners with emphasis to prevention of HSV-2 infection at early ages.




                                            5
Unmet Need for Contraception among Married Women of Ebinat Town
      Abiyot Waltu, Genet Kocheto, Loalem Zenebe, Selamawit Sheferaw, Nebyat
     Fikru, Temam Kididr, Wondwosen Demissie, Alemayehu Mekonnen, Biju Gopitan
     Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
A cross sectional study on unmet need for contraception among married women of age
15-49 yrs of Ebinat town, south Gondar Zone was conducted between December 2003
and January 2004. The study included 384 married women of the reproduction age (15-49
yrs) of which 361 (94%) have the knowledge about at least one of the modern means of
contraception. Of those women with the knowledge 272 (75.35%) have used
contraception in their life live i.e., are either ever or current users. Statistically significant
association was found between monthly income and use of contraception (P<0.05), and
educational status and use of contraception (P<0.05). But the association between spouse
educational status and use of contraception was found to be statistically insignificant
(p<0.05). The study showed that about 30.5% of the women included in the study has
unmet need for modern mans of contraception. Fear of complication, lack of supply,
husband refusal, religion, lactation and cultural reasons are the major causes noticed for
not using contraception currently.

Comparison of Drug Treatment Cost and Missed Opportunity Using IMCI Strategy
versus Existing Traditional Childhood Illness Treatment in Ebinat and Addis
Zemen Health Centers.
       Ejigayehu Yimam, Ali Hussen, Hunegnaw Dessalegn, Mussie G/Mariam, Samson
       Getachew, Tewodros Toyota, Tsega Hailu, Yohannes Fitaw, Biju Gopitan
       Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
The strategy of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) aims at improving the
skill of first level health workers and improving chances of child survival. The objective
of the study was to compare the cost of drugs and missed opportunist of IMCI strategy
versus traditional system. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at
Ebinat and Addis Zemen health centers. Study subjects were all sick children aged from 1
week-5 year (before their 5th year birth day) who were seen during the visiting days
between February 24-march 7/1996 E.C. with a total of 11 days. Out of the 240 sick
children, 17(7.1%) of aged were between 1 week-2 month and 223(92.9%) of aged 2
month-5 years. The total cost of drugs to treat these children using the current methods
was computed to be 1.6 times more expensive than when using the IMCI guidelines. A
statistically significant difference (p-<0.002) was seen to exist. Missed opportunities
using the traditional method for illnesses, immunization and vitamin A supplementation
were 155 (65%), 48(32%) and 80(42.8%) of children respectively. The study showed
using IMCI protocol in the treatment of childhood illness significantly decreases the cost
of drugs. It also increases opportunities for immunization, illness detection and vitamin A
supplementation. Hence, IMCI strategy is recommended at all levels in health
institutions.



                                                6
Health Seeking Behavior Treatment Source and Compliance on STI among Females
(Age 15-49 Years) in Shehedi Town
       Bayush Gezachew, Adane Tefera, Daniel Alemu, Mesfin Arega, Senait Assefa
       Tesfahun Hargot, Melkie Edris, Alemayehu Mekonnen
       Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
STI Control program has been a major health service tar pet for many years with the
pandemic HIV/AIDS it has even be come critical. However insufficient information is
available. This study tries to fill this gap. The objective of the study was to determine the
prevalence, treatment source and compliance among female STI cases and they‟re health
seeking behavior. A population based cross sectional study on 370 women. Descriptive
and analytical statistical methods were used to examine results.370 women with mean
age of 26.7 years, 42% house 49% illiterate, 55% earning below 200 birr per month were
involved. 52% had the 1st intercourse between 13-15 years but only 44% were married at
these ages (premarital sex 14%). 14% had multiple sexual partner and casual sex was
3.7%. Condom utilization was 16% by the study population. 47 STI cases (modal age 20-
24, 35-39), 60% house wives-, 55% illiterate, 30% earning 201-300 per month were
identified (STI prevalence 12.7%). Only 36% of them knew that they had STI and 64%
had treatment for STI. Treatment found to be compliance was 90%. The study has found
significant association between educational status, number of sexual partners and risk of
STI (P<0.05) Condom utilization was significantly affected by educational status marital
status, and number of sexual partners (P<0.05). Income had significant positive impact on
seeking treatment from health institutions. The following points are found as priority
problem to address: the major hindrances to use health institution for STI treatment were;
the low prevalence of condom utilization, low awareness of people towards their illness,
and the high prevalence of STI among housewives.

Assessment of Safe Delivery Service Utilization among Women of Childbearing Age
in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia
       Mesfin Nigussie, Damen Hailemariam, Getnet Mitike
       Department of Nursing, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Women comprise a large proportion of a given society; still many women in developing
countries are at a greater disadvantage expressed in terms of high maternal morbidity and
mortality. A large number of women are needless dying due to factors related to
pregnancy and childbirth in these countries. This study assessed safe delivery services
utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth during five years.
Preceding the survey in North Gondar Administration Zone, Amhara Regional state. A
community-based cross-sectional comparative survey was conducted in November and
December 2002. A total of 1,242 women who had at least one live birth in the five years
preceding the survey were selected randomly. The study revealed that a total of 13.5% of
mothers gave birth to their last babies in health facilities. Only about 2% of the rural
women gave birth in the health institutions. Untrained traditional birth attendant and
relatives attended 76.4 % of the deliveries. The reported reasons were: absence of health



                                             7
problems and short duration of labor were the reported reasons for 45%, preferring the
attention of relatives in 14% and trust in traditional birth attendants (TBA) in 13% of the
cases. Educational status of the mothers, place of residence, access to radio, monthly
income, prenatal care, history of intra-partum complications and other selected obstetric
behaviors of the respondents showed statistically significant association with utilization
of safe delivery service (p< 0.05, for each factor).In general, this study revealed that the
proportions of births delivered in health facilities are low in the area. Demographic and
socio- cultural factors were found to be barriers to utilization of safe delivery service.
Enhancing the establishment of more emergency obstetric care centers within reasonable
access, providing Information, Education and Communication (IEC) on maternity service
utilization and harmful traditional practices and improving the status of women in the
community are recommended.

Eye Injuries in Small Scale Industries in Gondar Town Northwest Ethiopia
       Azanaw Melese, Yared Assefa, Alemayehu Mekonnen, Abera Kifle
       Department of Ophthalmology, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
This is a correctional study conducted in Gondar town. It aims to see the pattern of eye
injury in workers working in small scale industries like garages, carpeting houses,
welding houses. A computer generated random sampling technique was employed to
select a total of 338 subjects in twenty Kebeles of Gondar town, of which 194 were
welders, 80 carpenters, 58 garage workers and 6 others. They were seen at their working
place. Questionnaire was filled as to personal details, use of eye protective devices and
vision tests. Examination of the eyes was done by an ophthalmologist and a general
practitioner practicing ophthalmology using torchlight, Loop and ophthalmoscope.
110(32.5%) of the workers are working on open sites and 228(67.5%) in protected
environment. Only 94(27.8%) were using protective device always, 124 (36.8%) use
occasionally and 120(35.5%) not at all. It was seen that welders were found to be at a
high risk to be injured in 119(61.3%) followed by garage workers 23(39.6%) and
carpenters 29(36.3%).Flying objects like metals, wood are the commonest cause of eye
injury followed by welding light and smoke. There is a low eye care seeking behavior in
most of the workers, 37(28%) had treatment by their friends, 16(12%) by self and
14(10.6 %) seen by health workers not trained in ophthalmology. Residual corneal
damage was seen in 14(8.1%) of injured workers. Additionally 61(18.4%) of the workers
were found to have other co morbid eye problems. From this, we recommend that the
workers need to have more awareness and adherence to eye protective devices. Any eye
injury sustained should be treated at best at eye clinics. We also recommend that similar
community based surveys and treatment of eye problems in other working places.




                                             8
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Trachoma in Children 1-15 Years and KAP of
Female Caretakers towards the Trachoma in Ebinat Town, Northwest Ethiopia
       Tirhas G/Medhin, Adugnaw Amare, Ster Baze, Tadesse Alamirie, Girma Azene,
       Hamid Mohammed, Yohannes Fitaw, Biju Gopitan
       Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Trachoma is one of the serious health problems faced in Ebinat town. This may be due to
scarcity of water, poor hygiene, poor environment sanitation and lack of awareness about
the prevention of trachoma. It is the 3rd disease among the ten top diseases recorded by
the Ebinat health center. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and
associated risk factors of trachoma among children (1-15yrs) and assess KAP of care-
takers (women age > 15 yrs).A community based cross sectional study was carried out in
children aged (1-15 yrs) and care taker aged > 15 yrs in Ebinat town form March 1-April
5, 2004. Study subjects were selected by cluster method. A total of 409 children age (1-
15 yr) were examined interviewed about KAP on trachoma. WHO simplified
classification scheme for assessing trachoma in community-based surveys was used for
the purpose. Prior to the examination an interview was conducted with female caretaker
of each child using a structured and pretested questionnaire. The prevalence of trachoma
was found to be 75% and a total of 302 (68%) children were found to have active
trachoma (TF and/or TI). Factors that were associated with the presence of trachoma
include family monthly income, water consumption per head per day in liters, Latrine
facilities, face and hand washing practices and knowledge about trachoma. An attempt to
decrease trachoma prevalence and to change people's behavior towards washings their
face and hands more frequently is recommended.

Analysis of Endoscopic Findings of 500 Patients in Gondar University Hospital,
2003-2004
      Gashaw Messle, Jilalu Asmera, Mensur Osman, Shibru Berhanu,
      Zeki Abdurahman
      Department of Surgery, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
The Endoscopic findings of 500 consecutive cases were analyzed. The study was a
prospective and the most prevalent finding is non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) 37.8% followed
by pyloric stenosis or deformity with feature of gastric outlet obstruction 35.4%,
Duodenal ulcer was found in 21.8% and esophageal varices accounted in the upper
Gastrointestinal (G1) tract was found comparable to many Africa and Asian studies;
esophageal carcinoma 2.8%, gastric carcinoma 1.84%, and one case of duodenal cancer is
also seen in this series. The age range of majority of patients lies below 35 years. And
most (45%) presented with history of epigastric pain and discomfort. Only 12.5%
presented with history of upper Gl bleeding. Surgery was recommended to 11 percent of
the cases, while triple eradication therapy for 27.2% of the patients who underwent
esophagogastroduodenoscopy.




                                           9
Analysis of Patients with Acute Abdomen in Tikur Anbessa Hospital
      Zeki Abdurahman and Berhanu Kotiso
      Department of Surgery, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
A retrospective analysis was done on 235 patients admitted with acute abdomen to Tikur
Anbessa Hospital from January to December, 2000. Surgery for acute abdomen
constituted 36.6% of adult emergency operations. The mean age of the patients was 23
years with male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Abdominal pain and vomiting were the
commonest symptoms (100% and 89.8% respectively) where as tenderness and
abdominal distension (83% and 46.4% respectively) were the most frequent signs. 108
(46.4%) patients presented more than 48 hours after the onset of their symptoms. Acute
appendicitis was the leading cause 122 (51.9%) followed by intestinal obstruction 54
(23%) and perforated peptic ulcers (8.9%). 53 (24.7%) developed postoperative
complications and 34 (14.5%) died. The results of the study are compared with those of
other Ethiopian and African studies.

Assessment of Quality of EPI Service in Metema Woreda
       Kedir Mekonnen, Hailu Berhanu, Medhanit Mulu, Negash Tesfu, Tenagnework
      Tilahun, Tsehay Tewabe, Yibabie Tesfaye, Melkie Edris, Alemayehu Mekonnen
      Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
The study was carried out to describe some aspects of quality of services on EPI in
Metema district as perceived by client and measure the client satisfaction, waiting time in
terms of professional skill & use of appropriate resources and EPI coverage. Descriptive
cross sectional study involving 325 participants of whom 237 were women of child
bearing age and 88 infants with their mother. Nearly all the interviewed clients claimed
that more than 91% satisfied by service delivery and their mean waiting time was 34
minutes. From 88 infant vaccinated 72% have found with BCG Scar. As the coverage of
TT concerned pregnant women who vaccinated is 21.7% and non pregnant 35.5% beside
to this DPT3 coverage is 99.1% as the observational cheek list showed the professional
skill is good out of 88 women who came with their infants 63.4% and from 237 child
bearing age women‟s (15-49) > 65% did not get HE at immunization site ate all. 33% of
professional use wrongly the opened vaccine viales. Since HE is the core of PHC but in
this study majority of the clients didn‟t get HE service. Some health professionals use
wrongly the opened vaccine vials this is the result from lack of in service training on the
management of EPI.




                                            10
                                          2005
Distribution of HIV-1 Subtypes and Prevalence of Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in
Treatment Naïve Patients in Gondar, Ethiopia
       Afework Kassu, Masayuki Fujino, Masakazu Matsuda, Masako Nishizawa,
       Wataru Sugiura, Fusao Ota
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
       of Gondar
Abstract
Ethiopia has been facing an epidemic of HIV-1 subtype C, which also is the most
prevalent subtype in the world. Introduction of anti–retroviral treatment into the country
has awakened risk of antiretroviral resistant virus infections. The aim of this study was to
determine the distribution of subtypes and prevalence of drug resistance mutations in
antiretroviral drug-I HIV-1 infected Ethiopians. Serum samples were collected from
HIV-1 infected patients in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. HIV-1 RNA was extracted and
the regions encoding Gag p17, protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT) and Env C2V3
were amplified by RT-PCR and sequence analyses were performed. HIV-1 subtypes were
determined by p17 and C2V3 sequences, and drug resistance mutations in the PR and RT
genes were determined according to the IAS-USA drug resistance chart. A total of ninety
two patients with a mean age of 31.5 years (range 16 – 57 years) were successfully
analyzed. The majority (62%) were females. Ninety patients (97.8%) were infected with
subtype C, one (1.1%) with subtype A, and one (1.1%) with subtype D HIV-1. Regarding
antiretroviral resistance, multi-nRTI resistance (V75I) was found in one patient (1.1%).
Two patients (2.2%) harbored mutation G190A which confers nevirapine resistance. No
subject displayed major resistance mutations in protease gene, however, L10I, K20R,
M36I and L63P mutations were observed in 2.2%, 9.8%, 95.7% and 20.7%, respectively,
of the patients. Our study demonstrated that subtype C is the major subtype in Northwest-
Ethiopia followed by subtypes A and D. It also revealed the presence of drug resistance
related mutations and polymorphisms in the HIV-1 isolates from antiretroviral treatment-
I individuals. These warrant the need for routine monitoring of drug resistance mutations
in the circulating viruses since such mutations could lead to rapid treatment failure and
development of drug-resistant HIV-1 in individuals undergoing antiretroviral
chemotherapy.

A Case of Shigellosis with Intractable Septic Shock and Convulsions, University Of
Gondar Teaching Hospital
      Sebhat Asnake, Endale Teferra, Andargachew Mulu
      Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
      o f Gondar

Abstract
Although shigellosis is a potentially fatal disease that may cause a number of extra-
intestinal manifestations, intractable septic shock is an unusual complication. We
describe a 6 month old infant who developed sever septic shock and convulsions during
an episode of dysentery caused by Shigella dysentriae. Shigellosis may make very
unusual presentations, like septic shock.



                                            11
Cases of Human Fascioliasis in North-West Ethiopia
       Bitew Bayu, Sebhat Asnake, Alemseged Woretaw, Jemal Ali, Molla Gedefaw,
       Assefa Getachew, Sintayehu Tsegaye, Tamiru Dagne, Gashaw Yitayew
       Department of Pathology, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of the biliary ducts that affects animals, primarily. But it
also affects humans in many parts of the world. It is a trematode infection caused by the
two major species of Fasciola: Fasciola hepatica & Fasciola gigantica. Like their close
relatives the Schistosomes, the life cycle of these parasites is tightly knitted to water and
snails. Human cases of Fascioliasis have been reported in South America, Europe, Africa,
Australia and the Far East. It‟s estimated that there are 2.4 million cases worldwide. The
numbers of humans infected with Fasciola hepatica has increased significantly since 1980
and several geographical areas have been described as endemic for the diseases in
humans, with prevalence and intensity ranging from low to very high. Humans acquire
the infection by ingestion of metacercaria attached to certain aquatic plants and
vegetables. Infection may also be acquired by consumption of contaminated water, or
ingestion of food items with such water. In Ethiopia, Fascioliases is mainly an animal
disease, causing great economic burden in the highlands of the country. The parasite is
said not to play an important role in human health, in the country. There are only few
reported cases of the disease; and even those reports are thought to be cases of false
Fascioliasis i.e. funding of Fasciola eggs in the stool of people who had recently
consumed the liver of infected sheep or cattle. This is a presentation of four cases of
human Fascioliasis that were encountered at Solomon clinic, in Gondar town. It provides
a clue that human Fascioliasis may be public health problem around Lake Tana and Nile
River Basin where animal Fascioliasis is a major economic burden for the surrounding
farmers.

The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitosis among Salji Elementary School Students,
Kolla Diba
       Berihun Megabiyaw, Frehwiot Daba, Kifle Yohannes, Loko Abrham,
       Mahlet Abayneh
       Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Intestinal parasitsis is common problem in developing countries where low
socioeconomic status, poor sanitation and poor medical care are found. Intestinal
parasitosis is the second most common cause for health institution visited in Dembia
Woreda. The objective of this study is to asses prevalence of intestinal parasitisis and
factors associated with it. Cross sectional study was conducted starting 18/4/97 E.C. to
20/5/97 E.C. A self-administered questionnaire filled by the elementary school students
and stool examination were used to collect data. The overall prevalence for all identified
parasites was 61.5% of these are positive 70.1% ascares humbrioides, 14.8% E.
histolytica and 6.3% is lamblia. By these 19.4% were infected by more than I parasite.
Among these who are positive 73% wash their hands occasionally & 27% wash their
hands regularly before & after meals and after deification which is significantly
associated with 95% confidence interval. There is high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis


                                              12
among Salge elementary school students. Timely intersections to control the transmission
and decrease prevalence of IP should be taken.

Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites in Food Handlers in Gondar,
Northwest Ethiopia.
      Gashaw Andargie, Afework Kassu, Feleke Moges, Moges Tiruneh
      Department of Environmental Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food service establishments could
be potential sources of infection with pathogenic organisms. The objective of the study is
to determine the prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites in stools
of food handlers, to determine the level of fingernail contamination with the
enteropathogens, and to assess the bacteriological safety of food contact surfaces.
Fingernails contents of both hands and stool specimen were collected from 127 food
handlers working in cafeterias of University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training
Collage, Gondar, Ethiopia. In addition swab samples were collected from a random
sample of 360 feeding utensils. The samples were examined for enteropathogenic
bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase negative
staphylococci were the major bacteria isolated (41.7%) from finger nail contents,
followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli
(3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%) and Enterobacter species
(0.8%). Shigella species were identified from stool samples of four food handlers (3.1%).
Klebsiella species, Shigella species and Salmonella species were identified in 0.6%, 0.6%
and 0.3%, respectively, of the feeding utensils. No ova or parasites were detected from
the finger nail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of food handlers
included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba
histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), Hookworm (0.8%), Gardia lamblia
(0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%).The findings emphasize the importance of food
handlers as potential source of food borne infection and calls for institution of appropriate
hygienic and sanitary control measures.

Prevalence of Blood Transfusion Transmissible Viral Infections in Blood Donors in
Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
       Ermias Diro, Shitaye Alemu, Asfawessen G/Yohannes
       Department of Internal Medicine, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Many Blood Banks in many countries have a rigorous regulation demanding that blood
and/or blood products for transfusion should be screened for HIV, Hepatitis B and C
mainly because these viruses lead to development of uncurable diseases. In Ethiopia,
Blood banks do screen for HIV ½ but do not regularly screen for Hepatitis B and C.
Hence, a cross sectional survey was done between April to July 2004 to determine the
prevalence of HIV ½, hepatitis B and C among blood donors at Gondar University
Hospital. With in the study period, there were 600 blood donors with male to female
ratio of 10:1 and mean age of 29+/-9.5 years. The prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B, and
Hepatitis C were 8.2%, 5.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Among HIV positive donors,


                                             13
hepatitis B was detected in 4 and Hepatitis C was detected in 6 donors These figures
indicate the need for introduction of screening of donated blood for Hepatitis B and C.

Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Lifestyle among Dyspeptic Patients Attending
Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
       Feleke Moges, Afework Kassu, Getahun Mengistu, Solomon Adugna,
       Berhanu Andualem
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
       o f Gondar

Abstract
The study is objective of to determine the prevalence and the life style of Helicobacter
pylori positive patients. Cross sectional study was used. Gondar University, Gondar
College of Medicine and Health Sciences Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from
February 2003 to June 2003.Designed questionnaires were used to evaluate the life style
of patients. Sera from 215 dyspeptic patients were collected and analyzed for H. pylori
IgG antibodies using a commercial H. pylori serology kits (HEXAGON H.PYLORI),
lateral flow rapid test. Sera were also tested for HIV using ELISA and blood group using
slide agglutination test was also considered. A total of 215 dyspeptic patients were
included in the study, 99 (46%) were males and 116 (54%) were females. Of these
patients tested for H. pylori IgG antibodies, 184 (85.6%) were positive and 31 (14.4)
were negative. Blood group and HIV status were evaluated but there was no significant
association with H. pylori infection. Residence and occupation are risk factors for HIV
infection. There was statistically significant association between H. pylori infection with
history of alcohol intake and age. However, there was no statistically significant
association between H. pylori infection and blood group, HIV and sex. The prevalence of
H. pylori infection is higher in the area; therefore we recommend that all dyspeptic
patients should be screened for H. pylori infection before therapy. The effect of different
diet, alcohol and socioeconomic status as risk factor for H. pylori infection needs further
study in the area.

Risk Factors for Abnormal Cervical Cytological Screening in an Area with High
Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma
       Bahiru Ergicho
       Department of Pathology, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Cervical cancer is an important women health problem in Ethiopia and is the second most
common cancer among women in developing countries. Many epidemlogical studies
have shown that cervical cancer risk is strongly associated with measures of sexual
behaviors of the women and male sexual partner. The aim of this study is to evaluate the
role of certain risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytological screening and
Human Papilloma Virus detection and therefore furnishes base line information to design
future preventive programs suitable for the Ethiopian population. This is a cross-sectional
analysis of 385 consecutive case series of patients attending the gynecologic unit of the
Gondar College of Medical Science hospital from January 2002 to December 2003. Each


                                            14
patient was interviewed for pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data and submit
cervical cytological specimen for Papanicolaou smear analysis and Human Papilloma
Virus DNA detection. Out of 385 specimens subjected for human papilloma virus DNA
detection, 292 were found to be positive (75.84%); Human Papilloma Virus positivity is
found to be linearly associated with increasing severity of abnormal cervical cytology.
Early age at first marriage, high parity, urban dwelling, low socioeconomic status of the
women, previous history of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and multiple sexual partners
of the women were found to be linked to more severe form of abnormal cervical
cytology. The occurrence of abnormal cervical cytology and subsequent cervical cancer
were found to be strongly related to some well-defined sexual behavior of the women and
ultimate HPV genital infection. It is recommended that primary and secondary preventive
measures centered at controlling all sexually transmitted diseases will reduce the
prevalence of this disease in Ethiopia and introduction of a mass vaccination program to
Ethiopian women with a suitable vaccine containing the most frequent HPV genotype
will effectively reduce the burden of this disease in Ethiopia.

The Distribution of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Women with Cervical
Histological Abnormalities from an Area with High Incidence of Cervical Cancer
       Bahiru Ergicho
       Department of Pathology, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Cancer of the cervix is the second most common cancer among women in the developing
countries. Many epidemlogical studies have shown that more than 90% of cancers of the
cervix are attributed to infection by oncogenic human papilloma viruses. Though, the
distribution of Human papilloma virus in a population has been studied world wide, there
is no single study done up to now on this subject in Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to
investigate the presence and distribution of Human Papilloma Virus infecting women
with cervical abnormalities and furnish base line information to design future vaccination
strategies suitable for the Ethiopian population. A Retrospective molecular pathologic
analysis for Human papilloma virus was done on 284 formalin-fixed and paraffin–
embedded cervical biopsy specimens bearing different histopathologic abnormalities
collected over five years period from the department of pathology of Gondar college of
Medical Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based Human
Papilloma Virus DNA detection and a nucleotide sequencing based Human Papilloma
Virus typing was done at Max-Burger Research Institute, Leipzig, Germany. Human
papilloma virus was found in 263 of the 284-biopsy specimens (92.60%) and Human
Papilloma Virus type 16 was identified to be the most frequent genotype accounting for
more than 76% of all species. It is recommended that a wide population based
epidemiological study is mandatory to define the exact picture of this disease in this
country and a suitable vaccine targeting mainly HPV 16 will have a substantial impact on
cervical cancer control in Ethiopia.




                                           15
Prevalence of Teenage Pregnancy and Its Complication in Kolla Diba Town and
Salji Farmers Association
       Mohammed Yenew, Ruth Tsigebirham, Mebrahtu Abraha, Musa Husen,
       Habtamu Mekonnen
       Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Prevalence of teenage pregnancy is high in developing countries and many factors
contribute the high prevalence rate for social and health consequences. The objective of
the study was to assess prevalence of teenage pregnancy with its contributing factors and
consequences in comparison with pregnancies after 13 years. A cross-sectional study
with stratified sampling method is followed to select 384 samples that are to be
interviewed using pretested and standard questionnaire. Prevalence of teenage pregnancy
is high (58.5%).Important contributing factors that lead to teenage pregnancy includes
forced marriage (81.4%).Parent illiteracy (92%) and parent occupation. Most are farmers
(73.5%). Most reported unfavorable consequences of teenage pregnancy include lack of
job opportunity it most remain as housewife or become Tella seller or prostitution
dropping off from school (42%) medical complication like prolonged labor (33%)
excessive bleeding during deliucry (17.3%) and high divorce rate (36%).Most of the
factors contributing to teenage pregnancy are consequences of low socioeconomic
condition and cultural practices. Integrated interventions are to tackle the problem.

Meningitis in Children beyond the Neonatal Period in Gondar University Hospital
     Solomon Amsalu and Azariyas Assefa
     Department of Pediatrics, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections in infants and children. The
infection is associated with a high rate of complications. This is a retrospective study of
151 children with meningitis admitted to Gondar University hospital over a period of five
years. There were 100 males and 51 females making male to female ratio 2:1. Forty-
seven (31.1%) of them were infants below the age of 12 months. Children under the age
of 5 constituted for 88 (58.3%) of all the admissions. One hundred twenty five (82.8%)
of them were discharged improved, 20 (13.2%) of them died in the hospital and the rest 6
(4.0%) left the hospital before completing their treatment. Most of the death 13/20 (65%)
occurred in the first 72 hours of hospitalization. A significant number of patients 37
(25.5%) were treated with one or more antibiotics before admission. A higher case
fatality rate was observed in those less than 6 months old, arrival after 48 hours after
onset of illness, altered level of sensorium and in those having respiratory distress or
seizure. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is indicated to reduce mortality of acute
bacterial meningitis.
Key words: meningitis, children, poor prognostic, case fatality rate




                                            16
Risk Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Related to HIV/AIDS
Standards among Students of Dessie Town Northeast Ethiopia
       Fekadu Mazengia
      Department of Midwifery, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the extent of sexual behavior & KAP related to
HIV/AIDS & STIs among school youth of Dessie town. A cross-sectional study design
was conducted between Feb. 1 and 15, 2004 among Hotie School students. Total 361of
students were sampled from total of 5923 using a stratified proportionate sampling
technique. Data was collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The
result was analyzed using SPSS software package percentages, means, OR & chi-square
tests calculated data was presented in tables figures & compared with other studies.
Among 341 students 228(66.9%) were males & 113(33.1%) were female (M: F=2.01:1).
Overall 268 (78.6%) were found to be knowledgeable (mean knowledge score
9.381.96). 271 (70%) were able to list correctly the three sexual prevention methods.
Yet, some students consider kissing, mosquito bite, sharing latrine shower or swimming
pool (6.75, 4.1% & 2.3%) respectively will transmit of HIV. Knowledge were
significantly associated with sex & educational level (p<0.05). Overall 254 (74.7%)
students had favorable attitude (mean 6.31(78.9%)  1.59). HIV/AIDS risk perception
was only 166(48.1%), & perceived severities were 290 (88.1%).Stigmatization attitude
towards isolation of peoples with HIV/AIDS were interestingly low only
43(12.6%).96(28.2%) of the sample were already engaged in sexual activity. Median age
of sexual initiation was 16 years (average 15.652.07).43(44.8%) of the sexually active
had more than one partner in the last one-year (mean 1.71.02). 52(54.6%) have ever
used condom sporadically 30.8% of them use regularly. 168(48.1%) said they will
negotiate condom use if partner refuses.12 (12.5%) had contracted STIs. Of the sexually
active females 7(28%) have been pregnant 6(24%) raped; 7(28%) receive gift for sex
7(28%) had sex with older men. Generally chewing chat & drinking alcohol were
significantly associated with condom use (p<0.05). Family income and attitude were
associated with multiple partners (p<0.05) Total risk behavior were at least 2 times higher
for first sexual exposure <15 years OR=16.53(95%CI) chat chewers OR 6.04(95%CI)
alcohol drinkers OR=2.96 (95%CI) & female (OR=, 1.8(95%CI) but knowledge &
attitude were neither positively nor negatively associated. Awareness & high knowledge
didn‟t help the students to safe guard from their risky sexual behaviors; also attitude
towards condom use was poor. Convincing & concrete health education that enables the
students to clear up misunderstanding & bring up behavioral change should be given. Sex
education should be started at earlier age, with involving peer educators & other
innovative ways are recommended.




                                            17
Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates of Mental Distress in People Living
with HIV/AIDS in Jimma Town
       Benyam Gizachew
       College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University o f Gondar

Abstract
There is a growing awareness of the importance of assessing mental illness in people
living with HIV/AIDS. Researches indicate that HIV infected people usually suffer from
undiagnosed serious mental illnesses which reduces their quality of life and hastens
disease progression. Little is known in Ethiopia about the prevalence of mental distress in
this population. So far there is no publicized study done on mental illness in HIV/AIDS
population. The study was conducted in Jimma town and estimated the prevalence and
socio demographic correlates of mental distress in people living with HIV/AIDS. The
study was conducted in September 2004.A cross sectional study design was
accomplished and a total of 196 people living with HIV/AIDS, willing to participate in
the study and aged greater than 15 years, were included. Socio demographic
characteristics were recorded. The presence of mental distress was evaluated by a self
reporting questionnaire, recommended by WHO. A cut off level 6 out of 20 items was
used to define mental distress. Other relevant information were collected and analyzed by
the computer soft ware, version 11.0.Of the 196 PL WHA included in the study, 110
were males and 86 females, with 80% of cases between age 20-29, the majority of the
population were unemployed, single and had a monthly income of less than 100 birr per
month. 48% of the study population was diagnosed with in the last 1 year and 52%
resorted to have medical illness other than HIV. Only 29 people were on HAART.
Mental distress was evident in 70% of the population. There was no significant relation
ship between gender and mental distress, but Men were likely to indulge them selves in
substance use than females. There was significant relationship between use of HAART
and absence of mental distress. Presence of diagnosed medical illness was not
significantly associated with mental distress. Mental distress was found to be higher in
this population and possible factors for this could be the high rate of substance use and
unavailability of HAART. The high rate of unemployment and low income may also
contribute to the problem. It is warranted that physicians caring for PLWHA should ask
for symptoms of common psychiatric disorders and be able to treat the problem. Future
researchers should come up with a valid way of assessing mental illness in PLWHA.

Assessment and Comparison of Prostate Gland Size Using Abdominal Ultrasound
and Post Operative Measurement in Gondar University Hospital
      Gashaw Messele and Assefa Getachew
      Department of Surgery, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
A prospective study was designed to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of abdominal
ultrasound in measuring the weight of prostate gland in 52 cases of bladder outlet
obstruction. All cases were clinically diagnosed to have benign prostatic Hyperplasia
(BPH). It is found out that the mean ultrasound weight of prostate gland is 68 grams
while the actual measurement is 50 grams. There is good correlation between the two


                                            18
measurements; through abdominal ultrasongraphy showed 20% over estimation. Two
third of the cases have a sonographic measurement less than 60 grams. The discrepancy
is tolerable and abdominal ultrasonography can be used for preoperative assessment of
size of prostate. With routine practice, and experience of the radiologist, the correlation
and the accuracy will also improve.

Surgical Management of pelvic organ prolapsed in Gondar University Hospital
      Habtermariam Tekele, George Porrata, Aemereo Dagnu, Genet G. Michael,
      Tadesse Urge
      Department of Surgery, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Pelvic organ prolapse is one of the most indications for Gynecologic surgery. There is
little epidemiological information regarding to the prolapse Genital organ prolapse
accounts for 13% of hysterectomies in all age groups. Understanding of the disease entity
& its management in Ethiopian setup is important. To determine risk factors, degree of
prolapse, surgical management options & its complications. A 5 year retrospective study
(1992-1996 E.C.) of patients operated for general organ prolapse in Gondar University
Hospital was made through revision of individual case records, Gynecologic admission &
operation registration books. During study period there were 427 documented operations
for genital organ prolapse & 328 charts were retrieved. 64% of patients were above age
of 35 years. 62% of them their parity was >5. Identified risk factors in descending order
were obstetric cause, menopause, and conditions increasing intra-abdominal pressure &
others like congenital weakness of supporting structures. 69% of the patients operated for
3rd degree uterovaginal prolapse. The commonest type of operation was vaginal
hysterectomy with anterior colporrahyphy (50%) & other operations in descending order
include: Vaginal hysterectomy with anterior posterior colpoperiniorrhaphy, ventro-
suspention, Manchester operation, anterior or poster coloporrhahy & colpopexy. The
documented complication include: infection (10.6%) anemia (6%), hemorrhage (3.4%)
injuries (2.13%) & there were 2 deaths (0.6%) in patients with malarial attack, kal azar &
intestinal obstruction 44% of the patients discharged on 6th -7th days which is counted
from days of operation. Recommendation: Genital organ prolapse is a common problem
in Gondar Zone & its vicinity mainly related to obstetrics risk factors. Avoidance of
genital organ prolapse & all options of operation or correction of pelvic organ prolapse
based on risk factors, degree of prolapse and patients' age, desire for fertility & operation
is recommended.

Outcomes of Pregnancy in Severe and Complicated Malaria in Gondar Hospital
     Ermias Diro and Getahun Mengistu
     Department of Internal Medicine, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Pregnant women are prone to severe malaria despite previous malaria attacks because of
decreased immunity. This puts both the mother and the fetus at a greater risk. A six-year
retrospective record analysis of all pregnant women with severe malaria was done. It was
found that there were 205 reproductive age women with severe malaria of whom 57.6%



                                             19
were pregnant. Severity signs were occurring more frequently in the pregnant. The case
fatality rate was found to be statistically significantly higher than the non pregnant. The
case fatality rate was found to be statistically significantly higher than the non pregnant.
P<0.05. It is this recommended that special attention in severe malaria management for
pregnant mothers is required.

Neurological Manifestations Predicting Outcomes of Severe and Complicated Malaria
in Adults at GCMS Hospital
       Ermias Diro and G. Mengistu,
       Department of Internal Medicine, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Malaria is among the major health treats and continues to be a challenge. This study was
done to see the magnitude of the problem, the clinical features and evaluate the outcome
of severe malaria cases with special interest on the neurologic complications. It was a
retrospective chart record analysis of the past six years severe malaria cases as defined by
WHOM. It was found that severe malaria accounts for 4.4% of the medical ward
admissions and 7.3% of the deaths. The crude case fatality rate was 28.4% with 87.1% of
the deaths and was the most significant independent variable predicting poor outcome.
Other poor prognostic indicators were late presentation to the hospital, rural residence
and the presence of super infections. This information alarms that a let should still be
done concerning malaria in prevention and early management. Emphasis and best care
should be given to patients with neurologic complications.

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Family Planning among Women of Girarge
Kebele and Chuahit Town, Dembia District
      Workagegnehu Hailu, Tegegne Bikila, Sintayehu Shanko, Tigist Argaw,
       Slam Abrahim, Yohannes Tsegaye
      Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Ethiopia is one of the populous countries in Africa Despite the fact that the increased use
of contraceptives parallels a decrease in the rate of population growth and an increase in
the quality of life only 21% are using contraceptives. The objective of the study was to
explain the level of knowledge attitude and practice of family planning among women of
reproductive age group in Girarge Keble and Chuahit town Dembia district, Amhara
region. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in Dec 2004. A total of 384 women
of reproductive age group were included in the study from both Girarge Keble and
Chuahit town with equal proportion. The study revealed that most of the women from
both Girarge Keble (94.5%) and Chuahit town (96.5%) have knowledge concerning
family planning. And 9.9% of the Girarge women and 4.2% of Chuahit‟s have said that
contraceptives are not useful. Despite their knowledge and good attitude, towards family
planning only 5.2% of currently married women of Girarge Kebele 26.6% of women of
chuahits town are using contraceptives. Based on the study findings continuous health
education and promotion of family planning is recommended to let the women to go in to
practice what they know & think about family planning.



                                            20
Prevalence of HIV and Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Street Dwellers in
Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia
       Feleke Moges, Yenew Kebede, Afework Kassu, Getu Degu, Moges Tiruneh,
       Molla Gedefaw
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
       o f Gondar

Abstract
In Ethiopia, HIV infection is the major health and socio-economic problem. Although
specific high-risk groups such as sex workers, youth and mobile populations demonstrate
increased prevalence levels as compared with the general populations, information about
the other risk groups regarding HIV is very scarce. The objective of the study was to
determine prevalence of HIV and Intestinal parasitic infections among street dwellers and
assess their knowledge about HIV. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Gondar
town, Northwest Ethiopia. Socio-demographic data, some factors for being street
dwellers and knowledge of the subjects about HIV was assessed using structured
questionnaire. Stool samples for microscopy and culture, and 5ml of blood for HIV
antibody testing were collected aseptically and processed following standard procedures.
Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacterial pathogens was determined for
commonly used antibiotics by standard disc diffusion technique. Data was analyzed using
EPI-info 2000 statistical package. Total of 404 street dwellers aged 8-58 (median age of
20) were included. Two hundred ninety four (72.8%) were males and 110 (27.2%) were
females. Considerable number of the study subjects (56.5%) was illiterate. Poverty and
associated movement to urban area in search of work was important factor (52.7%) that
forced them to live in streets, followed by divorce (28.7%), family death (16.8%), and
addiction and peer pressure (2.5%). Fifty nine (16.6%) responded that HIV can be
transmitted by eating food together, 51 (12.6%) believed that HIV can be transmitted by
hand shaking, 192(47.5%) responded that antiretroviral therapy will not prolong life of
HIV infected individual. Seventy-three (18%) said that infected needle will not transmit
HIV. The HIV seroprevalence in this study population was 6.9%. No HIV positive
subject was found in the age group less or equal to 15 and greater than 45 (P<0.01).
Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was high (67.6%). The highest prevalence was
for Ascaris lumbricoides (38.9%), hookworm (26.2%) and Trichuris trichiura (21.0%).
Polyparasitism was common in this study population in that 27.7% of study subjects were
infected by two or more parasites at the same time. Low educational status was an
important factor that determines prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections but there was
no significant association between intestinal parasitic infection and HIV seropositivity
except for Strongloid stercoralis which was relatively higher in HIV seropostive subjects.
All Shigella species isolated were sensitive for Ciprofloxacin. The study showed
relatively higher prevalence of HIV and gap in knowledge about HIV in street dwellers.
Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections is quit high and Polyparasitism is common.
HIV control strategy should also focus on these groups and intermittent mass deforming
possibly may help to reduce parasitic burden in the area.




                                            21
The Outcome of Severe Malnutrition in Northwest Ethiopia Retrospective Analysis
of Admission
      Solomon Amsalu and Gashaw Asnakew
      Department of Pediatrics, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
A retrospective study of 335 children with severe malnutrition was conducted in Gondar
University hospital over a period of four years; September 1997 – August 2000. There
were 175 (52.2%) males and 160 (47.8%) females with severe malnutrition. Children
bellow the age of 24 months constituted for 60.3% of all the admissions. Marasmus was
the most common type of malnutrition, present in 174 (52.0%) of the patents.
Kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor were seen in 78 (23.3%) and 83(24.7%) of the
patients respectively. The overall case fatality rate was 61 (18.4%) while 30 (9.1%)
abandoned treatment. Two hundred forty (72.5%) of the patients were discharged
improved. The case fatality rates for kwashiorkor and 14.5% for marasmus. A
statistically significant risk of death was observed in those with history of bottle feeding
(OR 4.5, P-value<0.01), diarrhea with severe dehydration (OR 3.05, P-Value <0.01),
altered level of consciousness (OR 7.08, P-value < 0.001), total serum protein of 5 g/dl
and less (OR 3.45, P-value < 0.05) and patients having marasmic kwashiorkor (OR 2.55,
P-value < 0.01). This study shows a high mortality rate of severe malnutrition despite
hospitalization. The findings confirm the need for intensive management of severe
malnutrition.

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness in Dabat Woreda, North Gondar
       Yared Assefa, Alemayehu Mekonnen, Mulesew Asferaw
       Department of Ophthalmology, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
A survey to determine the prevalence of and causes of blindness in Dabat wereda of
North Gondar was conducted in May 2005. A total OF 1519 PEOPLE aged 7years and
older was selected from a multistage, clustered sample stratified by trained enumerators
to identify the blind. Final visual acuity assessment and possible cause of blindness was
performed by an ophthalmologist. Blindness was defined according to the world Health
organization classification of vision less than the ability to count fingers at 3 meters.
Approximately 1.8% of the sample was bilaterally blind. Similar to results found in other
studies, age related cataract was the most common diagnosis encountered and the
principal cause of blindness. This study has confirmed blindness to be a public health
problem in the Woreda and prevention programs should be strengthen to tackle the
problem.




                                            22
The Impact of Integrated Food Security Program on Nutritional Status of Under
Five Children in Drought Affected Districts of the Amhara Regional State
      Alemayehu Mekonnen and Dessalegn Tigabu
      Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Ebinat, E. Belessa, and W. Belessa district are three of the districts that are heavily hit by
the recurrent drought in the Amhara region. To alleviate the impact of the recurrent
drought, ORDA has been working in three districts with food for work and undertaking
innovative projects on community development and natural resource conservation for the
last 7 years. Determine the nutritional status of children in Ebinat, East Belesa, and W.
Belessa woredas. This community based survey was conducted in three districts with
IFSP (Integrated food security programme) and Non IFSP Kebles in North Gondar and
South Gondar zones of the Amhara regional state. Using a two-stage cluster sampling,
one thousand and eight hundred and thirty six children in ORDA assisted and non-
assisted Kebles and their respective caregivers were involved in the study. Data was
collected using household survey questionnaire and anthropometric measurement of
children was linked with demographic data. The average family income was 1782.3
birr/year. There was significant difference in household average per capital income in
different woredas where 439.6% birr is found in East Belesa individuals in Ebinat and
West Belessa got 309 and 316 birr per year respectively. All except two household had an
average per capital income level<2880 birr (the measure of universal level of poverty, a
dollar per day). The average households had an ox. Significant disparity was observed in
water supply among households in IFSP and Non IFSP, where 37.8% of households in
IFSP had protected water supply whereas only 3.4% had in Non IFSP Kebles. Only
25.7% of households in the survey area secure food by crop production. Household in
IFSP secure 15.3% compared to 47.7% food security attend by crop production among
Non IFSP Kebles. Over all food security (food production, food for work, buying from
the market and other means) was maintained in 58.7% of households and over all level of
malnutrition determined using WFA Z-score revealed that 50.1% were malnourished,
malnutrition level among IFSP was 47.8% compared to 54.7% among Non-IFSP. The
overall prevalence of stunting was 63.3%, the level of stunting indicate that there was
appreciable difference among different woredas, where 71.2% of children in West
Belessa, 62.4% in East Belesa and 59.2% in Ebinat were stunted. The prevalence of acute
malnutrition determined using WFHZ was 9.8% acute malnutrition was found to be low
in West Belessa compared to Ebinat and East Belesa. It was found that there was no
significant difference between IFSP and Non IFSP regarding measure of acute
malnutrition. The level of food availability at the households through out the year was
low. The level of acute malnutrition is lower compared to previous study done on the
same locality where more than 14% were found to be acutely malnourished but the
prevalence of chronic malnutrition is higher compared to previous report. There is a wide
gap between optimum child health recommendation and what is seen in the three
districts. Education targeting better childcare and immunization is recommended.




                                             23
Ethnopharmacological and Pharmaceutical Studies of Medical Plants in Dabat
District
       Berhanemeskel Weldegerima, Tsege Gebremariam, Teferi Gedif
       Department of Pharmaceutics, CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
The indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants by human being is decreasing in alarming
rate. The main reasons that contribute in the loss of indigenous knowledge are rapid land
degradation, people's access to modern medicine, exposure to modern culture and
acculturation. In Ethiopia, the vast knowledge on traditional uses of plants is not fully
documented and most of the knowledge is conveyed from generation to generation by
work of mouth. Thus, ethnopharmacological survey was carried out in nine rural villages
and one urban Kebele; aiming to identify traditionally used medicinal plants in Dabat
District,    Northwestern      Ethiopia    in    January     2004.    Documentation       of
ethnopharmacological and pharmaceutical information of medicinal plants used at Dabat
district, North Western Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was carried out by using semi
structured questionnaires and interview guide to collect ethnopharmacological
information both from households and traditional healers. This study was carried out in
villages, which are under a continuous demographic surveillance by Dabat Rural Health
project. Fieldwork was carried out in January 2004. EPI-Info version 3.2 statistical
package was employed for entry, clean-up, and analysis of the quantitative and some of
qualitative data. Most of qualitative data were categorized and analyzed manually. Each
respondent was asked to consent verbally to participate in the study. A total of 673
household respondents and 31 traditional healers were interviewed with semi-structured
questionnaires and 159 traditionally used medicinal plants were reported and specimens
collected. Of these plants, 65 were identified scientifically at species level. Which are
among thirty-eight plant families, while 94 were only known by their vernacular names.
Plant families having more that three medicinal plants record are Solanaceae (6 species).
Euphorbiacea (5 species). Cucurbitaceae (4 species). Asteraceae (3 species). Lamiacceae
(3 species) and verbenaceae (3 species). Some the similar illness in order parts of the
country and other countries of the world. The majority of the medicinal plants were
reported to be collected from the similar illness in other parts of the country and other
countries of the world. The majority of the medicinal plants were reported to be collected
from the wild (60%), while some grown in garden and market. One hundred forty six
medicinal plants were used as single remedy and 32 herbal preparations were mixture of
two or more. The leaf and root parts of the medicinal plants were predominantly used for
the preparation of herbal remedies. The plant products are consumed raw or as decoction,
macerated material or infusion for oral treatment and as burnt product, ointments or raw
paste when applied externally. Majority (58%) of the herbal medications used are
administered orally. Topical applications (23%) and steam and fumigation (16%) are next
to oral route. The most frequently reported types of illness treated by healers were
starvation or anthrax caused disease (Kuruba), skin problems, jaundice used plants, 40
medicinal plants were claimed to have adverse effects and 19 medicinal plants, were
excluded from treatment for elders, children, pregnant and lactating women by healers.
Few antidotes were reported against those plants claimed to have adverse effects. The
present study indicates that the area harbors a high Diversity of medicinal plants and local
communities possess substantial knowledge of plants and their uses. The survey results


                                            24
suggest that-extensive ethnophamacological exploration in other parts of Ethiopia is
warranted.

Effect of Catha Edulis Forest (Khat) Extracts on Male Rat Sexual Behavior
       Mohammedbirhan Abdulwaheb, Eyasu Mekonnen, Asfaw Debella
       Department of Pharmacology, CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Khat chewing is a widespread habit that has a deep-rooted sociocultural tradition in East
Africa and in the Middle East. Although a number of investigations have been carried out
using cathinone, the psychoactive component of khat, these may not wholly reflect the
behavioral effects observed after administering khat in a dosage similar to those used
traditionally. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sub chronically
administered khat extract with or without alcohol on sexual behavior in male rats. Adult
albino waster male rats were administered either with khat extracts (100,200,400mg/Kg),
amphetamine (1mg/Kg), sildenafil (1mg/Kg), ethanol (2, 10%), or a combination of khat
and ethanol (2%+10%) by intragastric gavage orally for 15 days. Khat (400mg/Kg)
treated rats showed a statistically significant increase in all sexual parameters except in
MF, ICI and CE. Whereas khat (200mg/Kg) treated rats showed a statistically significant
increase only in EL (P<01). In marked contrast, low dose (100mg/kg) of khat extract was
found to significantly reduce both ML (P<0.05) and IL (P<0.01) thereby enhancing
sexual motivation/arousal in male rats similar results were obtained when khat extract
(200mg/Kg) and ethanol (10%) were administered concomitantly despite the inhibitory
effect observed in male sexual behavior when administered alone. From the present study
it can concluded that higher doses of the extract inhibit sexual behavior in male rats. In
contrast, low dose of 'the extract as well as the concurrent administration of the extract
followed by ethanol was found to enhance male rat sexual motivation /arousal.

Assessment of Prevalence of Work Related Injuries among Small and Medium Scale
Industrial Workers in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Regional State
      Takele Tadesse
      Department of Environmental Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Throughout the world, work related injuries continue to cause serious public health
problems and are leading cause of death, disability and disease. In developing countries
including Ethiopia, the risk of having work – related injury is 10 to 20 times higher than
that of developed countries. This study investigated the magnitude and extent of work –
related injuries among small and medium scale industrial workers in North Gondar Zone.
Stratified random sampling technique was employed to identify the industries. A total of
962 randomly selected workers from production site were interviewed from both
industries in January 2005. Trained data collectors administered a standardized
questionnaire. Physical examination, record review and workplace observation were
done to ascertain the self – reported information. Data were analyzed by stepwise binary
logistic regression model. The overall annual prevalence rate of work –related injury was
322 per 1000 exposed workers. Fifty-five (17.1%) of the injured respondents were
hospitalized , accounting for 40% hospitalization more than 24 hours. one hundred and


                                            25
three (53.9(%) of the injured respondents were absent from work for more than 3 days.
there were 2work –related deaths as result of work related injuries. the significant
contributing factors for work related injuries in both industries were young age (<30
Years ) [adjusted OR:1.41,95%CI: (1.03,1.93)] , working 48 hours or less per week [OR:
0.68,95%CI:(0.49,0.94) ], workplace supervision [OR: 0.61, 95%CI: (0.45,0.83)] , sleep
disorder[OR: 1.49,95%CI:(1.04, 2.14)] and job satisfaction [OR: 0.59,95% CI:
(O.43,0.83)]. Young age, job category, lack of experience, and sleep disorders were
increased the risk of work related injuries. Working 48 hours or less workplace
supervision and job satisfactions were inversely related to the prevalence of work
related injuries. Preventive measures concerning health and safety training, regular
workplace supervision and establishment of active and functional occupational health and
safety programmes are essential to safeguard the health and safety condition of workforce
in small and medium scale industries.
Key words: work related injuries; magnitude, severity; determinants; small and medium
scale industries.

                                          2006
The Effect of Ethanol and Khat (Catha Edulis Foresk) on the Cerebellar Cortex of
Early Postnatal Rats
       Abebe Muche, Eyasu Mekonnen, Yamrot Kinfu, Mekbeb Afework
       Department of Anatomy, CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Rats of postnatal day 6 were treated with ethanol, khat or vehicle for 30 days using blunt
needle. At the end of the experiment, animals were scarified, their brains were dissected
out and immersion fixed. The brain as a whole and cerebellum, separately were weighed,
and cerebellum was processed for routine histology. Samples of serially sectioned tissues
of cerebellum were stained with toluidine blue and observed using light microscope. At
the end of the experimental period the body weight increment was found to be
significantly less in the ethanol and khat treated (ET and KT) rats than their respective
controls by 18.05% and 21.75%, respectively (P<0.01). Between the treated rats, body
weight increment was less for the ET rats by 4.51% than the KT rats, although it was not
statistically significant (P>0.05). Similarly, the weight of the brain as a whole and
Cerebellar weight separately of the treated rats were significantly less than their
respective controls (P<0.01). These weights were also less for the ET rats than for the KT
rats, although not statistically significant. The mean diameter of Purkinje neurons was
found to be less in the ethanol treated and khat treated rats than their respective controls
by 28.66% and 11.44%, respectively (P<0.01). Moreover the attempt to study the effect
of combination of ethanol and khat treatment was interrupted because the rats died after
two days, and such combined consumption of these substances at this age was found to
be fatal. In conclusion, the study depicted that PND 6 is an extremely vulnerable period
to the exposure of high concentration of ethanol and khat, which result in morphological
change of Cerebellar cortex and reduction in diameter of Purkinje neurons of cerebellum.
Key words: Cerebellar Cortes, Purkinje neurons, Khat, Ethanol, Post natal day




                                            26
Micronutrient Malnutrition during Tuberculosis and HIV Infections
     Afework Kassu, Tomoki Yabutani, Junko Motonaka, Takeshi Nishikawa, Fusao Ota
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology &Parasitology, CMHS, University
    Of Gondar

Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and micronutrient deficiencies are amongst the major
health problems in the world. In this study we aimed to evaluate serum concentrations of
trace elements and vitamin A in TB patients with or with out human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) co-infection and to compared that to the level in blood donors. One hundred
fifty five TB patients (74 of which were co-infected with HIV), 30 asymptomatic HIV
infected blood donors and 92 HIV seronegative blood donors (controls) who visited
University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, were included. Serum levels of copper, zinc,
selenium and iron were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass
spectrometer. The levels of serum vitamin A were determined by a high performance
liquid chromatography. Compared with the control group, the concentrations of iron,
zinc, selenium and vitamin A were significantly lower (P<0.05) while that of copper was
significantly higher (P<0.05) in the serum of TB patients and asymptomatic HIV infected
blood donors. TB patients with HIV co-infection had significantly lower serum zinc,
selenium and vitamin A compared to that in TB patients without HIV co-infection
(P<0.05). Deficiency of zinc, vitamin A, selenium and iron, respectively, was seen in
63.5%, 62.2%, 35.5% and 18.9% of TB patients with HIV co-infection while it was
32.1%, 56.1%, 35.8% and 11.1% in HIV seronegative TB patients. Fifty three point one
percent, 33.3%, 28.7% and 6.3% of the asymptomatic HIV infected blood donors and
22.6%, 13%, 22.6% and 3.2% of the controls were deficient in zinc, vitamin A, selenium
and iron, respectively. The results indicate altered profile of micronutrients in the sera of
TB patients and blood donors. This warrants the need for further investigations so that
strategies for trace elements supplementation can be planned.

A Comparative in Vitro Evaluation of Anti Hypertensive Drug Products
(Methyldopa, Furosemide and Propranolol Tablets) from Local Market, Addis
Ababa
      Teshome Dires and Asfaw Debela
      Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, CMHS, UoG
      E-mail:dtesh2006@yahoo.com

Abstract
Recent studies show that there is unusual high incidence and prevalence of hypertension in
developing countries especially in eastern Africa. To combat such problem or to improve
health condition of hypertensive patients, therapeutic agents are the most important
components. Thus pharmaceuticals being the prominent actors in the health care system, they
have to be save, effective, proven quality and have affordable cost. This time great concern of
regulatory authorities is directed to control of circulation of counterfeit and substandard drugs.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the quality as well as the physicochemical
equivalence of different products of antihypertensive drugs (methyldopa, furosemide and
propranolol tablets) collected from local market, Addis Ababa. The quality and


                                             27
physicochemical equivalence of different products of antihypertensive drugs were assessed.
The assessment includes identification test, evaluation of hardness, friability, uniformity of
dosage units, disintegration, dissolution and chemical assay of the tablets. All the products
passed the USP and BP identification test, standards for friability, disintegration and
uniformity of dosage units. One product of propranolol and two products of furosemide
showed hardness less than 50 N and one product of methyldopa showed sufficiently high
crushing strength. One of the products of methyldopa showed assay results out of USP
standard and one product of furosemide failed to meet the specifications of dissolution. Among
the products included in the study, there was a significant difference in their assay results and
percentage of drug release which cloud affects their bioequivalence. This study points the need
for assessment of quality of marked products and constant follow up of new products to
ascertain their equivalence to the innovator product.

Keywords: Antihypertensive drugs, Comparative study, physicochemical equivalence

Assessment of Malaria Prevalence and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards
Malaria Prevention and Control in Gondar Town, North Ethiopia
      Tesfaye Tilaye
      Department of Environmental Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
The assessment of situation of malaria disease in the study community and its knowledge,
attitude and practice is necessary in order to institute appropriate malaria prevention and
control activities. The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of malaria and
knowledge, attitude and practice towards malaria prevention and control. A community
based cross-sectional study of 163 systematically selected urban households was carried
out in three randomly selected malarious Kebeles of Gondar town in Northern Ethiopia.
Among 734 examined blood films, 39(5.3%) of them were malaria positive of which
29(74.4%) were due to plasmodium falciparum and 10(25.6%) due to P.vivax. Almost all
respondents (99.4%) had ever heard of malaria. Almost 94.3% of the study community
related to mode of transmission to the bite of anopheles mosquitoes and 57.9% of them
knew that malaria could be transmitted from person to person. Most respondents (92.2%)
recognized that mosquito breed in stagnant water and swampy areas, mainly believed to
bite human beings at night (12.3%); Malaria was thought to be preventable by 94.3% of
the respondents. Most positive cases (74.4%) for malaria were living within the distance
of less than 400 meters from breeding sites, (OR= 2.43:95%CI)(1.167,5.067).A
considerable gap was seen between knowledge of preventive measures and practice of
malaria prevention and control methods among respondents. Most people living closer to
breeding sites were affected. Therefore, health education should be kept on and more
attention should be given to those living closer to potential breeding sites to safe life and
prevent the spread of malaria disease in the community.
Key words: Malaria Prevalence, KAP, Risk Factors




                                             28
Seroprevalence of Syphilis and HIV-1 during Pregnancy in a Teaching Hospital,
Northwest Ethiopia
       Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Belay Tessema, Yared Wondimkun, Takeshi
       Nishikawa, Fusao Ota
      Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
      of Gondar
      Tel. +251-911-721167

Abstract
Ethiopia is amongst the countries where sexually transmitted infections are highly
prevalent. However, there is no adequate data to present a realistic picture of the
infections. This study was, therefore, designed to determine the seroprevalence of
syphilis and HIV-1 among pregnant women in the University of Gondar Teaching
Hospital. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted between
March and June 2005. Blood samples were collected from 480 pregnant women attending
the antenatal clinic (ANC) of the hospital. Sera were tested for syphilis using RPR and
TPHA kits and serostatus for HIV infection was checked by rapid HIV diagnostic test
kits following the manufacturers‟ instructions. The mean (+SD) age of the study
participants was 26.1 (+7.2) years (range 16 to 43 years). Seroprevalence of syphilis was
1%. Antibodies against HIV-1 were detected in 9.6% of the pregnant women. A higher
HIV-1 prevalence (13%) was observed in the age group 25-29 years followed by the age
groups 30-34 (10.2%). Only one subject (2.2%) was found positive for both HIV-1 and
syphilis. The data indicated a relatively declined prevalence of syphilis and HIV-1 among
pregnant women in an urban antenatal clinic. However, incidence and behavioral studies
are required to substantiate the findings. In addition, intensified prevention and
intervention activities are of paramount importance in halting spread of the infections.
Keywords: Syphilis, HIV-1, Gondar

Skin Sensitivity Reactions to Allergens in Different Population Groups of Ethiopian
Subjects.
       Kassahun Dessalegn, Takeshi Nishikawa, Afework Kassie, Andargachew Mulu,
       Gezachew Yismaw, Sisay Yifru
       Department of Dermatology, CMHS, University of Gondar
       E-mail:des@hotmail.com

Abstract
The different variety of substances that surround a population results in allergic reactions
of different clinical varieties. Although few countries have their own standard prevalence
of allergic diseases to variety of allergens determined by different tests like scratch tests
and patch tests, the prevalence is not known and has never been studied in Ethiopia. Our
objective in the study is to assess the prevalence of allergic diseases to few known
allergens of certain population groups of Ethiopian subjects. A total of 216 subjects in six
groups (Diabetics, AIDS patients, asthmatics, tuberculosis patients, infants, and healthy
individuals) were clinically evaluated and tested for skin scratch test using five types of
allergens (mite extract, dog fur, egg white, Candida albicans, and Pencicillium) and white



                                             29
blood cell count with differential determined with standard procedures. Positive reaction
to one or more of the allergens is detected in 49.5%of the subjects, the most prevalent
allergens being mite extract. Twenty seven percent of the subjects showed reaction to
multiple allergens. Infants had low prevalence of positive reaction than adults (P=0.01),
but there was no difference in allergic status of other groups of subjects. The mean
eosinophilic count was significantly high in asthmatics than non asthmatics (P=0) and in
subjects who reacted at least to one of the allergens than in those who showed no reaction
(P=0.038). There was no difference in pattern of allergenicity among different groups.
The prevalence of allergic reaction to the few allergens tested is high in different
population groups of Ethiopian subjects and further study using several allergens is
recommended to substantiate this finding.
Key words: Allergen, Allergic Reaction, Skin Sensitivity, Skin Scratch Test, Gondar

How safe is Safe-Strategy of International Trachoma Initiative: Adverse Effects of
Azitromycin.
      Molla Gedefaw
      Department of Community Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Nowadays, antibiotics are administered right and left. But, none so like Azitromycin
mass treatment of trachoma which has been implemented in Ethiopia especially in
Amhara National Regional State since 2006. Antibiotics have predicable and
unpredictable adverse effects which range from mild to sever and life threatening ones.
The objective of the study was to investigate adverse effects of Azithromycin. A cross-
sectional study was conducted in Nefas Mewucha town and a village known as Yedero,
Lay Gaint Woreda, South Gondar Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia from
May 16 to May 19, 2006 using purposive and simple random sampling techniques to
select the sites and house holds, respectively. A total of 60 households were selected, and
household members were interviewed using pre-tested, close ended questions regarding
their experience to Azithromycin mass treatment. Five nurses and I conducted the
interview. A total of 302 people (172 male, 130 female) were interviewed. Average
family size was 5.4 for the village and 4.6 for the town. All but 22 people did not take
Azithromycin. Diarrhea (44.3%), abdominal pain (38.57%), fever (26.78%), Tennusmus
24.6% and musculoskeletal pain (22.85%) were among the reported adverse effects.
More than 7% had persistent diarrhea. The most striking findings of this investigation
were resurgence of hemorrhoids which was accompanied by terrible burning sensation
and itching over the anoretal area. More than 50% of the interviewees said that they
would not take this drug again. The magnitude and severity of the adverse effects of the
drug seems very much higher than normally expected antibiotic associated
gastrointestinal upset which unfortunately may lead to abortion of the program. Further
investigation of the problem is warranted.




                                            30
Assessment of Utilization of Health Information System at District Level with
Particular Emphasis to HIV/AIDS Program in North Gondar Zone Amhara
National Regional State, 2005/2006.
       Gashaw Andargie
       Department of Environmental Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Given the magnitude of health problem in Africa, health services provision is a crucial
component of any national development. To make practical this development, utilization
of information for informed decision-making at all level of data generation must be
implemented especially on HIV/AIDS. But studies shows us in Africa, the utilization rate
of information at all levels where 10% and 20% in Ghana and Uganda respectively. In the
interests of improving health sectors, the Ethiopian government has engaged in the sector
reform, including a process of decentralizing decision-making and budgetary power to
the district levels. To facilitate informed local decision-making it is not well implemented
a health information system to timely and accurately to provide each level of the health
sector with the necessary information. Cross sectional study was conducted from
October/2005-April/2006 to assess utilization of health information system in particular
on HIV/AIDS at district health level in North Gondar, Amhara Regional stated.
Quantitative data were collected using pre-tested and standardized questionnaire. In
addition, reviewing of records was done in the units and departments using observational
checklist to supplement quantitative data. Data was entered, cleaned and analyses using
EPI info and SPSS statically packages. Descriptive analysis was done for utilization rate
of information for informed decision making by age, sex, and educational level, training,
years of service, salary and position in the organization. Chi-square test, odds ratio and
confidence interval was calculated to show the association between outcome and
exposure variables. Logistic regression analysis was done to control confounding effect
of each other. The total out come of this research paper was found be the utilization rate
of information was 22.5% in all the study units and 9% especially in HIV/AIDS units and
the general implementation of health information system was also found to be 12%. The
source of data was found as routine reports, weekly identifiable diseases reports, vertical
program reports and sometimes survey results. The utilization rate of information was
affected by many factors but from this research only training and Presence of standards
data collection methods, transmission, processing, and reporting rules was found to be
significant at 95% level of significance. So we can conclude that the utilization rate of
information and implementation of health information system was found to be very low
in the study area. We recommend that training of individual and strengthening of
Presence of standards data collection methods, transmission, processing, and reporting
rules should be given attention.




                                            31
                                          2007
In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Albizia Gummifera and Croton
Macrostachyus against Clinical Isolates of Nessieria Gonorrhea
       Mesfin Tefera, Aberra Geyid, Asfaw Debella
       Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Nessieria gonorrhoeae is the etiological agent of gonorrhea, which has an annual
incidence rate of more than 62 million new cases globally. Antimicrobial resistance in N.
gonorrhoeae has been the most significant challenge in controlling gonorrhoeae. At
present, the third generations Cephalosporin are the only classes of antimicrobial agents
to which gonococci have not developed confirmed resistance, but the cost of these agents
limit their use in many developing countries. This situation calls for the urgent search of
alternative agents from natural products with possible antibacterial effects. In line with
this, in this study we used the agar dilution method to evaluate in vitro antibacterial
effects of crude and solvent fractions of two traditionally claimed medicinal plants of
Ethiopia namely, Croton macrostachyus and Albizia Gummifera against 19 clinical
isolates and reference strain of N. gonorrhoeae (ATCC 49226). Crude hydro-alcoholic
(20-80%) extracts of both plants were effective against the test organisms and their
minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were between 250-500 µg/ml. We then used
solvent-solvent partition method to divide the crude extracts of these plants into three
fractions and determined the anti N. gonorrhoeae activity of each fraction obtained.
Chloroform and n-butanol fractions were identified to be the more active ones in C.
macrostachyus with MIC values between 125-250 µg/ml. The most active fraction in A.
Gummifera was identified to be the n-butanol fraction, which also had MIC values
between 125-250 µg/ml. aqueous fractions of this plant exhibited activity at MIC values
of 500-1000 µg/ml. However, aqueous fraction of C. macrostachyus had no growth
inhibition effect. MIC values for Penicillin and Spectinomycin were 128 and 256 µg/ml
respectively. With this aspect, our results indicate the presence of chemical compounds in
A. Gummifera and C. macrostachyus with anti N. gonorrhoeae activity comparable to
Penicillin or Spectinomycin and the need for further investigation involving activity
guided fractionation and purification. Our results also substantiate the ethno botanical use
of these medicinal plants for the treatment of gonococcal infections.

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) among HIV/AIDS Patients
during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      Kahsay Huruy, Andargachew Mulu, Workineh Torben, Getahun Mengistu,
       Aster Shewamare, Addis Akalu, Afework Kassu, Daniel Elias
       Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Successful suppression of viral replications is followed by an increase in CD4+
lymphocytes that correlates with decreased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens
following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, some persons
experience a clinical deterioration following initiation of HAART that is believed to be a


                                            32
consequence of the restored ability to mount an inflammatory response (immune
reconstitution inflammatory syndrome/IRIS). The degree of IRIS observed in human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons following initiation of HAART is
variable. So far, there is no report on the proportion of IRIS in Ethiopia. Therefore, a
prospective study was conducted to determine the proportion IRIS and pattern of
opportunistic infections among 186 HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART at Zewditu
Memorial Hospital between December 2006 and April 2007. Volunteered HIV/AIDS
patients eligible for HAART were enrolled in the study. A pre-designed structured
questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic and relevant clinical data of the
patients. Laboratory investigations were made following the standard procedures. Data
was entered and analyzed by SPSS version 13 statistical packages. The proportion of
IRIS was found to be 13.5% (25/186). The most frequently observed opportunistic
infections (OIs) in decreasing order were tuberculosis (80%, 20/25), herpes zoster rash
(8%, 2/25), bacterial pneumonia (4%, 1/25), cryptococcosis (4%, 1/25) and
toxoplasmosis (4 %, 1/25). The mean CD4 count before the initiation of HAART was
97.44 cells/μl and increased to 141.8 cells /μl after initiation of HAART and development
of IRIS. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.01). Considering this findings
as baseline data, further large scale prospective surveys on epidemiological, clinical and
immunological aspects are important to assess the proportion and pattern IRIS and effect
of HAART.

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Pulmonary Tuberculosis
among Adults in Arbaminch Town and Arbaminch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Goffa
Zone SNRP, Ethiopia May 2007
      Ebrahim Muktar and Yigzaw Kebede
      School of Public Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Ethiopia ranks 8th among 22 high tuberculosis burden countries. DOTS program is the
strategy for its prevention and control. The general public‟s alertness to TB symptoms,
their motivation to seek health care, early diagnosis and treatment, and complying with
treatment are essential to an effective tuberculosis control program. Delays in initiating
treatment by TB patients and low case detection rates were observed in different studies
in Ethiopia. Most of those studies were conducted on patients. Community based KAP
studies on PTB were few. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge,
attitude and practices of adults‟ on pulmonary tuberculosis. A cross- sectional community
based study was carried out in Arbaminch town and zuria woreda, Gamo Goffa zone. The
study population was randomly selected 807 heads of households using multi-stage
sampling technique. A structured, pre-tested and interviewer administered questionnaire
was used to collect the data. Proportions were computed using, descriptive statistics, and
multivariate analysis techniques. Adjusted odds ratios, and the 95% CI, were used to
investigate significances of associations. The study was conducted from Sept 2006 to
May 2007.A total of 807 adults participated. Twelve percent of respondents have never
heard about PTB Only 13% correctly identified the cause of PTB. Misconceptions and
knowledge gaps on the cause, contagiousness, curability and modes of transmission of
PTB was observed. There was a significant mean knowledge score difference between



                                           33
male and female gender and urban and rural residence. Education, income, residence,
sex and marital status were found to have statistically significant associations with PTB
knowledge among adults being a rural resident and female. 1.7 and 1.83 times higher
odds of scoring low PTB knowledge compared to their counter parts. Around 64% afraid
of PTB patients, 72.9% feel unusual feeling, and 35.8% disagree on marriage of their
daughter /son with cured PTB patients. In this study from no information at all about PTB
to some knowledge gap and misconceptions regarding the sign and symptoms, cause,
mode of transmission, curability, methods of prevention and high proportions of
stigmatizing attitude and discriminatory intentions was observed among adults in the
study area. A general awareness creation measures need to be taken in the study
community.

Assessment of Optimal Breast Feeding Practice in Farta District, Amhara Region
      Tefera Birara and Anwar Yibrie
      Department of Nutrition, CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Breast-feeding is widely believed to be the method of feeding that provides optimal
health and well being for infants and it imports benefits to the mother, family and society
as well. Despite Many governmental strategies and international initiatives promoted
breast-feeding as the best method of feeding, globally estimates indicate that 85% of
mothers do not confirm to optimal breast-feeding practices. To assess optimal breast
feeding practice and associated factors among mothers whose child aged 6-35 months.
Community based cross sectional survey conducted in Farta District, Amhara Region
from Jan. 5th to 19th, 2007. In a multistage sampling procedure 658 mothers were selected
from 1 urban and 26 rural Keble‟s. The information was collected on socio demographic
variables and breast-feeding practices using structured & pre tested questionnaires.
Results were analyzed using EPI-info version 6 and SPSS 11.5 soft ware program.
Mothers initiated breast fed with in one hour and one day of delivery was 439(66.8%)
and 622(94.7%), respectively. Most of the mothers 565 (86.5%) provided colostrums and
72(10.9%) gave pre-lacteal foods. Exclusively breast feeding (EBF) Mothers to their
children up to 6 months of age were 527 (80.1%). Among 22 mothers, who stopped
breast-feeding before 24 months of age, 14 (63.6%) were due to early pregnancy. Early
initiation of breast-feeding and EBF was about three times higher in rural women than
urban women‟s (AOR=3.59, 95%CI=1.506, 8.57 and AOR=3.36, 95% CI 1.421,7.941/
respectively. On the other hand rural women and those attended formal education were
found less likely to give prelacteal foods than urban women and not attend formal
education: women /AOR=0.21, 95%CI=0, 080, 0.555) & (AOR=0.32, 95% CI=0.128,
0.799) respectively. The over all optimal breast feeding practices was 363(55.2%) and
rural women were 2.57 times more likely to providing optimal breast feeding practices
than urban women (AOR= 2.57,95%CI, 1.063,6.232).Optimal breast feeding practices in
this district was found relatively better than in most studies done before in other areas but
it is still 44.8& were found sub optimal. So it needs coordinate, strengthening, sustain the
existing strategies, approach, and utilizing available resources in the district for further
improving optimal breast feeing practice.




                                             34
Investigation on Parasite, Vector and Reservoir Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
in Addis Ababa, Silti, Merabete and Awash Valley
       Wossenseged Lemma and Asrat Hailu
       Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
From January 2005 to May 2006, investigations on the parasite, vector and reservoir host
of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Silti, Merabete and Awash Region, were
carried out. Addis Ababa and Silti were discovered recently as Leshmania foci of
cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the highlands of Ethiopia. Awash valleys were areas where
sympatric Leshmania tropica and L. aethiopica were discovered for the first time from
sand flies. Merabete is not very well known for cutaneous Leishmaniasis in humans, but
visceral Leishmaniasis was reported from children in the associated lowland. The current
Leshmania epidemics in South Eastern Addis Ababa along the gorges of Bulbulla and
Akaki rivers was related to settlement of people near the Bulbulla - Akaki river gorges
where hyraxes and sand flies (Phlebotomus longipes) co-existed in crevices and cracks of
the basalt rocks. It was the area where the zoonotic Leshmania cycle was maintained. In
Silti, however, the epidemics was related to the recent increase in number of hyraxes and
sand flies as a result of the ecological changes of the Kerate gorge that bisects the center
of the town (Kibet) and synanthropic adaptations of the hyraxes. The possible reservoir
hosts that were examined for natural infection of Leshmania were 79 hyraxes, 12 Rattus,
14 Praomys spp., 41 bats, 3 mongooses and 3 genet cats. Samples from skin, blood, liver,
spleen and bone marrow were cultured in NNN medium in addition to Giemsa stain.
Leishmania parasites were isolated in NNN medium only from three bush hyraxes
(Heterohyrax brucei) in Addis Ababa. The hyraxes from the other areas were negative for
Leishmania in NNN medium. The total infection rate of H. brucei in Addis Ababa was
6.3% (3/48) and the highest infection rate was from the Saris area, 11.1% (2/18). The
hyrax infection rates in Kality were 5.9 %( 1/17). No infected hyraxes were found in
Kilinto (Akaki). The Giemsa stains of the above tissues were negative for amastigote
stage of Leishmania in the macrophages. Leishmania infection was not found in the guts
of sand flies dissected. Seasonality and age dependent infections in hyraxes were
observed. Infections in hyraxes were found only in April, June and September after
spring peak sand fly abundance and biting passed. In Addis Ababa, no adults (0/16) were
found infected, but infections occurred only in juveniles (2/25) and sub adults (1/10).
There were seasonal variations in sand flies abundances. High sand fly abundances were
observed in April, September, October and November. Non-motile flagellates, which
were considered to be Trypanosoma spp., were also found from blood and liver samples
of 9 hyraxes and a Genet cat. But these flagellates failed to grow up on sub-culturing. The
Leishmania strain (promastigotes from stationary phase) isolated from the hyraxes was
inoculated into 16 hamsters, which began to produce lesion starting from 18 weeks.
Leishmania strains were re-isolated from the infected hamsters in NNN-mediums. The
tissue smears from the lesions of hamsters were also found to be positive. PCR-RFLP
analysis indicated that the Leishmania strains isolated from the H. brucei from Addis
Ababa were L. aethiopica.




                                            35
Assessment of HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Its Influencing Factors among
Late Window of Hope Population in Axum Town, Tigray Regional State, North
Ethiopia
      Tewelde Yohannes and Anwar Yibrie
      Department of Nutrition, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
In Ethiopia information on the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and related issue among the
early adolescent is scanty. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of
HIV/AIDS and its influencing factors among late window of hope population (primary
schools) in Axum town, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. A school based cross-
sectional survey was conducted on February, 6/2007 to address the main research
questions. A total of 392 students were selected by systematic sampling technique for all
general primary schools in Axum town Tigray, Regional State, North Ethiopia. Data were
collected using standardized and self-administered questionnaire. EPI version 6.0 was
utilized for data entry and SPSS version 10.0 for data analysis. A total of 388 students
(51.3% male and 48.7% female) 10 to 14 years old attending grade 5 to 8 were enrolled
in the study. All respondents have heard about HIV/AIDS, and 344 (88.7%) and 322
(84.5%) of the respondents replied that HIV/AIDS was a transmittable and preventable
disease respectively. Two hundred and thirty eight (61.3%) and 222 (57.2%) of
respondents were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS mode of transmission and prevention
methods respectively, and 42(10.8%) of them had also comprehensive knowledge on
HIV/AIDS. Student had also misconception about mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS,
the most prevalent being mosquito bite 128 (33.0%), coughing and sneezing 103 (26.5%),
shaking hands with infected person 58(14.9%), eating meal with some one who is
infected 51 (13.1%). Some of the respondents had also misconception on the prevention
methods of HIV. This included avoiding mosquito bite 171 (44.1%), public swimming
pool 145 (37.4%) and sharing toilet 128 (33.0%).Two hundred and nightly eight (76.8%)
and 237 (85.1%) replied that they discussed about HIV/AIDS with their parents and peers
respectively. The most frequently mentioned source of information was Ant-AIDS Club
300(77.3%). Students in high-grade level [OR=2.1, 95%CI 1.14, 3.85] had significant
association with mode of transmission knowledge. Similarly respondents in high grade
level and parent discussion had significant association with prevention method of
knowledge [OR=2.78, 95%CI 1.49, 5.17] and [OR=2.69, 95%CI 1.40, 5.17] respectively.
It was also conclude that student‟s knowledge on the mode of transmission and
prevention method was moderate. There for strengthening the current HIV/AIDS
education going in the school should be recommended.

Sexual Practices and Contraceptive Usage among School Youth in North Gondar
       Abebaw Gebeyehu
       Department of Public Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Worldwide pattern of sexual practice in adolescents is rapidly changing. There is early
maturity and delayed marriage accompanied by unsafe sex i.e. early sex and with
multiple partners and with out contraceptive use. Reports in Ethiopia showed that


                                           36
contraceptive use including condom among students is not only low but also inconsistent.
It is thus expected that an assessment and improving contraceptive usage by students or
helping adolescents to abstain sex, decrease problems related to unwanted pregnancy.
This study was designed to assess sexual practices and contraceptive usage among in
school youth in North Gondar zone. A cross sectional study using quantitative methods
was utilized. Using multistage sampling procedure, 1015 secondary school students were
selected. Data was collected using pre tested self-administered, anonymous, structured,
close-ended questioner and analyzed using the EPI 6 and SPSS 11 versions. Overall 1006
students participated in the study. Of these, 358(35.6%) had experienced sexual
intercourse. More males (37.7%) than females (33.7%) engaged in sex but more females
(18.5%) start sex earlier than males (12.9%). From the total in school adolescents, 155
(15.4%) used modern contraceptives where only 82 (53%) used regularly. And
51(32.9%) students discontinued their use with a contraceptive prevalence of 29.1%
among sexually active students. According to users‟ experience, embarrassment at
needing service and lack of adequate privacy were the major barriers of contraceptive
use. Inconvenient family planning service was the first reason among non-users for not
using contraceptives. Based on this study, the demand of contraceptive use among in
school adolescents was 73.2%. Adolescents preferred to have family planning at
exclusive youth clinic, near the residence area, special time arrangement, given by any
provider and free of charge. Still there is a wide gap between contraceptive use and
sexual practice. The current family planning is inconvenient for in school adolescents to
provide appropriate counseling and choosing their methods. Therefore starting well-
planned and organized school family planning education, establishing exclusive youth
clinic in each district and increasing contraceptive access were recommended.

Epidemiology of Intestinal Helminthic Infections and their Relationship to Clinical
Patterns of Malaria in South Ethiopia
       Andargachew Mulu, Mengistu Legesse, Berhanu Erko, Demise Dessie,
       Daniel Elias
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
       Of Gondar

Abstract
Chronic helminthic infections have shown to be associated with wide range of
immunomodulation characterized by dominant Th2 type immune profile. There are
reports showing significant association between helminthic infections and increased
frequency of malaria attacks. On the other hand, worms have shown to provide protection
against severe forms of malaria. A cross sectional study was conducted to look at the
possible association between intestinal helminthes infection and the clinical pattern of
malaria in malaria endemic area, where the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis is also
high. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and malaria with an
over all prevalence of 81 and 49%, respectively and 52.2% prevalence of confection.
Worm infection seems to have protective effect from severe malarial infection. As egg
per gram of A. lumbricodes increase, the chance of developing malaria was decreased, so
worm burden of A. lumbricodes have a protective effect from malaria attack. Prevalence
of malaria was decreasing as infections of ascariasis become severe, which shows dose



                                           37
dependent protection. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Individuals
infected by helminthes showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria
patients without intestinal helminthes. Populations in malaria endemic areas are
multiparasitized. Though significant association between helminthic infections and
malaria was not observed along the existing data, we can suggest that the immune
response to confection is more complex than hypothesized. Thus, further
epidemiological, clinical and immunological studies are needed to explore these
phenomena, which might be important in the prevention of malaria and might have a
major impact on the development of effective malaria vaccine.

Immunization Status in Janguamariam Kebele in March 2007
     Aron W/Gabriel, Nuredie Ahmed, Tadele Yitbariek, Endres Mohammed,
     Endalk Bonsa
     School of Public Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar
Abstract
The expanded program on immunization was launched by WHO in Ethiopia. It was
initiated 1980 with the objective of reducing morbidity and mortality from EPL targeted
diseases through immunization of children under 1 year. Despite various initiative and
campaigns over the years, immunization coverage in most part of Ethiopia is low. With a
general objective to asses the status of immunization status in Dembia woreda Jangua
Mariam Kebele and to determine knowledge attitude and practice of the community and
extension health workers. For our survey we use simple random sampling for TT@ and
all children under 2 years of age in that Kebele for immunization coverage and we also
conduct FGD in that Kebele and two groups among mothers. In addition we conducted in
depth interview with 2 EHWs in that Kebele. The research which was conducted on
March 2007 in Dembia district in Jangua Mariam Kebele was able to identify the
following things: Immunization coverage for children under two years of age in Jangua
Mariam was 70.4%;Over all drops out rate is 36.2%, specifically for those who have
immunization card is 48.7% ;Economical status of mothers have direct relation ship with
their children immunization statue i.e. those who are in high economical status tend to
immunized their children more them those who are with low socio-economic status
where as the educational status of mother was not significant related with the children
immunization status.; The TT2 coverage was 93%.6%.; and From the FGD we conduct in
the two groups of mothers we found misperception in the importance of immunization to
their children as well as to them selves. Also there was a problem arranging programs
with EHWS. What we have found from the in depth interview with the EHWS is not
much different from the FGD. What survey revealed was one of the EHWs didn‟t have
enough knowledge on the dose and timing of the TT2 and some of the clinical feature of
the child hood disease. From the above results we can conclude that there was better
immunization coverage. Both for children and mother when we computed it with the
regional and national coverage. But there is still gap in attitude and knowledge in a
community, which needs for their intervention and also we should improve the drop out
rate in that area. What was striking was the misperception of mothers and in adequate
knowledge of the EHED about vaccine and targeted disease which they were assigned to
work on. So we would like to recommend to improve the awareness and correct the
misperception of mother‟s towards immunization, extensive health education should be


                                          38
given to mother by health professionals especially by EHWs because they are the one
who can influence the people out there. Finally we also recommended further and regular
training should be given to EHWS and it is also good to increase their numbers.

Interaction among Atopy, Serum Immunoglobulin E, and Intestinal Parasites in
Ethiopian Subjects
       Kassahun Dessalegn, Takeshi Nishikawa, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu,
       Gezachew Yismaw, Sisay Yifru, Fusao Ota
       Department of Dermatology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
The interaction of Atopy and intestinal parasites is still a matter of debate by many
scholars. Both conditions are associated with an increased level of serum
immunoglobulin E. The real negative, positive, or neutral association and the mechanism
of this association have not been fully elucidated. In this study we aimed to assess an
interaction(s) among Atopy, intestinal parasites and immunoglobulin E. One hundred
eighty subjects were questioned for the presence of Atopy, skin scratch tested for five
common allergens, stool examined and total serum IgE determined and compared with
the counterparts of controls. The prevalence of self reported Atopy was 29.4%. Positive
reaction to one or more allergens was detected in 49% of the subjects. Self reported
Atopy or positive skin scratch test was observed in 64.4% of the participants. Intestinal
parasitosis with a general prevalence of 36.7% has decreased frequency in Atopics. This
decreased prevalence is mainly seen in infections with A. lumbricoides and S. stercoralis.
Increased mean serum IgE was seen in Atopy and in parasitosis mainly in ascariasis,
strongloidiasis, and amoebiasis. The results demonstrate a high prevalence of Atopy and
intestinal parasitosis. A reverse relation was observed between some parasites and Atopy.
Some parasites cause increased serum IgE level without affecting the occurrence of
Atopy. A different immunologic mechanism of preventing Atopy in parasite-infested
patients should be sought

Primary Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Ethiopian Patients Histopathologic
Analysis of 50 Cases Diagnosed in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital,
1999-2005.
      Teklu Bekele
      Department of Pathology, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Malignant melanoma though not a very common problem in Ethiopia, a number of cases
are diagnosed each year. But no data exists on its clinical and pathologic characteristics.
In an attempt to define these features cases diagnosed as primary cutaneous malignant
melanoma were retrieved from records of Pathology Department of Tikur Anbessa
Specialized Teaching Hospital. A total of 50 cases were found from 1999-2005 and were
analyzed for certain clinical and histological parameters. There were equal number of
male and female patients, the mean age was 51.6years. Most of the melanomas (64%)
were found on the foot. The vast majority (96%) of the cases were nodular melanomas
while there were one case of acral lentiginous and another case of superficial spreading


                                            39
melanoma. 7 (14%) were non pigmented melanomas and generally mitotic figures were
not high with 56.5% having low mitosis. The prognosis was poor with 72% of the cases
showing Clark level V invasion and mean Breslow tumor thickness being 6.02 mm.
Ulceration was present in the majority (83.3%) of the cases. In conclusion melanoma in
Ethiopian patients is characterized by late stage presentation associated with poor
prognosis and high preponderance to the foot. The lower prevalence of acral lentiginous
melanoma is different fro other African countries and needs further study.

Research Report on Attitude and Practice on Traditional Medicine Debark District
      Abera Balcha, Satoawit Russom, Yonathan G/Wold, Biniam Girma
      Department of Public Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Traditional medicine has been used even before the advent of modern medicine. It is still
widely acceptable and used in prevention and treatment of physical and mental disorders,
as well as social imbalance. A cross sectional study was conducted on 384 individual in
Debark District using open and close ended questionnaire. A total of 384 individuals,
44.4% males and 55.6% of the studied population accepted the importance of traditional
medicine to modern medicine mainly because of its efficacy affordability and
availability. Majority of them who accepted and preferred traditional medicine have
lower education status. Acceptance and preference of traditional medicine is greater in
orthodox Christian than Muslim. The commonly used traditional medicine is found to be
herbal (Haregressa) 53.7% of the studied population utilizing it, followed by Holy water
(48.2%). 78.9% of them used clean that they get improved from their illness. We can
conclude that still significant percentage of the population believe and depend an
traditional medicine. So, further studies have to be conducted on the commonly practiced
traditional medicine.

Prescribing Pattern Assessment of the Different Lines of ART Regimen in Gondar
University Hospital as of end of Yekatit, 1999 (March 10, 2007)
       Anteneh Assefa
       School of Pharmacy, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
The most important therapeutic intervention in the care of patient with HIV- infection is
the initial therapy choice. This study was done to asses the rational prescribing pattern of
the different initial ART regimens using an institution based cross sectional study design
from the start of ART in the facility to the end of Yekatit 1999. The result indicated that
99.6% of patients are on first line ART regimen and 5.7% of which were prescribed for
children less than 14 years. Total percent per regimen was found to be d4T- 3TC-NVP
(39.4%), AZT-3TC-NVP (27.1%), d4T-3TC EFV(22.6%),and AZT- 3TC-
EFV(12.1%).d4t containing regimen was prescribed more frequently (62%) than
AZT(38%) except in the pediatric regimen in which 95.7% was prescribed with AZT.
NVP containing regimen was also prescribed more frequently (66.5%) than EFV
(33.5%). The result was almost consistent with the nationally colleted and updated data
by MOH-HAPCO except that total AZT-3TC -NVP was prescribed more in Gondar


                                            40
university hospital than d4t-3TC-EFV as in the national. Other resource poor countries
also have similar prescribing pattern as it is standardized by WHO in this settings. But
developed countries prescribing pattern is different, for example, AZT and EFV are
prescribed more frequently than d4t and NVP respectively.

Prevalence of Bad Foot Odor, and Anti-Foot Odor Effect of Tomato among
Preparatory School Students
       Amsalu Addis, Dersolign Masresha, Gurja Embafrash, Mengesha Abie,
        Shegaw Agezew, Worksira Mandefro, Molla Gedefaw
       School of Public Health, CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Foot odor is a common problem especially in warm climates. People use different
methods to mitigate the problem. Tomato is one among them however neither the
prevalence of foot odor nor the perceived importance of tomato in reducing foot odor has
been studied in our area. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of foot
odor, and to determine the perceived treatment effect of tomato. School-based cross-
sectional, followed by experimental study was conducted in Addis Zemen, Libo Kemkem
Woreda from February 30-to March 14, 2007. The school has 12 sections in which 762
students were learning. Six sections in which 300 students were learning were selected
using simple random sampling technique. The students filled structured self-administered
questionnaire. Then 37 voluntary students were enrolled for the experimental study.
Students were instructed how to use tomato, contacted at the school every three days for
consecutive two weeks. Then these 37 students filled post treatment self-administered
structured questionnaire. Of the three hundred students, 162 (54.2%) had foot odor
problem. Of these 126(77.7%) were male and 36(22.3%) were female. The experimental
study showed that prevalence of foot odor had reduced from 35/37 (94.6%) to
10/37(27%). This is statistically significant. Those 27% reported also that the both odor
and excessive sweating decreased dramatically. All of them reported also that they
experienced good feeling, and there was no any adverse effect. Tomato is found to be a
cheap and very effective domestic alternative treatment for bad foot odor. We
recommend further rigorous study.

Prevalence of Khat Chewing and Associated Risk Factors among School and Out of
School Youth in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia
       Telake Azale and Yigzaw Kebede
       School of Public Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
Khat (an evergreen plant with amphetamine-like properties) and alcohol are widely
consumed among the youth of Ethiopia. The chewing of Khat has been practiced for
years and is, to a large extent, socially accepted in Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar,
Somalia, and Yemen. Apart from the habitual use of Khat, it is reported that it is used by
students to improve their academic performance, by truck drivers to keep themselves
awake and by laborers to supply the extra vigor and energy they need for their work. The
objective the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of Khat chewing among
in school and out of school youth (15-24) years of age) in Gondar town. A cross-sectional


                                           41
study was conducted in February 2007 in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. In-school
and out of school youth were selected randomly from high schools and house holds
systematically. Self administered questionnaire was used for school youth and interview
for out of school youth. The total number of study subjects was 1167 and the study
revealed that 433(37.1%) life time prevalence rate of Khat chewing, 170(14.6%) of
cigarette smoking, and 548(47%) of alcohol drinking. The current prevalence rates of
chewing, smoking and drinking were 31.4%, 11.9%, and 36.6% respectively. Three
hundred fifty one (53.6%) of out of school and 82(16%) of in-school youth have ever
chewed Khat. Three hundred twenty (48.8%) of the out-of school youth and 47(9.1%) of
the in-school youth chew Khat currently. One hundred fifty three (13.1%) use Khat and
cigarette, 314(26.9%) Khat and alcohol. Of the respondents, 155(13.3%) have ever used
Khat, cigarette, and alcohol. The prevalence of Khat chewing is high and along with it
other substances such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are being practiced.
More over, illicit substances including shisha and hashish are also being taken. The
problem is especially worrisome among out of school youth who have no job or who are
daily laborers this summons that attention is to be given to educate the youth and find
means of controlling substance use at least in public entertainment places.

Substance Use among the Students of Gondar College of Medicine and Health
Sciences, University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia
       Alemayehu Berhane
       School of Public Health, CMHS, University o f Gondar

Abstract
The use of substances such as alcohol, Khat, and tobacco is not new. It occurs in all
segments of all societies. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and
correlates associated with use of substances among GCMHS students A cross sectional
survey using a self-administered questioner was conducted on 412 students of GCMHS,
Gondar University North west Ethiopia, from march to April 2007.The overall rate of
ever used drug for at least one “drug” was 29.4% and current prevalence was 23.5%.
Specifically, the current prevalence rate of Khat chewing, alcohol drinking, cigarette
smoking & cannabis using is 19.2%, 17.2%, 11.9% and 1.94% respectively. More males
(29.2%) than females, Muslims (43.5%) than Christians, Guardians (30%) than any other
ethnic group, age group 21-24 years (29.6%) than any other age group, year III than any
other years of study, income of 100-200 birr (30%) than any other monthly income,
merchant parents (30%) than any other parents Job, senior students of school of health
(30.5%) than any other schools were found to be substance users male sex
(X2=249,p<0.001), 21-24 age group (X2= 6.86, p<0.05), being Muslim (x2=23.2, p<0.01)
and being year III (X2=20.6,p<0.01)were significantly associated with using .Most year
III students, most of which are graduating class, use substances, and this has a strong
impact on their real work. Thus, efforts to prevent and ultimately control substance
abuses are likely to diminish overall prevalence.




                                          42
Determinants for Suicidal Attempt and Ideation in Adults Who Attend Psychiatric
Consultation at Gondar University Hospital
      Desalew Mekonnen and Yigzaw Kebede
      Department of Internal Medicine CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Suicide is the commonest problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in
countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. It is wise
to look on the trends at different cultures for addressing the problem as the risk factors
and the way forward are not always the same among communities. The objective of the
study was to determine the magnitude of suicidal attempt, ideation and possible risk
factors for suicide among patients who attend psychiatric clinic at Gondar University
Hospital. Cross sectional study was conducted involving a total of 474 patients who
attend psychiatric consultations from March-December 2006 at psychiatry clinic of
Gondar University hospital, North West Ethio0pia. Data was collected using structured
questionnaire administered by psychiatric Nursing staff as part of their routine practical
interview. Data was analyzed using EPI-INFO version 3.3,2004. A total of 474 patients
were enrolled for the study. Age ranging from 14-82 sex distribution and area of living
are almost the same. The commonest mental illness is major Depress ional Disorder
(51.3%) followed by psychosis (35%). Majority of patients are suffering with
hopelessness (85.8%) and almost all experience stressful event in the past (96.2%0.
19.2% (91) patients attempted suicide at least once after the onset of the current mental
illness and 64.8 (307) have the idea of committing suicide. The commonest way of
suicidal attempt was hanging (51.1%) and usually at home (69.2%). There is association
between hopelessness and chat chewing with suicidal ideation. There is also strong
association between suicidal ideation and attempt (OR= 33.5, 95% CI8.7- 285.2,
P=0.000).Suicidal ideation and attempt are common problems and are closely
interrelated. Those patients found to have risk factors are at great need of help in
addressing this preventable death. Involving the families in the management of mentally
ill patient with suicidal risk has a paramount importance.

Practicing and Learning Dermatology in Ethiopia – Challenges and Rewards
       Kassahun Dessalegn
       Department of Dermatology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
The abundant nature of skin diseases is the natural gravity that mandates skin care to be
available everywhere. The unfair distribution of physicians to care for the skin and other
diseases through out the world due to economic differences is constantly opposing this
natural gravity. Iniquitous dermatologic care multiplied by poverty devastates the health
of the skin in poor countries. Although a historical country dating back to 1000 B.C,
Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries where dermatology is least developed. Fewer than
20 dermatologists are responsible for more than 70 million population of the country. The
improved      educational policy of the country in recent years allowed opening of
postgraduate dermatology specialist training. A quarter of the countries dermatologists
are responsible for this training in limited logistic facilities but abundant number of


                                            43
patients. Overall assessment of dermatologic care and training in regard to patients and
physicians in the country is revised. Intensive revision of the available literatures, chart
and patient records, personal and colleagues experience as well as group discussions are
used to compose this paper. More than half of Ethiopian dermatologic patients are
unaware of their illnesses and the availability skin care and are discovered to have skin
diseases while being examined for medical illnesses. Most of those who are aware of
their skin problems tend to go to local healers before they reach to health professionals
(nurses and general practitioners). Another cycle follows from these health professionals
to dermatologists in which majority of patients are misdiagnosed and given a drug “trial”
which in most cases has either aggravated their illness or resulted in no improvement.
The start of the new dermatology school at Addis Ababa University appears to slightly
increase the skin care of the country and hopefully it will do this significantly in the
future. The abundant number of patients and cases for the trainees are rewarding and
never be replaced by scores of sophisticated diagnostic facilities.

Prevalence of Perceived Adverse Effects of Modern Contraceptives and its Role in
Unwanted Pregnancy
       Molla Gedefaw, Nigussie Yigzaw, Messema Nina, Birara Melese, Kewani Ybra,
        Adane Bayle, Haregewoin Mulat, Gemechu Kuffa
       School of Public Health, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Family planning has played a substantial role in reducing unwanted pregnancy and
maternal deaths associated to pregnancy related causes. However, contraceptive
prevalence rate in many developing countries is still low because of multitude of factors.
Among this fear of adverse effects is one. The objective of the study was to assess the
prevalence of perceived side effects of modern contraceptives and its role in unwanted
pregnancy. Health institution-based cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Zemen
Health Center. All FP & ANC clients who visited the health center from March 12 –
April 12, 2007 were enrolled in the study. Structured Questionnaire was administered by
finial year HO Students. A total of 165 FP clients and 110 ANC clients were enrolled in
the study. Depo provera was the most commonly utilized contraceptive (66.06%)
followed by pills (32.72%). Mood change 73.4%, amenorrhea 71.15%, headache 56.8%,
lose of libido or sexual drive 47.7%, depression 44.9%, and abdominal cramp 43.1%
were the common complaints among Depo provera users. Among 110 pregnant women
who follow ANC service 32/110 (29%) had unwanted pregnancy. Of these 37.5% were
due interruption of contraceptives following perceived adverse effects and bad
experiences. The most notable finding of this study was that almost 50 per cent of the
Depo clients had suffered from lose of libido which could result in reduction of quality of
life and frequent quarrel with their husbands. This can result in divorce or it might force
their husbands to go for sexual intercourse outside marriage. Thus, counseling about
adverse effects of contraceptives should be given for the husbands/ partners as well.




                                            44
ART Laboratory Services in Gondar University Hospital
     Getachew Ferede, Tessema Zewdie, Yitayih Wondimenih
     ART Laboratory, University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar

Abstract
Clinical laboratory services are integral parts of health care. However; there is no
adequate information on the details of ART laboratory services rendered at Gondar
University Hospital to the various stakeholders. The objective of the study was to provide
up-to-date information on the kind of ART laboratory services, work load, facilities,
problems encountered and possible solutions. Descriptive analysis using laboratory log
book and information from practitioners. The ART laboratory started to function from
April 2005. The laboratory follows users‟ manuals during operation of its major
equipment (spectrophotometer, hematology analyzer, and FACS count). There are also
well prepared standard operational procedures (SOP) for all of the tests, and the SOPs are
readily available on the bench to guide the staff during the laboratory procedures to
generate reliable and cost effective results. The lab has its own internal quality control
system for all tests and it also has an external quality control scheme with the Ethiopian
Health and Nutrition Research Institute. The laboratory rendered the following services in
July 2005 to June 2006: Flow cytometry (CD4, CD3, CD8 & CD4/CD8) - 6600 tests,
clinical chemistry (SGPT, ALP, Creatinine, Urea, etc…) - 4900 tests, hematology (CBC)
- 4200 tests, HIV screening for VCT clients - 5745 tests, PMTCT - 1168, HIV screening
for admitted patients - 530 tests. The lab also renders CD4 count, hematology and clinical
chemistry tests for Delgi, Kola Diba and Gondar Health Centers and West Command
Gondar Referral Hospital since January 2007. Besides, the lab is also involved in
Provider Initiative HIV Counseling Tests (PIHCT) in Gondar University Hospital since
January 2007. However, the laboratory has problems due to 1) fluctuation of electricity
which may affect the expensive equipments/reagents being used, 2) insufficient number
of trained laboratory personnel, 3) lack/inadequate refresher training, 4) inadequate
supplies of reagents, 5) lack of allowance for head of ART laboratory, etc. The Gondar
University Hospital ART laboratory renders adequate and essential laboratory services
despite the various problems it has. Appropriate management intervention and provision
of allowances, refresher trainings, and employment of additional staff members together
with installation of additional equipment will help to strengthen its services to the public
at large.

Changes in HIV-1 RNA Viral Load in Patients with or Without Intestinal Parasites
during Treatment of Tuberculosis in Gondar, Ethiopia
         Afework Kassu, Ermias Diro, Belete Ayele, Dereje Ketema, Getahun Mengistu,
         Masako Nishizawa, Wataru Sugiura, Fusao Ota
         Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Partasitoltogy CMHS,
         University of Gondar

Abstract
HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) is a powerful predictor of risk for disease progression in
subjects infected with HIV. This study was aimed to determine serum VL in tuberculosis
(TB) and HIV-1 co-infected patients with or without intestinal parasites and also to assess


                                            45
its variation with treatment. One hundred nineteen TB/HIV-1 co-infected patients were
included at baseline and 22 were re-examined at the end of intensive phase of anti-TB
chemotherapy. Stool samples were examined for intestinal parasites by conventional
microscopy and serum VL was determined using an Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor RT-PCR
assay. Forty five (37.8%) patients were found infected with one or more species of
intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis were the most
frequently detected species. Mean baseline VL was lower in TB patients co-infected with
intestinal parasites (4.670.73 log10 RNA copies/ml) than that in the uninfected group
(4.910.59 log10 RNA copies/ml). The VL declined to 4.520.66 log10 RNA copies/ml at
the end of the intensive phase of anti-TB chemotherapy from a pretreatment reading of
4.840.45 log10 RNA copies/ml, P=0.07. In five patients who were also treated for
intestinal parasites, VL significantly declined two months after therapy (5.020.38 versus
4.470.66 log10 RNA copies/ml, P=0.03). The lack of significant decline in VL at the end
of intensive phase of anti-TB treatment indicates an increased morbidity in co-infected
patients, and may imply an impaired HIV specific immune response due to TB. The high
prevalence of intestinal parasites in TB and HIV co-infected patients calls for institution
of appropriate intervention measures to reduce morbidity.

Deficient Serum Retinol Levels i n HIV Infected and Uninfected Patients with
Tuberculosis in Gondar, Ethiopia
       Afework Kassu, Nguyen van Nhien, Masayo Nakamori, Getahun Mengistu,
       Ermias Diro, Belete Ayele, Yared Wondimkun, Takeshi Nishikawa, Shigeru
       Yamamoto, Fusao Ota
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Partasitoltogy, CMHS, University
       Of Gondar

Abstract
Vitamin A deficiency is an important public health problem in developing countries.
However, data on magnitude of the problem is very scarce in tuberculosis (TB) patients.
The objective of the study was investigating serum status of vitamin A in patients with
active TB at the start and end of the intensive phase of anti-TB treatment. Sera were
collected from 222 TB patients (115 HIV infected), 92 apparently healthy controls and 30
asymptomatic HIV seropostive blood donors in Gondar, Ethiopia. Sub-samples of the
patients (23 HIV negative and 34 HIV positive) were followed and sera were collected at
the end of the intensive phase of anti-TB chemotherapy. Serum vitamin A levels were
measured by high performance liquid chromatography. At baseline, mean serum vitamin
A in TB patients with (0.690.46 mol/L) or without (0.750.48 mol/L) HIV co-
infection and in a symptomatic HIV infected blood donors (0.900.50 mol/L) was
significantly lower than that in healthy controls (1.490.71 mol/L), P<0.001. Vitamin A
deficiency (serum retinol < 0.7 mol/L) was observed in 62.6% and 56.1% of TB patients
with and without HIV co-infection, respectively. Thirteen percent of healthy controls and
33.3% of asymptomatic HIV infected blood donors were deficient for vitamin A. The
serum levels of vitamin A significantly rose following anti-TB chemotherapy both in
patients with (0.780.51 mol/L to 1.120.46 mol/L, n=34) and without (0.930.41
mol/L to 1.230.60 mol/L, n=23) HIV co-infection, P<0.05. This study demonstrated
that Vitamin A deficiency is a severe public health problem among adults with TB and/or


                                            46
HIV infection in Gondar, Ethiopia. The low vitamin A levels observed in patients
returned to normal at the end of the intensive phase of anti-TB therapy without its
supplementation.

A Preliminary Study on Isolation and Identification of Candida Species from the
Oral Cavity of Patients with HIV Infection, Addis Ababa
      Andargachew Mulu, Ermias Diro, Afework Kassu, Emiko Isogai, Takeshi
      Nishikawa, Fusao Ota
      Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Partasitoltogy, CMHS, University
       of Gondar

Abstract
Candidacies is one of the opportunistic infectious usually limited to the skin and mucous
membranes. However, systemic, invasive infections of candidacies can occur, especially
in those patients with severe immunosuppressant, with CD4_ lymphocyte counts less
than 200 cells/mm3. Although Candida albicans is considered the most prevalent species
recovered from humans, during the last 20 years a marked shift in the spectrum of
Candida infections (such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei) has been noted
among different immuno-compromised patients. So far, the epidemiology of Candida
species in Ethiopia is not well known. Therefore, to isolate, identify and determine the
epidemiology of Candida species among HIV-infected patients in Ethiopia, we are
undertaking a preliminary a study in Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa. This prospective
study is being conducted in Black Lion Specialized Hospital among randomly selected
HIV/AIDS patients. After informed consent was obtained, they were instructed to
provide rinse of oral cavity. In brief, patients were provided about 10 ml of sterile
distilled water and instructed to rinse their oral cavity and to pour on sterile plastic cup.
Then the fluid was poured to a Chromagar (prepared as per the manufacturer instruction)
and the plates were drained after 30 seconds. The plate was then incubated at 37 o C for
48 hours. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis were identified by their colony
characteristics from the Chromagar plate. Thirteen HIV positive inpatients randomly
selected were included in this preliminary study. All of them had shown a full blown
WHO AIDS definition. The mean age of the patients was 34 years with a minimum and
maximum age of 15 and 60 years, respectively. The majority (9) of them were males.
Eight of them had clinical oral candidiasis, with pseudomenbranous type (4) and candidal
leucoplakia (3). The majority (8) of them developed WHO clinical stage IV with
additional opportunistic infections like Pulmonary TB, disseminated TB, Toxoplasmosis,
pyogenic meningitis, Kaposi Sarcoma, PCP and TB meningitis. The mean CD4 count
was 90.5 with minimum and maximum count of 4 and 313 cells/mm3 of blood,
respectively. The isolation rate of candidiasis was 100%. To determine the prevalence
and epidemiology of Candida species further large scale clinical and epidemiological
study is needed.




                                             47
Quantitative Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water in
Amhara Region, Ethiopia
      Andargachew Mulu, Belay Bezabih, Fisha Wall, Afework Kassu
      Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Partasitoltogy, CMHS, University
      Of Gondar

Abstract
It is estimated that 3 out of 5 persons in developing countries, like Ethiopia, do not have
access to safe drinking water. In Ethiopia about 80% of the rural and 20% of the urban
population have no access to safe water and water is inadequate, 3-4 Lt/cap/day.
Encouraging efforts in drinking water protection and increasing coverage have been
witnessed in different regions of the country. However, studies done elsewhere in the
country, showed high level of bacteriological contamination of drinking water and
bacteriological the majority of the water bodies tested were found to be in unacceptable
level. So far, no report is available in the bacteriological quality of drinking water in
Amhara region. The purpose of this study was therefore; to evaluate the bacteriological
quality of drinking water in Amhara region. A retrospective analysis of results of the
bacteriological analysis of drinking water was done in Amhara Region Health Research
Laboratory. Water samples from different water sources which are used by the
community at various levels were submitted to the regional health research laboratory for
bacteriological analysis from September 2002 to August 2005 as part of the routine
monitoring and evaluation of drinking water activity of the different segments of the
Health Bureau. The bacteriological analysis of the water samples were done following
the standard microbiological techniques by using a multiple tube method and the quality
of drinking water was classified according to the WHO guide line. Three hundred and
nightly samples were submitted for bacteriological analysis during the past three year‟s
period of which 243 (62.3) were chlorinated and 131(33.6) samples were unchlorinated.
Among chlorinated samples 114 (47%) showed bacterial contamination. However,
positivity of samples for choliforms was the highest in unchlorinated samples than the
chlorinated one and the difference being statistically significant. Similarly, the majority
of the piped water (67.2%) were contaminated by coliforms and 104(26.7%) were
contaminated by E. coli. Two hundred and two (59.5%) of the water samples were found
potentially unsafe because of the existence of coliform bacteria. Bacteriological quality of
the water was found in unacceptable level (More than 50 coliform organisms per 100 ml.
of samples) and bacterial contamination of piped water is a significant problem in the
region. Therefore, a prior consideration should be given to improve the quality of water,
and sewage disposal system. To obtain and maintain good quality water an integrated
plan and work system between the various governmental agencies is crucial.




                                            48
                                         2008
Prevalence of Serogroups, Serotypes and Ant Microbial Resistance of Shigella
Isolates at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
       Moges Tiruneh, Andargachew Mulu, Yeshambel Belyhun
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Partasitoltogy, CMHS, University
       of Gondar

Abstract
Background: The emergence and dissemination of multiple-drug resistance strains of
Shigella, which cause shigellosis, are becoming a series global problem, particularly in
developing countries due to indiscriminate use of ant microbial agents and very poor
hygienic practices. In Ethiopia, the diversity of Shigella strains and their ant microbial
susceptibility is not well studied. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence
of serogrops, serotypes and ant microbial resistance of Shigella isolates from patients
with acute diarrhea. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1, 2006 to
February 10, 2008, involving out patients with acute diarrhea in Gondar University
Teaching Hospital Microbiology laboratory. Consecutive stool specimens were received
from patients and cultured for Shigella. Shigella isolates were confirmed by biochemical
and serological tests. The ant microbial susceptibility testing of all strains was carried
using the single disc diffusion technique of Kirby and Bauer. Of the 1200 stool samples,
90(7.5%) yielded shigella isolates with the following serogroups: S.flexneri (72.2%),
S.dysenteriae (10.0%), S.boydii (8.9%) and S.sonni (8.9).Flexner was found to be the
predominant serogroup. The commonest serotypes were S.flexneri type IV (24.6%),
S.fydrnytisr yypr 3(33.33%), S.boydii types 2 and 5 (each 25%), and S.sonni phase I
(75%).Eighty five (94.5%) of the isolates showed resistance to one or more drugs of
which 71 (78.9%) of them were multiresistant. S.flexneri showed the highest
multiresistance (91.2%) than the other species. Emergence of resistant S.flexneri
serotypes to ciprofloxacin (2.2%) and norfloxacin (1.1%) had been observed. All isolates
were sensitive to nalidixic acid and ceftriaxone. Our result demonstrate S. Flexner as the
predominat serogroup causing more than 70% of the shigella cases in Gondar area, higher
rates of multi-drug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, resistance to
ciprofloxacin and norfloxanin and no resistance to nalidixic acid and ceftiaxone. Based
on these findings, we recommend ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin for empirical treatment
of shigellosis with continuous monitoring of the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and
anitmimicrobial resistance patterns and reservation of nalidixic acid and ceftriaxone for
very severe cases of shigellosis.

Key words: Shigella, Serogroups, resistance




                                           49
High Level of Anti Microbial Resistance in Shigella Species Isolated from
Diarrhoeal Patients in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia
      Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Simon Gebretsadik, Gashaw
      Andargie, Wubet Birhan, Netsanet Worku, Moges Tiruneh
       Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Diarrhoeal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing
worked. Shigellosis is endemic throughout the world where it is held responsible for
some 165 million cases of severe dysentery. The devastating majority of these cases
occur in the developing countries. The present study was conducted to determine level of
antimicrobial resistance among shigella species and their occurrence in 384 diarrhoeal
patients, in The University of Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from August
2005 to December 2005. A pre-designed and structured questionnaire was used to collect
socio-demographic and relevant clinical data of the patients. Stool samples were collected
from all patients and processed for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing
following standard procedures. Shigella species were isolated from 16.9 %( 65/384) of
the patients. Resistance to tetracycline, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol,
gentamicine and ciprofloxacin, respectively, was found in 87.7%,81.5%,75.4%, 50.8,
10.7% and 9.2% of the isolates, Fifty nine(90.8) of the shigella species were resistant to
one or more antimicrobials, Multiple drug resistance was observed in 53(81.5%) of the
isolates. The Shigella isolates showed high level of single and multiple resistances to the
commonly used antimicrobial agents. These indicate the need for surveillance of
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in order to monitor the emergence and spread of
multidrug resistant Shigella species.

Identification of Candida Species from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected
Patients in Ethiopia by Combination of Chromagar, Tobacco Agar and PCR of the
Amplified Internally Transcribed RNA Spacer Region
       Andargachew Mulu, Hiroshi Isogai, Ermias Diro, Henok Tekleselassie,
        Afework Kassu, Koichi Kimura, Emiko Isogai
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, CMHS,
       University of Gondar

Abstract
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in patients with
HIV infection and is usually associated with Candida albicans. However, during the last
20 years a marked shift in the spectrum of Candida species has been noted among
different immuno compromised patients. Although Chromagar Candida medium has been
used for the isolation of Candida, identification of species is difficult due to the color of
colonies on the medium. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida species from
HIV infected patients in Ethiopia by combination of phenotypic and genotypic
characteristics. Oral rinses were obtained from 13 HIV positive patients at Black Lion
Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and inoculated on Chromagar plate and incubated at
37oC for 48 hours and examined. Colonies were then sub cultured on Tobacco agar,
incubated at 30°C and observed daily up to 96 hours. DNA was extracted from 75


                                             50
colonies and rRNA gene was amplified by PCR using species specific primers, and
restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses were performed. The
phenotypic characteristics of Candida on Chromagar and Tobacco agar, together with the
amplification of intergenic spacer (ITS) region and restriction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP) profile helped to identify the fungi to species level. The
combination of these methods is useful for diagnosis and treatment of Oropharyngeal
candidiasis and risk decision in patients with HIV infection.

Key words: Candida, human immunodeficiency virus infection, Ethiopia, rRNA spacer
region, Chromagar, Tobacco agar

Adherent Lactobacilli to Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Did Not Induced Intestinal
Mucin Secretion
       T. Negash, H. Hendricks, M. J. M. Toussaint, E. Gruys, T. L. McDonald
      College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar
Abstract
Mucins are large glycosylated proteins forming a gel layer that covers the intestinal
mucosa and provides protection by preventing adhesion of enteric pathogens to the
underlying epithelium. The adhesion of three Lactobacillus strains (L. plantarum 299v, L.
plantarum 2142 and L. curvatus 2775) and their effect on the induction of intestinal
mucin were studied using three human cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29 clones 5M21 and
5M12) as in vitro models for intestinal epithelium. Bacterial adhesion was determined
after incubating cell monolayers grown in glucose containing medium with Lactobacilli.
Immunoblotting of cell culture supernatants using a monoclonal antibody to MUC3 was
employed to assess mucin production. The adhesion of all the three strains of
Lactobacillus was significantly (p<0.05) higher on Caco-2 cells than the adhesion of all
the strains on HT-29 cell clones. Adhesion of L. plantarum 299v and L. curvatus 2775
was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of L. plantarum 2142 in Caco-2 cells. There
was no detectable MUC3 secreted into the culture medium irrespective of the adherence
capacity of the Lactobacillus strains in this study. In conclusion adhesion properties of
Lactobacillus strains are considered as one of the criteria for selection of Lactobacilli for
their probiotic function, and in this regard the probiotic effects of L. plantarum 299v and
L. curvatus could be exploited in protecting the gut from enteric pathogens via
competitive exclusion mechanisms. It is recommended that growth condition
modifications may enhance intestinal mucin production, and also the use of RT-PCR may
help to detect mRNA for mucin.

Keywords: Caco-2; HT-29 clones 5M21 and 5M12; Immunoblotting; L. plantarum
299v; L. plantarum 2142; L. curvatus 2775; Mucins; MUC3, RT-PCR




                                             51
Assessment of physicochemical value and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking
water in three sites of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia
       Fantahun Biadglegne, Kahsay Huruy, Belay Tessema, Mulugeta Kibret,
       Andargachew Mulu
       Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, CMHS, University of Gondar
       E-mail: fanta17@yahoo.com

Abstract
The consumption of bottled drinking water is increasing from day to day in Ethiopia. As
a result, there has been a growing concern about the chemical, physical and
bacteriological quality of this product. Studies on the chemical, physical and
bacteriological quality of bottled water is quite scarce in Ethiopia. This study was
therefore aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of three
brands of bottled drinking water products produced in Amhara region. A Laboratory
based comparative study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and
bacteriological quality of three brands of bottled drinking water produced in Amhara
region. Analysis on the quality of bottled drinking water from the sources, wholesalers
and retailers were made with World Health Organization, Quality, and Standards
Authority of Ethiopia recommendations. Triplicate samples from three types of bottled
drinking water were randomly collected and analyzed from June 2006 to December 2006.
108 commercial bottled drinking water samples were analyzed. The result showed that all
the physicochemical parameters analyzed were with in the recommended limits.
However, the pH value of one brand tested from sources is 5.3 and from wholesalers and
retailers is 5.45 and 5.29, respectively, which is below the normal value set by World
Health Organization (6.5-8.0), Quality, and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (6.0-8.5).
Our analyses also demonstrated that 2(16.7%) of the samples tested from sources and
1(8.3%) from wholesalers of brand B were contaminated with total coliforms, where as
2(16.7%) samples from retailers were also contaminated with total coliforms. On the
other hand, 1(8.3%) of the samples tested from wholesalers and 2(16.7%) of the samples
tested from retailers of brand A were also contaminated with total coliforms, focal
coliforms were not isolated from all samples .Percent of coefficient of variation showed
that variations in total coliforms counts were significant with in the samples of both brand
A and B (CV>10%). Based on the recommended limit of World Health Organization and
Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia, 7.4% of bottled drinking water sold
commercially could be considered unfit for human consumption. Consumers of bottled
water should be aware of this.

Key words: - Bottled drinking water, physicochemical quality, bacteriological quality




                                            52
Molecular Characterization of Human Papilloma Virus from Precancerous and
Cancer Specimens of the Uterine Cervix among Women in Ethiopia and the Sudan
      Ebba Abate, Abreham Aseffa, Ahmed EI-Hassan, Muntasir EI-Tayeb, Ibrahim El-
      Hassen, Lawrence Yamuah, Wude Mihret, Liku Bekele, Senait Ashenafi, Nadia
      El-dawit, Mihret W/Tensay, Howard Engers
      Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Cancer of the uterine cervix continues to be a serious public health threat of global
importance. Molecular and epidemiological studies have shown that Human
Papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as the etiological agent for cervical cancer. Since
individuals living in different geographical localities receive vaccines based on the
specific genotypes prevalent in that particular area, designing an effective vaccine against
oncogenic HPV genotypes could have an immense impact on the global cervical cancer
burden. The objective of the study was to identify the prevailing HPV genotypes
circulating in Ethiopia and the Sudan. A retrospective molecular characterization of HPV
was done on 245 paraffin embedded cervical biopsy samples collected from Ethiopian
and Sudanese women. PCR amplification of HPV and subsequent genotyping was done
using SPF10 primers and Line Probe Assay. High-risk (HR) and low risk (LR) HPV
genotypes were identified from 93% (149/160) and 13% (21/160) of samples from
Ethiopian patients, respectively. Among the samples collected from the Sudan, 94%
(80/85) harbored HR and 11.7% (10/85) LR HPV genotypes. HPV 16 was found to be
the most frequent genotype identified in samples from Ethiopia (91%, 136/149) and the
Sudan (82.5%, 66/80). HPV 52, 58 and 18 were the second, third and fourth common
genotypes identified in Ethiopia, whereas, HPV 18, 45 and 52 were the second, third and
fourth genotypes identified in samples collected from the Sudan. A vaccine targeting
HPV 16, 18, 45, 52 and 58 may be relevant in the control of cervical cancer in the two
countries.

Absence of Pathogenic Escherichia Coli O157:H7 among Diarrheal Patients in
University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
      Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Desta Gebresillassie,
      Solomon Adugna
       Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Escherichia Coli consist of facultatively anaerobic commensal flora in gut of humans and
animals and some virulent strains. E. coli O157:H7 is a pathogenic serotype associated
with acute watery and/or bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. So far, there has been no
study on prevalence E. coli O157:H7 infection in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to
determine the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 in diarrhoeal patients in Gondar
Teaching hospital. A cross sectional study involving diarrhoeal patients at Gondar
Teaching Hospital, between August 2005 and December 2005, was conducted. Socio-
demographic and relevant clinical data of the patients were collected using a structured
questionnaire; Stool specimens were collected and laboratory investigations for E. coli
were made following standard procedures, The isolated E. coli were tested for coli E.


                                            53
O157:H7 using a latex agglutination test. A total of 384 patients were included in the
study, among which 77.1%, 10.4%, 79.2% and 38% had abdominal pain, severe
dehydration, fever and vomiting, respectively, Acute and persistent diarrhea was seen in
58.1 and 41.9% of the patients, respectively Of the patients with acute diarrhea, watery,
bloody and mucoid stools were seen in 55.2% ,32.7% and 12.1%,respectively, E.coli
O157:H7 in routine clinical practice in the area may not be necessary, However, in depth
multicentric studies are required to substantiate the present finding.

Keywords: Escherichia Coli, E. coli O157:H7 diarrhoeal patients, latex agglutination
test, prevalence.

Seroprevalence of multiple sexually transmitted infections among antenatal clinic
attendees in Gondar Health Center, northwest Ethiopia
       Moges Tiruneh, Andargachew Mulu, Fantahun Biadglegne
       Department of Microbiology, Immunuology and Parasitology, CMHS, University
       of Gondar

Abstract
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major health problems in developing countries
where access to adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities are very limited. Ethiopia is
amongst the countries where STIs are highly prevalent. However, information on
seroprevalence of STIs among antenatal care (ANC) attendees is very scarce in the
country. This study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and
syphilitic infections and to assess sexual practice among ANC attendees. A prospective
cross-sectional study was performed involving pregnant women attending antenatal clinic
at Gondar Health Center from August 01 to December 30, 2006. Data on socio-
demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected using structured
questionnaire. Blood was collected and serum was tested for the presence of HBsAg,
antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum. Among the 480 ANC attendees, the
seroprevalence of HIV, HBV (HBVsAg), HCV and syphilis were 11.9%, 7.3%, 1.3% and
2.3%, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of HIV was observed in age groups of 20-29
(13%) and 30-39 (12.1%) years. ANC attendees from Gondar town had higher
seropositivity rate (12.6%) than those who came from outside Gondar (9.4%). Serostatus
of HIV was significantly correlated with knowledge of the ANC attendees on curability
of HIV infection by treatment (OR, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.19-0.82, P=0.012) and transmission
of HIV by blood and blood products (OR, 95% CI: 2.10, 1.21-3.68, P=0.009). Co-
infection of HBV, HCV and Treponema pallidum with HIV was observed but no
statistical association was noted. The results indicate relatively declined prevalence of
multiple STIs in Gondar, and call for the need to strengthen the exiting health education
program & screening of all pregnant women for HIV, HBV, HCV infections and syphilis
to prevent transmission of the infections in women, their children and the population at
large.




                                           54
Prevalence, Predictors and Allergic Consequences of Intestinal Helminthes
Infections in the Butajira Birth Cohort, Ethiopia
       Yeshambel Belyhun, Girmay Medhin, Berhanu Erko, Charlotte Hanlon,
       Atalay Alem, John Britton, Gail Davey
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology, CMHS, University
       Of Gondar
Abstract
The prevalence of intestinal helminthes variation may be related to differences in hosts
geographical settings or / and socioeconomic context. The effect of intestinal
helminthiasis on allergic manifestations is also still unclear, being described as
“predictive or protective or neither.” This study was aimed to determine the prevalence
and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections of mothers and their year-old
children in Butajira Birth Cohort study, southern Ethiopia. A stool sample was collected
for qualitative intestinal helminth analysis. Questionnaire data on the prevalence and on
potential confounders of allergic symptoms, as well as risk factors of parasitic infections
was gathered in the study of 909 child-mother pair. Prevalence of intestinal helminth was
45.0% in mothers and 5.5% in children. Hookworm was the predominant intestinal
helminth infection, detected in 36.1% of mothers and in 2.3% of children. Maternal
hygiene was associated with reduced risk of intestinal helminth infections (OR 0.74, 95%
CI 0.55 to 0.99, p<0.044). Prevalence of reported allergic symptoms was 19.0% in
children and 3.5% in mothers. In children, factors associated with symptoms of allergy
were paracetamol use (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.84, p=0.008) and maternal allergic
history (OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.93 to 8.46, p<0.001). In mothers, confounders associated
with allergy was paracetamol use (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.12, p= 0.0.025). There was
a marginally significant association (p = 0.05) between presence of intestinal helminthes
and overall symptoms of allergy in children. In a cohort with relatively high intestinal
helminthes prevalence in mothers and low in their child, we found reduced risk of
infection in relation to maternal hygiene. We also found that a strong association of
paracetamol use and maternal allergic history to childhood allergy but no association of
parasite infection and allergy.

Key words: allergy, confounders, Ethiopia, intestinal helminths, prevalence, risk factors.

Bacterial Infection of Lungs from Maedi-Visna Seropostive and Seronegative Sheep
at Debre-Berhan Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia.
       Legesse Garedew, Ademe Zerihun, Gelagay Ayelet
       College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
This study was carried out from October 2005 to June 2006 at Debre-Berhan Agricultural
Research Center, Ethiopia, with the objective of identifying bacterial infection of Maedi-
Visna (MV) seropostive and seronegative sheep. Of the total 80 sera samples examined,
49 (61.25%) were MV seropostive and 31 (38.75%) were MV seronegative. At post
mortem examination, out of the 49 MV seropostive sheep, 37 (75.51%) of them showed
pneumonic lesions. Moreover, 23 (74.19%) seronegative sheep also showed pneumonic


                                            55
lesions. Of the 80 sheep lung samples collected for isolation of bacteria, 70 (87.5%)
yielded bacteria, and no bacteria were isolated from 10 (12.5%) samples. The majorities,
75.71%, of the isolates were isolated from pneumonic lungs and 62.3% of which were
MV seropostive. Out of those lungs from which bacteria were not isolated, 7 (70%) of
them were pneumonic and 3 (30%) were non-pneumonic. From those lungs that were
pneumonic but no bacteria was isolated, 4 (57.14%) of them were MV positive but the
other 3 (42.86%) were MV seronegative. A total of 114 bacteria were isolated out of
which 63 were Gram-positive and 51 were Gram-negative organisms. Almost all
(96.08%) of the Gram-negative isolates were recovered from pneumonic lung tissue
samples. On the other hand, 71.43% of the Gram-positive isolates were found from
pneumonic lungs of sheep. These all isolates belonged to18 genera and 23 species, some
species are known pathogens, some are opportunistic pathogens and some seems to be
non-pathogens. Eight antimicrobials were tested to determine in-vitro sensitivity of
bacterial species of the major known pathogens. All the bacteria were sensitive to
amikacine and chloramphenicol. The result also indicated that 13 (59.1%) and 12
(54.6%) bacterial types for most of their isolates were resistant for tetracycline and
clindamycin respectively.

Keywords: Debre Berhan, Sheep, Maedi-Visna, Pneumonia, Bacteria, Antimicrobial

Inhibiting HIV Transmission from Dendritic Cells to T Cells
       Sabine Breun
       Virus-Host-Interaction Laboratory, Fraunhofer Institute – Cell Therapy and
       Immunology, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells encountered by pathogens upon mucosal
entry. As professional antigen presenting cells, DCs internalize and process antigens;
after migration to the lymph node, mature DCs activate T cells by presentation of
processed antigens via class II major histocompatibility complex to the T cell receptor in
the immunological synapse. A C-type lectin, dendritic cell specific intercellular adhesion
molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), is involved in the formation of the
immunological synapse between DCs and T cells, as well as in the interaction of DCs
with glycoproteins on a growing number of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. DC-
SIGN is the key molecule in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
from DCs to T cells, thus enabling efficient viral infection of T cells in the lymph node.
We have identified the region in DC-SIGN regulating HIV transmission. Presently, we
are looking for unknown cellular co-factors involved in DC-SIGN mediated HIV
transmission, which might be tackled in order to block virus transmission. A set of
mutated SIGN molecules is being utilized for these analyses. Using DCs and blocking
agents (specific antibodies, mannan, siRNA) we study the role DC-SIGN plays in HIV
transmission, and are screening potential inhibitors for this crucial mechanism.




                                           56
Host Factors Influencing HIV Infection
      Sabine Breun
      Virus-Host-Interaction Laboratory, Fraunhofer Institute – Cell Therapy and
      Immunology, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract
Current clinically approved treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aims at
viral enzymes and the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Development of drug
resistance is a major obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy against HIV/AIDS. New
targets are needed desperately, and the early retroviral replication may provide such
opportunities. Cellular co-factors are involved in the early retroviral replication, but so far
have eluded identification. At the same time, such crucial factors provide a weakness in
the viral life cycle. If such a factor is withdrawn, the virus can no longer establish a
productive infection. Cells may furthermore restrict HIV infection due to the expression
of inhibitors of viral replication. Few such restriction factors have been described to-date.
The best characterized restriction factors are those of the APOBEC family of cytidine
deaminases, as well as the Trim-family members of ubiquity ligases. Both classes restrict
HIV replication early after cell penetration. An overview of the key factors and their
mode of action will be given. Further restriction factors are known to exist, but they are
yet to be identified. Knowledge of these factors will provide insight into early retroviral
replication, and will identify additional stages in the virus‟ life cycle, that might be
tackled in an antiretroviral intervention.

Sexual Practices and Contraceptive Usage among School Youth in North Gondar
       Abebaw Gebeyehu
       School of Public Health, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Worldwide pattern of sexual practice in adolescents is rapidly changing. There is early
maturity and delayed marriage accompanied by unsafe sex i.e. early sex and with
multiple partners and with out contraceptive use. Reports in Ethiopia showed that
contraceptive use including condom among students is not only low but also inconsistent.
It is thus expected that an assessment and improving contraceptive usage by students or
helping adolescents to abstain sex, decrease problems related to unwanted pregnancy.
This study was designed to assess sexual practices and contraceptive usage among in
school youth in North Gondar zone. A cross sectional study using quantitative methods
was utilized. Using multistage sampling procedure, 1015 secondary school students were
selected. Data was collected using pre tested self-administered, anonymous, structured,
close-ended questioner and analyzed using the EPI 6 and SPSS 11 versions. Overall 1006
students participated in the study. Of these, 358(35.6%) had experienced sexual
intercourse. More males (37.7%) than females (33.7%) engaged in sex but more females
(18.5%) start sex earlier than males (12.9%). From the total in school adolescents, 155
(15.4%) used modern contraceptives where only 82 (53%) used regularly. And
51(32.9%) students discontinued their use with a contraceptive prevalence of 29.1%
among sexually active students. According to users‟ experience, embarrassment at
needing service and lack of adequate privacy were the major barriers of contraceptive


                                              57
use. Inconvenient family planning service was the first reason among non-users for not
using contraceptives. Based on this study, the demand of contraceptive use among in
school adolescents was 73.2%. Adolescents preferred to have family planning at
exclusive youth clinic, near the residence area, special time arrangement, given by any
provider and free of charge. Still there is a wide gap between contraceptive use and
sexual practice. The current family planning is inconvenient for in school adolescents to
provide appropriate counseling and choosing their methods. Therefore starting well-
planned and organized school family planning education, establishing exclusive youth
clinic in each district and increasing contraceptive access were recommended.

                                          2009
Assessment of Byssinosis and Other Respiratory Symptoms among Production
Workers in Akaki Textile Factory, Akaki-Kality Sub-city, Addis Ababa, 2006/ 2007.
      Kassahun Alemu, Gail Davey, Abera Kumie
      College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
Textile cotton workers are at risk for occupational lung diseases, including byssinosis and
chronic bronchitis. Byssinosis is a respiratory disease primarily associated with exposure
to cotton dust. Respiratory symptoms and impairments in pulmonary function are the
major consequences of occupational exposures. The aim of the study was to determine
the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis among production workers in
cotton mills of Akaki textile factory, Addis- Ababa during 2006/2007. A cross-sectional
study was done February to April 2007 in which information on demographic
characteristics, cigarette smoking, occupational history and respiratory symptoms, were
collected from February to April 2006. Four hundred seventeen production workers were
interviewed with modified American Thoracic Society standard respiratory symptoms
questionnaires. FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were measured using portable medical
spirometer. Dust concentration in the work environment was measured by the Data RAM
4 real time measurement of area sampling. The data entry was performed using EPI
INFO version 6.04d and exported to SPSS version 13.0 for analysis. The adjusted odds
ratio was calculated for each respiratory symptoms and byssinosis. Multivariate Logistic
regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of respiratory symptoms and
byssinosis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to compare means of
pulmonary function tests. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms (cough 77.0%,
phlegm 62.0%, chest tightness 46.0% and dyspnea 62.0%) were found in the carding
section .Workers in carding sections were more likely to contract phlegm 13 times and
chest tightness 8 times higher compared to others sections. Workers in blowing sections
were seven times more likely to have dyspnea than other sections. The over all
prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 23.0% and the highest found in carding section
(69.2%) and the lowest in weaving section (16.2%). Workers in carding section were 13
times more likely to have chronic bronchitis compared to other sections (OR=13.4, 95%
CI 3.43-52.6). The prevalence of byssinosis was 38.0%. The highest found in the carding
(84.6%), drawing (72.2%) and ring frame (63.0%) sections. Workers in the blowing and
carding areas were exposed to the high levels of cotton dust with mean dust levels of 32.2


                                            58
mg/ m3 and 8.0 mg/ m3 respectively. About 11.0% of byssinotics workers developed
FEV1 severe chronic changes. Of the byssinotics workers, 32% to 45% showed slight to
moderate chronic impairment and 52.0% to 54.8% had no chronic impairment. This study
provided important evidence indicating the strong relationship between the high
prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory impairments on exposure to cotton dust.
The results also emphasize the importance of applying a pulmonary function test to detect
early exposure effects. In view of the above findings, preventive measures like
controlling dust, using personal protective equipment like face masks, and other measures
like periodic check up of workers are of supreme importance in minimizing the
prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory disorders in textile manufacturing.

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Diabetic Patients in University of Gondar
Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
      Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Anteneh Amsalu, Kahsay Huruy
      Department of Microbiology, Immunology& Parasitology CMHS, University
      Of Gondar

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disorder characterized by
metabolic abnormalities leading to increased blood glucose and glucoseuria. The
presence of glucose in the urine serves as a culture media for the multiplication of
bacterial pathogens of the urinary tract. Evidently asymptomatic bacteriuria or urinary
tract infection occurs more frequently in diabetic patients than non-diabetics. The
objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and its
association with glucoseuria among diabetic patients. Laboratory based cross-sectional
study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital from April 3, 2007- May 14,
2007. Morning mid-stream urine sample was collected from diabetic patients and non-
diabetic controls and samples were cultured and processed following standard
microbiological procedures. Three hundred diabetic patients and 100 controls were
enrolled. The mean age of the patients and controls were 38 and 37 year, respectively.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 16% of the patients and 4% of the controls.
Mixed bacteria were isolated from two of the participants that make the number of
bacterial isolates to be 50 with isolation rate of 16.7%. Escherichia coli accounted for
50% of the isolates in diabetic patients followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16%),
coagulase negative staphylococci (14%), Klebsiella species (6%), and Enterobacter
aeruginosa (6%) Morganella morganii (2%), Providencia stuartii (4%) and Serratia
species (2%). E. coli (75%) and S. aurues (25%) were the only isolates from controls.
Most of the isolated organisms were resistant to ampiciline, tetracycline and
cotrimoxazole. On the other hand, gentamicine and ciprofloxacin were effective to most
of the isolates. In this study prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria found to be higher in
diabetic patients particularly in type 2 diabetics than the controls. Statistically Significant
association was obtained between bacteriuria and glucoseuria, however; there was no
evidence of significant association with age and duration of diabetics. Thus, monitoring
of the blood glucose level might decrease the magnitude of asymptomatic bacteruria
cases and follow up study need to be done on these cases as it may be the cause for UTI.




                                              59
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, asymptomatic bacteriuria and
significant bacteriuria.

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors among Students of
Atse Fasil General Elementary School at Azezo Town, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.
             Mengistu Endris , Wossenseged Lemma , Getasew Walle, Meseret Delelegn
              Department of Microbiology, Immunology& Parasitology, CMHS,
              University of Gondar

Abstract
Intestinal Parasitic infections cause serious public health problem in Ethiopia. The survey
on the prevalence of various intestinal parasites in school children is a pre- requisite to
develop appropriate control strategies. The objective of the study was to determine
prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections among
students. A cross- sectional survey was conducted from March-June, 2008 in stratified
randomly selected 354 students of Atse Fasil General Elementary School in Azezo town,
Gondar, North West Ethiopia A stool sample from each student was collected and
diagnosed for intestinal parasites using wet mount, formal-ether concentration and Kato-
thick smear techniques. Pre-tested structured questionnaires and observational assessment
were used to assess associated risk factors. Chi Square and p-value were computed at
95% confidence interval using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 13.0
soft ware. Of 354 students (207 females and 147 males) examined 258 (72.9%) were
found at least with one or more parasites. The parasite prevalence rate in males was
78.9% while 68.6% among females. Schistosoma mansoni is leading with 43.5%
followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (28.8%) and Tricuris tricuria (18.1%) and with Taenia
species with the lowest (0.6%). The study subjects showed moderate intensity of parasitic
infection having > 50% prevalence and 2.8% heavy intensity of infection. Sex, personal
hygiene, availability of protective shoe and swimming frequency were the factors that
showed statistically significant association with their respective high rates of parasitic
infections (P<0.05). Intestinal parasitic infections were prevalent with moderate intensity
in the study area then timely intervention activities are necessary.
Key words: Intestinal parasites, Students, Azezo, Gondar, North west Ethiopia.

Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Chance of Survival or Death Status among HIV
Positive People under the ART Programming University of Gondar Teaching
Hospital
       Abdulhalim Hasen, Anwar Delil, Dame Kedir, Fikrehiwot Alebachew, Kidist
       Elias, Muhdin Dafche, Segni Desalegni, Tesfaye Abu, Tigist Abate, Yimer Wasihu
       College of Medicine Health Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
Although ART treatment has decreased HIV associated mortality, a number of patients
still die after the start of ART. A sample of 80 patients has been taken from GUH ART
clinic for the study. The analysis of the data using multiple logistic regression method
shows that some health, economic and risk factors influence survival of patients, the
study shows that survival of HIV patient under ART follow-up is affected by age, weight,


                                            60
CD4 level, functional status who are working, TB treatment user and sex being male,
Thus performance of ART programs can be improved if we can bring behavioral change
among HIV patients under ART follow-up and if health workers and other stakeholders
find ways of supporting patients.

Effects of Honey on Candida Species Isolated From Oral Cavity of HIV/AIDS
Infected Patients, Northwest Ethiopia
       Andargachew Mulu, Yeshambel Belyhun, Belay Anagaw, Martha Alemayehu,
       Aschalew Gelaw, Fantahun Biadglegne, Afework Kassu, Emiko Isogai
       Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology, CMHS, University
        of Gondar

Abstract
Honey has been reported to have a static and cidal effect to both gram positives and gram
negatives bacteria. However, there is a limited report on its antifungal activity.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in
individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus and Candida is developing
resistance to the common antifungal agents. The objective of the study was to determine
the antifungal effect of Ethiopian honey to Candida species isolated from oral cavity of
HIV infected patients. Oral rinses were obtained from patients by asking them to rinse
their mouth with 5 ml of normal saline for 30 seconds and to expectorate the rinse into a
sterile container. Then, the fluid was poured to a Chromagar. Candida species were
identified by conventional microbiological techniques and PCR. The inhibitory and cidal
concentrations of honey sample on selected Candida isolates were investigated by an agar
dilution technique. The susceptibility test revealed that the growth of the Candida was
largely inhibited by honey with complete inhibitory and cidal concentration of 30-40%
(v/v) honey concentration. Honey has both static and cidal activity on Candida species
when tested in vitro and adds on the existing positive traditional practice of using honey
as oral lesion healing agent by wise traditional healers. Nevertheless, clinical evaluation
and pharmacological standardization on the effect of honey are crucially important before
using honey as curative agent to Oropharyngeal candidiasis.
Keywords: antifungal effect, Oropharyngeal candidiasis.

Clinical Improvement and Drug-Adverse Effects among Patients Taking Anti
Tuberculosis Drugs
       Getahun Asres and Abebaw Gebeyehu
       Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CMHS, University of Gondar
       E-mail: asresgetahun@yahoo.com

Abstract
Although an optimal treatment for tuberculosis is available in most settings, tuberculosis
remains to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Assessment of
treatment outcomes and anti-tuberculosis drug adverse effects will help in the fight
against tuberculosis. Despite a detailed and well organised understanding about the
disease process, there is a serious lack of information as to the picture of Ethiopian TB
patients‟ response to treatment and adverse effects of treatment. The main aim of this


                                            61
study is to assess tuberculosis clinical improvement and anti-TB drug adverse effects.
The study is a predominantly descriptive cross sectional study with some analytic
components done on TB patients coming to the DOTS clinics in Gondar University
Hospital, Gondar Poly Clinic and Azezo Health Centre. Data were collected using well
structured and pre-tested questionnaires with socio-demographic and relevant clinical
variables. Data then were entered into computer and were analysed using SPSS version
15.0. The commonest TB symptoms seen in this study were fever, weight loss, cough,
night sweating and anorexia. Most of the symptoms improved within 3 to 6 weeks, a
result comparable with other researches. Unexpectedly, weight loss and fatigue
responded late probably due to the possibility of other problems on the background of
HIV co-infection. 45.7% of subjects in the study have experienced at least one drug
adverse effect at some time while on treatment. Major adverse effects were seen in 24.3%
of all the study subjects. Drug adverse effects commonly encountered were GI upset
(22.8%), neuropathic symptoms (13.5%), sleepiness (11.2%) and skin rash (9.0%).
Improvement of fever was delayed among patients co-infected with HIV because of HIV
itself or associated illnesses. There was no significant delay in improvement of the other
TB symptoms among HIV co-infected patients. HIV infection and ART were not found
to affect the occurrence of any of the drug adverse effects in this study. Logically enough
cotrimoxazole use was found to increase the risk of skin rash by 4 fold.

The Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs of Female Students about Menarche Age of
Menarche in Kola Diba High School, Northwest Ethiopia
     Ashebir Simon, Esete Negash, Hailay Abrah, Mitiku Getachew, Teklay Dirar
     School of Public Health, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
The onset of menstruation is part of maturation process. It is happened due to hormonal
changes. The bodily changes associated with puberty specifically menarche affect a girls
psychological and social development and the girls life experience. The purpose of this
study was to determine their ages at menarche and their knowledge, attitude and beliefs
to ward initial menstruation. This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out on 432
adolescent female students (Grades 9 and 10) in Dembia Woreda. Data collected using a
self-administered structured questionnaire on age of menarche, knowledge, attitude and
beliefs at menarche. A questionnaire survey of knowledge, attitude and beliefs and the
age at menarche was made in one high school in Kola Diba, Dembia Woreda, of 432
high school girls aged from 13-24 years, only 39.25% felt comfortable about menarche
and 93.5% believed that menstruation was a normal physiological event. NY (70.5%)
had been uninformed about menarche before its onset and 33% felt that they were not
mentally prepared. The major sources of information were the mother (39.25%) or the
teacher (29%) and elder sister (24%). Health professionals, friends and other played a
small role 38.98% start their menstruation at the age of 15 though the range was in
between 10 and 18 years. Their age menarche is delayed but their knowledge and attitude
toward menstruation is good though most of them that they have negative beliefs.




                                            62
Factors Associated with Induced Abortion in Bahir Dar City, North West Ethiopia:
A Case Control Study.
      Belete Tafesse and Molla Gedefaw
      School of Public Health CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Abortion is a major cause of maternal mortality in developing countries, including
Ethiopia. However, much is not known regarding factors associated with induced
abortion. This facility based case-control study was carried out to identify factors
associated with induced abortion in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia from October to
December, 2008. Information was obtained from a total of 176 abortion care seekers
(cases) and 353 antenatal care attendees (control groups) using a structured questionnaire.
The results show that majority of the abortion care seekers (63.1%) were between the
ages of 15 and 24 years. High proportion (57.4%) of the respondents was never married,
but married women also constituted a significant proportion (38.1%) of the abortion care
seekers. In this study, an abortion care seeker is likely to be someone who had at least
some secondary education with odds of 3.7 (CI, 1.6, 10.0). More than a third (35.2%) of
the respondents was students. The influence of spouses to affect the fate of early
pregnancy outcome was also seen in this study. Respondents terminated their pregnancies
mainly because they were students or in fear of discontinuing their school. Having
mistimed pregnancy, financial constraint and having too little child as reasons were
significantly associated with seeking abortion. However, being too young (minor), having
fetal health problem, being non married, being raped, having contraceptive failure,
marital problems, partner refusal, conflict with work and being HIV+ fell short of
statistical significance in this study. It is obvious from the result that young persons,
especially in school adolescents, should be targeted for comprehensive sexuality
education to boost their health literacy especially in view of the current HIV/AIDS
pandemic. Women - both adults and the young ones - need to be empowered
economically and be addressed with their family planning need to avoid mistimed and
unplanned pregnancies.

Dabat Rural Health Project, North West Ethiopia: Report of the Baseline Survey
      Assefa Getachew, Mengesha Admassu, Takele Tadesse, Solomon Amsalu, Gashaw
      Andargie, Belaynew Wassie, Kassahun Alemu, Samuel G/Selassie, Tadesse Awoke
      Department of Radiology, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
The Dabat rural health project was established with the objective of establishing a
surveillance system of health and health related characteristics of the population at the
district level, and providing a study base and sampling frame for community based
research. This paper mainly deals with the baseline survey which was conducted from
February to April, 2008 in Dabat district North West Ethiopia. The main objective of the
study to provide baseline data on demographic, health and health related characteristics
of the population of Dabat district. The Dabat district is organized into 24 rural and 3
rural town Kebeles. A total of ten Kebeles, three from urban and seven from rural
Kebeles were selected based on the consideration of geography, accessibility and disease


                                            63
pattern and all households in the selected Kebeles were included in the survey. Collection
of data was based on a structured questionnaire filled by trained enumerators who had
completed 10th and 12th grade. During the data collection, constant monitoring and
supervision was carried out. All the activities and work quality of the interviewers, was
supervised regularly. A total of 44303 people were lived in seven rural and three urban
Kebeles. There were 9,235 households with an average household size of 4.8 persons per
household. Among the live births 3.8% are estimated to die during the first year of life,
5.7 % before 5 years, 7.9 before 15 and 11.6% before 30 years. Less than five mortality
rate was obtained to be 56.7 per 1000 live births. About 99% of the last born children in
the study population had breastfeeding at some point in time which is higher. Only
10.23% and 18.9% rural households obtained water from protected spring and hand dug
well respectively. The average water consumption per capita per day was 28 liters. Thirty
nine percent of the house holds had latrine. The age distribution of this study almost
matches with the national figures of the country; however, there was small difference on
the sex distribution with the national report. The general fertility rate of the study area
was found to be high. Institutional delivery and skilled attendance was also almost the
same with national reports but far below sub-Saharan expectation. This survey indicates
that the current rate of progress on Environmental Health activities and issues will take
many years to achieve the water and sanitation target or may take even longer.

Investigating the Impact of Missing-ness on Surrogacy Using Longitudinal
Surrogate of Longitudinal True End Points.
       Tadesse Awoke
       Department of Biostatistics, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
One of the most important factors influencing the duration and complexity of the process
of developing new treatments is the choice of the endpoints. A surrogate endpoint is an
endpoint that is obtained sooner, at lower cost, or less invasively than the true endpoint
and is used to make conclusions about the effect of intervention on a true endpoint for a
health outcome. For a marker to be a surrogate, we need repeated demonstration of a
strong correlation between the marker and the clinical outcome. Missing ness frequently
complicates the analysis of longitudinal data in clinical trials and it is an important
problem in many fields of research. Inappropriate handling of the missing data in the
analysis can result in misleading conclusions. The objective of this simulation study was
to investigate the effect of missingness and misspecification of covariance structure on
measures of surrogacy for two longitudinal outcomes. The study showed that the biases
for variance reduction factor and R-square lambda were high under LOCF for all settings;
however for some settings the bias for R-square trial was high under CC. From all the
methods used to handle missing-ness, AC gave the smallest bias for the measures of
validation. Hence LOCF and CC are the poorest methods of handling missing-ness at the
individual and trial levels respectively, while AC is the best fro all the methods
considered in this study, The impact of miss-specifying covariance structure on the
estimation of validation measures is observed by generation the datasets using AR (1)
and analyzing using both AR (1) and CS and vice versa. From the differences of the two




                                            64
estimates it is shown that there is an impact of misspecification. Hence more attention
should be given for correct specification of covariance structure.
Keywords: Missing data, surrogate endpoints, Misspecification of covariance structure,
handling missing-ness.

Assessment of Rational Drug Use Using WHO Core Drug Use Indicators in
University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
                 Semaw Asmare ,Lalissa Olkaba, Amare Bihon ,Hanna Teshome,
                 Wubayehu Kahaliw
                College of Medicine and Health Sceiences, University of Gondar
Abstract
Even though as high as 40% of the total health care budget is allocated for drugs in
developing countries, a very significant number of the population still have no adequate
access to the most essential drugs. Essential drugs offer a cost-effective solution to many
health problems in a developing country. They should be selected with due regard to
disease prevalence, be affordable, with assured quality and be available in the appropriate
dosage forms. Prescribes can only treat patients in a rational way if they have access to an
essential drugs list and essential drugs are available on a regular basis. The objective of
this study is to assess the rational use of drugs using WHO core drug use indicators in
Gondar university teaching hospital, North West Ethiopia, Gondar. The study has been
being Cross-sectional both retrospective and prospective, hence 537 out patient
prescriptions were analyzed for patient care indicators prospectively, encounters also
asked to repeat drug information‟s to assess their knowledge on their medication. For
prescribing indicators, a total of 25,303 out patient prescriptions which has been
dispensing in six month in hospital pharmacy have selected and 600 out patient
prescriptions were analyzed and Systematic random sampling have used to draw from the
study population. The average number of drugs per encounter was 1.9 and 85.6 % of
drugs were prescribed by generic name. Anti-infective drugs (with preponderance of anti
bacterial drugs) accounts for almost half of the total prescription (47%) and the use of
injections was 18% 96 % of the prescribed drugs were on the National essential drug list.
The average dispensing time was 93.4 seconds and there was no consultation time.93 %
of drugs was actually dispensed. Most patients (80 %) know the correct dose, but only 18
% of drugs were adequately labeled .availability of copy essential drug list was 67 %, but
not has list of key drugs. Interventions to rectify over prescriptions of anti-biotic,
inadequate labeling of drugs, unavailability of list of key drugs, and lack of consultation
time and low percentage of availability of National EDL are necessary to further improve
rational drug use in this facility.
Keywords: Prescription pattern, core drug use indicators, University of Gondar
Teaching Hospital, rational drug use.




                                            65
Risk of HIV/AIDS Transient with PMTCT in Exposed Infants Who Had Follow-up
and Factors Affecting Transmission in Gondar University Hospital
       Samuel Gebresillassie and Yigzaw Kebede
       School of Public Health, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Globally there are around 2.5 million children less than 15 years who live with HIV virus
with an estimated 460,000 new infections occurring in 2007 alone. More than 90% of
these infections are vertically transmitted and could be prevented by providing
appropriate service to pregnant, laboring and lactating mothers and newborns in
particular and the public in general. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV
(PMTCT) is recognized as one of the prevention of HIV transmission for a long period of
time initially as short and long course zidovudine (AZT) prophylaxis and latter single
dose neverapin (sdNVP) and elective cesarean section came as effective methods to
tackle mother to child transmission (MTCT). The objectives of the study are to assess
risk of transmission and to find factors that affect risk of MTCT in infants with PMTCT
follow in Gondar university hospital. This study was an institutional based retrospective
follow up study of infants and mothers who were enrolled in the PMTCT services in
Gondar University Hospital. All infant mother pairs who had PMTCT follow up between
2004 and 2008 and finished the follow ups with known final infant HIV status were
included in the analysis. Information was collected from PMTCT and ART/HIV chronic
care follow up records of mothers and infants. A total of 131 mother infant pairs who had
finished the PMTCT follow up and with known infant HIV status were included in this
study. The main PMTCT intervention used was sdNVP, being given to 87 (68.6%) of
mothers and 106 (81.1%) of infants. The overall MTCT rate of HIV in the study was 24
out of 131(18.3%) and in infants who received sdNVP prophylaxis rate of HIV MTCT
was 11 out of 131 (9.5%) . Maternal factors like lack of ANC follow up and HCT after
delivery and infant mixed feeding before and after six months of age significantly
increase risk of MTCT. The overall rate of MTCT in Gondar university hospital is high
as compared to the developed countries and other African and developing world reports.
Efforts should be made to enroll all mothers early in pregnancy and counseling on
feeding options should be provided to mothers.

Evaluation of Direct Colorimetric MTT Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampicin
and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
       Gadissa Bedada, Amare Gessesse, Dawit Woldemeskel
       College of Medicine and Health Sceiences, CMHS, University of Gondar

Abstract
The spread of drug resistant tuberculosis especially MDR-TB in the world remains a major
public health problem. Early diagnosis of TB and rapid detection of drug resistance is an urgent
priority for proper patient management and to control dissemination of resistant strains. Simple,
rapid and inexpensive methods of detecting drug resistant TB are essential for effective
treatment. The MTT assay has been developed as a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for the
detection of Rifampicin (RIF) resistant M. tuberculosis with promising results. However, the
method was not evaluated under program condition for the detection of RIF resistance and not


                                           66
yet standardized and evaluated for the detection of isoniazid (INH) resistance. The objectives of
this study were thus to evaluate the direct MTT assay for detection of RIF resistance in M.
tuberculosis, and to standardize and evaluate the method for INH resistance under program
condition. Sputum samples were decontaminated with 4% NaOH and cultured on Lowenstein-
Jensen (LJ) media and Middlebrook 7H9 (M7H9) broth media. Drug susceptibility test was done
on LJ media using the proportion method. MTT assay was done on M7H9 broth containing 0.2
µg/ml INH, 2 µg/ml RIF and drug free control. Formazan production was quantified by
measuring the optical density (OD) at 570 nm and relative optical density unit (RODU) was
calculated as a ratio of drug containing tube to drug free control. A strain was defined as resistant
if it has a RODU> 0.5 and susceptible if it has RODU< 0.2. Out of 115 isolates tested for RIF
resistance, 6 were identified as RIF resistant using the MTT assay but 7 using the proportion
method. 0.2 µg/ml INH concentration was taken as a critical concentration to be used for direct
MTT assay for detection of INH resistance. Out of 18 isolates tested for INH resistance, 2 were
found INH resistant both with proportion method and MTT assay. The direct MTT assay result
matched 99% for RIF and 100% for INH with the conventional method. The MTT assay gave
94% interpretable result for Rifampicin and 100% for isoniazid at 2nd week. In the conventional
method it takes 7-14 weeks to get a final drug susceptibility test result. Therefore, this rapid,
simple and inexpensive method could be an alternative method for drug susceptibility test under
program condition. Further studies are required in regional labs to validate the method.
Keywords: M. tuberculosis, MDR-TB, MTT assay, Proportion method, Isoniazid,
Rifampicin

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Related to HIV/AIDS and Other STIs among
Preparatory Students of Gondar Town. North West Ethiopia
                 Alemayehu Gashaw, Agersew Alemu, Amanuel Girma, Afera Getahun,
               Andargie Kassa
               College of Medicine and Health Sceiences CMHS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Given the high prevalence rate of seropositivity among young people, they have been
described as driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic. To reduce spread of HIV those who are
and who are not infected must minimize risk behaviors and adopt safer sex. Yet, studies
show that, behavioral change is still minimal. For HIV/AIDS prevention program to be
effective we need a clear understanding of the situation of sexual behaviors. However,
studies on sexual behavior and knowledge, attitude and practice in particular among
youth are minimal. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of sexual behavior and
KAP related to HIV/AIDS and STDs among preparatory school youths of Gondar Town.
A cross sectional study design was conducted among Fasiledes Preparatory School
students to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS and other STDs
from March 22 – June 8, 2007. Among 240 students (52.1%) were males and (47.9%)
were females. Overall (85.4%) were found to be knowledgeable (were able to answer
(70%) and above of all knowledge equations and list the three prevention methods).Yet
some students consider kissing, sharing cloths and other utilities, Mosquito bites will
transmit HIV (7%, 1.7%, 1.3%) respectively knowledge was significantly associated with
family income (P<0.05). Over all (84.5%) students has favorable attitude. Stigmatization
attitude towards isolation of people with HIV/AIDS were interestingly low only (6.2%).
Twenty five percent of the study populations were already engaged in sexual activity.


                                             67
Thirty two point six percent of the sexually active has more than one partner in the last
one year, 61.7% have ever used condom, among 73% of them use it regularly 10% had
contracted STDs. Of the sexually active females (14/3%) have been pregnant, (14.3%)
raped, (9.5%) perceived gift for sex, and (9.5%) had sex with older men. Generally
chewing chat and drinking alcohol were significantly associated with condom use
(P<0.05). Total risk behaviors were significantly high for chewing chat, drinking alcohol
and gender (OR = 5.12).Awareness and relatively high knowledge didn‟t help the
students to safe guard from their risky behaviors; also attitude towards condom use was
poor. Convincing and concrete health education that enables the students to clear – up
misunderstanding and brining up behavioral change should be given. Reproductive health
education should be started at earlier age with involving peer educators and other
innovative ways.

A Retrospective Study on Prevalence of Syphilis among Pregnant Women Attending
Antenatal Care at University of Gondar Hospital
       Agerie Tadele, Abebe Tadesse, Ahmed Kawo, Alefew Eshetu, Alemishet Yeshitila
       College of Medicine & Health Sceiences, University of Gondar

Abstract
Syphilis is one of bacterial sexually transmitted infection. The infection in pregnant
women is highly prevalent in many areas of the world and it has been recognized as a
health hazard problem for child resulting in abortion, intra uterine growth retardation,
intrauterine death and congenital syphilis which can lead to serious fatal disease resulting
in late infection multiorganal formations or death of the fetus. The general objective of
this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women attending
ANC from 1997-Feb 1999 E.C at UOGH the specific objectives were to determine
prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women attending ANC from 1997-Feb 1999 E.C,
and to provide information about the prevalence of syphilis and to give recommendation
based on our findings and describe the most affected group. A retrospective study was
conducted to study the prevalence of syphilis among 2595 pregnant women who were
attending ANC at UOGH from 1997 to Feb 1999 E.C. Data pertaining study subjects was
collected form Serology and Blood bank department case registry book from March 26-
April 8 1999 and analyzed using the statistical soft ware EPINFO. Out of the total 2595
screened pregnant women for syphilis from antenatal record, 29 (1.12%) had reactive
serological result with a mean age of 25. Among the 29 positive pregnant women 13
(44.8%) were in the age group 18-23 years. This study suggests low syphilis
seroprevalence among pregnant women attending ANC at UOGH from 1997-Feb 1999.
Screening and treatment of syphilis should be continued in order to reduce its burden in
the community in general.




                                            68
                  FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

                                          2006
A Study on Governance and Ownership Structure of Selected Micro Finance
Institutions in Ethiopia
              P L Madhava Rao, Mulugeta Negash, Emebet Ferede
              Department of Accounting, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
The sources of finance for micro enterprises in urban areas and on farm activities in rural
Ethiopia were confined only to informal source of finance like money lenders, friends
and relatives. Starting in the middle of 1980s following the drought of 1984/85, some
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) introduced the idea of saving and credit
among people as a strategy for rehabilitation and development. Later on, special
government programs operated mainly in collaboration with international financial
institutions came in to the picture. Nonetheless, both types of programs were operated in
scattered manner and lacked sustainability. Micro finance as an institutionalized form
evolved after the Ethiopian government issued proclamation no.40/96 in 1996. Currently,
there are 21 micro finance institutions (MFIs) licensed by the National Bank Ethiopia
(NBE). The objective of almost all of these MFIs is poverty alleviation. The proclamation
requires MFIs to register as share companies and only Ethiopian nationals, individuals
and organizations are allowed to operate micro finance business in the country. This was
initially (even now) a challenge for most of the credit programs operated directly or
assisted by international NGOs or donors. The legal frame work clearly defines the roles
and responsibilities of board of directors and their level of qualification. Most existing
board members have development and NGO back grounds and are committed to the
mission of poverty alleviation. How ever, there is often lack of experience to provide the
necessary guidance to financial institutions. The main objective of present study is to
examine the governance and ownership structure of selected micro financial institutions
in Ethiopia. Total Ten (10) Micro finance institutions (50% of total MFIs of Ethiopia)
were selected for the present study to analyze on governance and ownership structures.
Both primary and secondary sources used for the collection of information for the above
study. The following are the main observations/results from the study: The exiting
ownership structure of the Ethiopia MFIS is a mixture of NGO, government (public) and
individuals. This seems appropriate nonetheless there are risks involved mainly because
of the nominal nature of the shareholding and lack of divaricating to ownership. The
survey reveals that of the MFIS assessed 95% of the existing share holders are not in a
position to raise additional equity capital in case the MFIS face liquidity problem. Seven
out of the ten MFIs assessed have no visited branch offices and talked to the staff at the
fore front of the operation of the MFIs in which they are owners and governors.




                                            69
Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study of Hero Honda Motors-Lesson
to be learnt by Ethiopian Industrialists
        Mulugeta Negash
        Department of Marketing Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
In today‟s ultra competitive business environment and product proliferation customers
perceive goods and services as commodities. Today companies try to differentiate
themselves from the crowd by leveraging their relationship with customers. It has been
said that acquisition of new customer costs companies six times more than it cost to
retain the existing customers. Companies are using myriad of strategy for beating
competition. Companies are leveraging their relationship with customers as strategic tool
and command premium prices. They collect maximum information about their customers
and provide tailored products and service to suite their particular requirements.
Customers are switching their brands usage and frequency time and again it is imperative
to predict the behavior of customers and provide personalized and customized products
and services. It is a known fact that some segment of the customer groups are
contributing the lion share of the profits and the rest few are contributing marginal profit
or making lose to the company. Companies today are measuring the Life Time Value of
their customers with accounting model and tighten their relationship that are making
profit and pay less attention to those who are less profitable. The Hero Honda Motors
Limited Company has initiated a Passport program project to augment its Customer
Relationship Management. The company has allotted 5% of its advertising annual budget
to this program. This study tries to assess the effectiveness of the program with students‟
customers at Aligarh Muslim University. Some of the customers have switched from
competitor‟s brands to Hero Honda. Most customers had also Hero Honda bike before
their latest bikes. Customers have high brand loyalty to Hero Honda bikes. However
surprising results has been obtained when they were asked in their next purchase plan
from which company they would like to purchase bikes. This study uncovers the fact that
most students‟ customers have intention to purchase bike from one or more of
Competitors Company in their next purchase plan. Some of customers do not even heard
about the passport program at all. The company has to increase awareness level of the
program by different Promotion campaign in addition to the TV ads. The billboard will
be effective small cities. Most customers do no give feedback to the company in the form
of complaint. They even perceive that the complaint handling mechanism is average. The
company has to give training to its front office employees. The customers believe that
Hero Honda bikes are most reliable in their performance so the company has to use this
rational appeal in its marketing communication programs. The researcher has used
primary and secondary data sources to collect the required information. For the primary
data interview and questionnaire are used. For collecting secondary data the researcher
has used journals, books, newspapers and Internets. The objective of the study is to share
the best practical experience adopted by the Hero Honda motor company.




                                            70
                                           2007
Trends and Dimensions of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Ethiopia
      P.L. Madhava Rao, Mulugeta Negash, Balakrishna.K, Abebaw Kassie
      Department of Accounting, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
The Foreign Investment and Technology accelerate the pace of the economic
development of the countries. Recognizing the crucial role of foreign investment and
technology, many developing countries have been fully exploiting these vital inputs. In
this respect foreign direct investments (FDI) can play an important role and may bring
not only additional capital but also technology, know-how, managerial skills & access to
foreign markets for developing countries like Ethiopia. As a major component of the
market-oriented policy reform, Ethiopia has issued and subsequently revised investment
proclamations and codes to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) since 1991/92.
Though, the economy was unable to attract expected FDI flows into Private and Public
sectors. In this respect, the present study attempts to assess how successful have these
measures been in attracting the required size and nature of FDI in the endeavor to ensure
rapid and sustainable development of the country. The major objectives of the study are
to assess the trends of FDI at global level; evaluate the inflows of FDI in Ethiopia; to
analyze the performance of FDI; to observe FDI Policy in Ethiopia; to identify major
constraints and prospects towards attract FDI; and to offer some suitable suggestions
based on the observations of the study. The main sources of information for the present
study are the Ethiopian Investment commission, Central Statistical Authority and other
local and international publications. Hence, the major sources of the present study
collected from secondary data base. The study employs simple ratios, percentages to
analyze the data information. The research Methodology is exploratory in nature. The
study found that Ethiopia‟s record in attracting FDI has still been low. Investors who
have licenses are very small in number and only very, few of them realized their plans.
Thus, bureaucratic inefficiencies, poor social & physical infrastructure and policy gaps
have been identified as major constraints to attract FDI flows in to Ethiopia. In this study,
recommendations and policy implications have been forwarded to solve perceived
problems.

Determinants of Demand for Money in Ethiopia.
      Nebyat Belete
      Department of Economics, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
It is repeatedly noted that the existence of a stable demand for money function is very
crucial for the conduct of monetary policy and stabilization of the economy. It is very
helpful in knowing the factors determining the demand for money in Ethiopia and trying
to regulate them in a way they can achieve the economic objectives of the country.
Therefore this study attempted to estimate a demand for money function for Ethiopia
using annual data ranging from 1986/87 to 2005/06. The study tried to estimate the
demand for real broad money balances using multiple regression econometrics models by


                                             71
taking real GDP, expected inflation rate, average treasury bills yield, number of financial
institutions as a proxy for financial development, population size and real effective
exchange rate as explanatory variables. The saving deposit interest rate is dropped from
the estimation of the model because in developing countries like Ethiopia, saving deposit
rate does not have significant effect on the demand for money of such countries.
Therefore instead expected inflation is used. Thus, in the estimated model the demand for
real broad money holdings was found to depend positively on real GFDP and population
size and negatively on the expected inflation rate, average treasury bills yield, real
effective exchange rate and number of financial development. The coefficient of GDP is
very lower than unity, which is inconsistent with the quantity theory of money. Of the
four opportunity cost variables in the model, the number of financial institutions has a
much-pronounced impact from the elasticity point of view, which indicates that the
banking habit of the people plays a greater role in determining demand fro money in
Ethiopia.

Gender Differentials in Urban Ethiopia
      Viju Mathew
      Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
This study estimates the magnitude of gender wage differentials for a sample of workers
from the Ethiopian organizations including public and private sector using the traditional
research methodologies. In doing so, it separates part of the estimated log of gender wage
differential explained by differences in human capital characteristics between men and
women from that, which is not explained by such differences. The latter is known in the
literature as “treatment” component or “discrimination” due to differing pay structures
for the two gender groups. Accordingly, it is found that in Ethiopia's manufacturing
sector men on average get up to 30% more than women depending on the measure used.
However, once we control for a number of individual and establishment level
characteristics, the level of wage premium for men over women is close to 5% or around
12 Ethiopian cents per hour. Out of this, both decomposition procedures estimate that
close to 60% of the premium is a result of discrimination (different treatment of men and
women in the labor market). Using an augmented decomposition technique, it is found
that out of the 60%, “discrimination component” close to 13% is due to men's treatment
advantage in the lab our market and the remaining 47% is due to women's treatment
disadvantage. In addition, it is found that firm level characteristics are important
contributors to the total discrimination component. Without controlling for establishment
level characteristics, the discrimination component would have been around 27%
indicating that ignoring establishment characteristics in decomposition exercises would
result into a biased estimation, and in this case, it would have underestimated the level of
discrimination by close to 50%.




                                            72
Negative Sides of Expatriate Teachers in Ethiopia
      Balakrishna K., Mezmur Tsegaye, Assegid Demissie, Mulugeta Negash
      Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
The government of Ethiopia, is hiring higher education teachers from out-side Ethiopia,
such as India, Philippines, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe etc, by paying comparatively
higher salaries and providing perquisites. The prime reason behind hiring of Expatriate
teachers were found to be shortage of higher education Teachers having Masters herein
Ethiopia, and importation of knowledge, skills, and varied experiences, expected to be
shared with the local teachers and higher learning students. Of course, these expatriate
teachers have responsibility of motivating and encouraging the local teachers and
students with the high standard of teaching skills and higher performances, when it comes
to academic issues. But, the colleague teachers of Ethiopia, higher learning students and
the respective Universities of Ethiopia are not getting benefited to the level of
expectation, by the expatriate teachers in majority. These expatriate teachers in majority
were noticed of leaving negative impact and causing discouragement among Ethiopian
teachers and higher learning students of Universities of Ethiopia. The guidelines of
applied research methodology have been used to conduct this study. Since, the local
teachers are colleagues of expatriate teachers, the local higher education teachers and the
students were interviewed, for obtaining the primary information, needed. A
questionnaire was served, for gathering primary information, which was prepared with
careful consideration of the factors causing negativity. The major objectives of the study
were to study the level of performance of expatriate teachers, in relation to:
    (a) Motivational Aspects
    (b) Knowledge Sharing Activities
    (c) Academic Coordination and Commitment
    (d) Establishing Academic Standards
    (e) Research Activities
    (f) Utilization of Resources
    (g) Ensuring Quality
    (h) Curriculum development and
    (i) Socialization; and to make findings and offer suggestions.

It was found through the study that the Expatriate Teachers were not found successful in
satisfying the local Teachers and Students with the factors as brought above in the
objective (a), besides causing negative impact by misusing the resources, and some times
hearting the feelings of the local Teachers and the students. This study, therefore, was an
attempt of ascertaining the negative-sides of the Expatriate Teachers working in the
Universities of Ethiopia, run by the honorable government., so that both the Universities
of Ethiopia and the Ministry of Education of Ethiopia can be provided with the
information about negative-sides of Expatriate Teachers, which can be used by the
concerned to find the remedial measures.




                                            73
Problems of Higher Education Teachers in Ethiopia
(With particular, reference to Higher Education Teachers of University of Gondar)
       Balakrishna K., Assegid Demissie, Mezmur Tsegaye, Mulugeta Negash
       Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
Higher education teachers in Ethiopia play a dominant role in societal development as a
whole. The students pursuing higher education, the industry and the Government
especially are in special need of the services of the higher education teachers. The
Ministry of Education in Ethiopia has a clear-cut policy to upkeep the interest of the
higher education teachers serving in its Universities, keeping in mind the necessity of
their services from the point of bright future of the nation. Unfortunately, the higher
education teachers, serving in the government run Universities, in Ethiopia, are found to
be not happy, because of a number of problems. As a result, the same was found to be
affecting the quality of higher education, academic standards and motivational aspects of
higher education students in the Universities of Ethiopia, run by the government. This
study aimed at providing the concerned with a snap-shot, describing the reasons behind
the problems, that are faced by the higher education teachers serving for the government
run Universities in Ethiopia. The said study was carried out with the help of applied
research methodology. The study was in need of primary as well as secondary
information. The primary information was gathered by interviewing the higher education
teachers, on being served with the structured questionnaire. The researchers belied that,
the respondents revealed the factual information. The objectives of the study were to
study the problems of higher education teachers of Ethiopian Universities associated with
    (a) Salary
    (b) Allowances
    (c) Perquisites
    (d) Career development
    (e) Academic duties and Responsibilities
    (f) Social security measures
    (g) Service conditions and work environment; and to make findings and to offer
        suggestions.

The study disclosed that the higher education teachers serving in government run
Universities herein Ethiopia, have serious problems when it comes to their salaries,
allowances, perquisites, social security measures, service conditions and work
environment. The result of the study is expected to serve the purpose of the policy-
makers in solving the problems of higher education teachers by updating the related
policies and in up-keeping the interest of the higher education teachers serving the
government run Universities in Ethiopia.




                                           74
Need for Mobile Libraries in Ethiopia
       Balakrishna K., Mulugeta Negash, Assegid Demissie, Mezmur Tsegaye
       Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
The constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has provided its people with
the right to seek information. Hence, the people of Ethiopia must be facilitated to get with
full of information. The libraries are the best source of information. Since, Ethiopia is
heading towards the development, sufficient number of public libraries have to be
established to help people get information and acquire and improve their knowledge. But,
because of shortage of resources, at the movement, establishment of huge number of
libraries in different parts of Ethiopia is a difficult task. Hence, now, there is urgent need,
herein Ethiopia, to go for Mobile Libraries. Majority of the population is not in a position
to subscribe for books, magazines, and news papers of their own. Therefore, the need of
such people can be met by bringing the Mobile Library system in place, herein Ethiopia.
This study was in focus on finding out the need for Mobile Libraries in Ethiopia. Applied
research methodology was found fit for the execution of the said study. Both primary and
secondary information were in need for the successful completion of the study. People of
different segments of the society were served with the structured questionnaire to procure
with primary information needed. The people of Ethiopia, at large, are expected to be
benefited by this study. The major objectives of the study were to study the need for
Mobile Libraries among House Wives of Ethiopia, to study the need for Mobile Libraries
among Preparatory Students, to study the need for Mobile Libraries among Working
Class and Business Class People of Ethiopia, to find out whether resources are available
for providing the people of Ethiopia with the services of Mobile Libraries; and to make
Findings and offer Suggestions. It was found out from the study that, the people of
Ethiopia irrespective of the segment of the society they belong to are in need of Mobile
Libraries. It was also found from the study, that, it is possible for the Honorable
Government of Ethiopia to provide its people with Mobile Libraries, with the helping
hands of NGOs and other Donors.

Problems of Attrition in Ethiopian Universities
(With particular reference to Attrition of Instructors having Masters)
       Balakrishna K., P. L. Madhava Rao, Mulugeta Negash
       Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
Ministry of Education in Ethiopia is very much committed to ensure the higher education
teachers with career development opportunities. All the Instructors working at the
Universities of Ethiopia have been given with equal opportunity to go and get Masters
from different Universities. No doubt, acquisition of Masters help instructors ensures
operational efficiency and development. But, such Instructors holding Masters, in
majority are quitting the Universities run by the Government of Ethiopia, for various
reasons. As a result, the anticipated amount of operational efficiency and development
are not seen, in the Universities of Ethiopia, run by the government. This study, tries to
provide the concerned, with the information, containing, reasons behind Instructors


                                              75
having Masters quitting or trying to quit the Universities run by the government. This
study was carried out, in line with, the principles of applied research methodology. Both,
the primary and secondary information were needed for the completion of the study.
Primary information was gathered from the Instructors on duty and off the duty, and from
the Officials concerned as well, through the structured questionnaire. The limitation of
this study is that, the researcher believed, that, the respondents divulged correct
information. The major objectives of the study were to study the opinion of the
Instructors having Masters, about their pay Package, to study the level of satisfaction
among the Instructors having Masters, about promotional and           career developmental
opportunities, to study the level of satisfaction among the Instructors, having Masters,
about Working Conditions and Environment prevailing in the Universities run by the
government of Ethiopia, to study other causes, if any, behind attrition, and the result of
attrition, to make findings and offer suggestions; and study the objectives at (1), (2), and
(3) as brought above in relation to attrition. The researcher found from the study, that,
most of the instructors having Masters, who quit or looking to quit the Universities they
were/are worked/working, have done so/would do so because of two major reasons, and
are (i) not happy with their pay package and (ii) lack of promotional and career
developmental opportunities. This study would help the concerned, bring changes in the
policy and minimize the rate of attrition of instructors having Masters, functioning in
government run Universities, in Ethiopia.

Need for Mobile Education System in Ethiopia
       Balakrishna K., Mezmur Tsegaye, P.L. Madhava Rao, Assegid Demissie
       Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
Innovations that are taking place are making this world a small village. The field of
education is not exceptional, when it comes to innovation. Distance/Extension mode of
Education, On-line Education and now the Mobile Education. The students in need of
education, especially higher education are increasing in number, herein Ethiopia. All are
not finding sufficient time to go and pursue higher education either on regular or on
extension basis, herein Ethiopia. Therefore, such busy people are in need of mobile mode
of education. It is the responsibility of the honorable government of Ethiopia to ensure its
people with the facility of higher education through different mode. Moreover, Ethiopia
is heading towards development; hence it is the right time to welcome the mobile mode
of higher education system. This study tried to provide the concerned with the
information about the need for imparting higher education through Mobile Education
System; herein Ethiopia. The said study was conducted in line with applied research
methodology. The people who were found busy, but in need of higher education, the
higher education Teachers ready for shouldering the innovations and experiments and the
government Officials were contacted for gathering the primary information. A
questionnaire was designed involving the sources of primary information and considering
the factors responsible for ensuring higher education through innovative methods herein
Ethiopia. The major objectives of the study were analyze the need for higher learning
through Mobile Education System, among the people found busy, to analyze the need for
imparting higher education through Mobile Education System, among higher education



                                            76
Teachers, to analyze the opinion of the Officials of Honorable Government of Ethiopia,
about the need for higher education through Mobile Education System herein Ethiopia;
and to make Findings and to offer Suggestions. The study brought the fact to the notice of
the researchers that, people at large in Ethiopia are ready to welcome the Mobile
education System and they will be grateful to the Honorable Government of Ethiopia and
its Officials, if the said new system is put in place, at the earliest, for the use by the
Citizens of Ethiopia. The expected beneficiaries of this study would be the Ministry of
Education and the people of Ethiopia at large.

Higher Education for Sustainable and Economic Development (Case Study of
Ethiopia)
      Viju Mathew
      Department of Management, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
Universities and higher education institution in Ethiopia play a crucial role in generating
new ideas, and in accumulating and transmitting knowledge, yet they have remained
peripheral to development concerns. Although no longer the sole generators of
knowledge needed for sustainable and economic development, through their research and
teaching they help to produce expertise, manage development, engineer social
transformation, and preserve social values and cultural ethos. EDUCATION contributes
to the growth of national income and individual earnings. While land was the main
source of wealth and income in agricultural societies, capital and machinery became
important in industrial societies. In today‟s information societies, knowledge drives
economic growth and development. Higher education is the main source of that
knowledge – its production, dissemination and its absorption by any society. Economic
growth currently depends on the capacity to produce knowledge based goods. However,
the future of knowledge economies depends more on their capacity to produce knowledge
through research and development rather than on knowledge-based goods. Hence,
knowledge economies place greater value and accord higher priority to the production
and distribution of knowledge. Higher education institutions are a major source for
providing the human capital required for country knowledge and economic growth form
which sustainable development can be possible. Education is widely accepted as a
leading instrument for promoting economic growth. For Africa, where growth is essential
if the continent is to climb out of poverty, education is particularly important. For several
decades, development agencies have placed great emphasis on primary and, more
recently, secondary education and tertiary education as a means to improve economic
growth and development. The Dakar summit on “Education for All” in 2000, for
example, advocated only for education as a driver of broad social welfare.




                                             77
                                          2008
Managerial Performance Appraisal System in Transport Organization –A New
Approach
     Ogbu Okonkwo Jeremiah
     Department of Accounting, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
Transportation is an Indispensable engine of economic development. The essence of
establishing the transport undertakings was to provide an efficient, effective and adequate
road transport service that will carter for the needs of the masses for their conveyance
from one destination to another. Appraisal refers to the rating or evaluation of the worth
merit of effectiveness. Performance-appraisal implies the formed and systematic
evaluation of performance of an individual on the job he or she is assigned to perform.
Every large or medium organization has formal system of evaluation work performance
of its employees because its success depends upon their performances. Performance,
therefore, is the degree of accomplishment of tasks and it is measured in terms of results.
Performance-appraisal, hence, is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an
employee‟s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and of his potentialities for
a better job. It is therefore, the process to determine and communicate to an employee on
how well he is performing on the job assigned to him.

The Essence of Continuous Assessment in Schools
      Ogbu Okonkwo Jeremiah
      Department of Accounting, FBE, University of Gondar

Abstract
The importance of continuous assessment in a school establishment can not be over
exaggerated. I have endeavored to present a „bird‟s view on continues assessment by
sharing with you my own personal and professional view‟s on this very essential topic as
best as I could, charting, out the course which rightly, indeed hope fully, lead to
efficiently and effectively conduct of valid continuous assessment in schools.
Specifically, I have endeavored to examine briefly, definition and characteristics of
continuous assessment techniques and strategies expressed and deliberated on how to
organized, operate a sustainable system of continuous assessment in schools.




                                            78
        FACULTY OF NATURAL AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES

                                          2005
Diversity, Regeneration Status and Socio- Economic Importance of the Vegetation
in the Islands of Lake Ziway, South- Central Ethiopia
        Haileab Zegeye, Ensermu Kelbessa, Demel Teklay
        Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
The study was conducted in the islands of Lake Ziway located in the Main Ethiopian Rift
part of the Ethiopian Rift Valley in south – central Ethiopia, within the Oromia National
Regional state. The main objective of the study was to investigate the diversity,
regeneration status, socio- economic importance and the factors that cause degradation of
the vegetation resources in the islands. Vegetation and socio- economic data were
collected between 18 September and 7 November 2003.Atotal of 73 reveals, measuring
20 m x 20 m (400m2) sub – relieve laid within each releve. In each reveals, the
cover/abundance of each species was estimated, woody species were counted , diameter
at breast height and height or trees and shrubs and the environmental variables altitude,
slope, aspect and position were measured participatory Rural Appraisal method was
employed to generate the socio – economic information . A total of 141 species
belonging to 113 genera and 55 families were identified, of which 18.4% were trees,
21.3% trees/shrubs, 12.1% Shrubs, 3.5I% lianas, 4.3% herbaceous climbers and 40.4%
herbs. The overall diversity and evenness of woody species in the islands were 2.60 and
0.62, respectively. The number of species on the islands correlated with island's size,
habitat diversity and degree of human disturbance. The similarity in species composition
between the islands was low indicating that each island has its own unique flora. Nine
plant communities were recognized and described. The total density and basal area of the
vegetation were 2979 individuals ha -1, respectively. The importance value index and the
diameter and height class distribution revealed that some species are threatened and need
the highest priority for conservation. The socio –economic survey showed that the island
communities are highly dependent on the natural vegetation for various purposes. On the
other hand, the islanders have maintained the soil and vegetation resources for several
years through their indigenous resource management systems and practices. Human
population growth coupled with farmland expansion, soil erosion, free grazing and
cutting trees for various purposes are the major threats to the vegetation resources in the
islands. The implications of the results are discussed and recommendations are suggested
for conservation, management and sustainable utilization of the fragile island ecosystems.

Keywords: Diversity, regeneration, conservation, plant community types, socio –
economics, islands of Lake Ziway




                                            79
Velocity Structure of the Upper Crust across the Main Ethiopian Rift
       Mehari Melak and Tilahun Mammo
       Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, University o f Gondar
Abstract
Refraction technique is one of the geophysical investigation methods used to map the
subsurface layers based upon the velocity variation of the seismic wave as it propagates
through different geological material. As a part of the Ethiopia afar Geoscientist
Lithosphere Experiment (EAGLE) project conducted in January 2003, the detail study of
the crystal seismic p-waves has been carried out to produce the seismic model down to
the depth of 10 km from Chiefdoms (E513296. N9926410 to Kula (E575823, N886441)
for about 120 Km profile length across the main Ethiopian Rift. Five shot points with
inter shot separation of about 46 Km were used as seismic source and the data were
recorded on 120 geophones deployed in the study area at 1 Km spacing. The first arrival
times were picked, processed and inverted using the generalized reciprocal method
(GRM), and gave the four major seismic layers up to the depth of 10 Km across the rift
layer to about 6365m/s in the last layer. Lateral Velocity variations are also observed in
the layers. Attempts have been made to correlate the seismic layers with the known
geological formations. Boarder faults and other major faults have been clearly identified.

Keywords: refraction, seismic wave, Main Ethiopian Rift, shot points, GRM, Lateral
Velocity variations

                                         2007
Diversity and Regeneration Status of Tara Gedam and Abebaye Forests, Northwest
Ethiopia
          Haileab Zegeye
         Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
The study was carried out in the Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests in Addis Zemen,
Northwest Ethiopia in order to investigate the diversity, regeneration status, socio-
economic importance and the factors that cause degradation of the forests. Vegetation
and socio-economic data were collected from 12 March - 5 April 2007. Relevés/plots,
measuring 20 m x 20 m (400 m2), were established along line transects determined by
using Suunto Compass. In each relevé, the cover/abundance of each species was
estimated, woody species were counted, diameter at breast height and height of trees and
shrubs and the environmental variables altitude, position, slope and aspect were
measured. Participatory Rural Appraisal method was employed to generate the socio-
economic information. A total of 190 plant species were identified from Tara Gedam and
Abebaye forests. The importance value index and the diameter and height class
distribution showed that some species are threatened and need priority for conservation.
Livestock grazing, cutting trees for construction material and other purposes, farmland
expansion and soil erosion are the major threats to the forests.



                                           80
Numerical Taxonomy of Phenotypic Characters of Rhizobium Leguminosarum var
viceae Isolated from Some Faba Bean Growing Regions of Ethiopia
               Zewdu Teshome
               Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
Fifty Rhizobium legumisoarum biovar viciae strains isolated from root nodules of pulse
crops collected from different major pulse growing areas of Ethiopia were studied based
on their morphological and physiological properties .The bulk of the isolates (72%) were
Large Mucoid (LM) colonies with convex surface and entire margin while 22% were
Large Wet (LW) that produced extensive quantities of exopolysaccarides; the remaining
6% of the isolates showed colony dimorphism with mixed large and small colonies. Their
colony size ranges from 1.6-4.2mm in diameter, of which 84% of them displayed
between 2-4mm.Thirty isolates had Mean Doubling Time (MDT) of 2.5 h or less while
twenty isolates had MDT between 2-6-4.5h.The isolates showed high NaCl tolerance
with 38% and 30% tolerating 5% and 6% NaCl, respectively. Almost half of the isolates
showed growth at 50C and tolerance to 450C were shown by ten strains. Twenty-five
isolates were tolerant to low pH of 4.0 in culture medium, while 35 strains showed
growth at alkaline pH of 9.5. High resistance to Erythromycin (200 μg/ml), Nalidixic acid
(150μg/ml) and Ampicillin (150μg/ml) were recorded by 70-85% of the isolates and high
susceptibility was showed by Rifampicin (20 μg/ml) and Kanamycin (100μg/ml). All
isolates did not utilize sodium citrate as sole source of carbon; the majority of the strains
have utilized other carbohydrates. Total cell protein profile by one-dimensional Sodium
Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for eight
representative isolates exhibited similar banding pattern. Numerical analysis of more than
60 phenotypic characteristics should that below the boundary level of 85% average
similarity the isolates revealed four main clusters and nine separate positions. Sixty eight
percent of the isolates were grouped under the first two clusters. Ten strains showed
similarity at 100% similarity level showing almost similar response concerning tolerance
to various physiological characteristics.


                                           2008
Empirical Impact Assessment of Business Development Service in Micro and Small
Enterprises in the Case of Amhara National Regional State Towns
      Salie Ayalew
      Department of Statistics, FNCS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Among many reasons for micro and small business failures or slow growth is lack of
management skills in smaller businesses has been highlighted as a contributory factor. In
recognition of this, training provision and management development have dominated
much of the policy debate on micro and small enterprise development since late 1980‟s.
No research has given theoretical explanations about business development service in
organization and the impact of such efforts even though researchers assume that


                                             81
management development and training can be directly related to performance and success
of business. The focus has always been as a holistic intervention. Due to such kind of
intervention, the impact of training could not be evaluated. This empirical study
investigates the perceptions of the enterprise owners about various development
indicators and their added value due to the intervention of business development services.
Overall Objective of the study were to check whether the already identified problems in
situation analysis are alleviated or not, that is to study the impact; and to develop
appropriate statistical models for performance measurement on BDS. The goal of the
study were to make enabling environment for scientific management decision make
fertile ground for regional government to make policies and strategies, and further
investigation and to enhance the Research and Development program of the enterprises.
The analysis is based on the result of a sample survey of 195 micro and small enterprises
in 12 towns of the Amhara National Regional State. Furthermore, to evaluate the impact
of Business Development Service (BDS) intervention on MSEs, a considerable sample
size of non-business persons and government bodies, other than Micro and Small
Enterprise Development agency workers, were included in the survey. The methodology
employed in this study for assessing the impact of BDS on business success of micro and
small enterprises, and economic growth of the region. Statistical software such as SPSS
and S-PLUS were employed. Moreover, statistical techniques such as multivariate factor
analysis, chi-square, and nonparametric techniques of Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were
used in the analysis. This study covers micro and small enterprises BDS operators in 12
towns of the Amhara Region. A stratified sampling procedure was adopted. The list of
operators was selected under proportional allocation based on the total sample size.
Individual beneficiaries for filling the questionnaire were selected using systematic
random sampling technique. Furthermore, the sample selection for second and third
stakeholders is drawn with simple random sampling technique. It is found that the
problems that MSEs face are not only financial and working place but also a problem of
transparency on business regulation, finance regulation and important business
information, inability to convince the authorized bodies and bureaucracy problems. Since
the introduction of BDS in the form of spot advice is an attempt to alleviate such kind of
problems, the study indicates that access to credit scheme alone could not make
enterprises profitable and the introduction of minimum charge of market places are not
really influential for business success. The study has given an insight into the business
development component indicator by introducing BDS program on micro and small
enterprise operators. From factor analysis, it has further highlighted the complexity of the
variables that contribute and demonstrate possible leverage points of specific inputs for
business success. The study also reveals four groups of performance indicators of
business success from the opinion of BDS beneficiaries; both non-business persons and
government bodies identify three groups of factors. This indicates that there is a big
analysis of gap among business owners, non-business persons and government bodies
concerning the importance of BDS program. The business operators perceived that BDS
program enables them to be self employed, governed to law, and contribute for local
developments. However, they do not understand the interaction of these components with
their enterprise income and related components. On the other hand, the government
bodies perceived that BDS scheme helps the business operators to speed up their growth
and become profitable. However, they did not mention their contribution to local



                                            82
development and government revenue. Neutral opinions are expected from non-business
persons. The result of the study showed that the introduction of BDS program in to MSE
operators enables them to be effective in internal organized information system, creation
of job opportunity and harmonizing of regulation. From these results, the local
government and any other non-government bodies or concerned stakeholders could
improve their service and develop better strategies to fill the gaps created here. Using
Wilcoxon matched pair Nonparametric Test; it was shown that the introduction of BDS
program has contributed towards a rise in capital and effective reduction of operation cost
of the enterprises. Logistic regression analysis indicates that business success is
associated with the size of enterprises (number of employees). As the size of enterprises
increase, profitability also increases. This implies that the introduction of BDS for
enterprises having more than 10 employees is more likely to improve their business. One
important point observation made in this study is that only easily accessible working
places cannot be considered as a guarantee for MSEs business success unless they are
closely related with appropriate advisors. Business activities that are undertaken by
renting houses are not as such highly successful as businesses in private houses.
Enterprises whose life of trading activities is larger are more profitable than those with
short life. The study also underscores that, the introduction of BDS is highly important in
order to be successful in business for enterprises that execute a big amount of operating
cost. It was also noted that business profitability is not associated with the age as well as
gender of owners and the amount of credit obtained. The criteria that uses annual
turnover greater than 1800 birr as a success line is not strong enough to associate with the
amount of capital. According to this study, business providers need not consider these
variables as criteria for including of enterprises in BDS. The results of the study show
MSE‟s supported by BDS are governed by law, this means, they pay taxes, are licensed
in trade and their activities are in the frame of national and local regulation; contribute to
reduce unemployment by creating job opportunities; and develop information and
organized documents that enable them to evaluate their performance. From the opinion of
three types of respondents, the assessment made by government bodies are highly
consistent than the judgment of business operators. Since the government executives have
almost similar level of background relative to the business operators to understand, their
judgments are expected to be consistent from time to time. In the case of this study, the
Cronbach‟s α indicates that the idea of agreement between government bodies for
development indicator items after the introduction of BDS would be 86%, while the
agreement between business operators are 43%. Even though, it is a crude measure, it
does give an idea of how much agreement exists.




                                             83
                                           2009
Factors that Affect the Success of Students at the University of Gondar Atse
Tewodros Campus: the Case of Third Year Students of Applied Sciences.
      Amsalu Arega, Alemtsehay Desta, Bekele Beyene, Beza Dessalegn, Fekadu
      Jebessa, Kassaw Wubalem, Mintamir Lakew, Nigatu Goa, Tesfaye Qakaba,
      Tubuna Aleme.
       Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar

Abstract
The word success is defined as an accomplishment of aim or goal Success is related with
so many fields of study such as in business, in sport, in war, traveling, education, and etc.
For the time being our research paper is concern about the factors that affect the success
of student in the campus. There are so many factors in the campus in order to create a
successful student. Among them instruction, course of study, student life in the campus
and problems of students are included. In order to get an appropriate finding we use
systematic random sampling system and self administrative questionnaires for the
selected third year applied science student. The study uses both descriptive and
inferential method of data analyses, that means from descriptive statistics it uses like
frequency table, pie chart, bar graph and from inferential statistics it use like chi-square
association, and population proportion. And the study uses commuter soft ware like
SPSSS for data analysis. From the results and interoperation most of students argue that
the success of student is highly depend on the reading system and more than half of the
student agree that from service facility provided by the campus basic needs highly
affected the success of students I n the campus. In addition to this most of the students
agree that using addiction has a consequence of lack of health in the students‟ life. We
recommended that the administrative should provided an appropriate studying place,
entertainment place and service facility for the student and we also recommend students
to choose an appropriate reading system and they do not use any addiction.

Status of Plant Biotechnology Research and Development in Ethiopia
              Abreham Bekele, Abu Edris, Ayantu Girma, Belete Ayalew, Belete Ewunetu,
              Berhe Kumenit, Abraham Abera
              Department of Biotechnology, FNCS, University of Gondar
Abstract
The beginning of agriculture was a long history and early farmers have been altering the
genetic makeup of the crops to select the best performing crops. During 20th century,
when the science of plant breeding was further developed, selection of superior plants
becomes an easy task for farmers. Later, in 21st century, the development of plant
biotechnology as a science has resulted in production of the first biotech crop which was
commercialized in USA in 1996. Since then, R&D has been taking place in different
parts of the world. The fact that the traditional agricultural productivity grows at a slower
rate cannot feed an ever- increasing population of the country, which necessitates
Ethiopia to adopt plant biotechnology as a means to achieve the food security that the
Green Revolution did not supply. However, Ethiopia did not benefit from the application
of this science, on the one hand, for a variety of complex reasons. On the other hand,


                                             84
biotechnology research program are being carried out within the country, even if it is
done in fragmented manner in various institutions. Yet there is little information
documented on the major trends of plant biotechnology application in Ethiopia. As a
result, this paper aimed primarily at reviewing the past and current status of plant
biotechnology R&D in the country and put the way forward to bring the existing
knowledge base up-to-date. In our concerted effort to trace the milestone developments,
plant biotech R&D in Ethiopia is still at its juvenile stage despite major advancements in
different corners of the world. Nevertheless, some biotechnology R&D has been
performed by different institutions in Ethiopia. They are currently applying tissue culture
techniques to micro-propagate plant materials free of diseases for their supply to the
target groups and also to identify and characterize collected germplasm in the gene bank.
In light of this, EIAR & IBCR among federal research institutes while MPTCL &
ARARI from regional research centers are those that can be mentioned. Besides, few
higher learning institutions- AAU, JUCA, UoG & AMU - are also among the actors in
the field of biotechnology through human resource development & work on limited
research activities as well. However, as with any other new technological packages, the
application of modern biotechnology may have a certain risks. Hence a national biosafety
framework to establish acceptable standards for research and risk assessment related to
biotechnology should be of a major concern. But to date, no stand alone national
biotechnology policy is available in the country. However, very recently, a draft national
biosafety framework was issued, which is based on environmental protection policy,
agricultural research policy, and other related policies. Regardless of its constructive
impacts, adoption of biotechnology application has so far been limited owing to intricate
reasons including the lack of an adequate regulatory structure, a shortage of resources &
lack of coordination in biotech research programs. Therefore, the government of Ethiopia
should work hard to address these setbacks in order for the country to benefit from a great
promise that this modern biotechnology provides.
Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Promise, R&D, Tissue Culture, Ethiopia

Delay of Patients in Outpatient Departments of University of Gondar Teaching
Hospital by Using Queuing Model
      Bedilu Alamirie and Salie Ayalew
      Department of Statistics, FNCS, University of Gondar

Abstract
Now days not only in Gondar University hospital, but also in other hospitals of Ethiopia
there are long processes which generate waiting lines, referred to as queuing to get the
required service. Waiting lines usually occur due to the inefficiency of service providers
and lack of service facilities, the employee, and part of machine or unit, lack of space or
delay of time. Maintaining appropriate material capacity and man power is one of the
biggest challenge facing hospitals. How ever, there is still no scientifically based
methodology to help managers and hospital administrators efficiently allocate scarce
resources to promote quality patient out comes with in their own setting. The objective
was to determine the performance measures for waiting of patients in outpatient
department (OPD) service centers, to assess the expected arrival rate of patients to the
OPD and the service rate delivered to the customers. A hospital based cross-sectional


                                            85
study was conducted among seven outpatient department (OPD) service centers in
Gondar University teaching Hospital from November 2008 to May 2009 to assess the
delay of patients in each OPD to get the required service. The methods of data collection
used were in depth interview with focal persons of the OPD during the study, observation
and review of documents. Due to the robustness of its assumptions and its ease of use,
[M/M/1: FCFS/∞/∞], [M/M/C: FCFS/∞/∞] and [M/M/C: FCFS/N/∞] queuing models are
used, since these types of models are extensively used for capacity planning in a very
broad variety of service centers like hospitals. The advantage of using these models is
that given an arrival rate, average service duration, and the number of servers one can
compute the different performance measures of the system by using appropriate
expressions. From the seven OPD service centers the maximum number of patients on the
waiting line was observed in internal medicine (i.e. Lq= 36 customers) and minimum
number of patients on the queue was seen in emergency (i.e. Lq= 0.31 customers) OPD
service center. A customer spent more time on the waiting line to get the service on
ophthalmology OPD service center (i.e. More than seven hours after knowing to get the
service) and minimum time in emergency service center that is less than 10 minutes. The
arrival rate of patients in internal medicine OPD service center was high compared to
others (i.e. with in 5.65 minute one customer come to the service center). 93.2%, 86.8%,
78%, and 89% of arriving patients should wait for service in ophthalmology, surgery,
gynecology and internal medicine OPD service centers respectively after they sent to the
OPDs for service. This indicates that there is a great considerable problem seen in those
service centers. The fact that most of the customers must wait for service a long period of
time in those service center is an indication for something should be done to improve the
waiting line Operation like by adding number of servers (i.e. For ophthalmology, Internal
medicine and surgery OPDs since, adding server for those OPD is also economical),
informing patients their appropriate order to get the service, performing sound scheduling
for patient examination, avoid patients appointment at the same time and by designing
well organized service system.

A Comparison of Alternative Estimators of Macroeconomic Model in Ethiopia
     Asrat Atsedeweyn
     Department of Statistics, FNCS, University of Gondar

Abstract
During the past five decades a number of econometric techniques were developed and
applied to a variety of econometric relationships to deal with the problem of single
equation estimation as well as simultaneous equation bias. These days, such methods
have very wide applications especially in more developed countries. However, there has
been very little attempt to apply these techniques to empirical relationships describing the
macroeconomic sector of developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. In
this study, a small macro econometric model of Ethiopia is used to identify the best
estimation techniques that will produce accurate forecast of the economy of Ethiopia. Six
econometric methods were considered. The prediction accuracy of these estimators was
examined using time series data covering the period 1970 to 2004. The results indicated
that considerable gain in forecasting accuracy can be achieved by using 2SLSAUT01 and
2SLSAUT02 than simple ordinary least squares or two stage least squares to estimate



                                            86
macro econometric models. Moreover, the results do indicate that series attempts should
be made to estimate models by techniques other than ordinary least squares or two-stage
least squares.

Empirical Assessment of Living Cost of Population: The Case of Gondar
      Salie Ayalew, Department of Statistics, FNCS, University of Gondar

Abstract
A cost-of-living index is a useful way to consider welfare changes caused by changes in
factors exogenous to the individual household, such as inflation, and the monetary, fiscal,
and trade policies of governments. Standard living is not to be regarded as an overall
social welfare index. Standard living is concerned only with the contribution to social
welfare derived from the immediate consumption, both private and public, of goods and
services that satisfy immediate utility needs. Gondar is the largest amalgamated city in
Amhara Region and is the capital of North Gondar. 54% of urban population of the
capital is females. Now a day, Gondar is liable for globalization markets, that is nearer to
Sudan and Eritrea, a large number of people living in America is from the home of
Gondar and returning as Diasporas with foreign currency increases the money circulation
in it and overload to reduce the purchasing power of the residents. The objective of the
study was to make basis for cost index of population in towns and to identify the reasons
and indicate alternative solutions for cost of living that are helpful to consumers and
government bodies. The data of the study are collected from both primary and secondary
sources using questionnaire and interviews and analyzed by the using of relative average
consumer price index methods and Gini coefficients. The study indicated that in North
Gondar agricultural activities, total crop productivity was increased by 72% in 2008
compared to 2004. The study shows that 60.78% of the capital of the zonal business
activities and 54.76% of the job opportunities are registered in Gondar town. This study
also shows that only 31% to 40% of the physiological need of government sector
employees is compensated for the price rises. The purchasing power of money in 2008 is
approximately 39% of purchasing power in 2003.The result of the study based on
individual expenditures approach shows that 46.32% of the urban population‟s daily
income is below one US dollar. From this study we can also observe that 50% of the
households have 27.83% of the expenditures of population living in Gondar. The top ten
percent of the population have about 21.96% of the annual expenditure in the town. The
bottom ten percent of the population‟s expenditure share is 2.28% and the expenditure
inequality is 33%.

Analysis of Soil in Addisgae Village
      Bereket Woldgebreal, Endalew Atanaw, Kassahun Koye, Tadele Gizat,
      Gopalakrishnan
      Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar
Abstract
There are 35 elements regarded as nutrition for plants out of which 17 elements are
considered to be essential without which proper growth and sustenance of plants is
difficult. Out of 17 essential nutrients, 9 of them are to be supplied in large amounts to
plants and thus they are called as major nutrients namely C, O, H, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and


                                            87
S. Except the first two elements which are available to the plants in the air as CO2, rest of
the elements are supplied from the soil. Since the soil serve as the reservoir of nutrients to
the plant, the fertility of soil for sustaining the particular crop critically depends on its
nutrients contents as well as its texture. Ethiopia is locked into a unique situation namely
it has to meet its food security only from indigenous production since its major food grain
Teff is not cultivated in the outside world. Therefore there is a need to augment its
production capacity by expanding the cultivable area and increasing yield per hectare.
Towards this goal it is imperative to incorporate scientific farming and one such
important tool is soil analysis for its nutrients and texture and based on which advising
the farmers about the fertilizer to be applied and other farming practices. With these
objectives, soil samples were collected from 4 different pieces of land belonging to
different farmers in Addisgae village and were prepared for analysis as per standard
procedures. The prepared soil samples were analyzed for N by Khjeldhal‟s method, P by
colourimetry, K & Na by flame photometry, Ca & Mg by EDTA titration, S by
gravimeter, total organic carbon and texture. The results of the above analysis, the
conclusion about the soil nutrients and recommendation to the farmers will be discussed.

The Impact of Chewing Khat on the Academic Performance and Health Status of
Graduating Students (A Case of Atse Tewodros Campus Students).
      Amsalu Worku, Belay Nigusse, Betelihem Bayu, Fentaye Tsege, Kassu Mahari,
      Mireasa Hunde, Rahel Kidane, Temesgen Sheferaw, Theodros Bachure,
      Yesuf Alebachew, Department of Biology, FNCS, University of Gondar
Abstract
Khat is a plant whose leaves and stem tips are used as stimulants. Khat contains a
psychoactive substance called acanthine one which produce central stimulation analogous
to amphetamine. It is widely used in East Africa in general; and in Ethiopia in particular;
for various purposes. Habitual use of Khat renders certain influence on the physical,
psychological and Economical well being of the community. Since University students is
parts of the community they face the above problem. The objective of this study is to
determine the impact of Khat chewing in academic performance and health status of Atse
Tewodros campus Graduate Students. The appropriate methodology to meet the objective
of the study is a cross-sectional survey on sample of 167 graduating students were taken,
and the participant of the study were selected by using stratified random sampling with
proportional allocation. Then primary data were collected by self administered
questionnaire on regular graduate student in UOG Atse Tewodros campus. The collected
data were analyzed through descriptive (charts) and inferential (Chi-square and
ANOVA). From the result and discussion part, it‟s concluded that chewing Khat has
negative impact on health status and academic performance of the students. Additionally
this study recommended that the administrative of UOG and other concerned body must
arrange some sort of facilities which helps to replace the reasons of chewing Khat (i.e. for
study, relaxation, socialization, to pass time, and others); Such as opening internet pool,
steps forward entertainments like 24 hour TV service, tennis…; support student
association like gender club, green environment club and others, to protect students from
bas (harmful) practices and also the student must refrain from Khat use.




                                             88
             FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

                                           2004
Predisposing Factors to Early Sexual Engagement and Its Psychosocial Effects on
Female Children: The Case of Some Selected Sites in Addis Ababa
       Yemataw Wondie and Yusuf Omer
       Department of Psychology, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
Early sexual engagement has become not only a medical concern but also a socio-
economic, socio-cultural and human rights issue in almost every aspects of society‟s
system of development across the globe. The situation is even more tragic in developing
nations particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where one of the youngest populations is
found. Ethiopia is not exceptional in this case. That is, it is not uncommon to see women
and young girls engaged in sexual activity prior to their adequate physical development,
psychological readiness and above all without their consent. The degree of the
multifaceted consequence they encounter afterward can be severe: the activity can have
disastrous health, psychosocial and economic effects. The general objective of this study
is, therefore, to investigate the psychosocial effects of early engagement in sexual activity
on female children and young women. The study also attempts to trace major causal
factors that contribute to early sexual engagement and suggest some important measures
to be taken so as to prevent the problem and to tackle it once it has arisen. Data were
collected from 80 respondents residing in four different sites in Addis Ababa by means of
a structured interview schedule. This was also substantiated through a qualitative case
study, expert‟s interview and a real video document analysis. The quantitative data were
analyzed using Chi- square statistics and descriptive statistics (percentage and some
central tendencies). The result revealed that the respondents experience various kinds of
negative emotions regardless of the context in which they experience their first sexuality.
These include fear, shock, sadness, regret, suicidal attempts, and so on. The data on the
psychosocial effects of early marriage, rape, and child prostitution also showed that the
victims perceive themselves as worthless, helpless and hopeless. Most of them are also
found to be school dropouts and divorced. Regarding the factors instigating early sexual
engagement, poverty, male dominance, the tradition of early marriage, parental
breakdown, orphanage and peer influence are found to be conspicuous. A Chi-square test
also showed that a statistically significant association exists between early sexuality and
level of literacy, religious affiliation and regional affiliation of the respondents. Early
sexual engagement in different forms (i.e. early marriage, rape and child restitution) led
the respondents to suffer from various degrees of psychosocial problems, which
eventually ruin their proper functioning. This study has also come up with a variety of
factors ranging from harmful traditional practices to poverty or lower socio-economic
status predisposing the respondents to early sexual engagement in different contexts.
Finally, the importance of family planning and health education, promoting girls‟
education, provision of assertiveness training to girls, using the mass media in teaching
clear discussion between parents and children about favorable and unfavorable sexual
relationship, and other strategies are recommended.
Keywords: early sexual engagement, psychosocial effects, female children, and, Ethiopia


                                             89
An Assessment of Health Care Seeking Behavior of People in and around Gondar
      Mini Thekke Changarampatt and Janetius Thomas
      Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Gondar

Abstract
Lack of awareness of general health care is an observed phenomenon in Ethiopia.
Creating Awareness about the meaning of healthy aspect of life is the prime concern of
the Ministry of Health today and it is a big challenge to all health professionals. The
majority of Ethiopians depend on medicinal plants and traditional magico-religious
healing practices as their main source of health care, especially in rural and semi-urban
areas where access to towns and cities are hard due to the absence of vehicular roads as
well as lack of clear awareness on the modern facilities. Besides the fact that modern
health care facilities are inadequate, both in terms of quality and quantity, lack of
education, shortage of health professionals, social access, prevalent traditional magico-
religious beliefs and social perception of illness-causation are some of the known factors
of this problem. The bottom line is that the general population needs awareness about
health facilities that are available and need to be trained to access available services. In
order to facilitate awareness and enforce people to the existing health services, it is
necessary to know of the current situation of the people so that proper understanding and
knowledge based action plans could be employed for effective intervention. The study
therefore has the following objectives. a) To assess the health care seeking behaviour; b)
Identify factors those contribute to the lack used of traditional or modern health care;
c) To suggest action plan and intervention strategies for improving the community health
This descriptive study uses both qualitative and quantitative methodology. Basic
interview techniques will be employed to collect data using probability proportional
sampling method to choose sampling units. It is presumed that the results of this study
will increase the knowledge of current practice and positively enhance both the general
population as well as health professionals to reach out to people in an more effective way
to create awareness about modern health practices and implementation of appropriate
solutions so that the health situation in and around Gondar could be improved in the
course of time. Further, the results from the research when reviewed in the context of
national policy and practical application and carefully fed back to those working in the
area - as a result, changes could be made within the society by acting on the study's
recommendations.

                                           2006
Socio-Economic and Demographic Differentials of Fertility Preferences in Ethiopia:
The Case of Amhara Region
       Kassahun Tegegne
       Department of Geography & Environmental Sciences, FSSH, University of
       Gondar

Abstract
Ethiopia is one of the developing countries where fertility rate is the highest (5.9 children
per women). The majority of fertility and family planning studies conducted in the
country were concerned with women. By ignoring men, these studies overlook the


                                             90
primary fertility and family planning decision makers. However, this study used both
women and men as samples of the study using the 2000 Ethiopian Demographic and
Health Survey data. Therefore, the study investigated the above issues by setting the
following objectives: (1) to examine the demographic differentials of men and women to
their fertility preferences of a particular sex, ideal family size and desire for more
children, (2) to assess that ideal family size preferences varying according to factors such
as urban-rural residences, educational attainment and labour force participation and (3) to
identify factors which influence the desire for more children. To achieve these objectives
the study forwarded the following hypotheses: (1) the higher the parity the women and
men have the lesser their desire to bear another child (2) the desire for sons is likely to be
affected by the sex composition of living children, (3) and women and men who are
engaged in agricultural sector have the desire for more children than their non-
agricultural counterparts. The sample population consists of 1, 315 currently married
women aged 15 to 49 and 383 currently married men in the age ranges of 15 to 59 years.
On the bases of these, several socio economic and demographic variables were selected
for the study, namely, education, pace of residence, occupation, working status, use of
contraception, age, number of living children, marital duration, age at first marriage and
infant and child mortality experiences of respondents. The independent variables were
regressed by using logistic and multiple classification analysis (MCA) models against the
dependant variables: desire for more children and ideal family size preferences. Both the
bivariate and multivariate results showed that as the life cycle factors of respondents such
as age, number of living children marital duration increases, the desire for more children
decreases. The findings of the study also revealed that there is male child preference than
female child. The over all result showed that male respondents have relatively large mean
ideal size preference (5 children) than women (4 children). Therefore, it is recommended
that men also should be targeted in the process of family planning advocation.

Impediments to Cooperative Housing in Amhara Region: The Case of Bahir Dar
City
      Bekele Melese
      Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Gondar

Abstract
Like in many other developing countries, critical shortage and poor condition of housing
is one of the biggest urban problems in Ethiopia, and the problem is even more critical in
towns and cities of the country where there is high rate of urbanization. Bahirdar is one
such city of the country that has been experiencing dramatic rise in its rate of
urbanization. The purpose of this study is to explore the nature and magnitude of the
housing problem in Bahir Dar and, primarily, to look into the potentials and constrains of
cooperative housing as a viable strategy to mitigate the problem at hand. Towards the
fulfillments of this objective, members of housing cooperatives who have been
undertaking their projects in the last five years were surveyed. A two stage sampling
design was used to select sample households from the target population. At the first stage,
16 cooperatives were randomly selected out of the total 48 cooperatives that have
received land in the last five years. At the second stage, 150 cooperative members were
chosen from the 16 cooperatives proportionate to size. A structured questionnaire was



                                             91
administered to the sample population. This was also complemented with unstructured
interview, site observation and documentary search. The findings of the research
revealed that there is a tremendous shortfall and poor condition of housing in Bahir Dar,
and yet there is no appropriate housing supply system to mitigate the problem. The
private rental system (real estate development) is entirely non-existent, and the public
housing system is both insignificant and ineffective. Even though the cooperative way of
housing is institutionalized to address the tremendous housing nee, cooperatives in
general have not been able to bear fruit or have failed to realize the intended outcomes. A
number of factors hinder the performance of housing cooperatives. The findings of this
study indicate that problems of land provision, housing finance, and infrastructure as well
as higher housing standards are found to be most important factors that severely preclude
the progress of cooperatives.

Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing and Environmental
Education
      Nawal Prasad Singh
      Department of Geography & Environmental Sciences, FSSH, University of
      Gondar

Abstract
We are presently positioned at the initial stage of twenty first century with the fast
growing trend in computer technology information systems. These information systems
are undergoing much improvement. It is able to create, manipulate, store and use spatial
data much faster and accurate in compare to conventional methods. To fulfill the demand
of increases needs and grids leads to environmental problems. Monitoring and impact
assessment became essential to fulfill the needs of human being as well as nature.
Therefore, Remote Sensing (RS) became essential for acquiring spatial information.
Which are important for environmental education? GIS is capable to identify, locate,
perform change studies, pattern analysis and modeling for natural resource management.
Such as action plan for integrated sustainable development, locating waste disposal sites
and hazardous sites and analyze forest and water resources. GIS is also of tool for
decision makers for land and water resources assessments, development and
management.

Affordability, Accessibility, and Availabilities of Water in Gondar City
       Muluken Adane and Nawal Prasad Singh
       Department of Geography & Environmental Sciences, FSSH, University of
       Gondar
Abstract
Environmental problems are experienced in Gondar city today than any time before. Such
an environmental problem is explained by water, air, land etc problems of which water
problem is the one and much more serious than the other kinds of problems. It is well
known that life is unthinkable with out water unless for very few days usually less than
seven days. If we look wide open, water is not only important for day-to-days
consumption as a food, it is also power, and transport. Gondar is the third largest city of
the country and the first leading populous town of the region. As CSA data revealed it


                                            92
has a projected residence of about 200,000 for year 2004 and is currently divided into ten
urban administrative Kebeles. According to the data obtained form the municipality of
the city, the current population is 201958 (100864 male and 101094 female), which is
almost equal to the projected population by central statistical authority. The main aim and
objectives of this work is to come across the issue of water in Gondar town and
specifically to examine the affordability of water to get connected, the customers‟ ability
to pay for the government or private water supplies, accessibility of the lines to customers
to get connected, The availability of water even after connection, and the seasonal effect
on water availability. To realize the above objectives both primary and secondary data
have been employed from questionnaires administered and documents from pertinent
sectors to the issues. As the result of the research portrayed, water is supplied to private
and government customers through 7130 connections of which 6420 are private taps and
the remaining 710 are government offices‟ taps. Besides these, there are 22 public tap
points constructed thorough out the city. This implies that (average household size of 6.2
persons), but only 19.7% of 39804 persons have access to private tap water facilities. The
rest of the population uses public taps and private water vendors. This makes access is
affordability issue; many households do not have the financial capacity to have their own
private taps, because the minimum charge for installation of water tap is 700 birr, which
is not affordable by poor people. The water scarcity seriously prevails in the town
particularly during the winter season.
                                          2007
A Socio-Cultural Study in the Transmission, Prevention & Treatment of Malaria:
The Case of Debre Elias Woreda, East Gojjam Administrative Zone, Ethiopia
      Tebaber Chanie
      Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Malaria is repeatedly referred to as a serious public health problem in numerous tropical
and developing countries including Ethiopia. Malaria is widely distributed in about 75%
of Ethiopia and is the country‟s for most health problem. It affects about 4-5 million
people at risk annually. Malaria is a parasitic disease, which is mainly transmitted by
anopheles mosquito. Socio-cultural inquiry into malaria incidence is very vital in
understanding and identifying various features of the community‟s beliefs or conceptions
towards the causations of malaria; and their indigenous medical beliefs and parasites for
the prevention and treatment of the disease. It also helps to recognize the possible
challenges that determine the community‟s activities in preventing and control the
incidence. Thus, the thesis focuses on the socio-cultural aspect of the disease in the case
of Debre Elias Woreda; East Gojjam Zone. The methods employed for data collection
were both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative methods include: in-depth
interviews, case studies, focus group discussions (FGD), and observations. To support the
qualitative data, 200 and 50 questionnaires were administered to the household heads and
health personnel respectively. The findings of the study depicted that the socio-cultural
dimension of malaria are multi-faceted in the transmission, prevention, and treatment of
the episode. The community‟s cultural and socio-economic characteristics were linked to
malaria prevalence in the Woreda. People in the study area hold a multiplicity of causal


                                            93
explanations about the transmission of malaria. They have both naturalistic and
personality (supernatural) explanations. Some people in the study area associated the
causation of the disease with the possession of Zar (evil spirit) and the wrath of Qolle
(guardian spirit). Others attached it to Mich (the attacks of fever) and Bird (cold). On the
other hand some perceived it as the bite of mosquito. The study also revealed that malaria
has a function of many factors such as cultural, social, ecological, and economical
dimensions. An Unavailability of health care services, the community‟s low level of
health care awareness and low-income level, and the locale traditions attributed to the
propagations of malaria. Thus, Ethno-medical conceptions of malaria preventions and
treatments are different from conventional biomedical ones. So far these beliefs and
perceptions determine the people‟s attitude towards different health treatment. Home
self-treatment, traditional medicine and modern health care services are common malaria
treatment options of the study area. However, the treatment of malaria episode is
predominantly practiced at home remedies and traditional medicine. For example, using
seven years long metatayib (dried cheese), nechshikurt (garlic), and feto (Lepidium
sativum) mixed with refined butter are important self-treatment practices at home level.
The community‟s health care, the accessibility of health care institutions, distance form
the health center, the community‟s income level, and the local developed traditions are
mainly considered as the most important challenges for the prevention and control of the
epidemic. In conclusion, all strategies to minimize the burden of malaria should consider
the social, cultural, economical and even personal conditions, which render peoples
failure of malaria prevention and control activities. Hence, the interrelationship between
malaria and socio-cultural factors needs to be re emphasized and incorporated as a central
part of malaria.

Care and Support Services for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and AIDS
Orphans in Religious Institutions: The Case of Dessie Town
      Mesfin Dessiy
      Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
The central theme of this study is to investigate the existing care and support services for
PLWHA and AIDS orphans in religious institutions, namely the EOC South Wollo
diocese office and the EECMY North central synod. The prime objective is to help
address the needs of HIV positive people and AIDS orphaned children through
appropriate care and support services integrating religious approaches into the services
provided. In carting out the study, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, case
studies and observation (qualitative methods) and surveying (a quantitative strategy) were
employed. Besides, secondary sources were used to supplement the primary data. The
study involved PLWHA, AIDS orphans, home caregivers and different personalities
working in service provider institutions. Findings of the study demonstrate that care and
support SERVICES to PLWHA, and AIDS orphans by the EOC South Wollo Dessie
office and to AIDS orphans by the EECMY North central synod are not comprehensive.
This is because the social, medical and legal supports are inadequate and not inclusive of
affected family members except that psychological supports are relatively improved. The
study also shows that the social and medical services constitute the most pressing needs



                                            94
of PLWHA and AIDS orphans with increasing demands for self support in income
generating activates. Care and support services are interrelated with HIV\AIDS
prevention and control. This is because PLWHA who could receive the appropriate care
and support services tend to inspire people who wish to take VCT and disclose their
serostatus and avoid suffering from lack of attention. In the sense of fighting HIV\AIDS,
such support provisions would enable PLWHA to feel sympathetic about others and
avoid unsafe sex as a result of hope in better future. In addition, those who tested HIV
negative could draw lessons to practices safe sex. The study also attempted to reveal that
integrating religious approaches in care and support services would help PLWHA avoid
stigma and discrimination associated with the pandemic and develop self-worth.
Moreover, such activities promote the very concept of positive living with the virus and
enhance the delivery of effective care and support services. It is believed that cares and
support could be improved when the human resource capacity is strengthened, programs
are designed based on the needs of care receivers, effective networking is established
among stakeholders and income-generating activates are promoted for sustainable self-
support. In addition, enhancing efficient utilization of resources and ensuring a
combination of social, medical and psychosocial supports would bring about the desired
outcomes in changing the life of PLWHA, AIDS orphans and home caregivers.

Women’s Educational Participation in Amhara National Regional State: a Case
Study in Lay Armachiho Woreda
       Semalign Kindie
       Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
Women‟s educational participation in Lay Armachiho Woreda is not known on the basis
of other educational indicators than enrolment ratios which are not relevant to evaluate
the real internal achievement and performance of girls in comparison with boys. No
research has been conducted in the area. Therefore, this research has been done to
achieve the general objective of assessing girls‟ participation in terms of other indicators
than enrolment ratios and identifying some factors contributing to the persistence of girls‟
poor educational performance. To achieve this general objective the research has set the
following specific objectives:
   (1) to assess some education indicators
   (2) to see the degree of repetition and dropout rates with respect to sex distribution;
   (3) to explore grade achievement of female students and that of males;
   (4) to assess the rate of absence based on sex;
   (5) to see subject preference of female students in comparison with males;
   (6) to identify some factors behind the poor educational achievement of girls in
       formal schools; and
   (7) To come up with the actual percentage of school-age children outside school
       based on sex distribution.

In order to achieve these objectives; the research has raised these research questions: (1)
what are those indicators that use to evaluate females‟ education participation? (2) What
are the real educational achievements of girls as to compare with that of boys? (3) What
are the factors that have been contributing school-age children live outside school? This


                                            95
cross-sectional sample survey is conducted on 320 students of 6 sample schools selected
out of 39 total schools in the woreda. The results of the study show that girls‟
performance based on rank distribution, average scores, repetition, subject preference,
absence rate, and class participation is poorer than males‟ due to poor educational
background of parents, long distance between home and schools, ineffectiveness of
women‟s club at school, and other socio-economic factors, such as rape, monotonous
home activities, forced and early marriage, and so on. The findings of the research also
reveal that there are more school-age boys outside schools than girls do. However, girls‟
number at school is found to be higher than boys, even though their efficiency is lower
than boys. Therefore, the following measures have been recommended: new schools
should be constructed, family income has to be risen, women‟s club at schools should be
restructured, illiteracy reduction programs should be employed and legal provisions
regarding gender violation should work more seriously today than ever before.

The Role of Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Tourism Development and Cultural
Conservation: The Case of Gondar Town
      Bayissa Negassa
      Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Religion from its origin has played very significant roles in the development of tourism
through the creation of arts and other cultural activities in order to serve the deities.
Recent studies point out that over 22,000 different religious sects exist throughout the
world. Each of these religious groups has to a certain extent played great roles to the
development of tourism. All the religious buildings, signs and other arts have contributes
to the development of tourism. The EOTC has contributed a lot to the progress of tourism
in this respect. Church ceremonies, buildings, treasures, and wall paintings of the
churches and monasteries are major features of the Ethiopian heritage resource, which are
used as tourism attractions. Gondar is also one of the prominent tourist attraction cities of
Ethiopia because of the presence of many medieval castles and the impressive design and
decorations of its churches and monasteries. This study therefore, explains the role of
EOTC in cultural conservation and tourism development in Gondar town. The objectives
include: identifying cultural heritage resources of the EOTC which are used as tourism
attraction, investigating the role of EOTC in conserving cultural heritages and natural
vegetations, examining the major problems related to church heritages and monasteries,
and exploring the positive and negative impacts of tourism on the churches and church
heritage resources. To achieve these objectives qualitative research strategies were
utilized. From the total population, six churches were selected as samples and church
leaders or knowledgeable persons from each selected churches have been undertaken as
key informants. In depth interview, life history and personal observations have also been
used as means of data collection. This research reveals that the EOTC has many cultural
heritage resources, which are used as sources of tourism attractions. Structural design of
church buildings, grades of the church, partition of the church and church wall paintings
are some immovable heritage resources, were as the Holly books, crosses, vestments and
etc. are movable heritages. Church festivals and spiritual songs of EOTC are intangible
cultural heritages of the church that are used as source of attraction. Natural vegetation of



                                             96
the church compounds is also the main sources of attraction in Gondar town. There are
many challenges of the church, which hinder its cultural heritage resource management.
The over all result showed that the EOTC has great role in cultural conservation of
heritage resources. This intern is used as the main source of tourism development. It can
be concluded that the government and other stakeholders have show commitment to
preserve cultural heritages and further studies in this area must be promoted.

Displacement- induced Resettlement in Jawi; Beles Valley Area of North Western
Ethiopia
        Getu Ambaye
        Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
This paper focuses on a special type of the resettlement and rehabilitation process
implemented in response to the group or category of people displaced by conflicts. The
violent ethnic conflict between the spontaneous migrant Amhara settlers and the local
Oromo population in Gidakiramu area Wollega resulted in the displacement of about
13,000 spontaneous migrant settlers. The migrant-cum-displacees or Internally Displaced
People (IDPs) were made to stay at emergency relief camp near Bure town, one of the
towns in west Gojjam administrative zone. As part of the current resettlement program
designed and executed by the Regional States, the IDPs have been resettled and/or
rehabilitated by the Amhara regional state. The region has undertaken almost all
decisions, measures and activities in the course of rehabilitating the IDPs both at the
displacement camp and in the new resettlement site. A series of overlapping measures
and activities have been carried out by the region ever since their displacement in
December 2000 and subsequent resettlement in the new resettlement site. This paper,
therefore, attempts to present the livelihoods and social impacts of the displacement-
induced resettlement and rehabilitation process in Jaw resettlement site, located in the
Beles-Valley areas of northwestern lowlands. In order to understand, explain and analyze
the livelihood and social impacts of the resettlement and rehabilitation, the kinds of
interactions and relationships as well as the internal dynamics of change which occurred
in connection with the resettlement and rehabilitation process, divers methods such as
interviews, Focus Group Discussions, Case studies, collection of archival materials as
well as structured and semi-structured questions have been conducted. The research
findings demonstrated that it was not only the resettled displaces that have been exposed
to incredible challenges, hardships and stresses in Jawi resettlement site but also the local
communities. The challenges and stressful situations have emanated from the hasty and
ad hoc manner in which the IDPs were made to resettle in the area. There have been
different manifestations of the challenges, difficulties and stresses both the resettled
displaces and the local communities have experienced since the influx of IDPs into the
area. Among others, the resettled displacees have been vulnerable to the problems of
landlessness, homelessness, loss of their livestock and an increased morbidity and
mortality in the new homes. The local communities in the study area have also been
exposed to the resettlement and rehabilitation induced land appropriation processes which
were grossly overlooked by the regional authorities. In response to the above-stated
challenges, difficulties and stresses, the resettled displacees as well as the local



                                             97
communities envisaged different survival and adaptive mechanisms. In the study area, the
dynamics of survival and adaptive strategies have been manifested through the socio -
economic interactions and relationships with the different categories of the local
communities as well as among themselves.

MICE Tourism in Ethiopia, Challenges and Prospects
     Sewbesew Yideg
     Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
MICE Tourism is a hot topic throughout the world, not least in Africa, principally as a
key drive for tourism, inward investment and/or export revenue. International tourism
receipt in to Ethiopia has been in long-term increase in an extremely increasing
competitive market, how should a highly diverse Ethiopia be cohesively positioned to
meet the demand of future and the changing visitor? The paper lay out the principal
approach and an overview from the potential, to the present resources of AA, and how if
these incorporate can contribute to the tourism development with eco-friendly way. Then
identifying the challenges and prospects of MICE Tourism development along with
providing some broader conclusion with regards to the potential of MICE tourism
development in Addis Ababa. With astonishing historical significances and availability of
world class MICE Tourism amenities, accommodations, and transportation resources this
paper argues that marketing will bring the best available economical, political and social
advantage of MICE tourism the Ethiopia. The paper summarizes by putting points that
are not touched or need to be touched by more researchers for further implementation of
mighty tourism development in Addis Ababa.

                                         2008
Information Minorities: knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Hearing Disabled
Students about HIV/AIDS Preventive Measures. The Case of some selected Schools
in Addis Ababa.
      Bekele Workie
      Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
The study has explored the hearing-impaired students' knowledge, attitude and behavior
about HIV/ AIDS preventive measures. Moreover, it has had three fold objectives:
investigating knowledge, attitude and behavior about HIV/AIDS preventive measures,
how knowledge, attitude and behavior about the preventive measure are related and
finally whether or not a significant difference exists between the sexes about the
preventive measures. To this end, 80 hearing impaired students were selected randomly.
A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Besides,
interview guides were used to gather additional information from the school anti- HIV/
AIDS club leaders. The findings indicate that 62.4% of the hearing-impaired students
have had correct knowledge about the preventive measures. Moreover, 48 % had
unfavorable attitude and 43.8 % favorable attitude about the preventive measures and



                                           98
40.2 % of them did not take any precautions not to be infected by HIV/AIDS, but only
17.2 percent. There was a statistically significant relationship among the respondents'
knowledge, attitude and behavior about HIV/AIDS preventive measures and there was no
statistically significant difference of knowledge and behavior between the sexes of the
respondents. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between
the sexes in their attitude towards the preventive measures. Finally, mounting efforts of
pertinent bodies to adapt HIV/AIDS awareness raising strategies to the special needs of
the hearing impaired population at large were recommended.

Students’ Perception of Quality Teacher and its Impact on Academic Outcome
      Thomas Janetius, Bekele Workie, Mini T.C
      Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Success in education depends on several factors such as institutional physical and
personnel environment, student‟s personality attributes and efforts, interaction and
interpersonal relationship with teachers and peers. Research findings in the developed
countries identify positive classroom environment as an influential factor in the academic
outcome (Weishen & Peng, 1993; Ferguson, 1998; Hanushek, Kain, & Rivkin, 1999). A
positive classroom is that in which a teacher becomes facilitator by helping pupils to
access information, encourage creative ideas and help to solve problems, thus pave way
for authentic learning in a multidimensional way (Janetius & Mulat, 2006). This
condition expects quality teachers with adequate training and orientation, well-bred
personal attributes and characteristics to create a caring and conscientious classroom
relationship. These in turn produce better academic outcome reflected in students‟
interest in the course being taught, increased knowledge in the field, higher grades and
ultimately better opportunity for success. The current situation in many classroom
environment and teacher-student interactions are seen in the form of an authoritarian
teacher who claims exclusive authority over knowledge who makes students drifters
looking for grade. Therefore a quality teacher and a positive classroom conducive to
bring desired outcome is essential and solicits appropriate preparation of teachers,
adequate training in communication and interpersonal relationship, years of experience,
accurate education, academic proficiency and competency in the subject matter being
taught and, graduate degree-job placement convergence. If some of these qualities are
satisfied and perceived by the students in a teacher, consequential education and success
can be expected. In order to prepare quality teachers through pertinent pedagogical
training and renewal programs, this research puts forward two objectives: first, it
identifies the quality teacher characteristics; second, how these quality teacher
characteristics have their significance in the academic outcome of the students. The study
was conducted in the University of Gondar, students coming from different regions of
Ethiopia, belonging to different colleges, faculties and departments. A survey
questionnaire that consists of items providing demographic information and responses to
perceptual measures for each of the study variables was used. Data analysis was done
utilizing appropriate multivariate technique.




                                           99
The outcome of this research identifies many attributes perceived by students as quality
teacher characteristics and their impact on academic outcome of the students. The
findings will help teachers to know how the students perceive an excellent teacher so that
they can improve their classroom approach for better academic outcome. The identified
factors could be incorporated and reiterated for a superior pedagogical training and
improved didactic modules for finer preparation of teachers in the country.

Integration of GIS and Remote Sensing for Landuse/Landcover Change Detection
and Flood Risk Assessment in Fogera Woreda, South Gondar
       Wubet Gashaw
       Departments of Geography & Environmental Studies, FSSH, University of
       Gondar

Abstract
Fogera Woreda is one of the most severely flood affected areas in Northwest Ethiopia in
general and Ribb-Gumara Catchments in particular. An attempt has been made to apply
modern techniques of GIS and Remote Sensing for the assessment of Landuse/Landcover
(LULC) dynamics and flood risk in this Woreda. The flood causative factors were
developed in the GIS and Remote Sensing environment and weighted and overlaid in the
principle of pair wise comparison and Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE) technique in order
to arrive at flood hazard and risk mapping. LULC change detection was done for the
catchment using the 1973, 1985 and 1999 Landsat images. Results from LULC change
analysis generally showed that the most important change from 1973 to 1985 was
observed in the clearance of wood land (-97.4% change) for agriculture and expansion of
bare lands (250.9%), and that of the 1985 to 1999 was observed in the expansion of
swamps (607%) and agricultural lands (28.1%) at the expense of grass lands (-96.4%).



                                           100
Even, bare lands were changed in to agricultural lands in between 1985 to 1999.
Decrement in wood (-98.4%), grass (-92.9%), and shrub and reed lands (-18.1%) was
observed from 1973 to 1999 while there is increment in agricultural land (29.5%). Note
that, most of the remnant land covers during the field survey (May 2007) were cleared for
additional agricultural lands and for firewood and construction. These have impacts on
the past flooding hazards by decreasing surface roughness which retards the peak flow
down stream. Comparison between long year (1974-2006) annual maximum daily
rainfall and annual maximum daily gauge levels (1971-2005) data of Ribb and Gumara
rivers showed that rainfall slightly decreases while gauge level increases, and this can be
attributed to land cover removal especially in the upper catchment. Flood risk assessment
and mapping was done for Fogera Woreda by taking population and land use/cover
elements that are at risk combined with the degree of flood hazards of the Woreda.
Accordingly, it was estimated that 40.1, 165.5, 331.3, 385.8 and 186.4 square kilometer
areas of Fogera Woreda were subjected respectively to very high, high, moderate, low,
and very low flood risk. PAs that are about half of their area under flood risk include
Wagtera (96.1%), Shaga (90.3%), Nabega (87.5%), Woreta (65.2%), Bebks (55.8%),
Kidist Hana (53.3%), Shina (49.4%), and Abua Thua (47.15). With regard to the other
element at risk, land use/cover, 81.8% swamps, 81.6% grass lands, 12.8% agricultural
lands are under high to very high flood risk. The presence of risk assessment mapping
will help the concerned authorities to formulate their development strategies according to
the available risk to the area.

Key Words: Flood Risk, Landuse/Landcover Dynamics, Remote Sensing, MCE, GIS

Resettlement as a Viable Strategy towards Food Security in Ethiopia: a Case in the
Amhara National Regional State
       Bekele Melese and Demeke Dessu
       Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Gondar

Abstract
Resettlement may generally be defined as the process where by a group of people who
are displaced from their residential communities for various reasons are relocated in new
residential communities. In most developing countries resettlement programs are resorted
to in cases where it is realized that much of disaster prone and degraded areas could no
longer sustain productive agriculture. In Ethiopia the primary purpose of resettlement
programs has been the alleviation of food insecurity of peasants and thereby realizes rural
development by bringing into the hitherto underutilized lands. During the 1960 and 1970s
resettlement was considered in Ethiopia as a viable solution to the problems of
landlessness, land degradation and drought born famine, and it was adopted as an
important development strategy of the time even if no practical outcomes were achieved.
In the same manner, during the late 1970s and throughout 1980s (during the derg regime)
resettlement was taken as a major strategy to do way with drought-born famine as well as
to redress land degradation in the northern and central regions of the country and to
protect the next generation from falling victim to the same kind of disaster. In contrary to
the expectations, however, the program had resulted in a serious of sociopolitical
problems and irreversible environmental crisis. Once again after the fall of the derg



                                            101
regime in 1991, resettlement is considered as a viable development strategy by the
current government. It is meant to address population and resource imbalances and to
ensure food security for millions of rural households. The implementation of the program
was started in 1995 E.C, and it has been under way for the last five years. Thus, the
purpose of this study was to see whether the program underway in Metema woreda has
been bearing fruits in achieving the expected food security for the target beneficiaries or
whether it is facing failures like the previous experiences. In order to achieve this
objective a sample of resettlers were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. This was
also complemented with unstructured depth interview, site observation and documentary
search. The findings of the research revealed that most of the settlers in Metema Woreda
(64%) has defecated their settlement sites, more than 75% of the remaining settlers are
entirely dependant on food aid provided by the government. Problems related with food
shortage, water and health services are highly prevalent no less than they were in the
original places. From the findings it could be possible to generalize that the program has
not achieved its stated objective of food security so far in the study area. Many reasons
seem to have contributed for the failure of the program including: (1) Dependence on rain
fed agriculture, which can be highly affected by fluctuation of rainfall intensity and
pattern. Most often the excessive rain in the summer reason causes crop failures; (2) In
many of the cases infertile land is appropriated to settlers and this is due to lack of proper
examination and investigation on the productivity of the soil in advance; (3) Due to the
nature of the land, agricultural production has to involve shifting cultivation as the soil
does not allow intensive farming for a number of consecutive years. Settlers could not
practice shifting cultivation as small plots of land are allocated and (4) Lack of
agricultural inputs especially oxen, veterinary health services, credit and potable water.

The Ethiopian Calendar and Intangible Assets of Northern Ethiopia:                      Brief
Historical Perspectives and Symbolic Interpretations
       Bantalem Tadesse
       Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Intangible heritage resources are the spiritual wealth, social customs, practices,
representations, expressions, knowledge, skills and other traditional performances that are
not visible and physical (“can not be touched or felt”). The multitudes of remarkable
annual celebrations in Ethiopia that typify the calendar of the country and usually
attended by numerous local and international tourists are integral parts of the intangible
assets. This research is delimited look at the intangible assets of the northern part of the
country. It is to be recalled that the second Ethiopian Millennium is being celebrated
through out the country and abroad with various activities eight years after the European
Millennium. This difference is caused by the discrepancy of the Ethiopian calendar from
other calendars. One of the activities in the celebration of the Millennium is celebrating
annul festivals in special occasions. Therefore, these research overviews the unique
characters of the Ethiopian Calendar and discrepancy from other calendars. Some
Ethiopian and non Ethiopian writers made the Ethiopian Calendar a copy of other
calendars. But the Ethiopian calendar is different from other colanders, not only in the
number of years but also in many other ways such as in observing Christmas,



                                             102
celebrating the new year, in dividing the year in to seasons and months, number of weeks
in each month, number of days in each week, and in method of counting hours. The main
objectives of the study aspire to look at the unique characters of the Ethiopian calendar
and the discrepancy from other calendars; to trace the historical origin of each of the
major festivals celebrated in the region; to interpret their symbolic representation and
commemoration; to investigate common challenges to these intangible resources and
constraints of tourism promotion in the region; and to indicate possible ways to cope with
these challenges .Concerning the methodology, my plan to conduct the research in both
quantitative and qualitative methods faced a problem when my respondents failed to
respond the questionnaires properly. I have designed, therefore, to conduct in qualitative
methods. As the nature of the research requires, it is conducted in library reading,
interviewing important informant and direct observations

Ethnography of Indigenous Institutions/ Associations for Promoting Local
Development: Y-Sebat Bet Agaw Feresegna Mahiber, Awi Zone, Amhara Region
      Getu Ambaye, Birhanu Dagnew, Mulat Asnake, Mulugeta Negash
      Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
This paper focuses on the ethnographic study and presentation of indigenous association
for promoting local development. Indigenous institutions/ associations here refer to those
institutions or associations set up by the local people themselves based on their own
organizing principles and practices as opposed to the newly introduced ones. In the pre-
1970s, scholars, researchers, development agents and practitioners have underestimated
the potential contributions of indigenous institutions for the efforts of sustainable local
development. But, since the early 1980s and through the 1990s, there has been a growing
realization and interest in the roles of indigenous institutions among NGOs, policy
makers and even researchers. This study, therefore aimed at not only describing and
presenting the characteristics of indigenous institution among the Agews in what is today
Awi Zone, Amhara Region, but also pointing out the potentialities of the institution for
local development intervention by explaining the function and contributions of the
institution to the community members. The methods used to investigate include
interviews, FGDs, Case studies, and collecting documentary materials such as archives,
letters, basic rules or statues and report papers. The Agaw communities in the study area
are endowed with a variety of important indigenous institutions. Some of the institutions
are production-oriented in which the community members exchange and share certain
factors of production principally labor in process of agricultural activities like Woberi,
Wonfeli, Kengi, and others. There are also institutions which are created for social and
religious functions and services. The most common and widely practiced are mahiber and
sembete. In spite of this, however, this study concentrates on one of the historical one, all
encompassing and ethnic- based institution or association termed as y-Sebat Bet Agew
Feresegna Mahiber. It is reported to have been established based on the peoples‟ history
especially connected with their migration and settlement of the seven founding fathers
(referred to as brothers) some time in the 13th century. The study demonstrated that it was
established based on their traditions, customs, beliefs and performing wide range of
socio-cultural, economic and quasi-legal and quasi –administrative functions and services



                                            103
to the community member s. Presently, the functions of the association has grown to
include, community protection, crime prevention, public works, local conflict
management, or dispute settlement and even in the preservation and conservation of
cultural heritages.

Key terms: Ethnography, Indigenous Institutions/ Associations, Voluntary
Association/Local Development

Promoting Intangible Cultural Heritage Potentials of Northern Ethiopia: Brief
Historical Overviews and Symbolic Interpretations
       Bantalem Tadesse
       Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Ethiopia is endowed with rich and varied natural and cultural, tangible and intangible,
heritage potentials. The multitudes remarkable annual celebrations that typify the
calendar of the country and usually attended by numerous local and international tourists
are integral parts of the tourist attractions. It is beyond the scope of this study to describe
all the natural and cultural treasures of Ethiopia, but it is delimited to producing a brief
guideline on the most untouched properties, i.e. the intangible heritage potentials of the
northern part of the country according to the Ethiopian calendar. It is to be recalled that
the third Ethiopian Millennium is being celebrated through out the country and abroad
with various activities eight years after the European Millennium. This difference is
caused by the discrepancy of the Ethiopian calendar from other calendars. One of the
activities in the celebration of the Millennium is celebrating annul festivals in special
occasions. Therefore, these research overviews the unique characters of the Ethiopian
Calendar and its discrepancy from other calendars. Some Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian
writers made the Ethiopian Calendar a copy of other calendars. But the Ethiopian
calendar is different from other colanders, not only in the number of years but also in
many other ways such as in observing Christmas, celebrating the new year, in dividing
the year in to seasons and months, number of weeks in each month, number of days in
each week, and in method of counting hours. The main objectives of the study aspire to:
look at the unique characters of the Ethiopian calendar and the discrepancy from other
calendars trace the historical origin of each of the major festivals celebrated in the region;
interpret their symbolic representation and commemoration; investigate common
challenges of Ethiopian Intangible Heritage resources and constraints of tourism
promotion in the region; indicate possible ways to cope with these challenges and
constraints and to forward suggestions to promote intangible heritage resources for
sustainable economic development; investigate the authenticity and contestations of the
festivals and constraints and impacts of tourism promotion in the country. Concerning
the methodology, my plan to conduct the research in both quantitative and qualitative
methods faced a problem when my respondents failed to respond the questionnaires
properly. I have designed, therefore, to conduct in qualitative methods. As the nature of
the research requires, it is conducted in library reading, interviewing important informant
and direct observations. As the result of this study revealed every religious festival
celebration has biblical and ecclesiastical symbolic interpretations. However, most of the



                                             104
intangible assets are not promoted for tourism properly for several reasons. This in turn
exposed them to gradual deterioration and hindered their contribution for the socio-
cultural and economic developments of the country. Further more, many of the intangible
resources face contestations for several reasons. This research is concluded, therefore, by
suggesting that concerned bodies such as Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the religious
institutions and the Regional Culture and Tourism Bureaus to safeguard the heritage
properties in the area, should take effective measures. Heritage properties should have
mutual relations with the local society. They should provide the society with economic,
cultural and political values and in turn, the society should take care for their promotions
and continuity.

The "Sip" In Developing Skills of Life against Aids
      Santa Kumar Sharma and Mikias Abera
      Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
Development of "skills of life" package has been a call of the World Health Organization
(WHO) today. Sociological Intervention Package (SIP) in terms of awareness schedule,
flip chart, AIDS-play (drama) and AIDS-talk were thus imported as 'skills of life' to three
hundred ten subjects of Gondar city. Individuals Question Scoring Technique (IQST) was
employed to ascertain the awareness status of respondents regarding AIDS. The
awareness status was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in two phases i.e. before
and after the initiation of SIP. The chi-square, t- test and ANOVA were computed for-
statistical analysis. As a result, the mean, +SD in two phases of the study were 36.18,
+24.59% and 53.5 + 24.76% respectively. The statistical analyses envisaged that the SIP
has significantly increased the life skills of the respondents irrespective of their gender.

Keywords: Sociological Interventions Package (SIP), Individuals Question Scoring
Technique (IQST), Awareness status, AIDS-play (drama), Life skill /skill for life.


                                          2009
The Roles and Problems of Cooperatives as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction in
Amhara National Regional State: the Case of Lay Armachiho Woreda
      Semalign Kindie
     Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
Different countries in the world have been recommended by several international
organizations to utilize cooperatives‟ potential as a strategy for poverty reduction. Many
developing countries, following this recommendation, have been found establishing
various types of cooperatives for the realization of economic development which, in turn,
reduces the level of poverty. Ethiopia, as one of those countries which have been
employing cooperatives as one of best strategies for poverty minimization, has done a lot
regarding the establishment and practical implementation of cooperative since the
Imperial time. However, the actual roles of cooperative as a strategy for the reduction of


                                            105
poverty, and problems these cooperatives have faced in Lay Armachiho woreda were not
well-known and scientifically studied. Hence, this research has raised the question:
“What are the roles of cooperatives in poverty alleviation, and the problems hindered
them from playing their roles in poverty reduction?” Thus, the central purpose of the
research was to describe the extent of the roles cooperatives play in poverty reduction and
the problems they have faced. Some specific objectives, which are targeted towards
attaining of the purpose of the research, were identified. These specific objectives
include:
    (1) Describing the number of cooperatives in accordance with their types, age of
         establishment, and the demographic distribution of their members;
    (2) Evaluating whether cooperative membership has brought positive changes in the
         socioeconomic behaviors of the people; and
    (3) Identifying the problems hindering cooperatives from playing their roles in
         poverty alleviation programmes.

Sample survey research method was used as a relevant research method of the study.
Hence, the researcher has randomly selected 13 cooperatives of different types in the
woreda for the purpose of addressing the research problem stated above. Some 200
cooperative members (175 males and 25 females) were selected using a judgment
sampling technique; and studied through the application of a structured questionnaire.
Some qualitative data were also collected using an unstructured interview which was
aimed at the collection of qualitative data from those key informants of cooperative
movement in the area understudy. The data gathered from the respondents of the
questionnaire were analyzed using such simple statistical tools as percentages,
cumulative percentages and averages. The findings of the research disclosed that the roles
of cooperatives of Lay Armachiho woreda in poverty alleviation were not as such
encouraging and dependably observable. Consequently, people‟s access to credit
services, level of monthly income, degree of gender awareness, power practicing,
exposure to new ideas, technologies and methods of doing things, access to basic needs,
change in social status (wealth and prestige), and level of self-reliance have not been
changed due to the prevalence of problems such as absence of strong sense of ownership
among members, lack of capital, cooperative management inefficiency, poor
infrastructural facilities, absence of empowerment, persistence of structural and cultural
problems, lack of awareness about cooperatives‟ advantages, poor following-up system,
low motivation of members to repay the money they borrowed from their cooperatives on
time, and the existence work delay within cooperative organization.

The Dynamics of Multi-Ethnicity: the Other Side of Socio-Economic Segregation of
Weyto in Bahir Dar Town
      Ali Tilahun , Kassa Sewnet, Muluneh Animut, Seid Jibril, Semere Minwyelet
      Faculty of Social and Sciences Humanities, University of Gondar

Abstract
This study is on “Weyto” community of Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. The
objective of the study is to identify those underlying structural factors in the Socio-
economic segregation and discrimination of “Weyto” community in Bahir Dar. This



                                           106
study employ different methods of data collection, including secondary sources in
addition to structured questionnaires and in depth interview with the informants, to
investigate that the over all existing condition of the “Weyto” Community and its impact
on their Social, economical and political activity. As findings suggest that engaged in add
and lowly paid jobs, low level of educational and political participation, their cultural and
ritual practice, poor sanitary condition, leg stretch poverty and lack of adequate
government attention contribute a lot for their socio-economic segregation.

Searching for the Route of Tewodros Mortar: Historic Archaeological Survey from
Gafat to Maqdala
       Bantalem Tadesse
       Department of Anthropology, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
Much has been said about Emperor Tewodros success to clear the way to the throne, his
vision to unite Ethiopia and to introduce modern technology to the country and his
greatest ambitions to manufacture fire arms. But, there seems no literatures enough to
indicate the route along with he had dragged his mortar from Gafat to Maqdala and the
hardships of transporting the mortar across the inaccessible gorges. Bahiru summarizes it
with in one sentence: “…was dragged in 1867 all the way up to Maqdala massif at
considerable sacrifice.” Blanc listed few villages and rivers crossed by the route of the
mortar. In fact, though recent relatively, Emperor Tewodros history is full of ambiguity
and most of available literatures and oral information contradict one another on important
facts. The contradiction starts with the birth date and coronation of the emperor, burial
sites of the emperor and Fitwrary Gebriye and so on. This shows that there is a great gap
in the history of the emperor. These contradictions indicate that Gafat, Maqdala and the
route of the mortar from Gafat to Maqdala waits for extensive painstaking research to
have another chapter about the emperor. It is to be recalled that while Tewodros was
constructing the road for the mortar from Gafat to Maqdala, the British expedition was
also constructing from Zula to Maqdala. The difficulty of this construction is also
described in the following ways: “There are very great difficulties in the new ways. It
took one day to advance five miles. The whole army employed in forming a road.” Thus,
the first modern road was constructed from Gafat to Zula. It needs, therefore, an
extensive investigation This study is developed from a field work conducted (11-16
April, 2009) from Gafat to Maqdala by geologists, historians, archaeologists tourism and
development professionals from Addis Ababa University, Mekele University, Culture
and Tourism Bureau of Amhara National State and private professionals to promote these
sites for community based eco tourism (I was fortunate enough to participate in this
remarkable fieldwork). It is substantiated with relevant references. Meanwhile, I would
like to express my special appreciations to the team for its tireless effort and special
thanks to the Culture and Tourism Bureau of Amhara National State for its support. The
main objectives of this study were to look at significance of Gafat and Maqdala to be
selected by Emperor Tewodros; trace the historic route of the mortar from Gafat to
Maqdala; investigate sources of raw materials for the manufacture of the mortar; and
examine the technology of the construction of the road for the mortar. Concerning the
methodology, it is conducted by literature reviews, interviewing key informants and
direct observations. Historical archaeology deals with archaeology of sites occupied


                                            107
during historical times on the basis of historical documentations. It combines the theory
and techniques of archaeology with historical documentation.

An Exploration of Teachers’ Feedback on Students’ Errors in WRITING: A Focus
on Preparatory Schools.
      Derb Abiew
      Department of Foreign Language & Literature, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
The main objective of this study was to investigate the current feedback practice of English
language teachers on their students‟ written work in four first year preparatory schools of
North Gondar. Specifically it was set to find out: 1) when English language teachers provide
feedback to their students‟ written errors 2) to which features of writing do they give more
attention 3) which strategies and techniques they employ in treating students‟ errors 4) what
type (s) of feedback they provide, and 5) what the students ‟preference (s) of their teachers‟
feedback to their written errors is/are. Thus, in order to achieve these objectives, the
researcher selected four first year preparatory schools on the basis of purposive sampling
method. From the four sample schools, all Grade 11 English language teachers (16) and 168
students were taken to be subjects of the study. So as to obtain relevant and sufficient
information, the data gathering instruments employed were questionnaire, interview and
analysis of papers marked by teachers. One of the results of the study revealed that most of
the teachers rely on teacher correction in that they explicitly correct errors by themselves
than encouraging/employing self-correction and peer-correction, which are supposed to have
significant pedagogical value. With respect to the „when‟ of feedback provision, it was
indicated that the majority of teachers provide feedback after the process of writing has
already been completed, which indicates that teachers use feedback for evaluative purposes.
Although employing a range of feedback provision techniques especially indirect correction
techniques have been reported to be so helpful by language researchers, teachers were found
to rely on direct teacher correction, that is, by explicitly writing the correct forms of students‟
errors by themselves. Besides, it was also found out that teachers give priority to what
language scholars call lower order concerns(surface-feature errors) than to higher order
concerns while doing the correction. As the data obtained from the teachers‟ questionnaire
revealed, the majority of teachers indicated that they accompany their correction with praise
on their students‟ written work as most of them said that students will be motivated to do
better. However, it was only on two of the sample papers that we could see teachers‟ praises.
It was also found out that the majority of students want their teachers to employ self-
correction and peer- correction as they explained that these strategies could benefit them a lot
in the improvement of their writing skills. Similarly, still the majority of them want their
teacher to indirectly correct or provide them hints/clues for them to correct their errors
themselves instead of receiving direct correction from their teachers. On the basis of the
findings, the researcher recommends that teachers should be made aware of the crucial role
that feedback plays in promoting students‟ writing ability. And specifically they need to be
made aware on the „who‟, „how‟, „which‟, „when‟ and „why‟ of feedback provision.




                                             108
The Attitude of English Language Teachers by Gender and its Impact on Female
Students’ Classroom Interaction
      Yoseph Mezgebu
      Department of Foreign Language & Literature, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Gender inequality in education is a worldwide problem. However the disparity is greater
in the developing countries than the developed. For instance, the discrimination of
Gender against female students in the teaching learning process is high in Ethiopia. The
main objective of this study was to explore the attitude of English language teachers by
gender and its impact on female students‟ classroom interaction in university of Gondar.
Subjects were from English language department. 150 sample populations were selected
in a random stratified technique in particular lottery method from female students, Data
was collected using a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive
statistic method. Among the 150 female students, 78% responded that the teachers gave
them good learning environment and they asked the girls questions and give comments
on their classroom performance consistently. However, 67% of the informants reported
that the instructors are less likely to make frequent eye contact with female students.
They also rarely selected female students to be lead in mixed sex group discussion. The
domination of male students is significantly seen. Hence, female students are not
interested to discuss in group share ideas with their counterparts. The teachers gave
female students the opportunity to exploit their knowledge in the classroom. They make
unreserved devotion of time and effort so as to enable female students to participant
confidently. However, the teachers frequently encourage male students to dominate the
mixed sex group discussion. This, in turn, affects females‟ participation in mixed sex
group discussion negatively.

Effectiveness of Listening Skills of Trainees in Learning the English Language: A
Case of Study at University of Gondar
       Yefter Meless, Ashenafi Alemu, Belachaw Silaw
       Department of Foreign Language & Literature, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess and describe the effectiveness of listening skills of
English department trainees in learning the English language. Listening is one of the
vital skills to be taught and tested for tertiary level of trainees. Based on this, two groups
of respondents were identified as source of information those who were English trainees
from 1st to 3rd year batches and English instructors. The study was limited to English
department at Gondar University. From the total of 380 trainees, a sample size of 75 was
determined by using a simple random technique taking the representative-ness of the
sample into consideration. . It was also used a purposive sampling technique for English
instructors who were taken as part of the resource subjects in this study. The study
attempted to answer the questions whether the problem of learners emanate from
shortfalls in their listening skills of integrated of language skills. Descriptive survey
method was used to conduct the study. Questionnaire and test were the two basic
instruments to collect pertinent information. A questionnaire and the test for trainees


                                             109
were intended to depict information about their listening skill competence and utilization
of listening strategies in particular. The study was also focused on the factors that
influence trainees not to cope with this important skill. Then, trainees from 1st to 3rd year
batches were provided to answer standard listening tests and both trainees and instructors
also filled out questionnaires. The finding in this study indicates that English trainees
preferred that listening skill is to be a center of attention and offered as a course
intensively. It was also found that trainees‟ motivation to improve their listening skill
was high, however, with many noticeable gaps like unable to use appropriate strategies
and skills in their listening competence. The data shows that the listening ability of
trainees was found less than they were presumed. It was also observed, big gap was seen
between trainees listening performances and the way of this course offered in terms of
content, tasks, strategies and methodology. Thus, taking the gaps into account
conclusions and recommendations has been made.

An Assessment of the English Language Needs of Law Students: Gondar University
in Focus.
       Abebe Asres and Yefter Meless
       Department of Foreign Language & Literature, FSSH, University of Gondar
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to assess the English language needs of law students
in their academic study. Three groups of respondents were identified as subjects of this
study: law students, law instructors and English instructors who were taken from Gondar
University. From each group respondents were selected using purpose full and random
sampling techniques. As a result, among the total of 18 instructors, 12 English instructors
who offered English courses for law were chosen. Hundred 2nd and 3rd year students of
law from the total 120 were taken as sources of information. Two instructors of law were
also selected and interviewed. In addition to this to see the discrepancy between what is
students are taught and what they want to be taught, we made analysis on the English for
lawyers teaching material. The instruments used to gather data were mainly questionnaire
and an interview. Questionnaires were distributed to the two groups of samples. Interview
also presented to law instructors. A questionnaire for students of law was intended to
illicit information about their academic language needs such as their methodological
preferences, perceived abilities, importance of the different languages skills and activities
and their attitude towards the language courses offered to them. English and law
instructors responses were also intended to substantiate the responses of students since
students are the target population whom the study was about. The finding of the study,
thus, shows that students could prioritize preferred methodological aspects, and order of
importance of different language skills and activities. They also found to have a positive
attitude towards the English courses but with many methodological gaps. Their abilities
were also found less than what they were expected. As a result wide gap was observed
between the teaching material and students needs in terms of coverage of language
content, tasks and methodology Therefore, taking this gap into consideration, conclusions
and recommendations have been made.




                                            110
Evaluation of Counseling Services in the University of Gondar, Ethiopia
      Thomas Janetius and Bekele Workie
      Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
Today the issue of accountability gets high attention in any professional undertaking.
Accountability is established by studying the nature, structure and evaluating an existing
program, which paves way for appraising the effectiveness, build credibility and increase
insight for further development. The main focus of Guidance and counseling program is
to promote academic achievement, provide prevention and intervention services,
social/emotional wellbeing and career development assistance to students (American
School Counselor Association, 2005). A comprehensive counseling program evaluation
therefore focuses on three areas, namely, program evaluation, personnel evaluation
and results evaluation (Gysbers & Henderson, 2006). This kind of evaluation paves the
way for developing evidence based effective counseling program. The objective of this
study was two fold: firstly, it evaluates the efficacy, effectiveness and accountability of
the existing Guidance and counseling program of University of Gondar. Secondly, based
on the assessment of the present context, propose a Conceptual Guidance and Counseling
Model for Ethiopian setting. This descriptive study used three separate Likert style self
rating questionnaires prepared by the authors. The first two questionnaires were
administered to the students and academic staffs of the University of Gondar respectively
using simple random sampling method. The third questionnaire was administered to the
counseling personnel using purposive sampling. The results of the study were analyzed
using Accountability Bridge Model for Counselors, proposed by Astramovich and Coker
(2007) both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results show that the existing guidance
and counseling services lack effectiveness among the students due to the following
factors: lack of awareness about the services being offered, not enough programs to
satisfy their needs, minimum referrals from the part of the faculty and staff, lack of
trained counselors, non-availability of full time counselors and poor infrastructure. Due
to these facts accountability is not fully achieved by the current program. Further, the
research finding highly recommends an independent guidance and counseling office to
serve the diverse needs of the students. To resolve these issues, the authors propose a
conceptual model of guidance and counseling program with threefold purpose: First of
all, it provides insight for Counselors to plan, design, implement, evaluate, and refine a
comprehensive program that will benefit student academic performance; secondly, to
help teachers to understand their role in working with the college counseling office by
way of referrals for the smooth progress of student development and finally to
psychology and counselor educators to train and prepare future counselors to work
efficiently and confidently in any school/college environment, preparing and enforcing
effective comprehensive counseling program with accountability.




                                           111
Conceptualization of Childhood and Children in Amhara Society a Comparative
Study in the Town of Debre Markos and the Adjacent Rural Areas
       Ayele Tamene
       Department of Sociology, FSSH, University of Gondar

Abstract
For a long period, children were not viewed as actors. This was mainly due to the
conceptualization of children biologically excluding the socio-cultural aspects of
children. Such approach limited our perceptions of children as passive recipients of social
structures. This study tries to provide a comparative analysis on the conceptualizations of
children and childhood in the town of Debre-Markos (Eastern Gojjam, Amhara region)
and its adjacent rural areas. Are affected by various structures of the society such as
gender, age, religion, education. Nevertheless, these structures have different effects for
rural and urban children. The research underlines that structures cannot determine the
activities of children even though they have large impacts. The study, moreover, depicts
how the rural and urban children share the dominant local cultural schema. In this regard,
children play an important role in the production and reproduction of the local cultural
schema. They reproduce different cultural schemas such as patron-client relations, gender
roles, hierarchical, and egalitarian relations, etc. As actors, children play an important
role in the transformation and production of local cultural schemas. They bring cultural
changes by disputing some of the cultural forms. This implies that children are actors
who promote cultural continuity and change in their localities.




                                           112
                     FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

                                         2007
Major Causes of Organ and Carcass Condemnation and its Economic Importance,
in Small Ruminants Slaughtered at Helmex Abattoir, Ethiopia.
      Tariku Jibat
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
A study to identify causes of organs and carcass condemnation and its economic impact
in slaughtered sheep and goats was conducted at HELMEX abattoir from December 2005
to June 2006. A total of 2688 small ruminants (1152 sheep and 1536 goats) were
examined ante mortem and postmortem after slaughter for infectious and non-infectious,
zoonotic and aesthetic causes that rendered each organ and carcass to be rejected from
international market and the consequent direct economic loss was analyzed. Out of 2688
animals examined 1347 (50.1%) liver, 1153 (42.9%) lung, 214(7.9%) heart, 184(6.8%)
kidney, 106 (3.9%) brain, and 188(7%) carcass were condemned due to gross
abnormalities. The present survey reveled that parasites (48.4%) in the liver, pneumonia
(63.2%), pericarditis (63.5%), nephritis (48.4%), Coenurus cerebralis (84.9%) and
bruising (52.7%) were found to be major conditions responsible for the respective organs
and carcass condemned. Annually the abattoir losses approximately 312,555 USD or 2.7
million ETB due to condemnation of organs and carcass from international market.
Results of the present work suggest immediate institution of control and prevention of the
prevailing conditions helps the country to compete in the current attractive market there
by increase the foreign exchange earnings.

Study on Caprine Tuberculosis in Mid- Rift Valley Area of Ethiopia
      Ketema Tafesse
      Department of Biochemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, FVM,
      University Of Gondar

Abstract
A cross sectional study was conducted on 626 goats from December 2005 to June 2006 at
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center and house holds around Adami Tulu Town,
East Showa Zone of Oromia Regional State. The objective of the study was to determine
the prevalence of Caprine tuberculosis in Adami Tulu area. Single interadermal
tuberculin, post mortem examination and bacteriology were used. Taking the cut off
value at 3.5mm individual animal prevalence of 3.14% and 10.2% were recorded at
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center and house holds around Adami Tulu Town,
respectively. Individual animal prevalence was not affected by sex, age, herd size
(p>0.05). Gross tuberculous lesions were detected in two of the eight tuberculin positive
goats that were slaughtered for confirmation of tuberculosis. Furthermore, mycobacterial
culture growth and acid fast bacilli were confirmed in those goats with gross tuberculosis
lesion. In conclusion, this study has shown the occurrence of tuberculosis in goats in



                                           113
Adami Tulu area. Further studies and confirmation mycobacterial species and strains
which infect goats are necessary.
Key words: Adami Tulu, Tuberculosis, Goat, Prevalence, Tuberculin test, Post mortem
lesion.

Circadian Behavior in Young Ostrich (Struthios Camelus Domesticus) in Captivity
      Carlos Armando Alvarez Diaz
      Department of Biochemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, FVM,
      University of Gondar

Abstract
With propose to use the meat for human consumes Ostrich (Struthius camelus
domesticus) for their size, strength and physical resistance it‟s being raised in numerous
countries in American continent. The study of the behavioral actions in young ostrich in
captivity conditions facilitates a better relationship with animals to create appropriate
condition of welfare and increasing its productivity. The objective of the present work
was to study different behavioral indicators of a flock of younger ostriches in captivity
conditions. A flock of 15 members of younger ostriches (from 1 to 15 days of age)
belongs to a farm of Havana, Cuba was studies in spring season (25-280C); animal were
located in a room with natural illumination. The feeding system employed was small
pellets concentrate and water, both ad-libitum. The circadian behaviors studies were
vigil-sleep cycle, attitude and movements, feeding, play, cleaning, agonistic, excretory
and vocalization. The method used was visual observation during 48 hours consecutively
with chronological rising of the actions deployed by animals for continuous activities and
chronological rising for punctual activities. The results show a circadian rhythm
alternating activities during the day phase and rest during the night phase; during the day
phase the circadian behavior activities are not similar; animals used the morning, at the
beginning (6.00 to 9.00 am), for coprofagia (52,61%) and bath in sand (66,4%), and later
(9.00 to 12.00 m) for eating (50%); between 12.00 up to 2.00 pm most drinking water
(41,14%) and agonistic behavior (80,0%) are produced and during the rest of the day
(2.00 to 8.00 pm) grit ingestion (41,6%), defecation (65,3), panting (46,65%) as well as
play (100%) and vocalization (100%) are develops. Animals preferences are to be in
decubitus (50, 77%) or stand (45, 69%) position during the circadian period; seat position
is infrequent (3, 47%). During the day phase, from movement activities, animals in stand
position pass the major time in station (54, 89%) and waking (41, 26%) while running are
shorter and for small time (3, 83%). Younger ostriches always remain clean and dry, and
develop actions of mutual cleaning. A conclusion shows the influence of the hour of the
day and the environmental temperature on the behavioral activities.




                                           114
Studies on Tsetse-Transmitted Trypanosomosis in New Settlement Areas of Jawi
and Quara Districts of Amhara Region Northwest Ethiopia
       Shimelis Dagnachew and Getachew Abebe
       Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
The objectives of the present study were to generate a baseline data on the epidemiology
of tsetse and trypanosomosis in the new settlement areas of Jawi and Quara districts of
Amhara region northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted between January 2005 to
April 2005 based on cross-sectional studies of tsetse and trypanosomosis. For the
Entomological survey about 86 monoconical traps 36 in Jawi and 50 in Quara districts
were deployed and the results revealed Glossina tachinoides was the only widespread
tsetse fly species along with other biting tabanid and muscid flies. The apparent fly
densities were 6.8 fly/trap/day, 0.09 fly/trap/day and 0.92 fly/trap/day in Jawi district and
0.16 fly/trap/day, 0.37 fly/trap/day and 1.02 fly/trap/day) in Quara district for Glossina
tachinoides, tabanids and muscids respectively. There were significantly higher (p<0.05)
apparent fly densities for Glossina tachinoides in Jawi district (6.8 fly/trap/day) than
Quara district (0.16 fly/trap/day). The apparent density for Glossina tachinoides was
significantly higher (p<0.05) in the riverine vegetation (bordering rivers) than other
vegetation sites (away from the river) in both districts. In the parasitological survey a
total of 758 cattle, 332 in Jawi and 426 in Quara district were examined with buffy coat
technique and the prevalence of trypanosomosis was 9.3% and 4.2% respectively with a
significant difference (p<0.05) between districts. The mean PCV values (%) of
parasitaemic and aparasitaemic animals during the study period were 20.73.5SD and
26.64.3SD with a significant difference (p<0.000). Therefore, the food self sufficient
and food security program implemented in new settlement areas of Jawi and Quara
districts of Amhara region in northwest Ethiopia have been affected by the presence of
high prevalence trypanosomosis and widespread existence of tsetse and other biting flies
necessitate effective and integrated control program against parasite and the vector.

                                           2008
Salmonella Serovars in Apparently Healthy Slaughtered Cattle at Bahir Dar
Abattoir, Ethiopia
      Sefinew Alemu
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence,
distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars from apparently
healthy slaughtered cattle from October 2006 to March 2007 at Bahir Dar abattoir,
Ethiopia. 744 samples consisting of liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal content and
carcass swab (each n = 186) were collected from 186 slaughtered cattle. Bacteriological
analysis for Salmonella was done following the recommendations of the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579, 2002). Stereotyping of the Salmonella



                                            115
isolates was done at Agence Française de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments (AFSSA),
Cedex, France. Salmonella was isolated in one or more of liver, mesenteric lymph nodes,
and intestinal content from 13 (7%) of the slaughtered cattle. Of the 744 samples
analyzed, 28 (3.8%) were positive for Salmonella. There was difference in the prevalence
of Salmonella among liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal content and carcass swab
samples; difference in prevalence was not statistically significant (Fisher's exact = 0.06, P
> 0.05). The highest prevalence 5.9% (11 of 186) was detected from intestinal content
while the lowest prevalence 1.1% (2 of 186) was detected from liver. The prevalence of
Salmonella in mesenteric lymph nodes was 3.2% (6 of 186). Of the total 186 examined
animals, carcass contamination was observed in 4.8% (9 of 186) of them. However, there
was no statistical association between the prevalence of carcass contamination and the
prevalence of any of the other samples. Six different serovars consisting of Salmonella
Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Haifa, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis and S. Mishmarhaemek
were identified among the 28 isolates. Salmonella Typhimurium and S. Newport were the
most frequently isolated serovars each contributing 21.4% (6 of 28) of the total isolates
while Salmonella Heidelberg and S. Mishmarhaemek were the least frequently isolated,
each with a prevalence of 7.1% (2 of 28).Antimicrobial resistance test was done for all
the 28 isolates against eight antimicrobials by disk diffusion technique based on the
guidelines of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 1997).
Among the 28 isolated Salmonella 39.3% (11 of 28) were resistant to one or more of the
tested antimicrobials, of which 63.6% (7 of 11) were resistant to a single antimicrobial
while the rest 36.4% (4 of 11) were resistant to two or more of the antimicrobials
(multiple antimicrobial resistant). All of the isolates were sensitive to the antimicrobial
effects of gentamycin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim. Eleven of 28 (39.3%) of the
isolates were resistant to streptomycin followed by tetracycline and ampicillin with
prevalence of 14.3% (4 of 28) and 7.1% (2 of 28) respectively. The identified serovars
had different antimicrobial resistance patterns. In Salmonella Haifa 66.7% of them were
multiple antimicrobial resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin and tetracycline while the rest
33.3% were resistant only to streptomycin. All isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium were
susceptible to the tested antimicrobials except one isolate, which was resistant to
chloramphenicol, streptomycin and tetracycline. Salmonella Haifa was multiple
antimicrobial resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin. Salmonella
Mishmarhaemek and S. Infantis were susceptible to all of the tested antimicrobials while
all serovars of S. Heidelberg were resistant to streptomycin. In conclusion, there is
possibility of the public to be at risk due to high level of carcass contamination with the
single and/or multiple antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serovars observed in this study.
Therefore, hygienic slaughtering in the abattoir and proper cooking of meat at household
level should be practiced. The consumer should be aware of the risk of consumption of
raw or undercooked meat under the meat shed of Bahir Dar abattoir.

Key words: Cattle, Salmonella, Serovars, Antimicrobials, Contamination, Bahir Dar,
Ethiopia.




                                            116
Study on Bovine Tuberculosis in and Around Holeta Town, Central Highland of
Ethiopia.
      Gizaw Dabessa
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 households comprising 705 heads of cattle
(550 local, 133 cross and 2 exotic breeds) from December 2005 to June 2006 at Wolmera
Woreda in and around Holeta Town (with special emphasis on area surrounding the
Holeta Cattle Genetic Improvement Farm, HCGIF) Central Highlands of Ethiopia, to
determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. Cluster sampling, comparative
intradermal tuberculin test and mycobacterial culture were applied to undertake this
study, The prevalence at herd/household level was 46%(23/50) while individual animal
prevalence was 5.82%(41/705).Statistically significant variation in the prevalence was
observed among breeds(X2=12.03,P<0.01),sites around HCGIF (x2=6.01,p=0.05)and
herd size (x2=13.65,p<0.01).Mycobacterial growth and acid-fast bacilli were confirmed
from milk and nasal samples obtained from seven and three tuberculin positive cattle,
respectively, In conclusion, although similar herd prevalence‟s have been reported from
other districts, animal prevalence reported by the present study was lower as compared to
animal prevalence reported previously from other districts.

Key words: Holeta, M.bovis, Prevalence, Tuberculosis, Tuberculin test

Study on Bacterial Pathogens of Fish in Southern Gulf Of Lake Tana with Special
Reference to Aeromonas Hydrophila and Edwardsiella Tarda
      Anwar Nuru
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar
Abstract
A bacteriological study was conducted from September 2006 to March 2007 to estimate
the occurrence and distribution of important Gram-negative bacteria with special
reference to Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda from the kidney and intestine
of apparently healthy fish and their aquatic environment in the southern gulf of Lake
Tana and carcasses of filleted fish (from commercial enterprises and local dealers) in
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. From a total of 510 swab samples taken from the kidney and
intestine of 255 apparently healthy fish, different bacterial species, which belong to the
family Aeromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated and
identified. Among the isolates Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila (7.1%), Aeromonas (A.) caviae
(9.8%), Aeromonas (A.) sobria (15%), Edwardsiella (E.) tarda (2%), Vibrio spp (7.8%),
Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri (3.1%), Edwardsiella (E.) ictaluri (1.2%) and atypical strains of
Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida (13%) were isolated in both the kidney and intestinal
samples. Proteus (P.) mirabilis (5.9%), Enterobacter (E.) aerogenes (5.1%), Plesiomonas
(P.) shigelloides (4.3%), Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica (3.1%), Escherichia (E.) coli (2.4%),
Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae (2.4%), Proteus (P.) vulgaris (1.6%), Shigella (S.) sonnei
(0.8%), Citrobacter (C.) diverses (0.4%) and Citrobacter (C.) freundii (0.4%) were
isolated only from the intestine of fish. From carcasses of filleted fish A. sobria
constituted 13.2% of the total isolates followed by A. caviae (9.6%), atypical strains of


                                            117
A. salmonicida (6.4%), Y. enterocolitica (4.8%), A. hydrophila (3.6%), E. coli (2.4%), P.
mirabilis (1.6%),        C. diverses (1.2%), P. shigelloides (1.2%) and Vibrio spp (0.8%).
Out of 62 water samples, 47 (75.8%) were positive for Aeromonadeceae and
Enterobacteriaceae. All the bacterial species, which were isolated from the water
samples, were also recovered from fish. Indicators of water pollution bacteria such as
A. caviae and E. coli were more frequently isolated from sampling stations found in
inshore littoral zone than stations found in sub-littoral and pelagic zones that are situated
relatively far from the point source pollutions and hence less likely to be exposed to
pollution. From the results of the present study it was concluded that the intestine of fish
have been found to be harboring a large group of bacterial species that may be a resident
and/or transient microorganism. Isolation of similar types of bacteria from the fish,
filleted fish and their aquatic environment has been recorded during the study period. The
detection of similar bacterial species in both the fish and the water samples has some
implications on the relationship between the fish and their aquatic environment (even
though it requires some molecular characterizations of both isolates). Some of the
bacterial isolates including Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda are
opportunistic pathogens of fish and may cause mortalities when the fish come under
stress. Furthermore, the recovery of various organisms, which are potentially pathogenic
to humans, in the kidney and alimentary tract of fish, and/or carcasses of filleted fish
suggested that fish improperly handled, undercooked or consumed raw might cause
various diseases to susceptible individuals.

Keywords: Aeromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, fish, kidney, intestine,
filleted fish, water, Lake Tana, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Occurrence and PCR Based Detection of Arcobacter Species from Foods of Animal
Origin and Various Sources in Bareilly, India
       Seleshe Nigatu, Rupa Boral, Vipin Cumar, Rathor, R.S, Houf
       Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
Arcobacter species are emerging zoonotic micro organisms having both public health and
economic importance. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the
occurrence of Arcobacter in healthy animals, foods of animal origin, flies & humans; and
to standardize the molecular (PCR) based detection method. The study was conducted
from March – May 2007 in India, IVRI, by collecting samples from different farms,
sweet shops, and nursing clinics in and around Bareilly town. A total of 120 different
samples from various sources which includes 45 faucal samples from poultry, pigs &
cattle ( 15 each) ; 30 stool samples from human (from diarrheic and healthy) ; 30
samples from foods of animal origin (chicken and raw milk ) as well as 15 trapped group
of fly samples were collected randomly. The PCR based identification of Arcobacter
species was performed by modifying and standardizing the protocol developed by Houf,
K. using primers from 16S rRNA & 23S rRNA gene and DNA template of reference
strain, Arcobacter butzleri LMG 10828 T. Based on this study from a total of 120 samples
32 (26.67 %) were positive for Arcobacter butzleri, A. skirrowii, and A. cryaerophilus
with the highest detection rate from faucal sample of clinically healthy pigs (100%)



                                            118
followed by cattle (46.67 %). From foods of animal origin unlike the milk samples tested
5 chicken samples were positive for various Arcobacter species. Moreover, in this study,
the occurrences of Arcobacter butzleri from patients (3 out of 15 samples) with history of
chronic diarrhea but not from healthy person fortify the clinical importance of the
organism. Interestingly Arcobacter skirrowii were detected from flies‟ sample which
indicates the possible role of vectors in the transmission of this organism. Lack of
knowledge on Arcobacter spp. and poor hygiene in the production systems of foods of
animal‟s origin in developing countries may play greater role in the spread of the agent
and may aggravate the health status of immuno compromised patients. Therefore further
characterization of the agent, development of accurate diagnostic, preventive and control
methods are recommended.

Keywords: Arcobacter, food-borne zoonoses, emerging diseases

The Importance of Animal Behavior and Welfare as a course in Veterinary
Curriculum
      Carlos Armando Alvarez Díaz, Ketema Tafess, Gizaw Dabessa
      Department of Biochemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, FVM,
      University Of Gondar

Abstract
The relationships of human with animals constitute an important aspect in the training of
veterinary students for animal manipulation and for the conditions of the environment
where they live (free or in captivity). Animal Behavior and Welfare as a course stresses
the idea that animals need to be handling with ethics independently interests (affective,
productive or social). Ethology is the scientific study of the behavior of the different
animal species. The animal behavior is the expression of the effort of the organism to
adjust the homeostasis of the internal environment indicators in relation to the external
environment. That is to say, the behavior is the answer of the animal body as a whole in
front of internal or external stimuli with the objective of satisfying the three basic
necessities of life: feed, defense and reproduction. Animals usually manifest reactions of
anger, rage or furor, happiness, game, fear, affection, sadness, melancholy among others
and only the daily observation of their behavior as well as of their face and look
expressions, attitude of the body, and temperament can show us its mental state of
welfare. The welfare of an animal is the state that assures its physiologic status of life in
relation to the environment. Freedom is not an exclusive term of wild animals or animals
with independent activities; freedom is an ethical end that transmits the moral obligation
of human toward the animals to provide them an appropriate atmosphere of life that
guarantees its necessities with welfare independently the holding system. In general sense
it is considered that in captivity, the five indicators of freedom that guarantee animal
comfort or welfare are be free of hunger, thirst and malnutrition, physical or thermal
stress, illnesses or damages and fear so that animals can express their normal behavior.
As a course in the curriculum, Animal Behavior and Welfare promote, from scientific
bases, positive relationships with animals, cooperate in the creation of comfort conditions
of life for them, stimulate the love for animals and reinforce important aspects of the
professional ethics in the treatment of animals with consideration and respect stimulating



                                            119
adequate attention and manipulation during practical activities and professional practice
using methods that attenuate, as much as possible, stress, pain, insecurity and fear. All
animals have the right to be treated as a company in the life, not as slave.

                                          2009
Hemicelluloses, Cellulose and Lignin Nutrient Contents of Some of Feed Stocks
Used for Dairy Cattle in Gondar Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
       Mulugeta Ayalew and Muluken Simeneh
       Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
Fiber is the more insoluble portion of the carbohydrates and consists of hemicelluloses,
cellulose and pentosans. This contains lignin (which is more fibrous part and is less
digestible than cellulose). The samples of livestock feed resources of Gondar, Ketema
Agelglot Woreda. was collected in Gondar town in purposively selected Dairy cattle
owners when we conducted the survey in characterization of Dairy Cattle production
systems; The samples were collected from the interviewers using questioners and it was
analyzed in ILRI (International Livestock research institute) Addis Ababa in 2008. The
main objective of this study is to know the nutrient contents of selected livestock feed
samples in Gondar. This is the corner stone in the preparation of standard ration
formulation for livestock. Teff straw has high amounts of hemicelluloses. 38.86, 29.79,
27.29, 34.87, 28.87, 32.23, 12.81, 1.95, 8.92, 15.22 and 10.70 percentages of /NDF-ADF/
or Hemicelluloses) contents of Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat
straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha", Selit(Sesame) bran, Rice bran and
Noug seed cake respectively. Duragna and Barley straw contains relatively high
proportion of cellulose content.36.25, 47.09, 42.01, 43.20, 38.13, 46.24, 22.59, 35.08,
11.97, 26.40 and 22.37 percentages of /ADF-ADL/ or Cellulose contents of Teff straw,
Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata,
"Chibha", Selit bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake respectively. Chibha (Ficus
thonningii)" relatively has high amount of lignin content as compared with others. -2.37,
-0.50, -2.50, -0.07, -3.52, 1.50, -3.71, 14.56, -19.35, -8.15 and 4.52 percentages of /ADL-
ASH/ or Lignin contents of Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat
straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha", Selit(Sesame) bran, Rice bran and
Noug seed cake respectively. Therefore the ration formulation should consider the feed
resources present in the area.

Surgical Correction of an Unusually Large Congenital Ruminal Hernia by
Rumenotomy and Herniorrhaphy in a calf: A Case Report
      V .Ramaswamy, Araya Mengistu, Sintayehu Mulugeta, Mohamed Yusuf
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
A cross bred HF calf aged about 10 months was brought to the Gondar University
Veterinary Clinic by the owner on 15.05,2009 with a complaint that the calf was having
small swelling on the lateral part of the abdomen at birth and the size of the swelling


                                           120
increased day by day and has become very large now. She also reported that the calf
eaten some foreign bodies like polythene bags. On clinical examination of the calf a large
swelling (more than the size of a Basket ball) on the left lateral side of the abdomen just
behind the last rib was noticed, The hernia was only partially reducible because of the
enormous size. On palpation some hard objects were felt in the swollen mass. The
feeding as well as watering habits was found to be normal. The case was diagnosed as
congenital left lateral abdominal hernia and surgery was decided with the consent of the
owner. The site was prepared aseptically and under xylazine sedation and paravertebral
anesthesia, the calf was controlled in lateral recumbency on the operation table. A large
elliptical skin incision was made on the hernia and the portion of the skin was dissected
and discarded. All the three layers of the muscles including the peritoneum were incised.
There was no adhesion with the rumen or reticulum. Rumenotomy was performed and
rumen was fixed by Weingarth rumenotomy frame. A bundle of non-penetrating foreign
bodies were removed and rumen closed by Cushing followed by Lembert pattern of
sutures using No, 1 chromic catgut. After trimming the excess muscles the edges of the
hernial ring was debrided and apposed using sterile cotton thread by interrupted
overlapping mattress sutures followed by reinforcing the edge by continuous lock stitch
and a subcutaneous closure also was given using No.1 catgut. The skin would was closed
by interrupted horizontal mattress and dressed. A course of Streptopenicillin 6ml and
Multivitamin were given post-operatively and the calf made uneventful recovery.

Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in the Yerer Watershed, Oromiya
Region, Ethiopia.
      Mulugeta Ayalew
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar
Abstract
Reproductive performance is one of the major factors, other than milk production, that
affects productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is a biologically crucial
phenomenon, which determines the efficiency of animal production. The production of
milk and replacement stock is not possible unless the cow reproduces. It has been
indicated that possible genetic improvement in virtually all traits of economic importance
is closely tied to reproductive rate. An important prerequisite for the sustainability of a
dairy production system is that cows must have efficient reproductive performance. This
is essential for the production of the main commodity of interest of milk, as well as to
provide replacement animals. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in influencing the
maintenance of efficient reproductive performance. Nutritional status of animals, among
other factors, is the main constraint for the productivity of dairy herd and improving the
feeding regime can improve the reproductive performance. First calving marks the
beginning of a cows productive life and influences both the productive and reproductive
life of the female, directly through its effect on life time calf crop and milk production
and indirectly through its influence on the cost invested for up-bringing. Calving interval
refers to the period between two consecutive calving and is a function of days open and
gestation length .Calving interval is reported to have low heritability and can be improved
thorough better nutrition and early breeding. The study was conducted in the Yerer
watershed located in Ada Liben Woreda of East Shoa Zone of Oromiya Region in 2005.
The particular study area “Yerer Watershed” found in Ada Liben Woreda some about 14


                                           121
km north of Debre Zeit. The methodology used was a formal survey of a representative
sample of dairy production units within the dairy shed. Farmer-recall (over one year)
techniques were used for collecting production data. Resource constraints were decided
from Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) by rapid survey. Based on the inventory taken
at the time of rapid survey it was estimated that there were 368 households having
dairying. Of these, 120 households or 32.6 percent of the total dairying households were
considered in the formal survey. Based on the information generated through PRA, a
questionnaire was used and record sheets were developed for the formal interview
/diagnostic survey/. Before starting the actual formal survey, the developed
questionnaires were pre-tested for the suitability of the study. The statistical analysis used
in this study varied depending on the type of variables and information obtained.
However, quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage, mean
comparison, mode, median, standard deviation, etc.). Computer software SPSS 12.1 was
used for data management and analysis. The objectives of the study were to characterize
the overall reproductive performance of local and crossbred dairy cows in the watershed
and to understand, age at first calving of both local and crossbred dairy cows, calving
intervals of local and crossbred dairy cows. Yerer watershed farmers, the overall
estimated mean age at first calving was 55.39 ± 14.9 months. In terms of genotype, mean
estimated age at first calving for the Zebu /local/ cows in the watershed was 58.09 ±
13.04 months. Mean age at first calving of for crossbred /Holstein Friesian with Zebu/
dairy cows was 44.67± 17.1 months. The overall estimated mean calving interval for the
cows of Yerer watershed was found to be 20.57 ± 7.8 months. Mean calving interval of
Zebu /local/ cows in the watershed was estimated to be 21.66 ± 8.2 months (650 days)
which was longer calving interval than the optimum to be acceptable (12 to 13 months)
which might be due to poor nutrition, lack of detection and follow-up for estrus. For
crossbred dairy cows, the estimated mean calving interval was 16.3 ± 4.1 months. In
terms of genotype, mean estimated age at first calving for the local cows in the watershed
was closer to three fold of the expected-one (20-25 months), which might be due to late
maturity to puberty and poor management conditions as well as poor genetic makeup. On
the other hand, crossbred cows had shorter age at first puberty than local cows, which is
influenced by genotype and due to management factors. Mean calving interval of local
cows in the watershed was estimated to be longer than the optimum to be acceptable (12
to 13 months) which might be due to poor nutrition, lack of detection and follow-up for
estrus. In the watershed crossbred dairy cows have comparatively shorter calving interval
than local cows due to better management conditions and better detection and follow-up
in postpartum anoestrus interval, which is influenced by genotype and other management
factors. Therefore, improving the management aspects as a whole leads to efficient
reproductive performance of cows.
Keywords: Zebu/local/ cows; Holstein Friesian; Crossbred; Age at first calving;
Calving interval.




                                             122
Nutrient Contents of Some Livestock Feeds Used for Dairy Cattle and /or
Ruminants in Gondar Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
      Getachew Assefa, Mulugeta Ayalew, Malede Birhan
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
Forages are primary constituent of dairy rations for physiological and economic reasons.
Forage make up 60 – 70 percentage of the total Dry matter (DM) intake for dairy cattle.
Concentrates are high in energy compared to forage. Energy comprises 70 to 80
percentage of the non-water nutrient intake. Daily requirement of 20 to 40 Mega calories
(Mcal) are common for lactating dairy cattle. Dairy cattle ration comprises 10 to 18
percent DM of intake feed protein. Daily requirements for lactating cows vary from 2 to 4
or more kilogram/day of to the protein, depending on the body size and level of milk
production. The samples of Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw (Duragna), Hay (mixed),
Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha (Ficus thonningii)",
Selit(Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake were collected from the interviewee
using questioners and the nutrient contents was analyzed using according to Van Soest
analysis method and the laboratory was done by ILRI (International Livestock research
institute) Addis Ababa in 2007/2008. The main objective of this study was to know the
some of the nutrient contents of the selected livestock feed samples in Gondar. This
provides vital information in the preparation of standard ration formulation for livestock
feeds. The Dry matter (DM) percentages of 91.79, 92.77, 91.23, 91.41, 90.93, 91.93,
88.00, 79.47, 92.50, 91.51, and 93.31 of Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay
(mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha (Ficus thonningii)",
Selit (Sesame) " bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents respectively. Organic
matter (OM) which are resulted from Dry matter mines Crude ash percentages of 93.44,
92.43, 90.13, 94.21, 91.08, 94.11, 91.20, 91.92, 79.16, 79.28, and 89.36 of Teff straw,
Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata,
"Chibha(Ficus thonningii)" Selit (Sesame) " bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake,
contents respectively. Crude protein (CP) percentages of 3.37, 3.62, 1.82, 5.91, 4.1, 25.3,
14.4, 12.2, 5.96, and 21.5 Teff straw, Wheat & Barley (Duragna) straw, Wheat straw,
Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha (Ficus thonningii)", " Selit (Sesame) " bran,
Rice bran and Noug seed cakes, contents respectively. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)
percentages of 79.30, 83.95, 76.67, 83.75, 72.40, 85.86, 40.49, 59.67, 22.38, 54.19 and
48.23 Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley
straw, Lenquata, "Chibha(Ficus thonningii)", Selit(Sesame)" bran, Rice bran and Noug
seed cake, contents respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) percentages of 40.44, 54.16,
49.38, 48.88, 43.53, 53.63, 27.68, 57.72, 13.46, 38.97and 37.53 Teff straw, Wheat and
Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata,
Chibha(Ficus thonningii), Selit (Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents
respectively. Acid detergent lignin (ADL) percentages of 4.19, 7.07, 7.37, 5.68, 5.40,
7.39, 5.09, 22.64, 1.49, 12.57and 15.16 Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay
(mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha (Ficus thonningii)",
Selit(Sesame)" bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents respectively. Ether Extract
percentages of 0.99, 0.51, 1.21, 0.9, 1.21, 0.79, 1.62, 1.57, 27.31, 3.37and 5.57 Teff
straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw,


                                           123
Lenquata", "Chibha(Ficus thonningii)", ", Selit" bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake,
contents respectively. Gross Energy (Joules/gram) on DM basis of 19296.63, 17694.15,
18191.20, 18337.34, 18393.20, 18957.80, 18853.84, 23128.38, 20932.70, 18861.96 and
20572.39 Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay,
Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha(Ficus thonningii)", Selit(Sesame) bran, Rice bran and
Noug seed cake contents respectively. The laboratory analysis result shows that Wheat
straw and Barley straw contains relatively high amount of OM contents. Lenquata, and
Noug seed cakes contains relatively high amount of CP. Barley straw, Duragna (Wheat
and Barley straw) and wheat straw provide high amount of NDF. Chibha (Ficus
thonningii) and Duragna has high amount of ADF. Chibha (Ficus thonningii) contains
high proportion of ADL. For fatteners of cattle Selit (Sesame) bran feeding has more
advantageous than other feed resources in the study area because it contains high amount
of fat content. Chibha (Ficus thonningii) which is fodder or green pasture that provides
relatively high amount of energy for cattle feeding. Therefore, it is concluded that the
ration formulation to feed animals of a particular area should based on the nutrient
analyses result of feeds of it own area.
Keywords: Dry mater (DM), Organic matter (OM), Crude protein (CP), Neutral
detergent fiber (NDF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), Acid detergent lignin (ADL), Ether
Extract and Gross Energy

Agro-industrial Livestock Feed Stock Assessment in Gondar Town and Near by
Woreda, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
      Malede Birhan, Mulugeta Ayalew, Getachew Assefa
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
Ethiopia is endowed of with a tremendous wealth of livestock production. Estimate of
Central statistics authority (CSA) indicated that 40.9, 25.5, 23.5, 14.5 3.2, 4.0 and 56
millions of cattle, sheep, goat, horse, mules, asses and poultry respectively. However, the
production and the productivity are very low due to several constraints mainly inadequate
quantity and poor quality feeds. The survey was conducted in N/Gondar zone in
purposively selected, Gondar, Gondar Zuria, Lay Armachiho, Dembia, Wogera and
Chilga towns. The data was collected from the interviewers using questioners and it was
analyzed and compared with their actual production amount of the raw materials used
during 2008. The main objective of this study is to know the types and amount of Agro-
industrial by-products stocks of livestock feed in Gondar town and near by woredas. This
is the corner stone in the preparation of standard ration formulation. Supplementary
feeding of concentrates or grain by-products in N/Gondar is familiar for long period of
time; as a result, the area has showed significant change in-terms of dairy productivity as
well as large ruminant fattening. Out of 462,049 Quintals of the total Agro-industrial
livestock feed stock available per year, 83.9, 5.7, 3.9, 3.05, 1.9, 1.55 percentages
resources is from Gondar, G/Zuria, Dembia, Chilga, Lay Armachiho and Wogera towns
respectively. Types of agro-industrial livestock feeds available in the study area were are
cotton seed cakes, brewery spaint grain, and spaint malt, oil seed cakes, ground nut, sun
flower, bean, pea and check pea brans. 39.6 % the total Agro-industrial livestock feed
resources per year in Gondar town is from the Abdirkadir & his family edible oil factory


                                           124
& the second actual source is from Dashen Brewery Factory (137192 and 480 quintals of
Spaint grain and Spaint malt) respectively. Apart from the Gondar town Sofeya Tuha
Agro-industrial factory in Dembia Woreda is better in livestock feed stock amount from
other feed processing plants in nearby woredas. Therefore, we should exploit these huge
feed resources in order to increase productivity of animals by preparing standard ration
formulation.

Lactation Performance of Dairy Cows in the Yerer - Watershed, Oromiya Region,
Ethiopia
       Mulugeta Ayalew and Azage Tegegne
       Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar

Abstract
The study was conducted in the Yerer watershed located in Ada Liben Woreda of East
Shoa Zone of Oromiya Region 2005. The objectives of the study were to characterize the
overall lactation performance of local and crossbred dairy cows in the watershed and to
understand, lactation yield, daily yield, lactation length of local and crossbred dairy cows
and their influence on production. The major livestock kept by the farmers were cattle,
equine, poultry, sheep and goats with an average holding of 5.45 ± 2.7 Tropical Livestock
Unit (TLU) per household. The proportion of oxen over female cattle was high. The
overall milk yield per lactation in the watershed area was 506.78 liters, made up of
238.35 liters for local and 1558.12 liters for crossbred. In the Yerer watershed,
considering average lactation yield and average lactation length of local cows, the
average estimated daily milk off take from local cows was 1.09 liters. The average
estimated daily milk yield of crossbred cow was 5.97 liters. The overall lactation length
of both local and crossbred cows in the watershed was 7.52 ± 1.64 months as per farmers‟
statements. In the watershed, the estimated overall average milk production per
household consumption unit was 84.18 liters. Again considering average milk production
from local dairy cows, the average consumption was much less than the expected to be
consumed by household consumption unit per year. Though in Yerer watershed the
average milk produced per farm was 835.97 liters most of the households produced
hardly 180 to 240 liters of milk per farm per year. Out of this, 82.2 percent of milk or
milk products were consumed and rest was marketed. Selling price of fresh milk in the
watershed ranged from 1.65 to 1.85 Birr per liter. Farmer‟s perception to have crossbred
dairy cows and to increase exotic germplasm in the reproductive herd was highly
positive, for the purpose of generating income. The estimated number of indigenous milk
cows in Ethiopia is about nine million and are in the hands of smallholder farmers and
pastoralists under traditional management systems. In Ethiopia about 300,000 crossbred
or upgraded cows are used for milk production under relatively improved management
conditions in urban and peri-urban areas. The total milk production per year from cattle is
0.8 million tons out of 1.0 million tons from all the species put together in Ethiopia.
(Azage et al. 2000). The traditional management systems, which have evolved over the
years, are characterized by low input feeding and management with indigenous
genotypes. This system can be classified in to nomadic (pastoral) production system,
livestock crop mixed system (agro-pastoral) and crop livestock mixed system. As cited
by Azage et al, (2000) a study undertaken by the Addis Ababa Agricultural Development



                                            125
Bureau in 1996 indicated that the per capita consumption of milk is as low as 16 liters.
Considering an estimated minimum consumption of 250 ml of milk per head per day, the
current demand supply variance is about 170 million liters per year. At a national level,
by the year 2025, the total human population is estimated to reach 140 million with about
40 million living in urban areas. Given the current number of milk cows and lactation
yield, the projected demand-supply variance for milk in the urban sector is about 2.74
billion liters per annum. In order to fulfill the increasing demand, at least a consistent
four percent annual increase in milk production will be required (Azage et al., 2000).
Despite the large livestock population, livestock productivity in Ethiopia is below the
average compared to most countries in eastern and sub-Saharan Africa. For example, the
annual growth rate of cow milk was 1.4 percent for Ethiopia compared to 2.9 percent for
eastern Africa 2.4 percent for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (FAO, 1995). Similarly, in 1994
average milk yield were 209 kg/animal for Ethiopia compared to 350 kg/animal for
eastern Africa and 376 kg/animal for SSA (FAO, 1995).

Some Mineral Contents of Selected Livestock Feeds Used for Dairy Cattle and or
Ruminants in Gondar Town Amhara Region, Ethiopia.
      Mulugeta Ayalew
     Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar
Abstract
Milk is reach in minerals, and if a cow produces more milk, more minerals must be
supplied in the diet. Legume forages are the best sources of calcium; the high-protein oil
mineral and wheat bran are the best sources of phosphorus (P). High roughage, low-grain
rations may be low in phosphorus, high grain, low-roughage rations are likely to be low
in Calcium (Ca). The mineral content of the diet is important. Most oil cakes are rich in
phosphorus relative to Ca, whereas most grassland products (hay silage, dried grass) and
beet pulp are rich in Calcium and low in phosphorus. The samples of Teff straw, Wheat
and Barley straw (Duragna), Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barfey Straw,
Lenquata, "Chibha (Ficus thonningii)", Selit (Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed
cake were collected from the interviewee using questioners and the mineral contents was
analyzed using according to Van Soest analysis method and the laboratory was done by
ILRI (International Livestock research institute) Addis Ababa in 2007/2008. The main
objective of this study was to know the some of the mineral contents of the selected
livestock feed samples in Gondar. This provides vital information in the preparation of
standard ration formulation for livestock feeds. Calcium (Ca) percentages of 0.45,0.29,
0.75,0.16,0.53, 0.2, 1.92, 1.4, 6.01, 0.07 and 1.2 of Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw,
Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata", "Chibha (Ficus
thonningii)", Selit (Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents respectively.
Phosphorus (P) percentages of 0.1, 0.1, 0.21, 0.19, 0.29, 0.24, 0.63 and 0.62 of Teff
straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, Chibha
(Ficus thonningii)", Selit (Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents
respectively. Magnesium (MG) percentages of 0.22, 0.07, 0.25, 0.08, 0.18, 0.08, 0.36,
0.52, 0.35, 0.29 and 0.34 of Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat
straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha (Ficus thonningii), "Selit(Sesame)
bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents respectively. Potassium (K) percentages of
0.5, 0.73, 1.35, 0.99, 0.78, 1.14, 1.28, 1.6, 0.36, 0.69 and 0.54 of Teff straw, Wheat and


                                           126
Barley straw, Hay (mixed), Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, "Chibha
(Ficus thonningii), "Selit (Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents
respectively. Sodium (Na) (ppm) 815.72, 565.41, 459.87, 655.33, 478.1, 423.9, 596.23,
753.79, 1036.73, 671.31 and 594.67 Teff straw, Wheat and Barley straw, Hay (mixed),
Wheat straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata, Chibha (Ficus thonningii),
Selut(Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents respectively. Nitrogen (N)
percentages of 0.54, 0.58, 0.29, 0.95, 0.66, 4.04, 2.3, 1.96. 0.95 and 3.45 Teff straw,
Wheat and Barley straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Gaja Hay, Barley straw, Lenquata,
Chibha (Ficus thonningii), selit (Sesame) bran, Rice bran and Noug seed cake, contents
respectively. Selit (Sesame) bran is reach in Calcium (Ca) amount Rice bran and Noug
seed cakes are relatively contains high amount of phosphorus (P) Chibha (Ficus
thonningii), Lenquata, and Selit (Sesame) bran relatively contains high amount of
magnesium (Mg) Chibha (Ficus thonningii), Hay (mixed), and Lenquata can provide high
amount 0f potassium (K) selit (Sesame) bran contains high amount of sodium (Na),
Therefore, it is concluded that the ration formulation to feed animals of a particular area
should

Keywords: Sodium, magnesium, potassium, Calcium and Phosphorus




                                           127
                                  SCHOOL OF LAW

                                          2009
Students Rights and Disciplinary Proceedings in University of Gondar.
      Abera Erdachew et al
      School of Law
Abstract
The research ultimate goal is to create knowledge and understanding on the issue about
student right and disciplinary proceeding in University of Gondar.The Specific objectives
include: to describe how disciplinary proceeding shall be conducted, to explain the
undetached relation between a student and institution in general and management body in
particular, to show remedies available for the student aggrieved by the decision of
empowered body, to show the rights that is available to the student during disciplinary
proceeding, and to create legal awareness for management bodies and the University
community as a whole. We the researchers have a belief that the systematically
conducted study on the disciplinary processing will provide a great deal of importance.
We also suggest that the research we have conducted can be used as a benchmark for
further future researches to be conducted .Furthermore; it is used as a corner stone for the
student code of conduct that will be amended in the future. The study design for our
research was based on primary and secondary sources but we have also used quantitative
data analysis when necessary and where quantitative data is available we have gathered
and utilized as much secondary data as possible to show the visible defects of case.
Findings of the study include the prevalence of government [institution] interest over the
interest of the student, lack of due process of law protection (substantive and procedural
aspect),existence of legal lacuna (on the student code of conduct), essence of aggravating
and mitigating circumstance on the decision rendered, inaccessibility of student code of
conduct, absence of guidelines for the administrative body on conducting their affairs,
non-observance of fundamental rights of the students that are provided under the relevant
law, existence of bureaucracy, absence of grounds for appeal, and absence of judicial
remedy as an ideal remedy.

Implementation of Rights Old-age People in Ethiopia
      Habtamu Simachew etal
      School of Law
Abstract
The overall objective of the study was to analyze the implementation of older people‟s
rights in Ethiopia by giving special emphasis on the functions and performances of
responsible governmental organs, NGOs and the elderly associations. Based on the
analysis, this thesis has also specified objectives, which it looks for:
        To explore the international and national legal frame work made for older people
        To reveal the situation of elders in the country
        To propose certain remarks as to implementation of older people‟s rights in
        Ethiopia.



                                            128
The methodology used in this paper consists of both primary and secondary sources.
Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data has also been used. As regards primary
sources, we have made public interviews with persons having knowledge on the issue. In
addition, we have made a review of books, publications, journal articles, newspapers and
the internet as secondary sources.

Findings of the study:
       Implementation of the rights of older people in Ethiopia is found in its lowest
       level
       Though the government is the principal duty bearer to implement rights, the
       research revealed that responsible governmental organs are not in the position to
       meet the needs and rights of the aged.
       Social security scheme of the country covers a small percentage of elders.
       Non-contributory pension as a form of social insurance is almost non-existent in
       the country.
       NGOs that assist the efforts of the government are small in number and their
       distribution in the country is uneven.
       Elderly associations in the country, which are viewed by international and
       national plan of actions on ageing as vital tools to implement older people‟s
       rights, are also found problematic. Primarily they are small in number. Secondly,
       there is poor participation of older women though they represent more than half of
       the aged population in the country. Finally, they are too weak to mainstream
       ageing in to the developmental activities though they are tasked with this role.




                                    REFERENCES


                                          129
   15th Annual Academic Staff and Students' Research Conference Proceeding, 2005
   16th Annual Academic Staff and Students' Research Conference Proceeding, 2006
   17h Annual Academic Staff and Students' Research Conference Proceeding, 2007
   18h Annual Academic Staff and Students' Research Conference Proceeding, 2008
   19th Annual Academic Staff and Students' Research Conference Proceeding, 2010




                                       130