Design by mudoc123


Elements and Principles
1. Line: the distance between two points
• Types of Lines:
• How to Describe lines:
   straight, curved, broken, etc……..
• Lines may be 2D or 3D (your work may
   use line in both ways)
• Descriptive:
  – Outlines: Lines with little variation that
    describe the outer edges of shapes.
  – Contour Lines: Lines that define outer edges
    and surfaces within a form such as shapes,
    wrinkles, and folds
  – Individual Lines: single lines that create a
    shape by their thickness and placement
  – Hatching/Crosshatching: Shading using
    closely spaced lines
• Implied:
  – Lines that are indicated indirectly where two
    shapes meet, where a form ends and space
    around it begins, or by positioning several
    objects or figures in a row (example: a dotted
  – Edge: Where one shape ends and another
  – Closure: The tendency to complete partial
    forms or shapes by seeing lines that do not
  – Lines of sight: Implied lines suggested by the
    direction in which figures in a picture are
• Expressive:
  – Lines that are produced to express an idea,
    mood, or quality (exp. Graceful, nervous,
    delicate, aggressive)
  – Lines are static or they show movement
    • Straight=static
    • Curved=movement
    • Diagonal=movement
  – Lines have personalities
    • Vertical=formal, noble
    • Horizontal=calm
       (sculpture book pg 35, pottery pg 37,112, crafts pg 5)
2. Value: Lightness or darkness of an object
  – Each color has a range of light and dark
  – 3D forms are seen by highlights (light value)
    and shadows (dark value)
        (sculpture book pg 83, pottery pg 101, crafts pg 46)
3. Space: area around, within, and occupied
  by a 3D object
  – The artist must consider the positive space,
    the negative space, and how they interact
    (sculpture book pg 89 &13, pottery pg 162 &133, crafts pg 1 & 8)
4. Shape: 2D enclosed area (square, circle)
  – Shapes can be used in 2D work as well as
    decoration on the surface of 3D work
  – Shape can also refer to the outline, or
    silhouette, of a sculpture
5. Form: 3D enclosed area (cube, sphere)
• Both Shape and Form can be geometric or
        (sculpture book pg 11, pottery pg 63, crafts pg 93)
6. Texture: the way a surface feels or
  designs to look like the surface feels a
  certain way
  – In 3D work actual texture can affect other
    elements such as value because it can create
    highlights and shadows.
  – It can be smooth, rough, soft, or hard (It can
    also be designed to look one way then feel
      (sculpture book pg 126, pottery pg 30, crafts pg 77 & 133)
7. Color: produced when light strikes an object and
  is reflected back to the eye
  – As an artist you must think about the color of your
    material, how it will change over time, and how it will
    affect your overall design
  – The colors you choose can make or break a piece of
  – It is important to understand how colors mix and
    relate (this is known as color theory)
        (sculpture book pg 123, pottery pg 136 &138, crafts pg 50-51)
1. Proportion: relationship of a part of
  something to the whole
2. Scale: the size of an artwork (normally
  determined by function or setting)
        (sculpture book pg 37, pottery pg 113, crafts pg 51)
3. Balance: arrangement of elements to
  create a sense of equal weight or interest
  – Types of Balance:
     •   Symmetrical: feeling of calm and formal
     •   Approximate symmetry
     •   Radial
     •   Asymmetrical (affected by size, contour, color,
         value, texture, position): most common kind, has a
         feeling of dynamics and movement
          (sculpture book pg 67&115, pottery pg 94, crafts pg 8)
4. Unity: all parts of a design work together
   in harmony to create “oneness”
5. Variety: Putting different elements up
   next to each other to create interest
       (sculpture book pg 82, pottery pg 74, crafts pg 50-51)
6. Pattern: A particular area in a design
   made to be when shapes, colors, and
   other elements are repeated at regular
   intervals or repeated randomly.
7. Movement: Using element to create the
   illusion of action or gesture/ or creating a
   piece that actually is in action
8. Rhythm: An ordered movement made by
   the repetition of visual elements
      (sculpture book pg 154, pottery pg 165, crafts pg 63 & 72)
9. Emphasis: significant or important (stand
   out), the center of interest in a work of art
  – Emphasis can be create through size,
    placement, contrast, and lines of movement,
    just to name a few
    (sculpture book pg 159&175, pottery pg 55 &116, crafts pg 134)

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