Human Behaviour Problems and Therapies NEUROSES are exaggerated defence mechanisms used to escape feelings of anxiety. They are a category of mild disorders and because they last longer than defence mechanisms, can interfere with the enjoyment of life. neurotics show unusual fear and anxiety to escape certain situations neurotics understand the nature of their problems but can’t resolve them themselves since a neurotic person is in touch with reality, it produces anxiety. Types of Neuroses Anxiety Neuroses Phobias Obsessions Eating Disorders Anxiety Neuroses fear that dreadful things will happen fears are so overpowering the person can not function result: anxiety attacks symptoms include a pounding heart, faintness, numbness, chills, or flushed skin even though everyone experiences anxiety, there is usually some observable cause( upcoming exam, car accident); neurotic anxiety occurs without any obvious cause. ex: the concert pianist might find her hands paralysed Phobias extreme fears of certain objects or situations they interfere with our lives Skinner and other learning theorists believe phobias stem from bad experiences and need to be treated with conditioning techniques that associate pleasant experiences with the feared object or situation List of Phobias Obsessions - a persistent, unwanted thought that comes from some sort of anxiety. - the person may know the fear is unreasonable, but still cannot get rid of it. - the obsession is often followed by a compulsion to perform an act that will relieve the anxiety. Ex: obsession fear of germs compulsion persistent washing of hands Obsessions: Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa- anorexics are obsessed with their body image and reduce food intake, use laxatives, vomit, and exercise compulsively to rid of any foods eaten. Bulimia- bulimics binge-eat, then induce vomiting or use laxatives and follow with starvation and fasting. in therapy patients explore why they feel compelled to control their body size and shape and find healthier ways to deal with these personal conflicts PSYCHOSES a serious mental illness that may prevent the sufferer form functioning in day-to-day life. psychotics may distort reality through hallucinations or delusions they lack understanding of their own behaviour and believe their perceptions and distortions are real. they may show great personality changes, dramatic mood swings, strange emotional responses and confusion with respect to time, places or people. treatments include drug therapy, psychotherapy, behaviour modification or hospitalization. Types of Psychoses Organic Psychosis Manic Depression Disassociative Identity Disorder Schizophrenia Psychopath Organic Psychosis result of damage to the brain tissue caused by injury, untreated syphilis (venereal disease), or long-term heavy use of drugs or alcohol. Manic Depression suffers from extreme mood changes the manic stage is marked by confused and aggressive behaviour. The mood may appear to be one of joy, but is really exaggerated gaiety. A person in the manic stage may seem to have unlimited energy or difficulty sleeping. - the depressed state is one of extreme fatigue, sadness and futility. In this state a person may become extremely withdrawn and even consider suicide. Disassociative Identity Disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder) Involves a disturbance in both the memory and identity of an individual DID is the presence of two or more distinct personalities within one body. (Average of 8-13 personalities) Caused by extreme sustained physical, sexual, emotional or psychological abuse (usually a combination of all four) over a prolonged period of time. Usually beginning before the age of five and often occurring in infancy. Most people with DID start to show signs in their 20’s and 30’s. 9 times more women than men receive therapy for DID 97% of the individuals with DID have been physically and/or sexually abused . People with DID may experience any of the following: depression, mood swings, suicidal tendencies, sleep disorders, panic attacks and phobias alcohol and drug abuse, compulsions and rituals, psychotic-like symptoms (including auditory and visual hallucinations), and eating disorders. Schizophrenia there are several forms of schizophrenia. Some simply withdraw into themselves. losing interest in the world and become completely apathetic. some have hallucinations and delusions; one patient was convinced that his neighbour was shooting harmful rays at him through the walls of his house. research has increasingly suggested a genetic cause for schizophrenia, but some psychologists believe it may be attributed to early environment or chemical imbalances. Psychopath the psychopath has no conscience or superego. this type of person feels no remorse or guilt after doing something immoral or criminal. they behave antisocially and irresponsibly. they find it difficult to form meaningful or lasting relationships they have little or no insight into their own behaviour some psychologists believe this disorder is the result of a childhood lacking love and acceptance because the child learns that there is nothing to lose by behaving antisocially; others believe it is the result of giving in to the child’s every whim.