Eugene by shuifanglj


									Urban and peri-urban energy access theme

                      Key findings
                      South Africa

     Energy Research Centre   University of Cape Town
                     Outline of presentation

     Background
     Objectives
     Research questions
     Case study: Imizamo Yethu
     Key findings
     Conclusion

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                         Background (1)

     Urban growth in the developing world is accelerating - no
      longer a developed world phenomenon.
     South Africa is following the urbanizing trend -already ahead
      of the global curve and well ahead of the rest of sub-
      Saharan Africa.
     Rapid urbanisation is characterised by to rising
      by urban poverty;
     Pressure on
      current infrastructure;
     Indoor health hazards;

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                        Background (2)

     Lack of access to clean energy services
     Recognizing (1) that universal access to modern energy
      services is a development imperative for the attainment of
      the MDGs and (2) the fact that poorer sections of the
      population have largely been ignored in the past as far as
      clean energy access is concerned, GNESD initiated the
      urban & peri-urban energy access study in 2006.

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     To assess the household energy situation in a poor urban
      area of South Africa through a household energy survey,
      focused group discussions, stakeholder interviews and a
      literature review.
     To investigate why some urban poor HHs don’t have access
      to clean energy services despite South Africa’s progressive
      energy policies to promote access and affordability

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                      Research questions

     Are clean energy services available?
     Is it affordable and what are the income and affordability
      constraints which may be causing aspects of ‘energy
      poverty’ (causing enforced use of dangerous polluting
     What are people’s perceptions with regard to access to
      clean, affordable & safe energy services?
     Is there a link between electrification and the uptake of
      productive enterprises?

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                Case study: Imizamo Yethu (1)

     In September 2007 a primary
      household energy survey
      was conducted of 100
      households in Imizamo Yethu,
      a poor urban community in Hout Bay
      Bay outside Cape Town.
     The study aims were to better
      understand issues related to
      access to electricity, kerosene
      and LPGas. The study also investigated the uptake of small
      business/productive enterprises.

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                Case study: Imizamo Yethu (2)

     Imizamo Yetho has a section with formal houses, but more
      than 85% of the people live in informal settlements, some
      well established (and serviced), but others where people
      have been building shacks in unplanned areas that have not
      been authorized by the municipality.
     The survey sampled three categories of households:
      metered, extension cord, and unelectrified households
     Three communities were surveyed: Dontseyake
      (unelectrified), Zola (meter-electrified) and Hadges (mixture
      of electrified and extension cords)

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    Imizamo Yethu

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                          Key findings (1)

      The three most commonly used clean energy sources
       available to the urban poor in South Africa are electricity,
       LPG and kerosene (paraffin).
      Despite the fact that most of the urban poor have access to
       grid electricity, kerosene remains the fuel of necessity for
       cooking, for a large number of urban households. This may
       be attributed to a good kerosene distribution network,
       relatively cheap appliances and the fact that kerosene can
       be purchased in small quantities which match the irregular
       income streams of the poor.
      LPG is limited by its current pricing and distribution structure,
       as well as by the perception of the poor that it is a
       dangerous fuel
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                             Key findings (2)

       Community   Metered   Extension   Unelectrified   LPG   Kerosene      No. of
                   supply      cord                                       households

     Dontseyake      0          20            26          3      46           46

     Zola            29         0             0           3      10           29

     Hadges          17         8             0           0      24           25

     Total           46         28            26          6      80          100

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                           Key findings (3)

      Metered electricity:
       Access to electricity leads to a reduction in the use of other
       fuels. The number of years lived in a locality has a positive
       correlation with metered electricity. Metered electricity
       customers used more appliances than those with extension
      Extension cords/informal electrification:
       Extension cord connections are very expensive compared to
       metered electricity.

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     Extension chord connections

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                               Key findings (4)

      Extension connections are expensive in terms of the costs
       for electrical cords, labour as well as the cost of electricity
       itself. Table below shows the energy expenditure
       (Rands/month) per fuel type by electricity status group.

          Electricity status
                               Electricity   Gas   Paraffin   Total
         Metered electricity      108         0      24       132

         Extension cord           171         0      65       236

         No electricity            0         46      140      186

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                           Key findings (5)

      Unelectrified households:
       Dontseyake, which has the highest percentage of extension
       cord users, and unelectrified households are the
       highest users of kerosene.

         All the metered customers perceived access to electricity as
         good to very good, as oppose to the majority of unelectrified
         customers who perceived access as poor.

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                         Key findings (6)

      Fifty percent of all customers view access
       to LPG as poor. Ninety four percent of the
       sample perceived access to kerosene to be
      It was clear from the sample surveyed and a literature
       review that access to electricity does not necessarily lead to
       the uptake of productive enterprises and small businesses at
       HH level

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                         Key findings (7)

      Most of the small businesses are of a retail nature like spaza
       shops; road-side kiosks (selling meat, cooked meals);
       clothing/sewing businesses; sellers of fruit and vegetables;
       shebeens (selling liquor).
      The electric fridge is the main appliance used by small
       businesses, followed by the electric stove and sewing
       machine, with none using a kerosene appliance.

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     Spaza shop

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                          Key findings (8)

     Some general concerns raised by stakeholders:
      Upgrading informal settlements is not prioritised by the City
       of Cape Town. It is mentioned in the city’s strategy
       document, but implementation is rather slow.
      Municipal budgetary planning and allocations for
       infrastructure development and housing are outpaced by the
       rate of in-migration to the city.
      New housing developments are located on the periphery of
       urban areas far from employment opportunities and social
       services. As a result, some poor households opt to stay in
       informal settlements (or even return to) informal settlements,
       because these are centrally located.
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      Access to electricity supply is mostly difficult to those urban
       households living in areas not approved for settlement
      Affordability of electricity is made more difficult for those
       people who live on unplanned land for settlement because
       they don’t qualify for FBE or FBAE
      Thus, the issue of access to land and land tenure is very
       critical to promote access to clean, affordable energy
       services for the urban poor.

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     Thank you

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