Logistic Services Agreement by ali25993

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									          District Logistics
     Logistics for territories and
          networks of small and
             medium enterprises


  Thomas Miorin
thomas.miorin@unipd.it
          1. Patterns of
Industrial Organisation
Vertical Integration

   The sequence of stages belonging to the
    same technical process may be vertically
    integrated either into a “private territory”
    (company) or into a “public/open
    territory” (industrial district or open
    source global network)
   The integration choice is conditioned by
    “social agreements” and transactional
    costs (O.Williamson)
                             Patterns of industry organisation in footwear
              Kind of
              Organisation
                                  Integrated Factory        Network Enterprise                                  Industrial District
Stage of
the Process


Design &                                                                                                    5                     3                   2
Trade Delivery                           10                           10




Montage                                       20                          10
                                                                                         5        5              10                   5       5



Sole Production                          10                 10                                                            10



                                                                                                                  5           5           5       5
                                              50
Sewing                                                                                                                    5           5

                                                       10        10        10       10       10       10
                                                                                                                                      5       5



Leather Cutting                           10
                                                                      5         5                                     5           5


                                Total                   Total                                              Total
                                Employment = 100        Employment = 100                                   Employment = 100
                                Output = 100.000        Output = 100.000                                   Output = 100.000
Integrated “Factory”

   The first choice is oriented to a social
    agreement of asymmetric dependence:
       Property of industry assets and intellectual
        property reserved for company members
        “only”
       Subordinate contracts and agreements
       Organisation based on hierarchy and
        “distrust”
       Centralisation of power, capital and surplus
Network Enterprise

   The second choice is oriented to a social
    agreement of asymmetric cooperation:
       Divided property of industry assets, but
        centralized property of artifacts, knowledge
        and brand
       Exclusive sub-contracting (franchising)
       Organisation based on “negotiation and
        contract”
       Centralisation of power and knowledge (IP),
        asymmetric distribution of capital and surplus
    Industrial District
   The third choice is oriented to a social
    agreement of generative relationship:
       Divided property of industry assets,
        knowledge and artifacts, but shared local
        identity
       Supply chain co-management and co-design
       Organisation based on “trust” and commun
        “narrative structures”
       Decentralisation of power, capital and surplus
Organizations and
Competition Models

   Integrated factory
   Network enterprise
   Clusters, LPS and Industrial Districts

Different organizations
       for different competition models
       for different managing assets
       for different development perspectives
    Advantages of Districts

   District pattern exploits four advantages:
       Flexibility: lower restructuring costs in front of
        unpredictable markets
       Risk sharing: lower capital creation costs and
        benchmarking on investment processes
       Profit sharing: surplus distribution and quick
        respons to incremental innovation needs
       Participation to industry strategic options at
        any stage of the industry chain
    Generative Relationships

   District pattern scales down information
    and power asymmetries:
       Independent social actors (neither friends,
        nor strangers... providers/partners co-
        designing work teams…)
       Competition and cooperation (community
        participation to strategic issues of the
        territory, but transparent selection of
        competing solutions…)
    History and Institutional Frame

   District pattern creates an efficient
    “market system”:
       Common history of local agents and
        knowledge, shared genealogy of independent
        units (spin offs and competence networks)
       Common institutions and rules promoting
        constitutional processes (rise of local specific
        intermediate structures – scaffolds – suited
        for industrial evolution )
Market Systems and
Internationalization processes
   The “fordist”/multinational pattern dominates
    when the market is certain and brand policies can
    influence demand (Int. Exp. = FDI)
   The “network”/transnational pattern dominates
    when the market is uncertain, but brand action
    can influence demand (Int. Exp. = De-Localisation
    of single stages of the process)
   The “district”/global pattern prevales when the
    market is uncertain-innovative (Int. Exp. = Re-
    Localisation and Partnership)
And now let‟s give me an
example of Local Productive
System in your countries!!
    2. Logistics in LPS


  Thomas Miorin
thomas.miorin@unipd.it
LPS‟ logistic demand

   LPS are important generator of transport flows
    and, potentially, of logistic services

       As concentrated productive systems they are
        chacracterized by a strong internal traffic

       As international systems:
         • Long distance traffic of semi-finished products or
           finished products
         • International productive network direction
D.i. e infrastrutture logistiche
   Il problema logistico dei distretti è stato ridotto
    spesso da parte degli imprenditori a mero fattore
    infrastrutturale, ma …

       un modello di sviluppo di tipo estensivo, basato quasi
        esclusivamente su un‟unica modalità di trasporto (la gomma),
        che non considera la logistica come un fattore strategico,
        ma da delegare al cliente finale o da risolvere cercando di
        spuntare prezzi sempre più bassi a trasportatori, non è più
        sostenibile

       nessuna infrastruttura di trasporto, per quanto moderna e
        funzionale possa essere, può generare effetti significativi se
        non viene integrata da capacità imprenditoriali in grado
        di organizzare il servizio
La logistica come fattore di
competitività distrettuale
   L‟allungamento su scala mondiale delle catene di divisione
    del lavoro richiede il supporto di una logistica distrettuale
    moderna ed integrata, che incorpori dosi crescenti di
    intelligenza terziaria, in grado di fornire servizi di
    supporto all‟internazionalizzazione dei distretti

   Non è sufficiente investire nei fattori di base, o
    generalizzati, come ad esempio una nuova strada.
    Occorre promuovere una serie di investimenti in fattori
    avanzati e specializzati, materiali ed immateriali, che
    permettano di trasformare la logistica da punto di
    debolezza a fonte di vantaggio competitivo duraturo
SCM e logistica di distretto

   SCM sviluppato per
       Organizzazioni logistico produttive complesse
       Presidiate, collegate o gestite da grandi imprese o
        grandi gruppi industriali in grado di mobilitare
        intelligenze, capitali e risorse
       Centralità direttiva di un unico punto della catena del
        valore, catalizzatore ed attuatore dei processi di
        riorganizzazione

   SCM e distretti industriali
       Soluzioni per la GI adattate, quando possibili, a imprese
        di dimensione minore : no soluzioni specifiche
       Non esiste in molti distretti un unico soggetto in grado
        di gestire processi di riorganizzazione sistemica
Logistica distrettuale

   Un progetto di logistica distrettuale è
    innanzitutto un progetto di politica industriale e
    non di ingegneria dei trasporti

   Policy di logistica distrettuale
       Accompagnare l‟auto-organizzazione distrettuale verso
        soluzioni ottimali: incrementare l‟intelligenza logistica
        del distretto
       I SPL non sono tutti uguali
         • Distretti industriali italiani vs “regioni di PMI”
         • Organizzazione del sistema logistico produttivo
       Strategie diverse per finalità strategiche della logistica
        differenti
Logistica distrettuale

   Subalternità logistica dei distretti

       Sudditanza commerciale e logistica nei confronti dei
        grandi gruppi commerciali mondiali (Sergio Bologna)


       Un mancato consolidamento dei flussi logistici
        determina l‟imposizione al sistema logistico distrettuale
        standard esogeni
         •   gestione informativa
         •   codici a barre,
         •   Imballaggi
         •   …
Local Productive System Analysis



   The product and the Supply Chain

   Productive and logistic organization of the
    LPS
The Product and the Supply Chain
Logistics and Strategy


                                                         COMPETITIVE
                                                          ADVANTAGE
                                             Cost reduction          Differentiation
     COMPETITIVE CONTEXT




                           Specific aim
                                              Cost Leadership          Differentiation




                           General aim       Focusing on costs   Focusing on differentiation




                                          “Functional” products “Innovative” products
   The Product and the Supply Chain
   Functional vs. Innovative Products
                                                                                      Functional                     Innovative
                                                                                                                    Unpredictable
                                                                                  Predictable Demand
                                                                                                                      Demand


Demand Predictability                                                                      High                           Low


Product Life Cycle                                                                  More than 2years             from 3 months to 1 year


Contribution Margin                                                                      5% - 20%                      20% - 60%


Product Variety                                                                             Low                           High


Average margin of error in the forecast at the time
                                                                                           10%                        40% a 100%
production is committed


Average stockout rate                                                                    1% to 2%                     10% a 40%



Average Forced End-of-Season Markdown as % of full price                                    0%                        10% a 25%




Lead time Required for made-to-order products                                    6 months to        1 year          1 day to 2 weeks




1) The contribution margin equals price minus variable cost divided by price and is expressed as a percentage.
      The Product and the Supply Chain
      Product Range and predictability
                 Functional Product                                             Innovative Product

Example: Olive Oil                                            Example: Clothes Collection



                                                              Categories                         Collections

                         Olive oil
                                                                                                                     5/6
                                                              Models
   Type1        Type2                Type3   Type4
                                                                                                               4/8
                                                     Bottle   Styles
                                                     Model
                                                                                                      3/4
                                                              Colors
                        13 variants
                                                              Sizes
                                                                                                      4/5



                                                                                                      4/5


                High Predictability                                                  1000 variants




                                                                                  Low Predictability
    The Product and the Supply Chain
        Product life Cycle
                         Life Cycle: Long                                                    Life Cycle: Short
               (example: Foods, spare parts, ...)                                       (example: Fashion, Jewelry,...)

                                                                                  2
                     2




    1                                                                1



    year 1       year 2         year 3   year 4           ........       year 1       year 2           year 3        year 4         ........




                            Demand Predictability                                                    Demand Predictability

                      High                          Low                                      High                                Low


1               (Standard Product)                                   1                         ( )      Low product innovation




2            (Products Sell-Class A/B)   (Products Sell-Class B/C)   2                (Products Class A/B)              (Products Class B/C)
Product

   Which kind of product does characterize
    your LPS?

   If you have different products, which one
    more likely represents the future for your
    LPS?

   Functional or innovative?
        The Supply Chain
                               EFFICIENT SUPPLY CHAIN                      REACTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN

                          Supply predictable demand in an efficient   Respond quickly to unpredictable demand in
                          way and at the lowest cost                  order to minimize stockouts, forced
Primary Purpose                                                       markdowns and obsolete inventory



                          Maintain high average utilization rate      Deploy excess buffer capacity
Manufacturing Focus

                          Generate high turnovers and minimize        Deploy significant buffer stocks of
Inventory strategy        inventory throughout the chain              parts or finished goods


                          Shorten lead time as long as it             Invest aggressively in ways reduce
Lead time focus           doesn’t increase cost                       lead time

Approach to choosing      Select primarily for cost and quality       Select primarily for speed, flexibility
suppliers                                                             and quality

                          Maximize performance and minimize           Use modular design in order to
Product-design strategy   cost                                        postpone product differentiation for as
                                                                      long as possible
    Supply Chain

   Which kind of Supply Chain mainly
    characterizes your area/LPS?

   Is the competitive advantage of the
    logistic service provider within your LPS
    based on efficient or reactive services?
The Product and the Supply Chain
Coherence between Product and Supply Chain
                Functional      Innovative
                 Products        Products


  Efficient
Supply Chain
               Coherent        Incoherent


  Reactive
Supply Chain
               Incoherent      Coherent
    Productive-logistic organization

   Analysis of the rules, management and
    residence of the decision taking process

   Analysis of the productive organizational
    model

   The logistic system
       Concentration degree for logistics decision
        taking
   Productive-logistic organization
                                                                                       LPS
Typology         Characteristics                    Region of SMEs
                                                                                 Industrial District
           Logistic system with a one-
           point-governance                                                        “Reliant district”
                                                 SMSs inserted in a organic
           concentrated in a subject
   A                                             way in a supply chain
           (internal or external at the                                          (The leader of the supply
                                                 dominated by an outsider
           territory) which defines rules                                       chain stands in the area and
           and       provides     logistic                                         is a part of the district)
           services.


           Fragmented logistic system in
           which no-one is a point of            SMEs without a shared and
           reference nor provide services to                                     Fragmented District
   B       other SMEs. Often there is self-
                                                 organized logistic
                                                 organization. Every small           (Atomized)
           organization to create service        company organizes its own
           centres or common         logistic                                     (a leader doesn’t exist)
                                                 logistic system.
           interfaces.

           Territorial leaders developed their
           own system of rules and they          SMEs whose logistic
           propose/impose it to the other        knowledge, organization
   C       enterprises of the productive         and rules’ system are           Competitive District
           system. In this case often we         reported to some others
           found a plurality of rules and        enterprises, within the        (a “leaders’ oligarchy” does
           standards frequently convergent       territory, that have already              exist)
           and in competition between            developed these for them.
           them.
       Productive-logistic organization
       Tipology A




                                                                                  A )L EA D ER

                     I level supplier                                              I level supplier                                             I level supplier

I I level supplier                      I I level supplier   I I level supplier                       I I level supplier   I I level supplier                      I I level supplier
Productive-logistic organization
Tipology B




             MARKET
Productive-logistic organization
Tipology C


             MARKET
                             Indotto – Type A                     Polverizzato – Type B                      Concorrenziale – Type C

European Cases                                                Verona – Marble / web-based platform
                                                              available for any piece of the supply
                                                                                                           Reggio Emilia – Mechanical engineering /
                                                                                                           1) decision support system simulator for
           Reactive

  I-Log Project
                                                              chain, to exchange, share and manage         inbound logistics in two cases; 2)
                                                              information                                  Aggregation of the Logistic Services’
                                                                                                           demand; 3) Milk Run System for Ducati

                       Pula – Shipbuilding /                  Nürnberg – Upholstery / short shuttle        Manzano / ICT platform to allow
                       Costantza –       Port activity /      run service to consolidate flows             communication       among   proprietary
  High
                       Organisation of flows between the      between the area around Coburg and           management systems (ERP, etc.)
Access
                       Costantza port and Timisoara           Nuremberg as the main hub in the             Varazdin – Textile / Aggregation of the
 ibility
                       Szekesfehervar – electronic product    region                                       Logistic Services’ demand.
                       / Organisation of a Logistic Service   Spata – Wine production / Distribution
           Efficient   Centre                                 reorganisation (groupage and load
                                                              planning)
                                                              Carinthia - / establishing a virtual
                                                              transport      management          system
                                                              (platform) to co-ordinate and bundle the
                                                              transport flow in and out of the region




                                                              Città di Castello – Textile / organization   Montebelluna – Sport shoes / Software
                                                              of a subject for services co-ordination      tool to evaluate logistic costs
           Reactive
                                                              Fermo – Shoemaking / ICT platform to         Treviso – Furnishing & Wood / Web
                                                              promote groupage - consolidation of          portal as marketplace and to ease the
                                                              finished products - coordination of          modularisation of production (to be better
                                                              storage - handling operations of             defined)
  Low                                                         finished products
Access                 Timisoara – Shoemaking:                Tesprothia – Logistics / Feasibility study   Pesaro – Furnishing & Wood / ICT
 ibility                                                      for a freight centre                         platform to manage logistics services in
                                                              Baia Mare – Transport / Call centre for      the supply chain
           Efficient                                          transport companies (often drivers)
                                                              Debrecen – Agricultural / Aggregation
                                                              of the Logistic Services’ demand -
                                                              cooperatives
                                                              Horahalom – Agricultural / Aggregation
                                                              of the Logistic Services’ demand -
                                                              cooperatives
Casi di Logistica Distrettuale

   Sport System, Montebelluna
       Analisi costi logistici
       Piattaforma sw in ASP di benchmarking


   Distretto del Marmo, Valpolicella
       Logistica di Magazzino
         •   Applicazione ASP
         •   Creazione di un Magazzino Virtuale di distretto
         •   Terminal Ferroviario – operatore logistico
         •   RFID, fornitura di servizi a distributori
Casi di logistica distrettuale
   Distretto della Sedia, Manzano
       Sistema Informativo Distrettuale
       Collegamento con subfornitori
       Flussi di dati con clienti
       Collegamenti informativi con LSP


   Baiamare, Romania
       Marketplace della logistica
         • Accorpata l‟offerta
         • Miglior bilanciamento dei carichi
         • Da logistica “familiare” a “logistica comunitaria”


   Fraunhofer
Sistema Informativo Distrettuale
                       Leaders

                                       Calligaris            ID Export        Leader (n)
LSP Published information                                                            Leader Published info Returned information
 - Warehouse stock                                                                    - Items                   - Stocks
 - Customer Stock                                                                     - Bill of materials       - Bar-code identification
 - Customer delivery Track and Trace                                                  - Technical Documentation - Delivery of the products
 - Digital Delivery Documents                                                         - Order status            - Order confirmation
Request information                                                                   - Price List
 - Shipping request                                                                   - Shipping request

  LSP                                                                                                             Suppliers


                         Access Policies
                         -Authentication
                         -Rights on the applications
                         -Proprerties
                                                                                                                   Supplier 1
   Cesped               Application server                                 Data Mover
                         - Intraworld Framework                             - Source definition
                         - District Applications                            - Target definition
                                                                            - Conversion roules
                         - District Monitor
                                                                                                                   Supplier 2



                        Leader Published info                            Supplied data by the Client
                         - Items catalog                                  - Order request
                         - Price List                                     - Customer Claims flow
                         - Orders status and portfolio
                         - Invoices
                         - Track and Trace of the shipping


                      Clients/Agents
          Definizione ed Obiettivo
           Soluzione tecnologica ed organizzativa
              per il miglioramento dell’efficienza
        nello scambio di informazioni e di documenti
                  tra le imprese del Distretto


   Abilitare le aziende del Distretto allo scambio
    elettronico di informazioni:
      senza incidere sui sistemi informativi
       attualmente implementati nelle aziende e
      connettendo in modo semplice le imprese
       non informatizzate al Sistema Informatico
       Distrettuale.
I soggetti coinvolti
                       Soggetti pubblici o privati di servizio
                           alle imprese del Distretto




                                            Internet
Impresa leader
                                                                          Subfornitore

                                 District
                               Information                   Internet
Impresa dotata di un              System                                Piccola impresa priva di
 sistema informatico                                                     soluzioni informatiche




                       Centro Servizi Distrettuale
Un esempio: il ciclo dell‟ordine

       Flussi EDI
 GDO                   Imprese leader




                                      Flusso
                                   documentale




        Subfornitori
Un esempio: il ciclo dell‟ordine




               GATEWAY EDI
 GDO                           District
                             Information
                                System              Imprese leader




Subfornitori                            Relazioni
                                       generative
Case study:Definizione profili
 Ogni applicazione possiede la           Ogni singola informazione
  conoscenza di chi può utilizzarla in     possiede i diritti di chi può
  basandosi su una struttura               gestirla
  gerarchica a più livelli
Case study:Definizione connettore
 La realizzazione di un
  connettore permette di stabilire
  come è strutturata e dove è
  ubicata una sorgente di dati…
 …e di stabilire le regole
  necessarie per adattare
  l’informazione proveniente al
  tracciato standard stabilito (in
  questo caso un flusso di ordini
  di produzione).
Invio ordine produzione
 L’ordine di produzione è accessibile al Terzista.




 Tutte le informazioni che lo riguardano sono direttamente accessibili.
  (Scheda tecnica del prodotto, istruzioni di montaggio, stampa dell’ordine)
Lavorazione del terzista
 Il Terzista stampa le etichette di
  identificazione del prodotto sulla base
  dell’ordine ricevuto…




                                      …può importare i dati forniti dallo
                                       Sponsor all’interno del proprio
                                       sistema informativo per
                                       automatizzare i suoi processi di
                                       elaborazione.
Invio dati di produzione
 L’azienda leader legge gli articoli entranti in magazzino mediante RFID o
  codice a barre, inviando i dati all’ERP per chiudere il ciclo dell’ordine
  aperto, allineando i processi amministrativi.




  Il Terzista produce i propri documenti di trasporto, packing list e scarico
   della propria giacenza di magazzino.
Funzioni aggiuntive
Cruscotti             Produttività




Analisi ABC           Situazione giacenze
Funzioni aggiuntive
Statistiche sul traffico              Internazionalizzazione




Definizione dei dati ed assegnazione proprietà
Authority per la Gestione dei Dati

   Al fine di garantire il massimo di fiducia e di sicurezza a
    tutti gli attori del Distretto, riteniamo utile proporre la
    creazione di una Authority a garanzia della sicurezza
    e della corretta gestione dei dati.


   Le Aree di Intervento e Controllo dell‟Authority
    saranno di tipo:
      Tecnico
      Organizzativo / Procedurale
      Marketing




   Strumento di marketing distrettuale, fondamentale nella
    fase di diffusione
                     Logistics and
             Network Technologies

Considerations on the I-LOG pilot projects experience


                               Thomas Miorin
                            thomas.miorin@unipd.it
Logistics and Network Technologies

Logistics and ICT

   Essential instruments for networks development
    and operability

   Allowing and enabling the processes of
    international fragmentation of the production
A specific analysis
   On 19 pilot projects, 11 pilots are using ICT leverages

   It worst to make a specific analysis on ICT leverages in
    logistic projects inside the clusters

   I-Log methodology was good to build a general framework
    but to understand the use of ICT tools we need a more
    specific instrument because:

       governance organization (atomised, competitive and reliant)
        is a too large grid to understand these tools implementations

       Relationship between the product and logistic organisation is
        not relevant for this focus
         • Also because enterprises are following simultaneously cost and
           differentiation strategies
                                so … WHAT CAN WE USE?
   Local Produtive Systems are very different
   but they have 1 thing in common:
                    NETWORKS!

   Let‟s zoom in with a more detailed analysis
    because:
       Districts are made of different networks
       Pilot Projects aren‟t involving the whole cluster but a
        part of it (often only a specific supply chain)
       Local Productive Systems are “less local”: they are
        loosing their borders
         • In many internationalization or innovation processes
           networks are moving before than the cluster
   Negli anni 90 Gereffi ed altri hanno sviluppato uno
    schema, chiamato "catena globale del valore", che ha
    collegato il concetto della catena del valore aggiunto
    all'organizzazione delle imprese industriali su scala globale
    (Gereffi e Korzeniewicz 1994)

   Le relazioni tra le imprese basate sul mercato e le imprese
    verticalmente integrate (gerarchiche) costituiscono i poli
    estremi dello spettro costituito dalle modalità del
    coordinamento, e che le relazioni di rete non sono che un
    modo intermedio di “governance” delle catene del valore.
Quello che dobbiamo aggiungere a questa teorizzazione
non è che una estensione della categoria delle reti, che
suddividiamo in tre tipologie:
   reti modulari,
   "captive" o della dipendenza e
   reti relazionali.


Così la nostra teorizzazione individua cinque tipologie di
base della gestione delle catene del valore. Si tratta di
tipologie analitiche e non empiriche, anche se sono
tipologie che hanno la loro base nella osservazione
empirica della realtà.
Different networks

   But… networks are not all the same:

   Gary Gereffi:
           Global Value Chain Approach
       1.   Market
       2.   Modular Networks
       3.   Relational Networks
       4.   Captive Networks
       5.   Hierarchical Networks
1. Market
    Characterized by:
      • Standard products and services
      • Codified transactions
      • Low information complexity: transactions can be managed
        without a strong coordination
      • Cost to switch to new partners are low for both parties

      • Examples: Baia Mare, transport cluster

    Network technologies rules for a successful
     implementation:
      • Open standard
      • Only codified products / services
      • Light, quick information, accessible data for everybody but
        not deep or reusable
         • e-mail, web site, „self service‟ technologies
         • marketplace, web portals
2. Modular Networks

    Characterized by:
      • Ability to manage the operations to produce more complex products and
        services through a modular architecture of the products (standardized
        interfaces)
      • Linkages based on codified knowledge
      • The cost of switching to new partners remains pretty low



    Network technology “rules” for a good implementation:
      • Codified objects that can be integrated
      • Use of fixed international standards


    Examples:
      • group working
      • Montebelluna Sport System: Metropolis, engineering
        partner in a network directed by Atlanta (snickers)
3. Relational Networks

     Characterized by:
       • Complex interactions between suppliers and buyers
         which create mutual dependence and high level of
         assets specificity.
       • Role of spatial proximity and, above all, trust and
         reputation to reduce the transactional costs


     Network technologies “rules”:
       • Open standards to put in communication
         competing supply chains (Pesaro, Manzano, …)
       • Simple instruments
       • Logistic and information platforms
          • Aggregations
4. Captive Networks

     Characterized by:
       • Small suppliers are dependent on much larger buyers
       • Supplier face significant switching cost
       • High degree of control and monitoring by lead firms


     Pilot: Manzano - chairs

     Network technologies “rules”:
       • Small are using leader‟s ICT and logistic
         standards
       • Extended ERP
       • Leader governance and coordination
5. Hierarchical Networks

     Characterized by:
       • Vertical integration
       • Prevalent form of governance is managerial control
       • Complex products, difficult transmission of information to
         suppliers
       • Strong control of information (patents or innovation processes)


     Pilot: Ducati – Emilia Romagna

     Network technologies and logistic services are
      characterized by proprietary investments:
       • ERP, tailored solutions, proprietary logistic platforms, …
Group Work
Individual analisys

1.   Context Comprehension
     a.   Product
     b.   Supply chain
     c.   Local Productive System




2.   Project
         Who, What, How, Why
Group Analisys

   Similarity and differences on the context

   Project leverages
       Which hypotesis behind?
       Which strategies?
       Which kind of IT implementation?
    I-Log ICT projects framework
  Kind of              I-Log Projects
                                                       Local Productive System
  Network                Description
                                                             Hungary – agro industry
                         Information portal
                                                                Romania - logistics
                           Logistic portal
  1. Market                 Marketplace
                                                                 Carinthia – Wood
                                                        Székesfehérvar – electronic products
                        Marketplace for LSPs
                                                             Fermo Macerata – shoes

 2. Modular       Organization for common logistic            Germany – Upholstery
  Networks          Logistic costs benchmarking            Montebelluna – Sport System



3. Relational    Standard for district communication             Pesaro - Furniture
 Networks           Logistic services aggregation          Emilia Romagna – Mechanical

                    Order Management System                    Treviso – Furniture
 4. Captive         Order Management System                    Abruzzo - Furniture
 Networks         Warehouse Management System               Verona – Marble (Antolini)
                     Supply Chain Integration              Manzano – Chairs (Calligaris)

5.Hierarchical        Ducati Milk Run System                 Emilia Romagna – Ducati
  Networks
    I-Log ICT projects framework
  Kind of              I-Log Projects
                                                       Local Productive System
  Network                Description
                                                             Hungary – agro industry
                         Information portal
                                                                Romania - logistics
                           Logistic portal
  1. Market                                                      Carinthia – Wood
                            Marketplace
                        Marketplace for LSPs
                                                       Strong homogeneity
                                                        Székesfehérvar – electronic products
                                                             Fermo Macerata – shoes
                                                                between
 2. Modular       Organization for common logistic           Germany – Upholstery
  Networks          Logistic costs benchmarking        network organization
                                                          Montebelluna – Sport System

                                                        and pilot projects
3. Relational    Standard for district communication             Pesaro - Furniture
 Networks           Logistic services aggregation          Emilia Romagna – Mechanical

                    Order Management System            (meaningful analysis)
                                                           Treviso – Furniture
 4. Captive         Order Management System                    Abruzzo - Furniture
 Networks         Warehouse Management System               Verona – Marble (Antolini)
                     Supply Chain Integration              Manzano – Chairs (Calligaris)

5.Hierarchical        Ducati Milk Run System                 Emilia Romagna – Ducati
  Networks
    I-Log ICT projects framework
  Kind of              I-Log Projects
                                                         Local Productive System
  Network                Description                   Information depth is
                                                               Hungary – agro industry
                         Information portal
                           Logistic portal
                                                                  Romania - the
                                                        growing inlogistics more
  1. Market                                                        Carinthia – Wood
                                                         “close” –networks:
                            Marketplace
                                                          Székesfehérvar electronic products
                        Marketplace for LSPs
                                                               Fermo Macerata – shoes

 2. Modular       Organization for common logistic              Germany – Upholstery
  Networks          Logistic costs benchmarking              Montebelluna – Sport System
                                                                      DATA
3. Relational    Standard for district communication
                                                              EXCHANGE
                                                                   Pesaro - Furniture
 Networks           Logistic services aggregation            Emilia Romagna – Mechanical

                    Order Management System                      Treviso – Furniture
 4. Captive         Order Management System                      Abruzzo - Furniture
 Networks         Warehouse Management System                 PROCESSES
                                                              Verona – Marble (Antolini)
                     Supply Chain Integration                Manzano – Chairs (Calligaris)

5.Hierarchical        Ducati Milk Run System
                                                             INTEGRATION
                                                              Emilia Romagna – Ducati
  Networks
    I-Log ICT projects framework
  Kind of              I-Log Projects
                                                   Local Productive System
  Network                Description
                                                         Hungary – agro industry
                         Information portal
                   Greater density
                           Logistic portal
                                                            Romania - logistics
  1. Market                 Marketplace
                                                             Carinthia – Wood

                    in market and
                        Marketplace for LSPs
                                                    Székesfehérvar – electronic products
                                                         Fermo Macerata – shoes

 2. Modular
                                networks:
                  captive for common logistic
                   Organization                           Germany – Upholstery
  Networks           Logistic costs benchmarking       Montebelluna – Sport System



3. Relational               there‟s no
             Where district communication
              Standard for                                   Pesaro - Furniture
 Networks    coordination at all
                 Logistic services aggregation         Emilia Romagna – Mechanical



 4. Captive or where does exist
                  Order Management System
                  Order Management System
                                                           Treviso – Furniture
                                                           Abruzzo - Furniture
 Networks                   coordinator
                clear Management System
             a Warehouse Chain Integration
                   Supply
                                                        Verona – Marble (Antolini)
                                                       Manzano – Chairs (Calligaris)

5.Hierarchical         Ducati Milk Run System            Emilia Romagna – Ducati
  Networks
             I-Log ICT projects framework
Kind of         I-Log Projects                  Local Productive                                               Approaches &
                                                                                    Problems
Network           Description                       System                                                       Solutions
                                              Hungary – agro industry
                  Information portal                                            Information…but value?
                                                 Romania - logistics                                          Reaching a Critical Mass
                    Logistic portal                                             Who decide the market
1. Market            Marketplace
                                                  Carinthia – Wood                                            Meta-organisation of the
                                                                                    system of rules?
                                             Székesfehérvar – electronic                                          local connectors
                 Marketplace for LSPs                                                Sustainability
                                              Fermo Macerata – shoes

                                                                                     Close Networks
   2.         Organization for common                                             Specific and Network           Developing skills
                                                Germany – Upholstery
Modular                 logistic                                                    coordination skills           Specialization &
             Logistic costs benchmarking     Montebelluna – Sport System
Networks                                                                     (specialists+integrators+conne    Knowledge Replication
                                                                                ctors+meta-organizers)


    3.           Standard for district                                         Build a common standard        Shared System of Rules
                                                   Pesaro - Furniture
Relational          communication                                               Aggregate logistic flows          Trust interface
             Logistic services aggregation   Emilia Romagna – Mechanical
Networks                                                                        Systemic Optimisation           Building agreement



              Supply Chain Integration           Treviso – Furniture
   4.                                                                           Coordination of different      Start from the leader
                                                 Abruzzo - Furniture
 Captive                                                                         operational standards        Supply Chain Integration
                Order and Warehouse           Verona – Marble (Antolini)
Networks        Management System
                                                                                  ICT adoption level               Skill Transfer
                                             Manzano – Chairs (Calligaris)


5.Hierarc
               Ducati Milk Run System          Emilia Romagna – Ducati
  hical                                                                           Advantages sharing            Extension to the LPS
Networks
             I-Log ICT projects framework
Kind of         I-Log Projects                  Local Productive                                         Approaches &
                                                                                Problems
Network           Description                       System                                                 Solutions
                                              Hungary – agro industry

                                               This         3 don‟t havea Critical Mass                Who head”
                                                                                         a “logisticsystem ofthe market
                  Information portal
                                                 Romania - logistics
                    Logistic portal                                         Reaching                        decide
1. Market            Marketplace
                                                  Carinthia – Wood                                                   rules?
                                                                            Information…but value?
                 Marketplace for LSPs          and it‟s very hard to make a logistic
                                             Székesfehérvar – electronic
                                              Fermo Macerata – shoes


   2.         Organization for common
                                                                                        it‟s
                                                                                 Close Networks not
                                               optimisation since and Network decidedskills
                                                                              Specific                    Developing
                                               inside:
                                                Germany – Upholstery
Modular                 logistic                                                coordination skills        Specialization &
             Logistic costs benchmarking     Montebelluna – Sport System
Networks                                                                 (specialists+integrators+conne Knowledge Replication
                                                         Ex works selling
                                                                       ctors+meta-organizers)


    3.
Relational
                 Standard for district
                    communication
                                                Pesaro - only
                                               The Furniture         possibility standard act Trust interfaceRules
                                                                         Build a common
                                                                                          is to Shared System of
                                                                          Aggregate logistic flows
                                                                                                      through
                                             Emilia Romagna – Mechanical
Networks     Logistic services aggregation
                                               the offering system:       Systemic Optimisation    Building agreement



   4.         Supply Chain Integration         Logistic Service Providers Start from the leader
                                                  Treviso – Furniture
                                                                         Coordination of different
                                                 Abruzzo - Furniture
 Captive                                                                     operational standards      Supply Chain Integration
                Order and Warehouse           Verona – Marble (Antolini)
Networks        Management System
                                                                              ICT adoption level             Skill Transfer
                                             Manzano – Chairs (Calligaris)


5.Hierarc
               Ducati Milk Run System          Emilia Romagna – Ducati
  hical                                                                       Advantages sharing          Extension to the LPS
Networks
Lettura degli ICT projects I-Log

   Su 19 progetti pilota, bei 11 sono progetti
    che hanno usato le tecnologie di rete
    come leva fondamentale per migliorare le
    prestazioni logistiche del SPL

   Analisi Specifica per questi casi pilota
       What are we speaking about?
EXTENSION
                                     Global
VISIBILITY                         Integration



                                     Virtual
                                    Enterprise



                                    Extended
                                   Integration




                                      Local
                                   Integration
                5.Hierarchical
                                    System of
                                   autonomous
                                   applications


                                 INTEGRATION
                                   DEPTH
       What are we speaking about?
EXTENSION
                                  Global
VISIBILITY                      Integration



                                  Virtual
                                 Enterprise



                                 Extended
                                Integration




                                   Local
                                Integration
                5.Hierarchy
                                 System of
                                autonomous
                                applications


                              INTEGRATION
                                DEPTH
What does it mean „visionary‟?


   Obstacles in technological adoption
    processes inside networks:

       1. Technology state of the art

       2. Awareness
1 Obstacle: Technology

   Supply Chain solutions in which one enterprise
    connects to another one
       Expensive and time-consuming connections because
        they are point-to-point and on/off connections




   Solutions that enable bi-directional interactions
    among the networks enterprises:
       Multi-enterprise business processes
        and integration
1 Obstacle: Technology. Perspectives

   Leading edge:
       sophisticated multi-enterprise supply chain processes


   Until that moment:
       Enterprises will go on in improving their own SCM processes
         • mainly if their competitive advantage is not based on their Supply
           Chain


       This will establish a organizational and cognitive base to face
        future multi-enterprise SCM processes


       In this vision the enterprises approaching this perspective will
        face a big obstacle: they‟ll have to focus no more only in their
        enterprises goals but in the network‟s goals
2 Obstacle: Awareness




                        (Gartner Group)
         Enterprise-centric heresy




                                                                                (Gartner Group)


   Enterprise centric vision reduce the value can other network enterprises can add
   How to develop network-centric processes, strategies and technologies?
Conclusions
    Network technologies adoption processes are pointing
     out a distinctive model from the big enterprise model
     but also inside the same cluster

    Networks are characterizing ICT and logistics more
     than clusters‟ governance organization

    Spreading process of network technologies inside LPSs
     will be strongly influenced by:
      • Skills, Logistic culture
      • Enterprises awareness
      • Network coordination agents

    Adaptiveness: network synchronisation
      • Enterprises that build their competitive advantages on
        networks response to market stimulus
Conclusions

   Before ICT solution implementation:

       Definition of a shared system of rules inside the
        network and among networks
       Careful definition of the organizational and operational
        aspects before automation

       Public organizations: can be seen as trust-interfaces
        from the enterprises?



       Hard-Visionary Context: not easy to find sustainable
        solutions

								
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