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 Do bébés (babies) dream?
 Do animals dream?

 Why don’t people
  remember their dreams?

 Why do we dream?
I. Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud
a. Dreams are disguised
   symbols of unconscious
   repressed desires
b. Wish-fulfillment for
   instinctive, but socially or
   personally unacceptable,
   impulses to rise to the
   surface of consciousness
c. Consist of the manifest
   content – what you can
   recall, and the latent
   content – the “real” hidden
 “Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious”
Examples: manifest
   content of cigars,
   trains, guns, unopened
   umbrellas may latently
   be phallic symbols
   (representing male
   genitals); circular
   objects and cavities
   such as boxes, and
   tunnels represent
   female anatomy
d. However, it may be only
   “day residue” – leftover
   memories of everyday
   elements that enter our
e. It is the job of the
   psychoanalyst to
   interpret the content
f. Explains why we forget
   dreams through the
   repression hypothesis –
   forgetting is a defensive
   act to keep you from
   facing your desires and
g. Hard to scientifically test Freud’s theory
h. Criticized for too much emphasis on sex
    II. Biological View: Activation-Synthesis
          Theory (McCarley & Hobson) -

      Claims that dreams have no real psychological
      significance, but are by-products of random
      stimulation of brain cells
     Activation – the pons sends nerve impulses for
      various activities such as running, laughing,
      hearing, etc.
     Synthesis – the cortex areas associated with
      these impulses try to make sense of this by
      manufacturing dreams
c. Dreams are stories to keep ourselves asleep
d. May serve a function in learning and
   memory, as well as brain development and
e. No need to interpret dreams, since they are
   biological in nature
f. Salience hypothesis – we forget the
   dreams because they have little real
   meaning and are psychologically
g. Also, parts of the brain that are involved in
   the formation of new memories are less
III. Cognitive View: “Problem Solving”
a. Dreams are a form of
   information processing,
   helping us sift and sort our
   everyday experiences and
b. People’s dreams reflect their
   problems, and thus may
   offer time to solve them
c. Dreams may be a time of
   creativity and invention
        Examples of Creativity
 Sewing machine’s
  inventor claimed to be
  inspired by a dream
 Jack Nicklaus discovered
  a new golf grip
 Kekule discovered the
  molecular structure of
  benzene through a dream
 McCartney claims to have
  written “Yesterday” from a
d. People trying to change a behavior
   (quit smoking, overeating, etc.)
   often dream of doing the behavior
   and feeling guilty; these people are
   more likely to succeed in quitting –
   known as the DAMIT experience
   (Dreams of Absent MInded
e. You are the best person to interpret
   the dream, since you best know the
f. Interference hypothesis –
   forgetting dreams is a normal
   cognitive process; new dreams, and
   thoughts when you awaken,
   interfere with your memory

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