FORE Artificial Insemination

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					FOREWORD




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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1       DISTRICT AND PEOPLE                                                1
1.1     DISTRICT GEOGRAPHIC SETTING                                        1
1.1.1 Location and Size                                                    1
1.1.2 1.1.2 Size                                                           1
1.2     INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT                                          1
1.2.1 Governance                                                           1
1.2.2 Communications and Linkages                                          1
1.3     DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES                                    5
1.3.1   Topography                                                         5
1.3.2   Geomorphology                                                      5
1.3.3   Hydrology                                                          5
1.3.4   Climate                                                            6
1.3.5   Natural Resources                                                  6
1.4     DISTRICT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT                                        7
1.4.1   Culture                                                        7
1.4.2   Population characteristics                                     7
1.4.3   Population Distribution & Density                              8
1.4.4   Settlement Pattern                                             8
1.4.5   Migration                                                      8
1.4.6   Age Sex Structure                                              9
1.4.7   Employment and Unemployment                                   11
1.4.8   District HIV/AIDS Status                                      11
1.5     DISTRICT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT                                 11
1.5.1 Major Economic Developments                                     11
1.5.2 Major Infrastructure Development                                12
1.6     STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                            13
1.6.1   Waste Disposal and Littering                                  13
1.6.2   Extraction of Sand and Gravel                                 13
1.6.3   Sanitation Facilities                                         13
1.6.4   Fuel Wood                                                     13
1.6.5   Overgrazing                                                   13

2       REVIEW OF            DDP        5   AND   LONGTERM   DEVELOPMENT
        POTENTIAL                                                     14
2.1     INTRODUCTION                                                  14
2.2     ARCHIEVEMENTS/OPPORTUNITIES                                   14
2.2.1   Major Infrastructural Developments                            14
2.2.2   Social                                                        15
2.2.3   Economic                                                      17
2.2.4   Environmental                                                 17
2.2.5   Institutional                                                 18



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2.3     CONSTRAINTS/CHALLENGES IN DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5                    18
2.3.1   Social                                                                   18
2.3.2   Economic                                                                 19
2.3.3   Environmental                                                            19
2.3.4   Institutional                                                            19
2.4     LONG TERM POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS                                         19
2.4.1   Physical Development Plans in the District                               19
2.4.2   Development Progress and Long-Term Prospects                             20
2.4.3   Development Potential                                                    21
2.4.4   Development Constraints                                                  21
2.4.5   Prospects for Long Term Growth                                           22
2.5     LINKS TO NDP 9 THEME                                                     22

3       DDP6 DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                    23
3.1     PLANNING FRAMEWORK                                                       23
3.1.1   Alignment to Vision 2016                                                 23
3.1.2   National Environmental Key Issues                                        24
3.1.3   Strategic Plan – Ministry of Local Government                            26
3.1.4   Long Term District Plans                                                 26
3.1.5   Respective Long Term District Plans                                      29
3.2     DDP6 OVERALL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                        29
3.2.1   Summary of Key Issues from the consultation                              29
3.2.2   DDP6 Development Goals                                                   30
3.2.3   DDP6 Environmental Goals and Objectives                                  31
3.2.4   Framework for Monitoring Sector Goals and Objectives                     31
3.2.5   Framework for Monitoring Environmental Goals and Objectives              31
3.3     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                         32

4       ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION                                               33
4.1     INTRODUCTION                                                             33
4.1.1 Institutional framework                                                    33
4.1.2 Strategic Plans                                                            33
4.1.3 Environmental Conservation Consultation Priorities                         34
4.2     ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                   36
4.2.1   National Conservation Policy                                             36
4.2.2   Waste Management Act (1998)                                              36
4.2.3   Environmental Impact Assessment Act (Draft)                              36
4.2.4   Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Policy               37
4.2.5   Wetlands Policy                                                          37
4.2.6   Biodiversity                                                             37
4.2.7   Climate Change                                                           37
4.3     DDP6 ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                  37
4.4     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                         38
4.4.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives    38


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4.4.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                                    39
4.5     PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL             STRATEGIES        TO   IMPLEMENT     DISTRICT
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS                                                        39
4.6     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP 6                                               41
4.6.1   Issues and Strengths                                                          41
4.6.2   Performance Targets For DDP6                                                  41
4.6.3   Development Budget for DDP 6                                                  41
4.6.4   Plan Monitoring Programme                                                     41

5       LAND USE PLANNING                                                            42
5.1     INTRODUCTION                                                                  42
5.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                         42
5.1.2 Strategic Plan for the Ministry of Lands and Housing                            42
5.1.3 Land Use Planning Consultation Priorities                                       43
5.2     LAND USE POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                             44
5.2.1   National Settlement Policy                                                    44
5.2.2   District Settlement Plans                                                     44
5.2.3   Integrated Land Use Plans                                                     45
5.2.4   Wildlife Management Plans                                                     45
5.3     LAND USE PLANNING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                 46
5.4     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                              46
5.4.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives         46
5.4.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                                    46
5.5     PROPOSED STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LAND USE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
        FOR UDP 2                                                        47
5.6     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                                47
5.6.1 Issues and Strengths                                                            47
5.6.2 Performance Targets for DDP 6                                                   48
5.6.3 Plan Monitoring Program                                                         48

6       SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING                                                       49
6.1     INTRODUCTION                                                                  49
6.1.1 Institutional framework                                                         49
6.1.2 Strategic Plans for respective Ministries                                       49
6.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                             50
6.2.1   National Settlement Policy                                                    50
6.2.2   District Settlement Strategy                                                  51
6.2.3   Physical Development Plans in the District                                    52
6.2.4   Town and Country Planning Act                                                 53
6.2.5   Tribal Land Act                                                               53
6.2.6   National Housing Policy                                                       54
6.2.7   Institutional Housing                                                         54
6.2.8   Self Help Housing Agency                                                      55


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6.2.9 Rural Housing                                                             56
6.3     SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING                                                  56
6.3.1   Settlement Patterns and Morphology                                      56
6.3.2   Physical Development Growth                                             56
6.3.3   Housing Demand                                                          56
6.3.4   Housing Supply                                                          57
6.3.5   General Infrastructure and Services                                     57
6.4     SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                      57
6.5     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                        57
6.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives   57
6.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                              58
6.6     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP 6                                         58
6.6.1 Issues and Strengths                                                      58
6.6.2 Plan Monitoring Programme                                                 59

7       AGRICULTURE                                                             60
7.1     INTRODUCTION                                                            60
7.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                   60
7.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                 61
7.1.3 Agricultural Consultation Priorities                                      61
7.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                       62
7.2.1 Community Based Strategy for Rural Development                            62
7.2.2 District Settlement Strategy                                              62
7.2.3 National Policy on Agricultural Development                               63
7.2.4 Agricultural Resource Act                                                 63
7.2.5 Animal Breeding Policy                                                    63
7.2.6 Animal Health Policy                                                      64
7.2.7 Dairy Farming Policy                                                      64
7.2.8 Animal Breeding Policy/Artificial Insemination                            64
7.2.9 Animal Health Policy                                                      64
7.2.10 Fencing Policy                                                           64
7.3     AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ACTIVITIES                                          64
7.3.1   Natural Resources Sub-Sector                                            64
7.3.2   Crop Production Sector                                                  65
7.3.3   Horticultural Sub-Sector                                                65
7.3.4   Livestock Sub-sector                                                    66
7.4     AGRICULTURAL SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                66
7.5     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                        67
7.5.1 Evaluation Of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives   67
7.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                              67
7.6     STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES       68
7.6.1 Crop Production and Forestry Sub Sector                                   68
7.7     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                          69


                                                                                v
7.7.1 Issues and Strengths for Agriculture                                       69
7.7.2 Resource Requirement and Implementation schedule for DDP6                  69
7.7.3 Plan Monitoring Program                                                    69

8       TRADE, INDUSTRY, WILDLIFE AND TOURISM                                   70
8.1     INTRODUCTION                                                             70
8.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                    70
8.1.2 Role of the Private Sector                                                 71
8.1.3 Consultation Priorities                                                    71
8.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                        71
8.2.1 National Tourism Policy                                                    71
8.2.2 Privatisation Policy                                                       72
8.2.3 Industrial Development Policy                                              72
8.2.4 Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act Consumer Protection Act       72
8.2.5 Consumer Protection Act                                                    72
8.2.6 National Licensing Act                                                     72
8.2.7 Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA)                          73
8.2.8 Local Procurement Programme                                                73
8.2.9 Wildlife conservation (Hunting and Licensing) Regulations 2001             73
8.2.10 Ostrich Management Plan Policy of 1994                                    73
8.3     TRADE AND INDUSTRY                                                       73
8.3.1   Financial Assistance Policy                                              73
8.3.2   Citizen Entrepreneur Development Agency (CEDA)                           74
8.3.3   Local Procurement Programme                                              74
8.3.4   Tourism                                                                  74
8.3.5   Wildlife                                                                 75
8.3.6   Wildlife farming                                                         75
8.4     TRADE, INDUSTRY, WILDLIFE AND TOURISM SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES        76
8.5     FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                         78
8.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives    78
8.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                               78
8.6     STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE TRADE, INDUSTRY, TOURISM AND WILDLIFE GOALS AND
        OBJECTIVES                                                         80
8.6.1 Proposed Projects                                                          80
8.6.2 Mitigation measures                                                        81
8.7     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                           81
8.7.1 Issues and strengths for Trade and Industry                                81
8.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme                                                  81

9       EDUCATION AND TRAINING                                                  82
9.1     INTRODUCTION                                                             82
9.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                    82
9.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                  82
9.1.3 Role of the Private Sector                                                 83


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9.1.4 Consultation Priorities                                                      83
9.2    NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                           83
9.2.1 Revised National Policy on Education                                         83
9.2.2 Policy on Tertiary Education                                                 84
9.3    EDUCATION                                                                   84
9.4    EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                          90
9.5    FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                            90
9.5.1 Evaluation of environmental Key Issues with sector goals and objectives      90
9.5.2 Evaluation of sector policies and programmes                                 91
9.6    STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE EDUCATION AND TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES           92
9.6.1 Proposed Projects                                                            92
9.7    RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                              95
9.7.1 Issues and Strengths                                                         95
9.7.2 Plan Monitoring                                                              95

10     HEALTH                                                                     96
10.1   INTRODUCTION                                                                96
10.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                     96
10.1.2 Strategic Plan for the Ministry of Health                                   97
10.1.3 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                   97
10.1.4 Role of the Private Sector                                                  97
10.1.5 Health Consultation Priorities                                              98
10.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                           98
10.2.1 National Policy on HIV/AIDS                                                 98
10.2.2 National Health Policy                                                      98
10.2.3 Waste Management Act                                                        99
10.2.4 Public Health Act                                                           99
10.3   HEALTH                                                                      99
10.3.1 Hospital Services                                                          99
10.3.2 District Health Delivery System                                            99
10.3.3 Primary Health Care                                                       100
10.3.4 Control Measures for Pandemic Diseases                                    101
10.4   HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                        104
10.5   FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                          107
10.5.1 Evaluation Of Environmental Key Issues With Sector Goals and Objectives   107
10.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                              107
10.6   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES              108
10.6.1 Proposed Projects                                                         108
10.7   RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                            110
10.7.1 Issues and Strengths of the Health Sector                                 110
10.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme                                                 110


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11     LABOUR AND HOME AFFAIRS                                                   111
11.1   INTRODUCTION                                                               111
11.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                    111
11.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                  111
11.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                          112
11.2.1 Women and Development Policy                                               112
11.2.2 Youth Policy                                                               112
11.2.3 National Library Act                                                       112
11.2.4 Births and Deaths                                                          112
11.2.5 National Registration Act                                                  112
11.2.6 Marriages Act                                                              113
11.3   LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICES                                        113
11.3.1 Information and Broadcasting                                               113
11.3.2 Sports and Recreation                                                      113
11.3.3 Social and Community Development                                           113
11.3.4 Youth                                                                      113
11.3.5 Botswana National Library Service                                          114
11.3.6 Immigration                                                                114
11.3.7 National and Civil Registration                                            114
11.3.8 Labour                                                                     115
11.4   LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES             115
11.4.1 Labour, Culture and Social Services Sector Goals and Objectives            115
11.5   FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                           115
11.5.1 Evaluation of environmental key issues with sector goals and objectives    115
11.5.2 Evaluation of sector policies and programmes                               116
11.6   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICE SECTOR GOALS
       AND OBJECTIVES                                                    116
11.6.1 Proposed Projects                                                          116
11.7   RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                             116
11.7.1 Issues and Strengths                                                       116
11.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme                                                  117

12     MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER                                                118
12.1   INTRODUCTION                                                               118
12.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                    118
12.1.2 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Affairs          119
12.1.3 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Land, Housing and Environment               119
12.1.4 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Local Government                            119
12.1.5 The role of the Private Sector                                             119
12.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                          120
12.2.1 Mineral Sector                                                             120
12.2.2 Energy Sector                                                              120
12.2.3 Water Sector                                                               120


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12.3   MINING, ENERGY AND WATER                                                   121
12.3.1 Mining Sector                                                              121
12.3.2 Energy Sector                                                              121
12.3.3 Water Sector                                                               122
12.4   MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                     125
12.4.1 Sector Goals and Objective                                                 125
12.5   FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                           128
12.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives    128
12.6   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                          129
12.6.1 Proposed Projects for Council Water and Sewerage Services - South East District
       Council                                                                   129
12.6.2 Proposed Projects for Water Affairs Department                            130
12.7   RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                             131
12.7.1 Issues and Strengths                                                       131
12.7.2 Performance Targets                                                        131
12.7.3 Plan Monitoring Program                                                    131

13     WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS                                       132
13.1   INTRODUCTION                                                               132
13.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                    132
13.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                  132
13.1.3 Ministry of Local Government                                               133
13.1.4 Works Sector                                                               133
13.1.5 Transport Sector                                                           133
13.1.6 Communications Sector                                                      133
13.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                          134
13.2.1 Road Traffic Act                                                           134
13.2.2 Transport and Safety Policy                                                134
13.2.3 Telecommunications Policy                                                  134
13.2.4 Civil Aviation Policy                                                      134
13.2.5 Works Policy                                                               134
13.2.6 Meteorological Services Policy                                             135
13.2.7 Postal Services Act                                                        135
13.3   WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS                                        135
13.3.1 Primary and Secondary Roads                                                135
13.3.2 Telecommunications                                                         135
13.3.3 Meteorological Services                                                    135
13.3.4 Postal Services                                                            135
13.3.5 Department of Road Transport and Safety                                    136
13.4   TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                          136
13.5   FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                           136
13.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and objectives    136




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13.6   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION GOALS AND
       OBJECTIVES                                                     137
13.7   RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                            138
13.7.1 Issues and Strengths                                                      138

14     LAW, JUSTICE AND SECURITY                                                 139
14.1   INTRODUCTION                                                              139
14.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                   139
14.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                 139
14.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                         140
14.2.1 Botswana Police Act                                                       140
14.2.2 Chieftainship Act                                                         140
14.2.3 Customary Court Procedure                                                 141
14.2.4 Local Police Act                                                          141
14.2.5 Magistrate Courts                                                         141
14.2.6 Prisons Act                                                               141
14.2.7 Immigration Act                                                           141
14.2.8 Broadcasting Act                                                          141
14.2.9 Information Media – Policy Directive (1969)                               141
14.3   LAW JUSTICE AND SECURITY                                                  142
14.3.1 Customary Law and Courts                                                  142
14.3.2 Police                                                                    142
14.3.3 Immigration                                                               142
14.3.4 Fire Services                                                             142
14.3.5 Information and Broadcasting                                              143
14.4   LAW, JUSTICE AND SECURITY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                            143
14.5   FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                          144
14.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives   144
14.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                              144
14.6   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LAW JUSTICE AND SECURITY SECTOR, GOALS AND
       OBJECTIVES                                                   145
14.6.1 Proposed Projects                                                         145
14.7   RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                            146
14.7.1 Issues and Strengths for Law, Justice and Security                        146
14.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme                                                 146

15     LOCAL GOVERNMENT                                                          147
15.1   INTRODUCTION                                                              147
15.1.1 Vision 2016                                                               147
15.1.2 Institutional Framework                                                   147
15.1.3 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries                                 148
15.1.4 Role of the Private Sector                                                149
15.1.5 Local Government Consultation Priorities                                  149


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15.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                             150
15.2.1 District Administration                                                       150
15.2.2 Tribal Administration                                                         151
15.2.3 District Council                                                              151
15.2.4 Waste Management Act                                                          151
15.2.5 Public Health Act                                                             152
15.2.6 District Council Water Supply and Sewerage                                    152
15.2.7 District Roads                                                                152
15.2.8 Township and District                                                         152
15.2.9 Revised National Policy on Education                                          152
15.2.10     Social Welfare                                                           153
15.2.11     Rural Development Policy and Community Based Strategy                    154
15.2.12     Land Boards                                                              154
15.3   LOCAL GOVERNMENT                                                              154
15.3.1 District Administration                                                       154
15.3.2 Tribal Administrations (Balete and Batlokwa)                                  155
15.3.3 Council                                                                       156
15.3.4 Land Boards (Malete and Tlokweng)                                             166
15.4   LOCAL GOVERNMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                         167
15.5   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
                                                                      170
15.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals                      170
15.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes                                  170
15.6   STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                             171
15.6.1 Proposed Projects                                  Error! Bookmark not defined.170
15.6.2 Plan Monitoring Programme                          Error! Bookmark not defined.170

16     CONTINGENCY PLANNING                                                          189
16.1   INTRODUCTION                                                                  189
16.1.1 Institutional Framework                                                       189
16.1.2 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Local G overnment                              189
16.1.3 Drought and Food Relief Management                                            190
16.1.4 Disaster Relief Sector Priorities                                             190
16.2   NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION                                             190
16.2.1 National Disaster Management Plan                                             190
16.2.2 National Food Security Strategy                                               190
16.3   CONTINGENCY PLANS                                                             191
16.4   FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT                              191
16.5   PROPOSED PROJECTS                                                             191
16.6   RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6                                                192
16.6.1 Issues and Strengths for Water Sector                                         192

17     PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION                                                193


                                                                                     xi
17.1   INTRODUCTION                                                            193
17.1.1 The Institutional Framework                                             193
17.1.2 Plan Management                                                         193
17.2   ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ACTIVITIES                                     193
17.3   FINANCIAL AND PERSONNEL CONSTRAINTS                                     194
17.4   PROPOSED PLAN MONITORING ACTIVITIES DURING DDP6                         194


APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: LIST OF REFERENCES                                                 195


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Population Projections                                                8
Table 1.2: Population distributions by Age, Sex and Percentage                   9
Table 1.3: Population and Economic Activity in the District                     11
Table 1.4: Number of People Employed Per Sector in 2001                         12
Table 2.1: Primary Education Achievements and Backlog                           16
Table 3.1: Overall DDP6 Development Goals and Objectives                        30
Table 3.2: DDP6 Environmental Goals and Objectives                              31
Table 4.1: DDP6 Environmental Goals and Objectives                              38
Table 4.2: Proposed Projects                                                    39
Table 5.1: Land Use Planning Sector goals and Objectives                        46
Table 5.2: Proposed Projects                                                    47
Table 5.3: Issues and Strengths                                                 47
Table 5.4: Performance Targets for DDP6                                         48
Table 6.1: District Settlement Hierarchy                                        50
Table 6.2 Activities Carried Out in the District                                52
Table 6.3: Settlement and Housing Sector Goals and Objectives                   57
Table 6.4: Issues and Strengths                                                 58
Table 7.1: Agriculture Sector Goals and Objectives                              66
Table 7.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures              68
Table 7.3: Issues and Strengths for Agriculture                                 69
Table 7.4: Resource Requirements and Implementation Schedule for DDP6           69
Table 8.1: Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism Sector Goals and Objectives    76
Table 8.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures              80
Table 8.3: Issues and Strengths for Trade and Industry                          81
Table 9.1: Secondary Schools                                                    86
Table 9.2: Learners and Establishment as per Area of Operation in 2001          87
Table 9.3: Tswelelopele Brigade Centre Enrolment                                89
Table 9.4: Tlokweng Brigade Centre Enrolment                                    89
Table 9.5: Enrolment at Tlokweng College of Education                           89
Table 9.6: Education and Training Sector Goals and Objectives                   90
Table 9.7: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures              92
Table 9.8: Issues and Strengths for Education Sector                            95
Table 10.1: Existing Health Facilities                                         100
Table 10.2: Health Statistics – South East                                     101
Table 10.3: HIV/AIDS Tested Individuals By Age And Sex – 2001                  101
Table 10.4: Tuberculosis Statistics                                            102



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Table 10.5: Health Sector Goals and Objectives                                        104
Table 10.6: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures                   108
Table 10.7: Issues and Strengths for Health Sector                                    110
Table 11.1: Labour, Culture and Social Welfare Sector Goals                           115
Table 11.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures                   116
Table 11.3: Issues and Strengths for Labour, Culture and Social Welfare               116
Table 12.1: Population Projection (source CSO)                                        123
Table 12.2: Minerals, Energy and Water Sector Goals                                   125
Table 12.3: Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives   128
Table 12.4: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures                   129
Table 13.1: Transport and Communications Sector Goals and Objectives                  136
Table 13.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures                   137
Table 14.1: Law, Justice and Security Sector Goals and Objectives                     143
Table 14.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures                   145
Table 14.3: Issues and Strengths for Law, Justice and Security                        146
Table15.1: District Administration as March 2003                                      155
Table 15.2: District Council as March 2002                                            157
Table 15.3 Primary Education Achievements and Backlog                                 159
Table 15.4: Land Boards                                                               166
Table 15.5: Local Government Sector Goals and Objectives                              167


LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS
Map 1.1: Location Map - South East                                                3
Map 1.2: Administration Boundary - South East                                     4
Figure 1.1: Age- Sex Population PyramidError! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark not defined.


LIST OF ACRONYMS




                                                                                      xiii
CHAPTER 1
1        DISTRICT AND PEOPLE

1.1      DISTRICT GEOGRAPHIC SETTING

1.1.1    Location and Size
The South East District is one of the smallest of Botswana‘s 14 Districts. It is bound to the
southwest by the Southern District, to the northwest by the Kweneng District and in the north
by the Kgatleng District. The entire eastern part of the district borders with South Africa.

The geographic setting of the South East District is different from other Districts in the sense
that it is mid way between the fastest growing cities in Africa namely Gaborone and Lobatse
Town. These urban areas restrict the growth of the District as they from time to time encroach
within its administrative boundaries. There are administrative problems among the three
authorities as could be demonstrated by Kgale view site which is property of the South East
District and is now indicated as part of the Greater Gaborone in the Gaborone Structural Plan.

1.1.2    Size
South East District occupies an area of around 1 492km2 in the southern region of Botswana.
Only a little more than one half of the total land is tribal land. The Batlokwa tribal area covers
215km2, while the Bamalete tribal area covers 670km2. The remaining land is divided
between freehold farms and state land.


1.2      INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT

1.2.1    Governance
The institutional arrangement in the district is that specific institution is charged with the
responsibility of providing and maintaining the facility/ service whether it is based at
central government level or district level. For instance, main roads fall under Roads
Department of the Ministry of Works and Transport, telephones fall under Botswana
Telecommunications, postal services fall under Botswana Postal Services for post offices
and VDC for postal agencies, and railways fall under Botswana Railways. This means
that most of the planning implementation and maintenance of these services are done
from central level. Council has responsibility over district and local roads within
settlements.

1.2.2    Communications and Linkages
South East has a relatively well-developed infrastructure network since most of the major
villages are connected by relatively good bitumen standard roads and various
telecommunications network.

The District is linked to Gaborone and Lobatse by bitumen standard roads which make these
areas easily accessible to inhabitants. It is for this reason that a large percentage of the working
population commutes daily to Gaborone from either Gaborone or Tlokweng. Tlokweng‘s


                                                                                                 1
proximity to Gaborone and good communication links especially roads have had the effect of
stimulating developments in Tlokweng.

Internationally, the District has direct road links with South Africa through Tlokweng Border
Gate, Pioneer Border Gate and Ramotswa Border Gate. These provide suitable means of road
communication between the two countries. However, the late opening time (7am) at the
Tlokweng Border Gate creates congestion in the morning. Other localities in the District are
accessible through a number of gravel roads and tracks.

The railway line passing through the District is the main line that links Botswana to the south
with South Africa and Zimbabwe to the northeast. The presence of this facility provides
passenger and freight services and further facilitates industrialization in the District.

The District has a total number of six postal facilities of which two are post offices and four are
postal agencies. It has however, been noted that the only postal agency at Mogobane Village is
not operating well and as a result, the community wishes that the facility should be taken over
by the postal services. There is also a high deficiency of public phones in Mogobane Village.




                                                                                               2
Map 1.1:   Location Map - South East




                                       3
Map 1.2:   Administration Boundary - South East




                                                  4
1.3     DISTRICT ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES

1.3.1    Topography
The main landforms found in the District are hills and escarpments, which are the remains of
higher land surfaces now isolated by numerous rivers. The highest point recorded is the
Nywane-Peleng watershed, which also marks the highest point in the country. Several other
high hills are found throughout the district.

Three main drainages are found in the south-central part of the District. These drainages are
the Peleng, Taung and Nywane rivers respectively. All these rivers flow into Notwane River
which also forms the district and international boundary with South Africa.

1.3.2    Geomorphology
Pre-Kalahari geology consists of bedrock units between 150 and 3 000+ million years old.
They are extensively covered by younger surficial deposits comprising of soils, sands and
cretes. Bedrock units contain most of the potential aquifers and ore deposits. These are exposed
over most of the District, directly determining the nature of the surfaced geology and soils.

The underlying bedrock of South East District consists of a number of different geological
groups, particularly granites, igneous formations and dolomite limestones. Those areas
exhibiting granite bedrock are generally the flatter landscapes, which include some of the best
soils in the region. This rock is by far the oldest in south eastern Botswana and is among the
oldest in the world, at 2.5 billion years. This bedrock is overlain to varying depths with
weathered materials and is found in the northeastern section of the District, particularly in the
Batlokwa Tribal Area.

Igneous rock formations are the most visible in the District, represented as large isolated hills
in the rugged area south and west of Otse. The soils found in these areas are generally poor and
very shallow. Even their grazing potential is limited due to the steep inclines associated with
this geological group. Its ruggedness and relative inaccessibility, however, makes this area one
of the most scenically beautiful in the country.

Dolomite limestones are found in the area around and immediately to the south of Ramotswa
as well as in the region of Lobatse. These rocks are overlain to varying depths with
sandstones, shales and volcanic rocks which contribute in forming fair to good soils for arable
crop production and grazing. This formation of limestone also represents one of the best
aquifers in the region. Minerals that were previously mined in the District were copper and
manganese.

1.3.3    Hydrology
South East District is characterized by a number of ephemeral rivers. The main rivers are the
Segoditshane, Notwane, Maratadibe, Fikeng, Taung, Peleng and Nywane. Most of these rivers
experience one or more limited flow events per wet season, though completely dry years have
been recorded.

All the above-mentioned rivers are also prone to flash flooding. Apart from physical damage,
high river water levels interrupt transport and communications; particularly in areas like
Mogobane, Taung and the Ramotswa border post. During heavy rainfall, there is flooding

                                                                                             5
leading to severe erosion as the constructed ditches are not wide and deep enough to provide
proper runoff.

Even though this rainfall benefits most Batswana, it is sometimes a constraint when there are
floods. This is typical of Taung and Notwane rivers whose beds are dry during the dry season.
Their level of water exceeds the riverbanks during rainy seasons, thereby flooding nearby land,
roads and some other structures nearby. There have been numerous occasions when the portion
between Taung bridge and the Railway level crossing become impossible to cross for days due
to floods. Whenever this occurs, the Ramotswa village is practically cut from the rest of
Botswana while villages in the west of the District cannot communicate directly to their
western neighbours in the Kweneng and Southern Districts.

1.3.4    Climate
According to the Report of Survey volume I of the South East District published in 1994, the
climate in the District is semi arid with a summer rainfall (October – March) of about 475-525
mm per annum. The experienced rainfall is further described as short high intensity spells and
only on few occasions does heavy rain account for the bulk of the annual precipitation.

Although these patterns have been somewhat erratic of late, the District can generally expect
well over 500mm of rain in a normal year. Locally, the hilly areas in the south and west of Otse
experience slightly heavier rainfall patterns than the rest of the District. This benefits the
numerous water schemes in the area, including the Gaborone reservoir.

As in the rest of the country, evaporation mostly occurs between the months of January to
April, that is, in the peak of the rainy season. Somehow, large quantities of water are retained
in the soil especially during summer. It is mostly humid in the early hours of the morning and
evening hours compared to the high evaporation between 1300 and 1600 hours.

Temperatures exhibit high annual and diurnal ranges. Mean maximum temperatures range
between 19.6 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius in summer. In winter the temperatures go
below zero degrees in the extreme cold winter nights.

The above clearly shows the semi-arid continental climate which is typical for areas at the edge
of a desert with little or no maritime influence. Major characteristics of this climate are daily
temperature differences where there is intensive heating of air and topographic base during the
day and respective cooling during the night.

1.3.5    Natural Resources
1.3.5.1 Wildlife
Unlike some other parts of Botswana, wildlife in the South-East District is scarce, documented
information specifies that though a large number of wild animals have been eliminated or
displaced by commercial hunting and human settlements, species such as kudu, impala, and
warthogs can still be found. It is further propounded that species of large wild animals as those
above mentioned can also be found in freehold farms including reintroduced species such as
gemsbok, ostriches and hart-beast.

More than 300 bird species have been identified in the District. This group includes most of the
water bird species. Some of the larger species are protected Cape vultures at Manyelong which
roost on rocky outcrops and escarpments. There are also two small privately owned natural


                                                                                             6
reserves in the District namely St. Clairs Lion Park and Mokolodi Nature Reserve where many
species of game can be viewed.

1.3.5.2 Water
Though the South East District is noted and envied for its richness in underground water
resources, it is worthy of note that the underground water in the Ramotswa planning area has
been declared polluted and inconsumable. This problem has affected all the four boreholes
which had been supplying Ramotswa.

1.3.5.3 Minerals
Mineral deposits found in the District include: granite, dolomite, carbonates, river sand (used
as building materials) and minor deposits of manganese, asbestos, mica, talc and fluorite.
Economically viable mining of minerals is limited in the South East District hence there are no
large scale open cast or underground mining operations in the District. However, there are
three rock quarries that is two at Kgale (granite) and one at Modipe (dolomite). There is also
one licensed brick clay mining lease in Ramotswa.

Furthermore, manganese has been mined in the recent past. Documented information indicates
that some of the manganese deposits might support small scale exploitation in the future. It is
hence worthy of note that licenses which allow prospecting for manganese, lead and zinc have
been issued out, such an outlook by investors may lead to further mineral deposits discovery in
the district.


1.4     DISTRICT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

1.4.1    Culture
Like it is common among the elderly generations of Batswana countrywide, modern education
systems were not always popular among Batswana. Thus a family would prefer that their sons
learned to rear livestock, on the other hand it was preferred that daughters should learn
household chores such as taking care of babies, cleaning the house and further more learning
about ploughing. Of late however, society has transformed, where emphasis has shifted to
schooling.

1.4.2    Population characteristics
In the 2001 Population and Housing Census, the population for South East District was 60 623.
Out of that figure, 69% lived in the two major villages of Ramotswa (20 680) and Tlokweng
(21 133); while three smaller villages shared 16.2% of the District‘s population namely, Otse 5
192, Mogobane 2 053 and Taung 2 552. The total population living in villages was 51 610 or
85.2% of the District's population.9 013 or 14.8 % were recorded to be residing at the lands and
cattle posts.

Like the national population structure, the South East District Population is very young; -31%
of the District's Population or 18 851 were aged between 0 and 14 in 2001. Those aged
between 15 and 64 were65 % ( 39 120) while 65+ make up 4% or 2 646 people.

Given the surface area of the district of 1 492 square kilometres and the 2001 population figure
of 60 623, it means on average, the population density of the district was 41 persons per square
kilometres in 2001.

                                                                                            7
As already indicated above, the population density for South East District is highest in the
major villages of Ramotswa and Tlokweng. Further worthy of note is that the district
population is mostly concentrated on tribal land more than on state land and free hold land
which both form a major part of the district.

1.4.3      Population Distribution & Density
It is however worthy of mention that the district is experiencing an influx of Batswana who are
migrating from other parts of the country and would like to settle in the southern region of
Botswana, the pressure is mainly caused by the peri-urban status of the two major villages in
the district.

The results of the 2001 Census show movement of people into and out of the District as
follows:

Between August 1990 and August 1991, a total of 3 503 migrated into the South East District
from other parts of the country. In the same period, a total of 2 151 people migrated out of
South East District to other settlements within the country.

Of the 3 503 who came into the district, 1 079 were reported to have been living in Gaborone
the previous year. The total figure for the people who migrated to South East District from
urban centres was 1 523 of the total migrants.

In addition 1580 were reported to have been abroad in 2000. The rest of the immigrants came
from other settlements in the country. Kweneng District had the highest figure of 586, followed
by Southern District with 456. The rest of the population came from other districts in
Botswana.

Out of the 2 151 who left South East District, 831 migrated to Gaborone, 55 to Francistown,
110 to Lobatse, 46 to Selebi Phikwe, 18 to Orapa while the number going to Jwaneng and
Sowa Town was 32 and 8 respectively.

1.4.4      Settlement Pattern
The population is divided into two tribal groups: Balete and Batlokwa. Accordingly the tribal
land is also divided into two, hence there are two main Land Boards. The two tribal lands are
separated by freehold farms and are thus isolated from each other both institutionally and
spatially. Though the South East District comprises four villages it should be noted that most of
the district population is concentrated in Ramotswa and Tlokweng.

1.4.5      Migration
The Central Statistics Office projected that the population of the South East District between
1991 and 2021 will grow as shown in the Table 1.1 below:

   Table 1.1:   Population Projections
Location                     Growth      Rate   2001     Estimated   Growth   2006     2009
                             %                           Rate %
Ramotswa                     1.21               20 680   1.71                 22 509   23 684
Tlokweng                     5.39               21 133   5.891                28 135   33 406
Otse                         5.27               5 192    5.772                6 873    8 133



                                                                                                8
Location                             Growth   Rate    2001           Estimated    Growth     2006              2009
                                     %                               Rate %
Mogobane                             0.72             2 053          1.219                   2 181             2 262
Ramotswa Station                     5.16             2 552          5.66                    3 360             3 903
Pop. Villages                        3.18             51 610         3.6784                  61 826            68 903
Pop. Lands, Cattle           Post,   4.435            9 013          4.935                   11 467            13 250
Freehold Farmers
District Population                  3.62             60 623         4.12                    98 381            131 547
 Source: Central Statistics Office & Planners


1.4.6       Age Sex Structure
Overall the population age sex structure in Table 1.2 and Figure 1.1, pyramid show that the
population is distributed as follows: age groups 0-14 years has 31% (18 816), 15-64 years has
64%(39 087) and 65+ years has 4% (2 610).

This means that the population is still youthful and the dependency ratio is 1:2 (total population
between age groups (0-14 years + 65+years) / (15-64 years age groups). The national
population age group structure constitutes 36.7% between 0-14 years, 58.3% between 15-64
years and 5% for 65+ years which is similar to the pattern of the District. Of particular
significance to the age structure and pyramid is the fact that the population under 5 years is less
than age groups 5-19 years which may be due to adverse effects of HIV/ AIDS or reduced
fertility rate as a result of the increase in adoption of family planning measures or a
combination of both factors. Also worth of note is the fact that there are more females than
males in all age groups particularly in 65+ year‘s cohort (60% against 40%) which implies that
there is high rate of female headed households.

      Table 1.2:   Population distributions by Age, Sex and Percentage
Sex            Age Groups                                                                             Totals

               0-14 Years              15-64 Years             65+ Years         Unknown
Females        9 431 (50%)             20 503 (52%)            1 557 (60%)       3 (3%)               31 494 (52%)

Males          9 381 (50%)             18 584 (48%)            1 053 (40%)       107 (97%)            29 129 (48%)
TOTAL          18 816 (31%)            39 087 (64%)            2 610(4%)         110 (1%)
Source: CSO- Population Census 2001




                                                                                                                         9
Figure 1.1:   Age- Sex Population Pyramid




          Male
                                            Female




                                              10
1.4.7    Employment and Unemployment
Employment in South East District is not only confined to activities located in the District. The
proximity of the District to the urban centres of Gaborone and Lobatse has resulted in a
significant number of people in the District commuting to work in those centres every day. In
2001, South East District's economically active population aged 15-64 years constituted 39 087
of the total population. Out of the 39 087 people, there were 18 584 (48%) males and 20 503
(52%) females respectively in the economically active population.

However, the census shows that only 20 481 people were employed while 4 559 people (18%)
were unemployed. Out of those employed 18 087 people (88%) were in formal employment
and paid in cash. In addition to the above, 1 189 people (5.8%) were self-employed with 8
194employees (4%), 311 people (1.5%) were engaged in unpaid family ventures such as cattle
posts or helpers (refer to Table 1.3).


   Table 1.3:   Population and Economic Activity in the District
      Employed              Self Employed        Unpaid Family     Unpaid Worked in    Economic   Total
 Paid in Paid in     Without        With         Helper            Own Lands/ Cattle   Activity
 Cash      Kind      Employees      Employees                      post                Unknown
 18087     64        11895 (5.8%) 819(4%)        72(0.4%)          239(11.7%)          11(0.1%)   20481
 (88%)     (0.3%)                                                                                 (100%)
Source: CSO- Population Census 2001


1.4.8    District HIV/AIDS Status
According to the findings of a study conducted in the South East District in 1999 and entitled ―
HIV/AIDS IN SOUTH EAST DISTRICT: SITUATION AND RESPONSES ANALYSIS‖,
HIV/AIDS in the district affects all people of all categories. The groups who were found to be
most vulnerable include; youth, women, men and farm workers. The major determining factors
found to encourage the spread of the disease were found to be: lack of condom use, unequal
power relations between men and women and myths and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS.


1.5      DISTRICT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

1.5.1    Major Economic Developments
Currently the District‘s major economic activities are public administration, livestock farming
and particularly commercial and industrial developments which are concentrated in Ramotswa,
Tlokweng, Kgale and Taung. As for arable farming the amount of land ploughed as well as the
yield has been declining over the years.

Out of 20 481 people employed in the district, public administration had the highest proportion
with 3 134employees (15.3%) followed by manufacturing with 2 921 employees (14.3%),
construction with 2 801 employees (13.7%), wholesale, retail with 2 302 employees (11.2%)
education with 2 118 employees (10.3%) and agriculture/ hunting/ forestry with 1 417
employees (6.9%) on the six place respectively. (Refer to Table 1.4).




                                                                                                  11
   Table 1.4:    Number of People Employed Per Sector in 2001
 Sector                                                           Total Employed   Percentage Employed
 Agriculture, Hunting And Forestry                                         1 417                  6.9%
 Fishing                                                                       1                    0%
 Mining And Quarrying                                                        104                  0.5%
 Manufacturing (Includes Repair Of Machinery)                              2 921                14.3%
 Electricity, Gas And Water Supply                                           137                  0.7%
 Construction                                                              2 801                13.7%
 Wholesale And Retail Trade (Includes Repair Of Motor Vehicles,
 And Personal Household Goods)                                             2 302                11.2%
 Hotels And Restaurants                                                      459                 2.2%
 Transport, Storage And Communication                                        699                 3.4%
 Financial Intermediaries                                                    386                 1.9%
 Real, Estate, Renting And Business Activities                             1 452                 7.1%
 Public Administration                                                     3 134                15.3%
 Education                                                                 2,118                10.3%
 Health And Social Work                                                      677                 3.3%
 Other Community, Social And Personal Service Activities                     579                 2.8%
 Private Household With Employed Persons (For Household
 Surveys Only)                                                             1,083                 5.3%
 Foreign Missions, International Organisations                                53                 0.3%
 Unknown                                                                     158                 0.7%
 Total                                                                    20,481                100%
Source: CSO-Population Census 2001

Among the major economic developments that South East District has experienced in the DDP
5 plan period, is the construction boom in Gaborone/ Kgale as a major contributing factor
towards employment creation. The trickle down effects of the on-going constructions have
reached the district given its proximity to it. The second major economic development which
must be highlighted is the Botswana Police College located in the district. Given the magnitude
of the college, it has without doubt the potential to contribute significantly towards the
economic development of the district. This will be realized among many other things, by the
fact that the college is bound to attract private investors into the district who in turn will create
employment. Thus staff employment at the college and the students are enough market if used
well to attract investors.

Further economic developments worthy of mention should include the 69 Selokwane industrial
and commercial plots which have been successfully serviced and await utilisation by investors.
These are inevitably bound to further create employment for people and contribute towards the
districts ambition of alleviating poverty.

1.5.2      Major Infrastructure Development
Amongst the major infrastructural developments achieved in the district in the DDP 5 is the
sewerage networking of Tlokweng and Ramotswa, although the networking did not cover all
the built up areas of Tlokweng and Ramotswa. It is planned that in DDP 6 the networking
should cover the left out areas. Further achievements in the past plan periods are that the
district has successfully managed to connect the two villages to the Water Utilities mains,
namely Tlokweng and Ramotswa.

It is furthermore worthy of note that in pursuance of the National Policy on Education, the
district has managed to drastically reduce the backlog on classrooms, toilets and teachers
quarters in all the schools (Primary and Secondary). It is as such hoped that the backlog will be
cleared in the next plan period provided funds are made available. Further infrastructural
development achieved during DDP 5 is that the Otse Clinic with a maternity wing was
successfully completed. Construction of Mafitlhakgosi and Tlokweng clinics was started

                                                                                                    12
during DDP 5 and expected to be completed in DDP6. Developments furthermore included
housing units for Officers based in the districts, in that more than 35 housing units were
completed.

Other major developments achieved in the district include the Boatle/Mankgodi road which has
been tarred and connects the district to the Western Region of the country. Of further
importance is that the Ranaka/Mogobane road which connects the District to the Southern
Region of the country is expected to be completed by the beginning of DDP 6.


1.6     STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

1.6.1    Waste Disposal and Littering
Given our societies stigmatization of the AIDS virus, people still throw hazardous waste in an
unacceptable manner due to fear of victimization. Again there is a tendency by unscrupulous
business and community members who still use illegal sites for dumping their rubbish. To
address these problems, the district intends to procure as many clinical waste vehicles as is
possible and further educate its people to combat this problem. There is further need to
formulate and intensively implement byelaws guarding against illegal dumping sites. Provision
of a district sanitary landfill is however, expected to further reduce these incidences.

1.6.2    Extraction of Sand and Gravel
The uncontrolled extraction of sand/ gravel damages riverbeds and leaves open holes that
invite illegal dumping. Concerted community efforts and enforcement of bye laws can
circumvent this problem.

1.6.3    Sanitation Facilities
Inadequate sanitation facilities have resulted in pollution of groundwater in the Ramotswa
Planning Area. The existing sewerage though expanded during DDP5 requires further
expansion which shall be undertaken during DDP6. Continuous community educational
campaigns shall be undertaken to encourage communities to connect to sewer lines.

1.6.4    Fuel Wood
The problem of fuel wood depletion can be combated by an intensive campaign to encourage
households to use stoves and furthermore community and staff based in the district should see
the need for ploughing trees.

1.6.5    Overgrazing
Overgrazing is due to heavy grazing pressure around settlements. There is need to encourage
farmers to comply with the stocking rate and further feed their livestock with livestock feeds to
ease the pressure on the surroundings.

To further combat incidences of environmental depletion the district intends that for every
project over this plan period, an environmental impact analysis should be carried out and
mitigation measures taken to make sure that the environment is maintained and improved.




                                                                                            13
CHAPTER 2
2        REVIEW OF              DDP      5    AND       LONGTERM            DEVELOPMENT
         POTENTIAL

2.1      INTRODUCTION

The long term development potential of the district is a function of a number of variables that
come into play. These are assumptions put forward based on the current situation and the likely
trend. By and large, the magnitude of the resource base, the level of social and physical
infrastructure coupled with other socio, economic, environmental and/or natural calamities are
the fundamentals of what to expect in future. The future is always unknown since life is
dynamic, therefore this poses a challenge to those who are expected to predict what the future
holds. The need to come nearer to the answer as much as possible is very pertinent.
Consequently, assumptions put forth should be so reasonable that by the end of the envisaged
period, (year 2009) or even beyond, development should be almost what was speculated.

In the case of South East, in general, the district is not worse-off in so far as the existing
infrastructure is concerned and the assumption is that this situation will continue improving as
the future unfolds. The land resource will diminish with time as SE continues to be engulfed by
the nearby urban centers. The human resource is performing far above average but the
HIV/AIDS scourge is offsetting these efforts. On the other hand, it is hoped that the required
special skills and some professionals will be in place in not a distant future to enhance this
potential. The expansion of the commercial and industrial sectors in big villages especially
Tlokweng will outweigh the anticipated slack in the smaller villages of Otse and
Mogobane.Availability of finances will increase slightly during the plan period. Environmental
gains would gradually be felt.

Population growth will increase at an exponential rate especially in the two major villages. The
interaction of the above-cited factors is expected in the overall to bring south East to a lucrative
modern economy to meet the demand of vision 2016.


2.2      ARCHIEVEMENTS/OPPORTUNITIES

2.2.1    Major Infrastructural Developments
Among the major infrastructural Developments achieved in the district during DDP5 is the
sewerage network in Tlokweng and Ramotswa, although this did not cover all the areas of
Tlokweng and Ramotswa. It is planned that in DDP6 the networking will cover the left out
areas. Further achievements in the past plan periods are that the district has successfully
managed to connect two villages of Tlokweng and Ramotswa to the Water Utilities mains.

It is further worthy of note that in pursuance of the National Policy on Education, the district
has managed to drastically reduce the backlog on classrooms, toilets and teachers quarters in
all the district‘s schools (primary and secondary). It is as such hoped that the backlog will be
cleared in the next plan period, if such will not be limiting. Further infrastructural
developments achieved during DDP5 are Otse clinic with a maternity wing was successfully
completed. The Mafitlhakgosi and Tlokweng clinics have also been built during DDP5. Other

                                                                                               14
developments include 35 housing units for officers based in the district, which were completed
during the DDP5 plan period.

Other major developments achieved in the district include the Boatle/Mankgodi road, which
was tarred and connects the district to the western region of the country. Of further importance
is that the Ranaka/Mogobane road which connects the district to the Southern District is
expected to be completed by the beginning of DDP6.

During DDP5 a significant level of industrial and commercial development took place. A fire
engine was procured for the district during DDP 5 and has not been adequately functional for
lack of a fire station and skilled manpower it is not prudent for the district to be receiving
services from the Gaborone City Council.

Re-gravelling of Maratadiba/Modipane road(12km), Mogobane/Ramosele road(12km) and
construction of culverts at Mojadife and Goo-Rabadukane in Mogobane are some of the
projects that were carried out during DDP 5.

2.2.1.1 National Sanitation Programme
The provision of onsite sanitation latrines enviro-loos, which was pursued during DDP5, has
proven to be futile and non-functional. By the end of the plan period the district was still
awaiting the Department of Sanitation and Waste Management for proper guidance on the
suitable onsite latrines. A total of 1000 units latrines were planned for in DDP5 but only 50
Ventilated            Improved           Pit-latrines         and          153        Enviro-
loowerebuilt.ThiswasdonetopreventundergroundwaterpollutionaftertheGovernmentsanctionedo
nsite pitlatrines.

One the major achievement of the district had been ongoing construction of the District
Sanitary Landfill, which has committed funds to the tune of P21 million. Furthermore, the
district was able to procure adequate waste management service vehicles and equipment while
additional ones will be procured during DDP 6.

2.2.1.2 Labour Intensive Public Works
During DDP 5, culverts and debushing were successfully completed while 15 houses were still
ongoing at the end of DDP5. The provision housing will continue to be done through labour
intensive during DDP 6.

By the end of DDP5 consultancy was engaged to design water tank and the network of the two
villages for the ultimate connection to the Water Utilities Pipeline.

Pursuant to protecting the aquifers in Ramotswa a sewerage network project was undertaken
during DDP5, while in Tlokweng sewerage and water supply network was undertaken by the
Water Affairs Department on behalf of the district.

2.2.2    Social
2.2.2.1 HIV/AIDS
An HIV/AIDS Response and Situational Analysis was developed in 1999 for the district. Given
the recommendation of the report coupled with the strategic plan, it is expected that the district
will be capacitated to combat HIV/AIDS. The DMSAC has monitored the implementation of
MTP II and much is expected in this plan period. In addition, the district has established

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support structures such as Counseling and Day Care Centres for care of patients and other
clients.

2.2.2.2 Social Infrastructure Provision
Provision of a wide range of basic social infrastructure as well as provision of safety nets for
the economically weak, destitution programme, orphan care programme, etc have progressed
well during the plan period. These safety nets have cushioned the economically disadvantaged
and some in the process managed to graduate destitution status.

2.2.2.3 Reduction of Backlog of Educational Facilities
During DDP 5 a lot of primary education facilities were constructed and the backlog on key
facilities has been drastically reduced. Additionally, upgrading of secondary schools and
brigades went on at a good pace although some of the projects for brigades were not done.

The thrust of the education construction programme during the DDP 5 was pursuant to a large
extent to the Revised National Policy on Education. The policy, amongst others, emphasises
on the provision of adequate infrastructure to provide a conducive, teaching, as well as learning
environment. To that extent the district can attest to having managed to achieve more than it
had initially planned. It is worth making mention of; the fact that it would appear that the
district had under estimated its infrastructural requirements, and some facilities like science
laboratories, libraries, etc have for the time being been sidelined in an effort to address the
backlog of the core facilities such as classrooms, teachers‘ quarters, and toilets in attempt to
face out the double shift system. The table below indicates what was planned and achieved
during DDP 5. From table 9.1 it can be noted that though the district has seemingly achieved
more that it had planned for the backlog still exists attempts to clear it will be pursued during
DDP6.

   Table 2.1:     Primary Education Achievements and Backlog
Facility                                    Planned        Achieved           Current Backlog
Classrooms                                     24             88                    42
Teachers‘ quarters                             62            115                    69
Toilets                                        48             66                    66
Administration Blocks                          4              3                      1
Hostels                                        2               -                     -
Kitchens                                       4              3                      -
Electrification                                99
Source: South East District Council, 2001


2.2.2.4 Literacy Classes
The coverage of the literacy programme has been enlarged to cover lands areas. This has
consequently improved the literacy level of the district. It is appreciated that this will give the
grandaunts a competitive in their endeavours. Studies have exhibited the link between poverty
and literacy and it is therefore envisaged that the reduction in illiteracy will indirectly reduce
poverty.

2.2.2.5 Demarcation and allocation of land
Land Authorities had intensified demarcation and allocation of plots during the plan period.
Initially land allocation in Tlokweng was suspended due to unavailability of layout plans. Of
recent, funds have been secured for compensation in view of demarcation of plots for


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allocation. Thus the land boards were able to avail land to the public as mandated by the Tribal
Land Act.

2.2.2.6 Socio-Political Situation
Socially and politically, the district has a strong and prudent political wing of council, with a
well felt political will and support. This has been exhibited in the support by politicians in
newly introduced programmes and their assistance in identification of the needy, disadvantaged
and the will to support.

2.2.3    Economic
2.2.3.1 Physical Infrastructure
The district is well serviced with a considerable number of internal roads, streetlights in
Ramotswa and Tlokweng, telecommunication in all the villages, electrical power reticulated in
all the villages as well as servicing of commercial and industrial plots. Nevertheless,
streetlights in Ramotswa and Tlokweng still need to be extended to cover a larger portion of
the village.

A proposed booster station and the upgrading of the water reticulation network in Ramotswa
will enhance the business sector.
2.2.3.2 Partial Cost Recovery
Implementation of partial cost recovery on which the rationale is emphatic on recouping the
cost of services partially in order to reinvest such accruals into other productive activities or
provide for maintenance of the infrastructure.

2.2.3.3 Soil Types
According to the soil investigations carried out in Ramotswa in 1998 and the 2000 one for Otse
and Mogobane, soils in the district are fertile but the only setback is that agriculture competes
for this land with other land uses. The ongoing development plan for Tlokweng will also
include soil investigation.

2.2.3.4 Market for Local Production
Close proximity of the district to urban centers provides the district with an extended market
for products produced locally. Additionally opportunities that arise in these urban centres are
also there for the district population to benefit from

The district benefit from spillover effect as the district becomes a viable option for industrial
and commercial activities from the urban centers.

2.2.4    Environmental
2.2.4.1 Integrated Land Use Plan
The Development of the integrated land use plan for Otse and Mogobane Villages had noted
some seismic activity in the area and recommended a geo-technical investigation. The
completion of this study and the implementation of its proposals will reduce the risk associated
with the instability of the earth, such as seismic activity.



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The construction of a sanitary land fill and sewerage network in the South East District is
expected to result in improved waste management practices. The sanitary land fill is still under
construction while the sewerage network has been completed for both Ramotswa and
Tlokweng.

2.2.5    Institutional
2.2.5.1 Decentralization
A considerable level of decentralization of central government departments has been attained
during DDP5 e.g. election office, AIDS Coordinators etc. The only setback is that such
developments do not come with corresponding provisional packages of office and housing
accommodation, logistical support as well as devolving responsibilities. This then delays the
envisaged efficiency to be attained through decentralization, as such officers still need to
confer with headquarters prior to decision-making.

2.2.5.2 Capacity of Council
The capacity of council has been improved in terms of a well-improved manpower resource
base to effectively carry implementation of council core functions e.g. posting of engineers,
architects and quantity surveyors. In terms of logistics, the computerization programme of both
land boards and Council though partly done during DDP 5, will go a long way in improving
efficiency in the local authorities.

2.2.5.3 Performance Management System (PMS)
The Performance Management Systems is deemed to achieve productivity and create a culture
and ethic of high performance. If its sentiments are pursued to the latter, it is expected that the
country‘s human resource would withstand the global competitiveness as the theme
accentuates.

Respective ministries and departments have developed Strategic Plans with performance
standards which in essence are expected to be able to measure performance and give
opportunity for constant review and ultimately develop a culture of productivity. PMS
awareness has been ongoing with the local authorities in the district there after vision and
mission statements as well as strategic plans for each local authority will be developed.


2.3      CONSTRAINTS/CHALLENGES IN DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5

2.3.1    Social
2.3.1.1 HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is a major threat of today‘s society. It has attacked a larger portion of the districts
populace. The major challenge of the pandemic is that it is highly secretive and stigmatized,
making it very difficult to fight it, as it is not discussed openly due to cultural restrictions. The
ongoing education is expected to help de-stigmatize it and eradicate the misconception on the
causes and spread.




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2.3.2    Economic
2.3.2.1 Population Growth
The population growth has had an impact on the available land resources. The need for land
resources overwhelms its availability, depicting a serious imbalance between supply and
demand. The existence of freehold farms restrain future expansion given the scarcity alluded
to.
2.3.2.2 Unemployment, Poverty and Low Income Levels
Unemployment, poverty and low income levels are more skewed towards women. Women are
seemingly more economically hit than their male counterparts. Their job opportunities are
largely characterized by being domestic and are of low level.

2.3.3    Environmental
2.3.3.1 Pollution of Underground Water
The survey on pollution of underground water resource undertaken in the district revealed that
pit latrines are the source of underground water pollution. It further indicated that the pollution
situation is also due to the high water table.

2.3.4    Institutional
2.3.4.1 Coordination at District Level
The Office of the District Commissioner as the coordinator at district level still needs to be
empowered to effectively carry out coordination duties. Decentralization of government
departments without a corresponding management and supervision at district level has proven
futile to development progress of the district.

2.3.4.2 Industrial and Commercial Growth
Although there has been an ongoing rapid development of industrial and commercial parks in
the district around Kgale area, these could have served as an opportunity to the district in terms
of employment for locals, but these are more close to Gaborone than the district villages. They
therefore end up serving the residents in Gaborone. Additionally the district people have to
compete with Gaborone residents for employment in such ventures.


2.4      LONG TERM POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS

2.4.1    Physical Development Plans in the District
During DDP5 it was intended that all the villages in SED would have development plans with
clearly defined land use zones and detailed layouts.

2.4.1.1 Ramotswa Development Plan(1995/2015)
Ramotswa was declared a planning area in 1995. The development plan for Ramotswa was
completed in 1996. The plan serves the expansionary needs of Ramotswa, Taung and Boatle. It
aims at integrating economic, social, institutional and physical development within the
planning area.




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2.4.1.2 Tlokweng Development Plan
Tlokweng has been part of Gaborone Planning Area and has a ten year Village Development
Plan( Tlokweng Development Plan 1984/94) A revised long term plan was expected to be
complete during DDP5 but it has spilled over to DDP6. It will be completed in DDP6.

The preparation of the development plan was necessitated by the changing role from being
rural to urban. The revised Village Development Plan will address the future potential
industrial and commercial role of the villages. Tlokweng proximity to Gaborone has increased
land demand dramatically for uses such as residential, commercial, industrial and civic and
community.
2.4.1.3 Otse and Mogobane
The Integrated Land use Plan for Otse and Mogobane villages (2000-2024) have been
completed and the geo-technical study for both villages is not yet complete. The village
development plan for the two villages will be done during DDP6 after the completion of the
geo-technical study. Land pressure for these villages has been increasing very fast and the
development plan is urgently needed to avoid land conflicts and waste.

2.4.2    Development Progress and Long-Term Prospects
2.4.2.1 Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency
Returns from CEDA are expected to be considerably high in terms of generating income and of
sustainable employment opportunities, reduced risk of default and promotion of strong linkages
with other sectors in the rural economy. The mode of financing of CEDA, makes a clear
distinction between real, part-time and fraudulent promoters.

The uptake of the programme cannot be assessed as yet owing to its infancy. But there are
notable positive signs for opportunities of improving production cross-sectionally.
2.4.2.2 Commercial and Industrial Plots
Servicing of commercial and industrial plots in Tlokweng – Lenganeng and Selokwane areas is
expected to work as an incentive in attracting investment to the district. The benefits of
investment are multi-dimensional; such as the improvement of the local resource base i.e.
improve industrial and commercial activity and create employment which could resultantly
combat poverty.
2.4.2.3 Self Help Housing Agency
Though housing may not exclusively combat poverty, it is a socio-economical empowerment
programme, as it improves the livelihoods of people by provision of habitable housing.

2.4.2.4 Tourism Development Potential
There is potential in the district if the tourist attraction areas are developed. The financial
support organs such as CEDA and Community Based Natural Resource fund, coupled with the
district‘s mission to make an inventory of the tourist attraction sites will facilitate the
development of tourism industry in the district. Tourism has been identified as an engine of
growth.




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2.4.3    Development Potential
2.4.3.1 Otse and Mogobane
Otse and Mogobane villages have potential to grow due to the development of big projects like
the Otse Police College and the construction of the Mogobane-Ranaka road. The Malete
Landboard is realizing scarcity of land for allocation. Land for residential and other uses for
Otse and Mogobane has become exhausted             and the demand cannot be met. With the
development of the Police College and the construction of Mogobane-Ranaka road, many
people are showing interest in applying for plots for enterprises such as filling stations, motels
and restaurants around the junction. The Police College is a big project which attract people
who converge there for social and economic reasons. The South East District Council prepared
a report on Seuwane (the area along Gaborone-Mogobane-Lobatse junction, opposite Police
College) as the area that could be used for expansion of Mogobane village.

2.4.3.2 Citizen Business Sector
Growth of the citizen business sector; in view of the implementation of the privatization policy
which is an effort to improve efficiency in public service by hiving-off some of the duties to
the private sector, job opportunities for participation of local business are anticipated.
Additionally, with accessibility to finance through the lending facility of this financier, growth
in the business sector is expected.

2.4.3.3 Proximity to Urban Centres
The proximity of the district to urban centres is perceived as providing an extended market for
local producers. Availability of telecommunication, in terms of telephones road network and
railway (particularly Ramotswa and Otse) the district has the prospect for developing its
industrial service sector. Tlokweng as a peri-urban area has drastically transformed into an
almost urban area. Since property rates are not recovered in rural councils, some investors have
opted to be established in Tlokweng, however strengthening the rural resource base.

2.4.3.4 Greater Gaborone Structure Plan
Tlokweng forms part of the Greater Gaborone Structure Plan (GGSP). The plan proposes
demarcation of plots in the outskirts of Tlokweng. The direction of expansion is as per the
GGSP proposal. The Land board has begun implementing this plan. Growth of the village is
expected to be rapid because of the economic potential of the village as evidently depicted by
being one of the villages with the highest population growth.

Of equal importance, the district has potential to have high literacy levels, well skilled
personnel due to its proximal position to urban centers where services for personal enrichment
and improvement are available.
2.4.4    Development Constraints
2.4.4.1 Development Plans
Unavailability of development plans in certain areas of the district has led to haphazard and
uncoordinated land allocation. This has ultimately led to land not being used optimally despite
its inadequacy.




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2.4.4.2 Telecommunication Systems
Though the telecommunication system adequately covers major villages in the district, frequent
interruptions negate the appreciation of the system by the community.

2.4.5    Prospects for Long Term Growth
2.4.5.1 Wireless Loop Communications
Installation of wireless loop in Ramotswa will certainly improve the overall communication in
the district.

2.4.5.2 Agriculture Master Plan
Implementation of the Agriculture Master Plan aims at diversifying the agriculture sector from
subsistence farming and its traditional practices to a more improved commercial agriculture in
recognition of food security enunciated in the policy.

2.4.5.3 District Integrated Sports Facility
The district integrated sports facility will instill the recreational attitude, which is a new
dimension of life to achieve psychological and physiological well being of the district
population. It is further expected to deviate attention of users from the prevailing anti-social
behaviors such as theft, vandalism etc. particularly among the youth.


2.5     LINKS TO NDP 9 THEME

The theme as stated earlier is ―Towards realization of vision 2016: Sustainable and Diversified
Development through Competitiveness in the Global Market,‖ all introduced programmes,
formulated policies and proposed projects are developmental oriented and in pursuance of this
theme.

Development perceived here broad as it is, is embracing economic, environmental, human and
social aspects is envisaged to mirror the thematic goals and objectives of the policy outline and
Vision 2016.

In view of global competitiveness there will be need to adopt and intensify on the application
of strategies that economically empower locals to be able to withstand international
competition. Education as an empowerment strategy will be intensified in view of developing
human resource base to adequately supply the quality and quantity of manpower as per the
labour market forces.

Intensification of information dissemination to the community through existing structures to
facilitate accessibility to business opportunities would also be done.

Environmental conservation strategies advocated for during the plan period geared towards
sustainable development.

The district support of export-oriented manufacturing, industrial and development of tourism
industry will continue to be pursued during the plan period in line with the thematic concepts
of a well-diversified development. Local structures such as conservation committees will be
strengthened to ensure their high performance and participation at community level.


                                                                                            22
CHAPTER 3
3        DDP6 DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

3.1     PLANNING FRAMEWORK

The district planning process as espoused by many and advocated for by government, should
be bottom-up participatory planning. The participatory approach was adopted for consulting
communities on the plan with a wide representation of key stakeholders. Increased population
growth, urbanisation, sociological and economic changes, and the depletion of the national
cake have necessitated planning and prioritisation to reduce adverse conflict of interest on the
meagre resources.

The procedure for development of District Development Plans has been slightly changed and
enriched to incorporate strategic logical planning framework with measurable objectives,
performance targets and indicators. It further supports the inclusion of environmental issues
and HIV/AIDS mainstreaming which were sidelined in the past. Vision 2016 which reflects the
aspirations of Batswana would be used as a basis for this development plan.

3.1.1    Alignment to Vision 2016
The plan was prepared under the premise of Vision 2016 and within the confines of the NDP9
theme “Towards Realisation of Vision 2016: Sustainable and Diversified Development
through Competitiveness in Global Markets.” It was also done under the assumptions of
relevant policies, programmes and strategies:

3.1.1.1 An Educated and Informed Nation
South-East District values education as a vehicle for promoting equitable development. It is
against this background that accessibility to education by all age cohorts; human development
and empowerment shall be pursued to meet the objectives of the vision which accentuate on
education for all and the NDP 9 theme of global competitiveness. With regard to information
sharing, the district will continue to use the existing district based manpower to share
information on government programmes and policies

3.1.1.2 A Prosperous, Productive and Innovative Nation
The districts‘ proximal and central position between Gaborone and Lobatse which are urban
centres has resulted in spill over from these centres with associated urban complexities of land
pressure, crime and even the positive ones of commercial and industrial development. In view
of the Industrial Development Policy, an atmosphere conducive for private sector role shall be
pursued to create job opportunities for local communities to improve living conditions. A wide
range of basic social infrastructure shall be provided at a nominal fee to ensure cost recovery
principle in line with sustainability of these overtime.




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During DDP6, emphasis shall be made on the development of detailed layout plans for all
villages to guide overall developments than to let these succumb to haphazard allocations
whose adverse repercussions are already felt.

3.1.1.3 A Compassionate, Just and Caring Nation
The district just like the rest of the country is faced with the HIV/AIDS scourge. As HIV/AIDS
prevalence in terms of spread and level is more likely to be found in poor households due to
income insecurity, the district would implement government policies through which household
incomes could be improved. This would go a long way in addressing the impacts of poverty.
Provision of social safety nets for the economically weak population shall also be pursued
during this plan period.

The youth who are not part of the educational system would be reached through current youth
programs to ensure that these are not rejected by the society in which they live.

3.1.1.4 A safe and secure nation
In order for the district to achieve this pillar, law enforcement officers together with the public
would take responsibility to contain crime, through neighbourhood watch. The district takes
cognizance of the fact that in order to ensure continued prosperity for Botswana, peace, safety
and security should prevail.

3.1.1.5 An Open, Democratic and Accountable Nation
The parameters set for DDP 6 plan assume that all socio-economic factors will remain
constant, though a contingency plan has been provided for. It is further assumed that both
manpower and fiscal resources would be available for implementation. The planned projects
are adequately phased throughout the six-year plan period in consonance with available human
and financial resources for its implementation. Stringent measures will be applied to avoid cost
overruns due to frontloading during the plan, which has proved to upset the correspondence
between availability and use of resources.

3.1.1.6 A Moral and Tolerant Nation and a United and Proud Nation

The district would strive to realise these two pillars by sensitizing people on policy issues and
implementation progress of national programmes especially economic diversification, public
sector reform, financial discipline and environmental conservation as well as land use planning.
The district would instill in both the youth and the community the importance of respecting and
singing the national anthem at all national events or activities.

3.1.2    National Environmental Key Issues
The Environmental Keynote Paper of 2002 came as a result of concerns over equity between
and within generations and the need to use natural resources efficiently, fairly and sustainably.
The national issues are as outlined below:

3.1.2.1 Water Pollution
With inadequate and unreliable rainfall, Botswana has a shortage of water for both livestock
and human consumption. Watermeyer Legge Piesold and Vhlmann (Nov.1985) observed that


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use of pit latrines and indiscriminate disposal of hazardous waste contribute to underground
pollution. Some areas around Ramotswa have extreme vulnerability to underground water
pollution and the use of pit latrines in the village has contributed to this pollution. The district
would like to see this problem addressed through sewerage extension and relevant sanitation
programmes.

3.1.2.2 Air Pollution
The major sources of pollution in the district are emissions from transportation and industrial
activities. This is a result of production of carbon monoxide arising from incomplete
combustion of fuel. This is more noticed on Gaborone-Lobatse road and Boatle-Border Post
road from big trucks and buses.

3.1.2.3 Noise Pollution
The noise pollution comes from activities such as transportation, industrial and human
activities. It will be necessary to introduce noise control technology such as soundproof
structures and other mitigation measures. During DDP V, it was observed that a lot of noise
particularly in residential areas is caused by illegal activities such as liquor outlets and night-
parties; these will require rigorous bye-law enforcement.

3.1.2.4 Natural and Man-Made Hazards
These hazards relate to geological conditions such as erosion, landslides, expansive soils and
land subsidence.

Flooding is quite a serious hazard in the district along rivers due to black cotton soil conditions.
Considerable flooding is also caused by man made features especially bitumen roads and poor
drainage system. There is an urgent requirement of storm water drainage particularly in the
villages of Ramotswa and Tlokweng where flooding has led to resettlement and alarming cost
proportions. Persistent droughts mostly affect the poor, crop production, the rangeland, animal
health and production as well as wildlife. These resulted in most people being worse-off.

3.1.2.5 Waste Disposal and Littering
The district is experiencing environmental deterioration and indiscriminate disposal of litter.
Also, the rubbish dumps in Ramotswa and Otse are to be closed during the plan period because
they are full and litter would then be disposed off at the landfill. However, indiscriminate
littering is a problem in the district and it needs to be addressed during the plan period.

3.1.2.6 Uncontrolled Extraction of Sands and Gravel
Irreversible environmental losses due to uncontrolled extraction of sand and gravel are
permanent and cannot be substituted by increases in other forms of capital. During the early
1990's there was a construction boom throughout the country. South East District being a
neighbour to Gaborone and Lobatse urban centres suffered most. This practice has damaged
riverbeds and left open pits which invite illegal dumping. Some of the borrow pits have proved
to be dangerous to both human beings and animals.

Through working closely with communities and enforcement of byelaws, this problem can be
tackled during the plan period.



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3.1.2.7 Inadequate Sanitation Facilities
Inadequate and inappropriate sanitation facilities have resulted in pollution of underground
water in the Ramotswa Planning Area. The district would expand the already existing sewerage
network to combat the problem.

3.1.2.8 Fuel Wood Depletion
Due to increases in population growth, the demand for fuel wood has surpassed the existing
energy resources; hence there is depletion of the resource. Collection of firewood has been
cited as one of the factors that have led to the continuing degradation of the land. Some people
continue to cut trees for firewood. The inhabitants of the district are slowly moving away from
the use of thatching grass and the cutting down of trees to use as building material. This
problem can be arrested by an intensive campaign to encourage households to use stoves and
furthermore advise communities on the need for ploughing trees.

3.1.2.9 Overgrazing
On the understanding that natural resources have multiple uses, these are however not used
sustainably. Overgrazing in designated areas has caused soil erosion around settlements. There
is need to encourage farmers to keep their livestock numbers at acceptable limits and to further
supplement with commercial feeds. Also, encroachment into grazing areas needs to be
controlled through land use plans.

3.1.3    Strategic Plan – Ministry of Local Government
The Ministry of Local Government‘s mandate is to provide physical and social infrastructure
like water, primary education, primary health care and judicial services to the community at
district level. The local institutions consist of:

       District Administration
       District Council
       Land Boards (Malete and Tlokweng)
       Tribal Administrations (Balete and Batlokwa).

3.1.4    Long Term District Plans
3.1.4.1 Erosion of Self Reliance
Community participation on development activities is observed to be deteriorating.
Communities‘ interest is more cash oriented than voluntary work. This has inevitably not only
lowered community participation but also destroyed the self-reliance fibre envisioned in Vision
2016.

The lack of self-reliance is further observed to be replaced by reliance on government. This
was deemed to be aggravated by government interventions such as poverty alleviation
measures and economic empowerment strategies like ALDEP. These have created community
dependence, which will need a radical paradigm shift to intensify on targeting beneficiaries in
resource allocation when providing subsidies.




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3.1.4.2 Fragmentation of the Consultation Process
Though consultation in essence is the fundamental premise of planning in Botswana, it is still
fragmented and there is need to devolve strategies congruent to the local set up. During
consultation, the communities felt that the consultation process should be improved to reach
and get the participation of all.

3.1.4.3 Community Participation on Environmental Protection
Due to low involvement of the community in environmental protection, indiscriminate and
illegal extraction of sand and gravel has left the district scene undesirable. This has also
resulted in destruction of quite a good number of demarcated plots as it was reportedly
indicated that villagers extracted wherever they wanted. Communities resolved not only to
identify an area for extraction of sand/gravel but also to fence and control it. Request for
extraction by community members are now to be channeled through the Chief.

3.1.4.4 Waste Management
There has been illegal dumping of rubble waste which takes place in several areas around the
district. These among others, have resulted in destruction of quite a good number of
demarcated plots, destruction of the aesthetic view of Lentswe-la-Baratani and the old
manganese mine which were identified and planned for eco-tourism and conservation ventures.

Crude dumping of waste by the general public and littering were also mentioned as areas of
concern.

3.1.4.5 Low Production in the Agricultural Sector
The crop sub-sector was found to be performing below the mark largely due to lack of well-
formulated and targeted policies subservient to enhancing productivity in the sub-sector. Abuse
of ALDEP was identified as a weakness; specifically the draught power package never met its
intended use.

General loss of interest in rain-fed arable agriculture, persistent drought and unavailability of
market for agriculture products have also been identified as the cause of the decline in the
performance of the sub-sector. This therefore has resulted in low contribution to the household
food basket and the economically weak population who are reliant on agriculture production
become worse-off.

As a way to enhance production, communities recommended servicing of lands areas
especially with water provision.

3.1.4.6 Pollution
Pollution of the environment and underground water resource was cited as a concern to the
communities. The community appreciated the abundance of the underground water resource
and agreeably indicated the need to protect it. Pit latrines as earlier indicated were identified as
a source of this pollution. Though dry sanitation latrines (enviro-loos) were introduced to curb
underground-water pollution in the district, these have not functioned well. Communities
recommended that subsidy for the water borne toilets be done and to further look into suitable
onsite technology for households without water in their compounds.




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3.1.4.7 Human Resource Development
As a principal key to development, human resource development should be pursued to ensure
its relevance and good performance of the strategies for economic empowerment. HIV/AIDS
was identified as a tremendous threat to achieving the quantity and quality of manpower
needed for sustainable growth and development in the country as a whole.

It was agreed that improvements of the education system as well as provision of facilities and
an environment needed for good learning should be looked into during this plan period.

3.1.4.8 HIV/AIDS
The scourge declared as a national disaster has been raised as a critical issue of concern in
different fora. The virus has infected a considerable number of the rural and urban people.
Households are unable to cope with the results both socially and economically. It was felt that
a lot of the rural populace are going to be left impoverished. Though structures are there and a
framework to fight the virus exists, if the stigma and lack of openness are not addressed, the
scourge will continue to eat the gains so far made.

The Home Based Care Programme as a responsive tool and support structure did not have a
clearly placed collection system in place for disposal of such waste in homes. In view of the
stigma attached coupled with insufficient vehicles for collection of such waste, its collection is
very low. It was agreed that a concerted effort be made to destigmatise the disease, use red-
plastic bags for collection by the Council at homes and consider procurement of clinical waste
vehicles.

3.1.4.9 Unemployment and Underemployment
Low-income opportunities in the village furthered by abrupt closure of some of the FAP-
government funded industries leave a considerable number of the population jobless. The
employed populace is mainly on low-income earning activities or in the temporary relief
intervention such as Drought Relief Programme and Labour Intensive Public Works
Programme. There is therefore need that the plan addresses this.

3.1.4.10 Impact of Population Growth on Land Resource
The district being proximal to urban centres of Lobatse and Gaborone has posed problems of
land pressure and scarcity. The demand for land has increased tremendously. The spillover
effects from these centers are felt, as the district has become an alternative location for those
who have not found land/housing in the urban centres.

Fertile land is now being turned for development purposes in these urban centres. These
competing land uses are a problem and there is need to expedite formulation of land use and
development plans as a base and guidance on the use of land and also preserve fertile land for
crop production.

Land disputes due to encroachments, speculative land acquisition resulting in possible non-
development are also a common problem. The Land Boards were urged to hasten to repossess
undeveloped plots and ensure efficient land management practices.




                                                                                             28
3.1.4.11 Increase in Crime
As a social ill, crime has been identified as one of the major attributes for reversing the
development made in the district. If left unattended, it will reverse the district‘s efforts of
luring investors to the area.

3.1.5    Respective Long Term District Plans
3.1.5.1 District Headquarters
Ramotswa Physical Development Plan was prepared and approved in August 1996. The plan
covers the period from 1995 to 2015 and aims at integrating economic, social, institutional and
physical developments within the planning area.

Detailed layout plans for Sepitswana, Bojantswa, Magope and Taung have been prepared for
residential and industrial uses. Detailed plans for commercial areas are yet to be prepared.
Developments in Magope area have commenced without full land services due to financial
constraints.

3.1.5.2 Sub-District
Tlokweng Physical Development Plan (1984/94) has long been overdue as the expected review
in 1996 did not take place. However, the review of the development plan has been started and
it is expected to be ready for implementation during the DDP6 period.

Detailed layout plans available for Tlokweng are Lenganeng for residential, commercial and
industrial use, Metlhabeng for residential use, Mafitlhakgosi residential use, Block 4 for
residential and Selokwane for industrial use.

The district has been able to prepare the Otse – Mogobane Integrated Land Use Plan during
DDP5 in order to assist the Land Board in allocating land to developers in that area.


3.2      DDP6 OVERALL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

3.2.1    Summary of Key Issues from the consultation
3.2.1.1 Environmental
       Water, Air and Noise Pollution
       Natural and manmade hazards
       Waste disposal and littering
       Uncontrolled extraction of sand and gravel
       Inadequate sanitation facilities
       Fuel wood Depletion
       Overgrazing

3.2.1.2 Social
       HIV/AIDS
       Increase in crime
       Fragmentation of the Consultation Process
       Erosion of Self Reliance



                                                                                          29
3.2.1.3 Economic
        Low Production in the Agricultural Sector
        Unemployment and underemployment
        Community Participation on Environmental Protection
        Human Resource Development

3.2.1.4 Cross-cutting Issues
        Pollution
        Impact of population growth on Land resource
        Institutional Issues- the four local institutions lack resources such as manpower and
         machinery to effectively carryout implementation of the plan

3.2.2       DDP6 Development Goals


   Table 3.1:      Overall DDP6 Development Goals and Objectives
GOALS                                          OBJECTIVES
Goals 1                                        To service the commercial and industrial plots to enhance private sector
To promote diversification of the local        participation and foreign investment.
economy                                        To promote participation of local contractors in pursuance of the Local
                                               Preference Policy
                                               To privatize litter collection and other potential areas to facilitate community
                                               participation.
Goal 2                                         To promote private sector participation in order to improve the rural economic
To improve the district‘s economic base        base
                                               To strengthen social safety nets especially for the needy, simultaneously
                                               ensuring that dependency on government is avoided.
                                               To pursue human resource development especially in skill development.
Goal 3
To increase productivity in the Agricultural   To enhance productivity in the sector by improved farming techniques.
Sector                                         To encourage intensive farming methods and diversification of agricultural
                                               products.
                                               To intensify training of farmers and closely monitor sustainability of projects.
Goal 4                                         To intensify through active participation of the community the fight against
To achieve improved health for the district    HIV/AIDS scourge.
population                                     To make a concerted effort to remove the stigma of the scourge by continuous
                                               encouragement of communities to be open about HIV/AIDS.
                                               To strengthen existing support structures such as Home-Based Care.
                                               To mobilise and encourage communities to form other organizations to
                                               augment existing support structures.
Goal 5                                         To ensure a balance between social justice and conservation with particular
To conserve natural resources and the          inference to circumvent over-harvesting of natural resources such as trees, sand
environment at large                           and gravel
                                               To protect trees through law enforcement.
                                               To enforce waste management bye-laws to ensure compliance.
                                               To mobilise communities on the formation of Community Based Natural
                                               Resource Management (CBNRM) and thereby reinstate the eroded self-
                                               reliance.
Goal 6                                         To provide continuing education and training for skills upgrading and
To plan, promote and deliver skills training   retraining in light of rapid technological change
for the future workforce to meet specific
standards and quality targets defined by all
stakeholders and to contribute significantly
to productive development of the informal
sector
Goal 7                                         To provide facilities accentuated in the Revised National Policy on Education
Provision of both basic and relevant           To empower citizens in line with the Vision.
education to acquire skills which will         To phase out double shift system in primary schools
enhance opportunity for employment or self-
employment.



                                                                                                                         30
3.2.3       DDP6 Environmental Goals and Objectives


   Table 3.2:      DDP6 Environmental Goals and Objectives
GOALS                                           OBJECTIVES
Goals 1                                         To identify alternative sources to curb deforestation and desertification.
To promote sustainable utilisation of natural
resources
Goals 2
To optimize land utilisation                    To embark on construction of high rises for institutional development
                                                To reduce plot sizes for all housing demands.
                                                To demarcate plots according to size of proposed development
                                                To repossess undeveloped plots for reallocation

Goals 3                                         To protect abundant groundwater resource through provision of the sewer
To ensure protection of Water especially        network in the district‘s two major villages.
groundwater resource                            To ensure optimal utilisation of the infrastructure provided and identify
                                                suitable methods of onsite latrines for the economically disadvantaged
                                                population.

Goals 4                                         To protect natural resources from depletion and degradation
To encourage optimal use of land in a more      To prepare the District Integrated Land Use Plan by 2005.
sustainable manner and ensure land
availability for future generations.

Goals 5                                         To prepare 24-year development plans for all villages in the district to enable
To device a long-term strategy to reduce the    proper allocations, sustainable land use and development.
high demand for land required for               To provide and improve infrastructure and services in all villages in the district
infrastructural development during the plan     during the plan period.
period.

Goals 6                                         To provide timely refuse collection and disposal services to all residential,
To create, maintain and sustain a clean         commercial and institutional establishments.
environment free from waste for the             To provide refuse trucks and vacuum tankers to community members and
promotion of public and environmental           establishments.
health.



3.2.4       Framework for Monitoring Sector Goals and Objectives
The district shall adopt the use of measurable indicators and performance targets in all sectors
during the plan period. Also, the plan would be reviewed after three years to find out whether
the district priority in terms of the economic performance is still valid.

The districts‘ structures like the District Development Committee and Plan Management
Committee will continue to monitor the district development plan through quarterly progress
reports, annual plans and annual plan review.

Regarding poverty reduction, the district shall keep a constant check on the extent of poverty
by checking the literacy levels, HIV/AIDS levels, extent of the increase of orphans, extent of
the increase/decrease of destitute and employment levels.

3.2.5       Framework for Monitoring Environmental Goals and Objectives
All development projects will be subjected to environmental screening before implementation.
Also, the District Environmental Strategy will set strategies and criteria to be followed for the
plan to achieve sustainable environmental management. If that is achieved then, the objectives
will be realized.

                                                                                                                             31
3.3      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

In order that goals and objectives address key issues, environmental screening on project will
be done to minimise land use conflicts.

Also, land use plans and development will need to be monitored for compliance. Land
degradation arising from illegal extraction of sand and gravel, depletion of trees will need to be
monitored and controlled.

While the district will continue to attract commercial and industrial developments, tanneries
and large-scale development such as hotels should be subjected to EIA before approval. There
is need for the post of the Environmental Liaison Officers and other resources for the district to
be able to monitor such activities during the plan period.


Also, farmers should be encouraged to keep their livestock numbers at acceptable limits and to
further supplement with commercial feeds to overcome the problem of heavy grazing pressure
around settlements which eventually leads to land degradation.




                                                                                             32
CHAPTER 4
4        ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION

4.1     INTRODUCTION

The theme of NDP9 among other things aims at achieving sustainable development and the
same applies to DDP6. Environmental conservation is one of the major foundations of
sustainable development.      By utilizing natural resources in a conservative manner,
sustainability could be achieved and this is in compliance with Agenda 21 principles to which
Botswana Government became a signatory in 1997 and Vision 2016. Agenda 21 (Global
Action Programme) advocates for sustainable growth and diversification through use of natural
resources. Bound by this Global Action Programme, the Government of Botswana formulated
the National Conservation Strategy Agency (NCSA) in 1998 and then National Conservation
Strategy which aims at achieving sustainability by integrating natural resources in development
process.

4.1.1    Institutional framework
The Government of Botswana through Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment has
formulated a substantive body of policy and legal measures to regulate environment and
natural resources in the country. The National Conservation Strategy Agency as a unit in the
Ministry is in particular charged with overall co-ordination of environmental issues at national
level with the assistance of environmental focal person in each Ministry. The need for co-
ordination cannot be overemphasized more so that legislature containing environmental control
regulations is scattered over various Ministries. Several Government Departments at District
level including NGOs such as District Conservation Committee take charge of various
environmental concerns. In order to undertake environmental management at district level,
there are a number of key officers such as District Officer Lands (DOL), District Officer
Development (DOD), Economic Planners, Physical Planners who assist to prepare plans,
implement and monitor them. Although the district does a lot of environmental management,
substantive decision-making is done at national level. There is therefore, need for further
devolution and decentralization of environmental decision making to districts. This can be
achieved by deployment of Environmental Liaison Officer to co-ordinate environmental issues
at District level.

4.1.2    Strategic Plans
4.1.2.1 Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment
The strategic plan for the Ministry comprises management and development of land use
through land use planning and development control. It also ensures that land made available
caters for all land use zones/activities. It further promotes environmental protection through
compliance with land use zones and providing general advice on appropriate environmental
protection and management of land to the public.




                                                                                           33
4.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The strategic plan for the Ministry is to provide physical and social infrastructure like water,
primary health care, primary education, sewerage, roads, housing etc at district level in an
environmentally friendly manner.

4.1.2.3 Ministry of Agriculture
The strategic plan for the Ministry is the promotion of sustainable agricultural production
through land use planning and sustainable use and conservation of agricultural natural
resources.

4.1.2.4 Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism
The strategic plan comprise creation of a conducive environment for business that includes
trade, industry and tourism through land use planning and land servicing, and conservation of
Wildlife and its habitat in a sustainable manner.

4.1.3    Environmental Conservation Consultation Priorities
4.1.3.1 Land Pressure and Land Use Conflicts
The district‘s proximity with major urban centres of Gaborone and Lobatse experiences
considerable pressure on land related issues. First and foremost, the growth of both urban
centres needs land for development which is taken away from the District. Secondly, the
demand for land for housing in Tlokweng and Ramotswa is aggravated by demand from
Gaborone City where land is very scarce. Thirdly the demand for urban related uses such as
residential and industrial purposes finds itself over spilling into peri-urban land such as
agriculture particularly in freehold farms thereby creating land use conflicts. At a local level,
because there is need for more land for village expansion arising from the above, grazing land
and agricultural land are reduced resulting into over grazing and unsustainable agriculture
production (overstocking and land degradation). These issues can be partly addressed by
expediting preparation of District Land Use Plan and Development Plans that need to go
through strategic environmental assessment with mitigation measures put in place for
compliance and monitoring.

4.1.3.2 Illegal Extraction Of Sand/Gravel
Illegal extraction of sand/gravel for development in urban centres and villages is rampant in the
district and disused burrow pits not rehabilitated resulting into health hazards to community.
Some have been used as dumping sites for all kinds of waste e.g. rubble, garbage etc. There is
need for Land Boards to effectively control this activity in the district and to find means of
rehabilitating them or find alternative uses which are environmental friendly. For example, the
new mall that accommodates Family Groceries in Tlokweng stands on a rehabilitated burrow
pit. The district needs to make a inventory of all disused burrow pits and find strategies for
rehabilitating them. Besides, sites for new burrow pits should be identified and their uses
controlled with the help of communities. There are also old manganese mine pits at Otse
which were not rehabilitated after the mining operations stopped. The community (NGO) has
planned to rehabilitate them for use as tourist attraction.




                                                                                            34
4.1.3.3 Land Management
Land Management does not currently promote optimal use of land in that it is not used in
accordance with its potential – good agricultural land may be used for urban related
development; allocated plots remain undeveloped for long periods on speculation without
being repossessed and reallocated to deserving applicants by Land Boards; old plot sizes are
too large and uneconomic to service. The district intends to encourage repossession of
undeveloped plots for reallocation by Land Boards. Where plots are large it is proposed to
encourage densification through subdivision or multifamily development, encourage vertical
development as opposed to horizontal development to optimise use of available space e.g.
schools, housing in the district; reduce plot sizes in land use planning for new areas (old plots
used to be 1600m² but now the average plot size is about 900m²). In this way, use of land will
be optimised.

4.1.3.4 Fuel wood Depletion/Deforestation
Fuel wood depletion through deforestation is a priority in the district as most people depend on
it for fuel/cooking. In this regard the district will continue to establish nurseries and
woodlots/afforestation programmes to meet demand while other alternative sources of energy
are explored such as solar power and use of coal for cooking. As a step forward to reduce rate
of deforestation, all Council schools use gas stoves for cooking and intend to encourage other
institutions/individuals to do the same through education/awareness campaigns.

4.1.3.5 Persistent Droughts
With regards to persistent droughts that impact negatively on sustainable agriculture and
poverty alleviation, the district intends to utilise polluted underground water of Ramotswa well
fields for irrigation by community. Use of treated of waste water from the ponds is also
planned to irrigate agricultural plots in Ramotswa.

4.1.3.6 Pollution
The district is well endowed with under ground water but unfortunately, this has been polluted
as revealed in the study of Ramotswa and Otse largely due to use of pit latrines. So far,
Tlokweng and Ramotswa have had water and sewerage expansion projects completed and
other on- site waste disposal technologies have been tried as a way to minimise pollution of
underground water. However, the district still faces problems in that sewerage extensions have
not covered all built up areas, up-take of sewer connections in the two villages are very low,
and other on-site waste disposal technologies tried (daisy loo, dry compost pit-latrines and
VIP) have proved unsuccessful. The district should intensify education campaigns to
encourage high up-take of sewer connection and further explore other appropriate technologies
for on-site waste disposal for households that are not connected to sewerage schemes.

4.1.3.7 Waste Management
In respect of Waste Management, the district is experiencing serious problems in that there is
indiscriminate dumping of domestic waste, litter, rubble etc. Council is currently constructing
an engineered landfill to serve Ramotswa, Otse and Mogobane villages. A regional landfill has
been planned for development in Kweneng District for use by Tlokweng among other villages
including Gaborone City. Current dumping sites will be decommissioned after completion of
the landfill and waste collection is expected to be privatised to communities in order to bring
about efficiency in service delivery, community empowerment and poverty alleviation.
Problems are also prevalent in this field. There is shortage of trained manpower to monitor and

                                                                                            35
implement plans as a result of manpower ceilings. The Waste Management Act, which has
been formulated has not been accompanied with regulations for effective implementation.
These problems need to be addressed urgently in order for Council to efficiently provide clean
and safe environment that translate into rapid economic development, social justice, economic
independence and sustained development towards attainment of Vision 2016.


4.2      ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

As it has been stated in the introduction, there are a number international environmental
policies and protocols to which Botswana is a signatory. In order for these to be effective and
complied with, Botswana has formulated several policies and legislations which both
administrators and politicians should appreciate if sustainable development is to be achieved.

4.2.1    National Conservation Policy
The policy is aimed at promoting sustainable development which is defined as ―development
that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their on ―be it economic growth, economic diversification, social justice
which impacts on environment. This calls for application of strategic environmental impact
assessment during the planning process of all projects/programmes that impact on environment
and assessment of alternative options and their impacts with mitigation measures and cost put
in place before they are carried out. In this way, the district will ensure that natural resources
are not only optimally used but conserved sustainably. The principle of ―Polluter/User Pays
will be pursued.

After implementation of the project, it is required that development should be monitored and
corrective measures done when need arises for sustainability or posterity.

4.2.2    Waste Management Act (1998)
The Department of Sanitation and Waste Management were pivotal to the formulation of the
Act which is aimed at improving waste disposal. In South East District, an engineered landfill
for Ramotswa is under construction and plans for a regional landfill to serve Tlokweng village
among others is on-going. This will help to clean up the environment in the District.
Environmental Health Department under Council is responsible for collection and disposal of
domestic and industrial waste in the District. It also conducts annual clean up campaigns and
competitions for cleanest village in the District. Clinical medical waste and Home Based Care
waste are collected and disposed off by the Department to improve environment and health of
the population. However, the Waste Management Act is currently not supported by regulations
necessary to enforce the law. Shortage of trained manpower is a constraint.

4.2.3    Environmental Impact Assessment Act (Draft)
Government has promulgated a draft of Environmental Impact Assessment which will be
useful instrument to achieve good management of environment. Currently, the district is at
liberty to determine which projects require EIA submission and lacks trained manpower in the
field. In absence of EIA legislation, the District is fortunate in having initiated Strategic
Environmental Impact Assessment study for Gaborone Dam Catchment Area which is about to
be finished. The study will help the district in guiding development in an environmentally
sound manner.



                                                                                             36
4.2.4    Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Policy
The objective of this policy is to ensure that natural resources can be successfully managed and
utilized by local a community which is also consistent with aspirations of VISION 2016. The
District does not have abundant wildlife as in Ngamiland and Chobe Districts but it should be
able to take advantage of other natural resources such as Manyelanong Game Reserve for Cape
Vultures, Baratani Hills and others for tourism development. Botlhale-jwa-Phala at Otse is an
example of CBNRM project. Popular participation in Community based projects will ensure
that the rural economy is diversified, employment is increased and communities benefit
directly from natural resources in a sustainable manner.

4.2.5    Wetlands Policy
National Wetlands Policy was promulgated on the grounds that wetlands are crucial
ecosystems and offer valuable goods and services including water, natural resources, wildlife
habitat and tourism potential such as Okavango, Chobe and Makgadikgadi. Although South
East District does not have major wetland areas, there are places such as Gaborone Dam,
Ngotwane river and Mogobane Dam among others which require protection and conservation
through sustainable use.

4.2.6    Biodiversity
Although the National Biodiversity Action Plan has not yet been completed, the district will
ensure that wildlife Management Areas (Manyelanong Game Reserve) and Wetlands are
protected and conserved as they promote biodiversity which is vial for maintaining ecosystem
(birds, mammals, plants etc). In this regard efforts by NGOs such as Mokolodi Nature Reserve
and Lion Park will be supported by the District. Thus, use of less friendly methods of dealing
with pests (birds and diseases) in agriculture should be discouraged.

4.2.7    Climate Change
Botswana is very vulnerable to climatic change arising from variations in annual rainfall.
Obviously these variations have adverse impacts on the economy and quality of people‘s life in
general. Livestock die during droughts due to lack of water and food, crop agriculture declines
as most subsistence farmers depend on rain fed arable farming which eventually result into
degradation of environment. On the other hand, flash floods occur when heavy storms occur
with loss of human and animal life, communication is disrupted and buildings and bridges get
destroyed. The District is not spared from the above calamities which appear to be also
increasing in occurrence.

In realizing this, the District intends to combat effects of climate change by doing the
following: promote use of irrigation using polluted underground water and treated waste water
from ponds in Ramotswa, construct storm water drains in Ramotswa and Tlokweng, continue
providing water tanks to all institutional houses/schools for harvesting rain water from roofs as
means of conserving water and environment.


4.3     DDP6 ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals of this plan with regard to environmental conservation and preservation are as shown
in the table below.



                                                                                            37
   Table 4.1:      DDP6 Environmental Goals and Objectives
Goals                                Objectives
Sustainable utilization of natural   To curb deforestation. The district hopes to curb deforestation by encouraging use of
resources                            alternative energy source such as use of gas stoves for cooking. Already institutions in the
                                     district use gas stoves for cooking.
                                     To encourage establishment of woodlots in communities. This measure will help to
                                     prevent desertification. Wood is currently main source of energy and used widely.
                                     To encourage use of polluted underground water and treated wastewater from ponds in
                                     Ramotswa for irrigation purposes. This will improve household incomes, employment
                                     diversification and food security in rural areas.
                                     To protect and manage game reserves. The district will achieve this by protecting the
                                     birds/animals and their habitats through Wildlife Management Area Plans.
                                     To audit and review current use of natural resources.
Optimal Land Utilization             To protect fertile agricultural land from encroachment by other uses. All fertile land for
                                     agriculture purposes will be identified and protected. Similarly game reserves, natural
                                     landscapes e.g. Baratani hills, Kgale hills will be protected through land use zoning plans
                                     and development control.
                                     To encourage high rise development and also reduce plot sizes for residential
                                     development. The district will reduce unnecessary land requirement by intensification of
                                     development. The District has advised all stake holders in government to do the same.
                                     To rehabilitate and find alternative uses for disused burrow/gravel/sand pits. Already a
                                     disused burrow pit has been developed for a mall in Tlokweng.
Protection of water especially       To encourage use of appropriate means of waste disposal. In view of low up-take of
underground water source.            household connection to sewer, the sewerage network having not covered all built areas
                                     and pit-latrines/enviro loos having proved not appropriate in the district, there is need to
                                     consider subsidy for sewer connection to increase up-take, develop other appropriate on-
                                     site means of waste disposal for disadvantaged population. In freehold farms, use of
                                     conservancy tanks will continue to be enforced to reduce underground water pollution.
                                     To ensure that all waste is collected and disposed off at landfill. These measures will help
                                     to make a clean and safe environment which Vision 2016 espouses.



4.4         FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

The environmental goals and objectives proposed for the DDP6 are appropriate to address
national key environmental issues for both the Country and District. Sustainable utilization of
natural resources addresses the problem of deforestation through use of alternative energy
sources, encouragement of woodlot plantations, use of polluted water for irrigation purposes,
protection of wildlife management areas etc.

4.4.1       Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
On the other hand, optimal land utilisation is meant to protect fertile agriculture land among
others from encroachment by others through land use plans. All land uses will be provided for
in land use plans to avoid conflicts. Reduction of residential plot sizes, encouragement of
densification for large plots including high-rise developments will be pursued. Land Boards
will intensify repossession of undeveloped land for reallocation. Disused burrow pits will be
rehabilitated for other uses and new suitable sites for quarries will be established under good
management.

The District will pursue the ―Polluter/User pays principle‖. Pollution will be addressed through
efficient collection of waste and disposal at Landfill sites, use of sewerage network in built up
areas and use of appropriate on-site means of waste disposal. However, low up-take of sewer
connection to households is a cause of concern that will need to be addressed in the district
through intensive public education campaigns by both politicians and responsible departments.
The persistent use of pesticides to combat pests and diseases on crops conflict with
environmental goals and should be subjected to EIA. Proposed irrigation schemes using
polluted underground water and treated wastewater from ponds should also be subjected to


                                                                                                                           38
EIA in order that environment is protected. The EIA and Management Plan for Gaborone Dam
Catchment Area will help to minimize water pollution when it is completed.

4.4.2       Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
The revised National Settlement Policy of 1998 requires that settlements with 250 people
should be provided with potable water and two teacher primary schools and these small
settlements are largely located in fields (agriculture land) such as Metsimaswaane in the
District. Obviously provision of these services will encourage settlement expansion on
farmland which conflicts with the environmental goals and objectives. In addition, Arable
Lands Development Programme (ALDEP) was put in place to provide an enabling
environment for farmers through provision of draught power (cattle). Since the district is
experiencing problems of overgrazing and land degradation, the programme should be
reviewed taking cognizance of its impact on the environment. Due to land shortage in the
District, NAMPAAD Programme will have less benefit to the community. The District
however, can benefit from CEDA on industrial development projects, some of which will be
subjected to EIA submission approval before they are implemented. It should be noted that
EIA study is expensive resulting into fewer potential developers meeting criteria.

The other key issue of concern is that EIA legislation should be expedited so that
mainstreaming of environmental issues in the planning process is enhanced. Regulations and
byelaws emanating from Waste Management Act should also be expedited for effective
enforcement of the Act at district level. The other problem anticipated will be shortage of
funds to carry out all activities since the budget which had been allocated to the district has
been drastically reduced.


4.5         PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL                        STRATEGIES           TO        IMPLEMENT         DISTRICT
            ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS

The District‘s overall environmental strategies to implement its programmes are aimed at
achieving sustainable development in all spheres. The District will attract commercial and
industrial developments without compromising on environmental sustainability. In this regard,
the District will subject major developments to EIA such as tanneries. It will continue to
promote public awareness through environmental education on deforestation, HIV/AIDS and
waste management, importance of household connections to sewer, water conservation, annual
clean up competition and cleanest village competitions, among others. In most cases District
strategies and projects will be carried out by relevant Departments or sectors/NGOs.

    Table 4.2:      Proposed Projects
GOAL                        PROJECT                           POTENTIAL IMPACTS                 MITIGATION MEASURES
Optimal land utilisation.   Infrastructure (houses, roads,    Loss of vegetation cover due to   Undertake EIA.
                            schools, offices, clinics etc).   land clearing.
                                                                                                Landscaping/storm        water
                                                              Erosion and flood increase.       drainage.

                                                              Need for more land.               Build vertically to conserve
                                                                                                space.
                                                              Improved infrastructure.
                                                                                                Repossession of undeveloped
                                                                                                plots for reallocation.
Optimal land utilisation.   Rehabilitation of dams.           Loss of vegetation cover due to   Undertake EIA and economic
                                                              land clearing                     impacts.
                                                              Erosion, noise, dust
                                                                                                Fencing.


                                                                                                                    39
GOAL                         PROJECT                           POTENTIAL IMPACTS                         MITIGATION MEASURES
                                                               Overgrazing
                                                                                                         Fencing.
                                                               Water conservation and habitat
Sustainable utilisation of   Irrigation schemes.               Loss of vegetation cover due to           Undertake EIA and         socio-
natural resources.                                             land clearing                             economic impacts.
                                                               Soil    and    surface    water
                                                               contamination from use of                 Use of environmental friendly
                                                               pesticides and agro-chemicals             pest and fertilizer management
                                                                                                         methods.
                                                               Increase of soil salinity due to
                                                               excessive use of fertilizers.

                                                               Increased food production.

                                                               Increased income/employment.
Sustainable utilisation of   Construction of water tanks       Contamination of water.                   Regular checks of water
natural resources.           (water harvesting).                                                         Quality.
                                                               Improved water conservation.

                                                               Reduced     cost        bills       to
                                                               households.
Sustainable utilisation of   Rehabilitation of old burrow      Dust, noise                               Undertake EIA
natural resources.           pits.
                                                               Land conserved and used for
                                                               other uses.
Sustainable utilisation of   Development of sites for new      Loss of vegetation cover due to           - undertake EIA
natural resources.           burrow pits.                      land clearing.                            - rehabilitation after
                                                                                                            use.
                                                               Source     of    material          for
                                                               construction.

                                                               Employment       and    income
                                                               increase.
Sustainable utilisation of   Commercial and      industrial    Loss of vegetation cover due to           - Undertake EIA
natural resources.           Development.                      land clearing.

                                                               Employment       and       income
                                                               increase.

                                                               Diversified Economy.
Sustainable utilisation of   Preparation   of    development   Loss of fertile agriculture land          Undertake EIA.
natural resources and        plans.                            due to encroachment by other
optimal land utilisation.                                      land uses.

                                                               Loss of vegetation cover and
                                                               habitat (biodiversity) due to
                                                               land clearing.

                                                               Erosion and flooding.

                                                               Promotion of optimal land use.

                                                               Conservation       of           fertile
                                                               agriculture land use.

                                                               Conservation of WMAs and
                                                               sensitive environmental areas.

                                                               Diversification of economy.
Sustainable utilisation of   Rehabilitation of gullies.        Loss of vegetation cover due to           Rehabilitation of source of
natural resources                                              land clearing.                            material.

                                                               Dust

                                                               Rehabilitation land for other
                                                               uses.




                                                                                                                                  40
4.6      RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP 6

4.6.1    Issues and Strengths
In spite of the fact that the District has been blessed with natural resources such as the rocky
hills with their habitats, diversity of vegetation and good fertile soils which are worthy of
conserving and all contribute towards its strength. It is however, threatened by a number of
factors. Due to land pressure emanating from the demands from Gaborone City and Lobatse
Town, land is being degraded through overgrazing, deforestated due to fuel wood collection
used by the majority of rural communities, encroached upon by other land uses resulting into
land use conflicts. Agriculture land is being compromised for urban/village expansion.

Although the two major villages have been provided with sewerage infrastructure to reduce
underground water pollution which is a strength, up-take of sewerage connection is low. The
low up-take of sewer connection to households coupled with current lack of appropriate on-site
means of waste disposal in the District is a threat to environment.

Institutionally, the administrative structure to manage environmental issues is in place in the
District and this is considered strength. However, existing legislation leaves gaps for the
District to function well. EIA legislation and Waste Management Act need to be finalized with
regulations and environmental standards. The District is also constrained by lack of trained
manpower. The deployment of a District Environmental Liaison Officer has long been sought
to address the issue. Notwithstanding the above, the District is anticipating that planners,
project managers for respective sectors and village institutions will be trained in 2003/4 on
environmental issues so that they can be able to carryout environmental audits during plan
implementation.

4.6.2    Performance Targets For DDP6
As it has been stated, most projects will be carried out by respective sectors which have formed
their own performance targets. However, some of performance targets under Environmental
Conservation are:

       Completion of District land use strategy by 2005/06.
       Rehabilitation of disused burrow pits by the end of the plan period.
       Completion of village development plans by end of plan period.
       Mobilization of the communities to engage in four community based projects by end of
        2006.
       Rehabilitation of gullies and dams.

4.6.3    Development Budget for DDP 6
The total cost of the environmental component is estimated at 5-10% of the total cost of a
particular project in the plan. The cost factor is built into project cost and funded.

4.6.4    Plan Monitoring Programme
The environmental monitoring programme will be done by the respective Heads of
Departments during implementation. The managers will monitor and report to DDC on
quarterly basis on progress of project implementation. The Heads will also take appropriate
action when need arises on the projects.



                                                                                           41
CHAPTER 5
5        LAND USE PLANNING

5.1      INTRODUCTION

The importance of land use planning is to guide land allocation authorities and planning
authorities in systematic allocation, coordinated development, optimal land usage and cost
effectiveness in provision of services. Therefore land use planning inevitably comes into play
to harmonise competing and conflicting land uses in the development process. It provides
zoning of various land use types which have to be complied with to achieve the intended
objective.

Subscribing to land-use planning principles, government developed legislations, policies and
strategies to actualize the aforementioned objectives. Since this is a new concept to Batswana,
it has been difficult for the communities to conform to the requirement. Resultantly there is an
urgent need to consistently educate the local community on the appropriate legislature and
associated standard.

5.1.1    Institutional Framework
The district has five major players in land use planning: Ministry of Lands, Housing &
Environment through Department of Town and Regional Planning which prepares land use
plans in the form of Development Plans and detailed layout plans; Town and Country Planning
Board that controls development through planning permission of large scale development,
change of land uses and subdivisions of land within Planning Areas; District Land Use
Planning Unit (DLUPU) whose responsibility is to prepare land use plans and to advise Land
Boards and Council (Physical Planning and Building Committee) on land use matters; Land
Boards who are custodians of land through land allocations and grant of leases under Tribal
Land Act among others and; Council through Physical Planning and Building Committee for
the grant of planning permission for control of minor developments, grant of building
occupation certificates and grant of trade licenses through Trade Licensing Committee for
operation of business.

5.1.2    Strategic Plan for the Ministry of Lands and Housing
5.1.2.1 Ministry of Local Government
The strategic plan for the Ministry of Local Government is to provide physical and social
infrastructure. At local level Council through Physical Planning Committee controls
development.

5.1.2.2 Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment
The strategic plan comprises the following:

       Management and development of land through land use planning for all land use
        activities and development control and



                                                                                           42
       Promotion of environmental protection through co-ordination of activities, policies and
        legislation and provision of general advice on proper environmental management and
        protection.

At local level Land Boards control development through land allocations and leases.

5.1.2.3 Ministry of Agriculture
The strategic plan consists of the following:

       Promotion of sustainable agricultural production through land use planning
       Promotion of sustainable use and conservation of agricultural natural resources

5.1.2.4 Ministry of Trade, Wildlife and Tourism
The strategic plan entails the following:
    Creation of a conducive environment for business that includes trade, industry and
       tourism through land use planning and land servicing. Conservation of wildlife and its
       habitat in a sustainable manner.

5.1.3    Land Use Planning Consultation Priorities
5.1.3.1 Indiscriminate and illegal extraction of sand/gravel
The community expressed great concern about the illegal and indiscriminate extraction of
gravel/sand around their villages, which has left burrow pits that are undesirable/ugly. The
communities wanted appropriate sites for extraction to be identified, fenced and controlled.

5.1.3.2 Population Pressure on Land
As the district is in close proximity with the urban the centers of Gaborone and Lobatse,
demand for land has spilled over these centers as the district has become an alternative location
for housing and urban development. This is manifested by the large number of applications for
residential use submitted to Land Boards, which by far exceed the number of plots
advertised/available. The developments on Kgale Hill Forest Farm 9-KO for industrial and
commercial activities and the incorporation of Lobatse Farms (Lobatse 2000) into the
Township are cited as examples.

5.1.3.3 Land Use Conflicts
The Community is concerned that fertile arable land is being acquired for developments other
than agriculture in the district. The community feels that the land use conflicts are attributed to
absence of a land use plan to guide uses and also preserve fertile land for crop production.
There is an urgent need for a District Land Use Plan which could minimize these conflicts.

5.1.3.4 Speculative Land Plot Acquisition
The community has noticed that some plots are acquired for speculative purposes as they are
left undeveloped beyond stipulated period. Land Boards were urged to expedite repossession
of undeveloped plots to ensure efficient land management and ease demand.




                                                                                              43
5.1.3.5 Deforestation
Due to heavy reliance on wood as a principal source of energy, there is over-exploitation of the
forest resource resulting into deforestation with other related adverse impacts on the
environment in the district. The community suggested that planting of trees (woodlots) should
be encouraged.

5.1.3.6 Overgrazing
Overgrazing was also mentioned as one of the issues around settlements in the district. This
may be due to population pressure on land that takes over more land for settlement and leaving
little land for grazing.

5.1.3.7 Water Resource
The community is concerned about underground water being polluted by use of pit latrines and
uncontrolled waste and chemical waste disposal. Polluted water from boreholes in Ramotswa
is not being used which is a waste of a natural resource that could be used for irrigation
purposes (agriculture).


5.2     LAND USE POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

5.2.1    National Settlement Policy
The National Settlement Policy which was approved by the National Assembly on 3rd August
1998 has a six tier settlement hierarchy: Primary Centre (Urban and Rural), Secondary Centre
(urban and rural), Tertiary I Centre, Tertiary II Centre, Tertiary III Centre and Tertiary IV
Centre. Each tier is categorized by the range of population.

The established National Settlement Strategy with its provision is supported by the District
Settlement Strategy, which has categorized settlements

5.2.2    District Settlement Plans
During DDP5 period, it was intended that all village settlements would have development
plans with clearly defined land use zones and detailed layouts.

Since then a number of new small settlements have been established in lands and cattle posts,
which need careful monitoring. In addition, freehold farms are changing use from agriculture
to residential at a fast rate due to conflicts between Town and Country Planning Act and
Surveys Act. The latter Act is used to circumvent the former from seeking subdivision
approval and change of land use approval. This trend should be carefully monitored and
controlled.

5.2.2.1 Primary Centres
Ramotswa is the district headquarters. Ramotswa Development Plan was prepared and
approved by the Minister responsible for Town and Country Planning Act in August 1996.
The plan covers the period between 1995 – 2015 and aims at integrating economic, social,
institutional and physical development within the planning area.




                                                                                           44
Detailed layout plans for Sepitswana, Bojantswa, Magope and Taung have been prepared for
residential and industrial uses. Detailed plans for commercial areas are yet to be prepared.
Developments in Magope area have commenced without full land services due to financial
constraints.

Tlokweng Development Plan (1984/94) has long been overdue as the expected review in 1996
did not take place. However, the review of the development has been started and it is expected
to be ready for implementation during the DDP6 period.

Detailed layout plans available for Tlokweng are Lenganeng for residential, commercial and
industrial use, Metlhabeng for residential use, Mafitlhakgosi residential use, Block 4 for
residential and Selokwane for industrial use. However, the district has been able to prepare the
Otse – Mogobane Integrated Land Use Plan during DDP5 in order to assist Land Board in
allocating land to developers in that area.

5.2.2.2 Tertiary
Otse and Mogobane village settlements do not have development plans. The preparation of the
development plan and detailed layouts for both settlements have been postponed pending
completion of geo-technical study which is expected to be done during DDP5.Otse has a
detailed layout plan for residential use to the north of Moeding College. Mogobane village
does not have any detailed layout plan.

5.2.3    Integrated Land Use Plans
Integrated land use plans are useful tools for optimising use of land as various uses are given
land use zones. The plans minimize land use conflicts.

The District had intended to prepare a District Land Use Plan during DDP5 period but this has
not been done due to manpower constraints at district level.

The district has requested that the District Land Use Plan be prepared through a consultancy
during DDP6.

However, the district has been able to prepare the Otse – Mogobane Integrated Land Use Plan
during DDP5 in order to assist Land Board in allocating land to developers in that area.

5.2.4    Wildlife Management Plans
South East District has Manyelanong Game Reserve at Otse for Cape Vultures. It was declared
a game reserve in 1987. Upon declaring of the game reserve, the Department of Wildlife
prepared a management plan that gives guideline of how to protect cape vultures and its natural
habitat from extinction.

The wildlife management plan does not allow any developments near the hill where birds nest
to protect them from any activity that would cause disturbance. The game reserve is a non-
profit making venture in that people are allowed to visit it at free cost and in this regard, a
visitors centre has been developed during DDP5 where the public can obtain more information
about cape vultures. The wildlife management plan is a means of sustaining wildlife and its
natural resource habitat for posterity.




                                                                                           45
5.3        LAND USE PLANNING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


   Table 5.1:      Land Use Planning Sector goals and Objectives
Goals                                       Objectives                               Performance Targets
To encourage optimal use of land in a       Preparation of the District Integrated   Completion of a District Land Use
more sustainable manner and ensure          Land Use Plan                            Plan by 2004
land availability for future generations.   To protect natural resources from        Preparing              and    availing
                                            depletion and degradation                Development Plans and detailed
                                                                                     layouts for all villages by 2007
                                            To provide adequate land for expansion   Establishment of land inventory by
                                            of settlements                           2004



This will help to optimize use of land as a natural resource and minimize land use conflicts,
encroachment of one use into another etc. It would also strengthen the District Settlement
Strategy. The same objective will help maintain wildlife and its natural resource habitat.

One major issue was that there was a lot of indiscriminate extraction of sand and gravel for
construction purposes – leaving borrow pits unattended. The objective intends to rehabilitate
some and explore alternative uses for some while controlling new sites. The major Impact
Assessment Study that is on going will help to find solutions to this problem.

With the availability of development plans and detailed layout plans, adequate land for all uses
should be availed through reviews of plot sizes. This will also help diversification of the
economy including tourist related developments.


5.4        FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

5.4.1       Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
For the goal and objectives to address key issues, environmental screening on plans/project
would be done to minimise land use conflicts. The goal is expected to address land use in the
district and developments might have negative environmental impacts which would need to be
monitored for compliance.

From this goal, large-scale development such as hotels might mushroom and these would need
to be subjected to EIA before approval. Developments of these might also lead to land
degradation arising from illegal extraction of sand and gravel and also depletion of trees during
constructing; all these need to be monitored and controlled.

5.4.2       Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
The Town and Country Planning Act of 1977 is currently not an effective tool to control
development including water pollution particularly on freehold farms although they fall under
Planning Areas. Developments of agriculture related uses do not necessary require planning
permission under the Town and Country Planning General (Development) Order. Similarly,
the Land Survey Act permits developers to lease smaller portion of land on freehold farms
without seeking subdivision approval by the Town and Country Planning Board. The Tribal
Land Act also empowers Land Boards to change land uses on tribal land. The Building Control
Act is not applicable to buildings outside townships and cities other than commercial and



                                                                                                                         46
public buildings. There will be need to review the Town and Country Planning Act and other
related acts.


5.5        PROPOSED STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LAND USE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
           FOR UDP 2


    Table 5.2:    Proposed Projects
Goals                          Project                      Potential Impacts               Mitigation Measures
To encourage optimal use of    Preparation of District      Loss of arable land             All land use plans should be
land in a more sustainable     Integrated Land Use Plan.    Water and air pollution         subjected to environmental
manner and ensure land                                      Displacement/loss of wildlife   screening           including
availability  for     future                                and natural resources.          Development Plans.
generations.
                                                                                            All major projects should be
                                                                                            subjected to Environmental
                                                                                            Impact Assessment such as
                                                                                            hotels, landfills etc before they
                                                                                            are approved.

                                                                                            Landscaping should be part of
                                                                                            project implementation.
                               Preparation of Village       N/A                             N/A
                               Development Plans.
                               Development of land          N/A                             N/A
                               inventory system to assist
                               land management and
                               allocation.




5.6        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

5.6.1      Issues and Strengths


    Table 5.3:    Issues and Strengths
Issues                                                      Strengths
Acute shortage of land for communal uses                    The district structures such as DLUPU which deals with land
                                                            use planning
Undeveloped communal plots
There is need for an Environmental Liaison Officer at
district level.
Manpower constraints in preparing the District Land Use
Plan




                                                                                                                      47
5.6.2       Performance Targets for DDP 6


   Table 5.4:     Performance Targets for DDP6
Goal                                                  Project Component                    Estimated   Year        of
                                                                                           Cost        Implementation


To encourage optimal use of land in a more            Preparation of District Integrated   1 200 000   2005/06
sustainable manner and ensure land availability for   Land Use Plan
future generations                                    Preparation      of        Village    500 000    2008/09
                                                      Development Plans
                                                      Development of land inventory        1 000 000   2003/04
                                                      system      to    assist      land
                                                      management and allocation


5.6.3       Plan Monitoring Program
Plan monitoring programme will include:

          Monitoring that EIA has been carried out during preparation of Development Plans.
          Compliance to approved land use plans by all stakeholders
          Number of repossessed plots that have remained undeveloped over stipulated period
           through land inventory system.




                                                                                                                 48
CHAPTER 6
6        SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING

6.1      INTRODUCTION

Just like in most districts, there are three types of settlements in southeast district. These are the
lands, cattle-posts and village areas representing various production zones. Many people prefer
living in the villages as these are designated permanent homes and they offer various activities
that people are able to take part in. these are domestic, commercial, industrial, education just
but to mention a few of them. Villages have to be declared as per the national settlement
policy. The lands areas are where people plough and this activity has declined in popularity
particularly due to persistent droughts. Cattle are reared at the cattle-posts but in southeast
district only few people have cattle-posts.

The housing stock especially in villages is satisfactory but there is a significant transition by
people in South East who are continuously upgrading their traditional houses and mixed
residences to the modern type of houses.

6.1.1    Institutional framework
The establishment of settlements is governed by the National Settlement policy of 1998 which
is supported by the District Settlement strategy. At a district level, after an assessment, DLUPU
advises the four Local Institutions on whether or not a place has to be declared a recognized
settlement. If it is declared, services would follow depending on the availability of funds.

The government white paper of 1999 on housing stipulates that by the year 2016, all Batswana
will have access to good quality housing in both urban and rural areas. The National Housing
Policy aims at facilitating the provision of decent and affordable housing for all within a safe
and sanitary environment. The formulation of policies geared towards construction of good
quality houses is the responsibility of the Department of Housing under the Ministry of Lands,
Housing and Environment, and these policies are then implemented by Government
Departments and the District Council.

6.1.2    Strategic Plans for respective Ministries
6.1.2.1 Ministry of Lands Housing and Environment
The strategic plan for the ministry comprises management and development of land use
through land use planning and development control. It also ensures that land made available
caters for all land use zones/activities. It further promotes environmental protection through
land use activities and providing general advice on proper environmental management and
protection.

6.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The strategic plan for the ministry is to provide physical and social infrastructure like water,
primary education, and primary health care to the local communities.



                                                                                                 49
6.2        NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

6.2.1       National Settlement Policy
The National Settlement Policy (NSP) was approved by the National Assembly on 3 rd August,
1998. The Policy recommended that basic infrastructure and services should be provided to all
settlements with a minimum of 250 people and that RADS settlements with a population range
of 150-249 people should be provided with portable water and two teacher primary schools.
The threshold population has been raised to 500.

NSP may be described as a comprehensive, long term framework for guiding national physical
planning and the distribution of investment in a way that reflects the settlements‘ size,
population, economic potential, level of infrastructure and their role as service centres.

NSP has the following objectives:

        To provide guidelines and long term strategy for the development of human
         settlements.
        To rationalize and promote the optimal use of land and preservation of the best arable
         land.
        To promote the conservation of natural resources for the benefit of the present and
         future generations.
        To provide guidelines for the development of transportation and utility networks in
         order to strengthen the functional linkages between settlements.
        To reduce the rate of migration to towns through planning for provision of
         infrastructure and service centres.

It also established a three-tier settlement hierarchy of settlements in the country based on the
following factors:

        Economic potential and employment generation.
        Availability of infrastructure and services or the ease at which they can be provided.
        Availability of natural resources, especially water to sustain it.
        Population size.
        The role of the settlement as a service centre or its potential as a service provider to its
         hinterland.

The three-tier hierarchy is Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Each tier is categorised by the
range of its population. Using this tier system the District‘s settlement hierarchy can be
classified as in Table 6.1 below.

   Table 6.1:       District Settlement Hierarchy
Tier (as in 1991)             Number                Settlement               Population 2001
Primary Centre                1                     Ramotswa                 25 738
Primary Centre                1                     Tlokweng                 22 038
Tertiary Centre               2                     Otse                     -
                                                    Mogobane                 -
Source: Central Statistics Office, 2001




                                                                                                50
6.2.2    District Settlement Strategy
The South East District Settlement Strategy (SEDSS) is based on the recommendation
contained in the National Settlement Policy (NSP) of 1998. The NSP specifically mentions that
SEDSS will be prepared to further elaborate the policy at district level. The SEDSS was to
define sub-areas or production areas and provide an assessment of natural resources and their
sustainable utilization. Ramotswa functions as the administrative centre for South East District
and provides other services, but it has increasingly become subordinate to Gaborone in terms
of provision of services.

Tlokweng fulfills a role as a sub-administrative centre and provides employment opportunities
in both small and big scale industries, but it is considered a part of Gaborone in the context of
service provision due to its proximity to the former. The smaller villages of Otse, Mogobane
and Ramotswa station and their role as service centres are limited to the lower order services
and cover their immediate surroundings.

Ramotswa had a population of 18, 683 in 1991 and according to 2001 Census the village has a
population of 20 680 and has been classified as a primary centre. The village is a planning area
and serves as a District Administrative Centre. The planning area encompasses the settlements
of Boatle and Taung, which are essentially serviced by Ramotswa. Tlokweng had a population
of 12, 501 in 1991 and was designated as a Secondary Centre and serves as a Sub-district
administrative centre. However, during the 2001 census the population of Tlokweng shown to
have increased to 21 133 which then qualified it to be a primary centre.

Both Ramotswa and Tlokweng have strong links with the primary centres of Gaborone and
Lobatse due to their geographical settings.

Otse has a population of 5 192 and Mogobane 2 053 has have both been classified as Tertiary
Centres II. Metsimaswaane settlement that has a population of less than 500 people falls in
Tertiary Centre III category and has been provided with some services. The remaining
settlements in the District form the lowest rank according to the settlement hierarchy.

The current settlement hierarchy indicates that Ramotswa and Tlokweng are likely to become
Primary Centres (urban) by the year 2015 (Physical Development Plan Period). Their linkage
to Gaborone and Lobatse is likely to boost their growth in terms of marketing, commercial and
industrial activities. The demand for land as dormitory for Gaborone is also likely to change
the residential and socio-economic pattern of the rural setting. It is therefore important that
services should be put in place to accommodate these changes. Tlokweng as a Sub-District is
also likely to grow with decentralisation of functions and services, hence the need for more
socio-economic and physical development planning.

A number of new settlements are springing up in lands and cattle-post areas. This includes a
number of settlements within the freehold farms that need careful monitoring and development
control. These small and dispersed settlements are likely to cause financial and manpower
constraints when it comes to providing local services, rather than taking advantage of
economies of scale from agglomeration.

Finally, it is recognizable that a number of urban developments are sprawling from Gaborone
City into freehold farms within the South-East District. It is therefore pertinent that the District
secures financial and manpower resources to provide the required urban services if it has to
gain from such growth and expansion.



                                                                                               51
During the Plan Period, it was intended that all the villages would have development plans with
clearly defined land use zones and detailed layouts.

6.2.3       Physical Development Plans in the District
During the Plan Period, it was intended that all the villages would have development plans with
clearly defined land use zones and detailed layouts.

6.2.3.1 Primary Centre - Ramotswa
Under the Town and Country Planning Declaration of Planning Areas {NO 2} order 1995,
Ramotswa was declared a planning area. The preparation of a new Development Plan was
necessary to fulfil the Town and Country Planning Act (Chapter 32.09).

The Ramotswa Development Plan, following the Planning Area boundary covers the
settlements of Taung with a population of 2 552 people, Tsietsamotswana 40 people, Sengoma
25 people, Magopane 38 people, Boatle 60 people, Tsokwane 43 people and Sepitswane with
885 people. The plan serves the expansionary needs of Ramotswa, Taung and Boatle in the
long term (1995-2015). It aims at integrating economic, social, institutional and physical
development within the planning area.

6.2.3.2 Secondary Centre-lokweng
Tlokweng was identified as a Rural Secondary Centre but also as a Sub-District Headquarters.
But the 2001 population and housing census indicates that Tlokweng qualifies to be a primary
centre.

Tlokweng, however, has been part of Gaborone Planning Area for the last decade and has a ten
year Village Development Plan (Tlokweng Development Plan 1984/94 prepared by
Department of Town and Regional Planning {D.T.R.P.}. A revised long term Development
plan is expected to be completed during DDP 5. Preparation of the development is necessitated
by Tlokweng‘s changing role from being rural to urban.

In a study of South-East District Settlement Strategy, (Swede Plan 1996), it was reported that a
substantial number of economically active people were engaged in other services other than
agriculture as indicated in the Table below:
   Table 6.2       Activities Carried Out in the District
Industry                                                        Number of Activities
Construction                                                          2801
Domestic Services                                                     1083
Wholesale &Retail trade                                               2302
Public Administration                                                 3134
Education                                                             2118
Manufacturing                                                         2921
Business Services                                                     1452
Community Services                                                     579
Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry                                     1417
Mining and Quarries                                                    104
Hotels and Restaurant                                                  459
Source: Central Statistics Office, 2001


The Revised Village Development Plan therefore will address itself to the future potential
industrial and commercial role of the villages. Its proximity to Gaborone has increased land

                                                                                           52
demand dramatically for uses such as residential, commercial, industrial and civic and
community. The peri-urban nature of Tlokweng needs to be noted as its future development
may lead to different demands by its hinterlands. The density and total population is growing at
a faster rate of 6% and this would require an urban type of infrastructure thus leading to an
increased cost during the implementation of the Tlokweng Development Plan to meet the urban
planning standards that will be applied.

6.2.3.3 Otse and Mogobane
During DDP 6 plan period, it is anticipated that village development plans for Otse and
Mogobane will be completed because an integrated land use plan for both villages has been
completed and the geo-technical study, which is on going will also be completed. Despite the
small size of the settlements, land pressure has been growing at a fast rate; therefore
development plans for these villages are urgently needed to avoid land conflicts and waste.

6.2.4    Town and Country Planning Act
The Town and Country Planning Act 1977 (TCPA) is the principal act relating to planning and
control of developments and land use in the country. It aims at providing orderly and
progressive development of land and to establish control over the use of land through planning
permission. The Act applies in areas which have been declared planning areas by the Minister.

For all planning areas, the Minister is obliged to prepare Physical Development Plans. The
District has two planning areas, these are Tlokweng and Ramotswa villages. Both the Tribal
and Town and Country Planning Acts are applicable to these areas. Hence applicants have to
comply with the requirements of both of these acts. Building permission has to be sought from
the Physical Planning and Building Committee before any construction takes place. This
committee is under council and has the authority to approve small-scale developments.
However large-scale developments, change of land uses and rejections are all referred to the
Town and Country Planning Board. The Land Board allocates the land as it is the land
custodian.

Though these Acts have to be strictly followed, the District authorities do implement them, but
time and again the authorities are forced to be flexible in order to accommodate and introduce
the people to the planning instruments or requirements, especially the Town and Country
Planning Act. The Tribal Land Act has been in force for some time. The Tlokweng
Development Plan is ongoing and is expected to be completed during DDP6. The Ramotswa
Development Plan was completed by March 1996.

By end of DDP 5, at least Otse had a working plan, which was prepared by DTRP. Though the
plan needed a lot of polishing, it helped to serve as a starter. Proper village plans will be
prepared for both Mogobane and Otse during the DDP 6 period.
It is the intention of the District that since all other related plans would be completed, the
district‘s integrated land use plan should also be done thereafter.

6.2.5    Tribal Land Act
The Tribal Land Act (1968) (TLA) specifically deals with the composition of a Land Board, its
functions and regulations. This act covers land issues on individual basis, land allocations,
disputes or appeals, which are dealt with on their own merits. The Land Board takes into
account any Development Plans or Land Use Plans and policies and or any recommendations,



                                                                                           53
which might be available. Under the Tribal Land Act, the Land Board grants land for a
particular use. The Land Tribunal deals with appeals beyond the authority of the Land Board.

6.2.6    National Housing Policy
The population of Botswana has been growing and becoming urbanized. The Policy which was
put in place in 1982 to guide national housing activities has become inadequate. In 1996 a
consultant was engaged to review the National Policy on Housing and make appropriate
recommendations.

The analysis shows that the average number of rooms per household was 2.5, in 1991. This
revealed that few people have big space whereas many people live in crowded conditions. In
rural areas, it was discovered that the quality of housing needs to be improved in an
environment of relatively low incomes and undeveloped financing systems.

Botswana‘s Vision 2016 envisages that by the year 2016, all Batswana will have access to
good quality housing in both urban and rural areas. The 1999 National Housing Policy aims to
realise the goal of the Vision by the year 2016. The National Housing Policy aims at
facilitating the provision of decent and affordable housing for all within a safe and sanitary
environment.

The Policy addresses key elements of the housing sector including capacity building, land,
finance, subsidies, rentals, housing standards, building materials and housing legislation as
well as the SHHA and District Housing programme, BHC and private sector participation. All
these when they are put together define the affordability, sustainability of basic shelter
programmes in Botswana. Land for housing is provided by government, this includes planning
and control, design and provision of infrastructure, community services and technical
assistance in both urban and rural areas.

In cases whereby, land servicing is by BHC or the private sector, they are required to provide
for all income groups to achieve social mix.

6.2.7    Institutional Housing
Government has been trying through the above programme to resolve housing problems for its
employees. There has been shortage of accommodation for government employees either due
to inadequate housing units or high rentals. In spite of budgetary allocations for the
construction of staff houses, the total number of housing units available is still inadequate. It is
not the government‘s intention to become the major landlord in the country, but the private
sector response to housing demand is insufficient which then compels the government to
continue supplying houses to its employees.

6.2.7.1 District and Tribal Administration Housing
The six institutions in the District were allocated P6 000 000 for DDP5/NDP8. The amount
was not adequate to meet the housing demand as more officers were being deployed to South
East District due to decentralisation. District administration had requested funding for 50
housing units while Tribal Administration had requested 35. Due to financial constraints, this
was not possible, hence a spill is expected occur to DDP 6/NDP 9. The present number of
houses present is 92 including those still under construction and the waiting list is at 50
permanent and pensionable staff members of both the District Administration and Tribal
Administration.


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6.2.7.2 Land Boards Housing
Malete Land Board and the Tlokweng Land Board currently have a shortage of housing. At the
end of DDP 5/NDP 9 plan period, Malete Land Board had an establishment of 31 permanent
and pensionable staff against 26 housing units causing a shortfall of 5 houses. Tlokweng Land
Board on the other hand, had an establishment of 26 permanent and pensionable staff versus 23
housing units that means a shortfall of 3 houses. Table 6.5 above shows the number of houses
planned for each Land Board during DDP 6/NDP 9. The establishment is expected to grow
during the plan period.

6.2.8    Self Help Housing Agency
This programme was instituted by government in the early 1970s to facilitate provision of
affordable housing to low-income households on a subsidized basis in Urban areas. By
December 1999, a decision was made to extend this programme to the rural areas. Serviced
plots, building material loans (BMLs) and technical advice were provided to beneficiaries. All
SHHA allotees were eligible for BMLs which were payable over a period of 15 years at an
interest of 9% per annum. The loans were used to purchase building materials only.

The serviced plots were provided for free and the beneficiaries had to pay service levy only.
During this period the standard of services for the SHHA were basic viz: communal water
supply through stand pipes which served an average of 20 households, earth roads for access
and pit-latrines for which government constructed the sub-structure while individuals provided
the superstructure.

Although the basic elements of the programme have remained the same since inception, some
changes have been brought into the programme. From 1973, 1978-1992, the building material
loan was increased from P400.00 to P800.00 and from P1 200.00 to P3 600 between 1992 and
1998 at the interest rate of 4% to 9% per annum. The building material loan was also changed
from P800 to P1200 and between 1992 and 1998 the income eligibility was increased from P1
800.00 – P15 000.00. The tenure was changed from the Certificate of Rights to Fixed Period
State Grant which is a 99 year renewable lease and the interest was changed in 1995 from 9%
to 10%.

Between 1999 and 2000 the building loan entitlement was further increased while the
maximum income legibility criteria was raised to P30 000.00 and the SHHA programme was
extended to non-township areas.

6.2.8.1 Introduction of SHHA Programme to Non-Township Areas
The institutional arrangements for management of SHHA programme in non-township areas
does not differ with the current set up in township areas. Government provides funds for
SHHA loan to District Councils. Council will lend SHHA loans to eligible plot holders and
also provide technical assistance. The beneficiaries are expected to repay back the loan over a
period of 15 years at an interest rate of 10% per annum. The Land Boards is responsible for
allocating land. Both Customary land grant and Common Law Lease holders have access to
SHHA loans.

Council has provided a variety of standard house plans from which beneficiaries may choose or
use their own plans which are first approved by the Council Physical Planning and building



                                                                                          55
Committee. The supervision of the construction work still remains the responsibility of
Council. Loan repayment will also be monitored by Council.

Individuals within the income bracket of P4 400- P36 400 per annum qualify for a SHHA loan.
The government has advised that the programme should be started in districts and sub-districts
headquarters until fully fledged offices are established, but South East District decided to start
it in the whole district since it is smaller than others. The programme started with educational
workshops in the whole district and 27 applications have been approved. It is anticipated that
as the programme gains popularity there will be a lot of applicants in the district more
especially in the next plan period, DDP6/NDP9.

6.2.9    Rural Housing
Government recognises the efforts made by rural households to develop their own affordable
houses and has concluded that these efforts need to be complemented to ensure that rural
households live in safe and decent shelter. To achieve this, Government has extended the
SHHA programme to rural areas. It has also been decided that the rural poor who cannot be
covered by the SHHA programme can benefit from the destitute policy and or should be
provided with assistance under the Integrated Poverty Alleviation and Housing Schemes as
well as other special housing programmes like those that are provided by Permaculture an
NGO in partnership with the community.

It is anticipated that such schemes will be utilised to provide the rural poor with housing
assistance to develop affordable houses without sacrificing health, safety, and other quality
requirements.


6.3      SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING

6.3.1    Settlement Patterns and Morphology
South East District has both compact settlements like Gaborone and Lobatse and nucleated,
linear-scattered settlements influenced by source of water, commercialisation and potential
land for farming. Some people occupy two residential areas, one in the semi-urban houses of
the main village of Ramotswa, Tlokweng, Otse, Mogobane and one at the cattle post or arable
lands. There is also proliferation of new settlements at the lands like Sakutswane, Mamogofu,
Metsimaswaana and others. This has resulted in loss of some agricultural land and Council is
being forced to provide some of the services at such places.

6.3.2    Physical Development Growth
Physical constraints and shortage of land affects the growth potentials of major settlements in
the district. Expansion of Gaborone has assumed the acquisition of freehold farms. Similarly,
Lobatse is surrounded by hills and can only expand into freehold farms. Ramotswa and
Tlokweng can only use agricultural land for expansion needs. There are some small localities
within the freehold farms and this is worsened by a lot of subdivisions and change of land uses
in these farms. Gaborone and Lobatse constitute a city-region with South East District as a
hinterland of resources and as a recipient of effluent, waste and pollution.

6.3.3    Housing Demand
As the population continues to increase there is a lot of pressure on the two Land Boards for
plots. Both Malete and Tlokweng Land Boards have got high demand for plots especially in a

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situation whereby people do not get accommodation in either Gaborone or Lobatse. South East
District, due to its proximity to towns has since acted as a dormitory due to lack of
accommodation in towns. The other contributory factor is the introduction of SHHA
programme to non-township areas, which has also increased the demand for residential plots to
build houses in the district.

6.3.4       Housing Supply
Housing in the district has only been through individual savings, inheritance or financial
borrowing from commercial banks. It is not like in towns whereby houses are supplied by BHC
and other private developers. Housing supply in the district cannot be talked about much since
there is no sole supplier of housing units; individuals build their own houses by first acquiring
plots from the Land Board. Allocation of Land has been very slow in the district due to a land
shortage. The demand for land is high and the Land Board cannot satisfy that. For example,
during the years of 2001 to 2002, Malete Land Board had about 8000 applications for
residential plots and could only allocate about 1700 plots. On the other hand, Tlokweng Land
Board had frozen applications since 1992, and up to date (mid 2002) there have not been any
allocations.

6.3.5        General Infrastructure and Services
Most of the primary roads in the district are bituminised. Boatle-Mmankgodi road was tarred
during DDP 5. The other road which is about to be tarred is the Mogobane Junction to Ranaka.
All major settlements in the district have portable water, telephones and electricity and are
accessible gravel roads.


6.4        SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


   Table 6.3:      Settlement and Housing Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                            Objectives                                  Performance targets
To develop a district land use plan for South   To prepare 24-year development              Complete development plans and
East District                                   plans for all villages in the district to   detailed layout plans by the end of the
                                                enable proper allocations, sustainable      plan period for all villages in the
                                                land use and development.                   district
                                                To prepare a lay-out plan for Otse-         Complete detailed layout plans by the
                                                Mogobane                                    end of the plan period.
To device a long term strategy to reduce the    To allocate one plot per person within
high demand for land required for housing       the district
during the plan period
                                                To demarcate plots to meet expected         Demarcation of 10 000 plots per
                                                demand                                      annum by both Land Boards
To provide adequate accommodation for all       To identify infill opportunities and        To construct houses as per the annual
officers in the district.                       also to optimize the use of available       plan.
                                                plots.




6.5        FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

6.5.1       Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
The first goal might lead to encroachment into agricultural land and wildlife management areas
and necessitate rezoning of some areas.


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The second and third goals are likely to lead to urban sprawl and associated infrastructure
impact of debushing and land degradation.

6.5.2       Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
6.5.2.1 National Settlement Policy
This policy would lead to settlement sprawl and associated infrastructure impact of debushing
(felling of trees, excavation of both river sand and gravel) and land degradation. Also it might
lead to encroachment into fertile agricultural land and depletion of scarce water resources.

6.5.2.2 Physical Development Plans in the District
This might lead to encroachment into fertile agricultural land and wildlife management areas.
Also, it might lead to settlement sprawl and associated infrastructure impact of debushing and
land degradation. The ecologically sensitive areas like flood plains and rivers might be affected
in various ways.

6.5.2.3 Town and Country Planning Act
The act would lead to loss of aesthetics by way of intensive physical developments like
infrastructure and buildings. This would further lead to formation of storm water run-off
which would in turn lead to flooding in some areas.

6.5.2.4 Tribal Land Act and National Housing Policy
These would lead to settlement sprawl and associated infrastructure impact of debushing
(felling of trees, excavation of both river sand and gravel) and land degradation. Also it might
lead to encroachment into fertile agricultural land and depletion of scarce water resources.

6.5.2.5 Institutional Housing, Self-Help Housing Agency and Rural Housing
These would lead to settlement sprawl due to development of low-rise buildings. Also land
degradation might result due to land servicing. Natural resources like river sand; gravel and
water would be used excessively and might lead to their depletion.


6.6        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP 6

6.6.1       Issues and Strengths


   Table 6.4:      Issues and Strengths
Issues                                                                                   Strengths
The Ministry controls allocation of funds, this incapacitates implementation by the      Introduction of SHHA programme to
district.                                                                                the district.
Shortage of manpower and adequate training to prepare development plans and              Curbing of urban sprawl with the
detailed layouts at district levels. These are currently prepared by the Department of   district land use plans
Town and Regional Planning
Lack of serviced land for residential purposes due to limited finance has resulted in
shortage of housing.
Lack of plot numbers is a constraint in implementation and monitoring of the SHHA
programme and in development control.




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6.6.2   Plan Monitoring Programme
The monitoring of the SHHA programme as a whole is monitored by the Council Planning
Committee, which convenes every month. Progress reports will be presented to the committee
to determine progress and constraints and come up with solutions in cases where there are
constraints.




                                                                                     59
CHAPTER 7
7        AGRICULTURE

7.1      INTRODUCTION

At independence, the agricultural sector was one of the major production and employment
sectors in the rural areas but its contribution to Gross Domestic Product has been increasingly
declining, in particular arable agriculture, mainly due to persistent drought and the growth of
other sectors such as the mining sector. For South East, the problem is exacerbated by
diminishing land resource as the district supplements for the excess land demand bordering
urban centres, Lobatse and Gaborone. However, the contribution by the livestock sector is still
significant even though it is unable to meet the quota required at the international markets.
Despite its low contribution to national income, agriculture remains the important source of
food, income, employment and raw materials. It also provides both forward and backward
linkages in the economy.

While other agricultural schemes exist, the newly approved National Master Plan for Arable
Agriculture and Dairy Development (NAMPAADD) programme is seen as an invention that
will enable the agricultural sector achieve milestones in pursuit of the objective of vision 2016
– productive, prosperous and innovative nation. It is one of the strategies that is geared towards
achieving economic diversification, food security and further create employment opportunities
for the rural populace. It seeks to improve the agricultural sector by modernizing it through the
introduction of improved technologies, efficient use and management of land and water
resource as well as by commercializing it. (NAMPAADD, 2002, MOA.)

The agricultural sector aims at achieving food security, poverty alleviation, and improvement
of the quality of life and sustainable utilization of natural resources in line with a prosperous,
productive and innovative nation. The Ministry also aims at providing the best services
conducive to sustainable, globally competitive and diversified agricultural industry in
partnership with other stakeholders.

7.1.1    Institutional Framework
Ministry of Agriculture has three Departments in the district. These are Department of Crop
Production & Forestry, Department of Animal Health and Production and the Department of
Cooperatives. Department of Cooperatives does not have any activities in the district and none
is envisaged during the forthcoming planning period of DDP 6.

The Department of Crop Production & Forestry is one of the major extension arms of the
Ministry of Agriculture. It consists of five major divisions, Plant Protection, Crop Production,
Land Utilization, Forestry/Range and Beekeeping, and Extension. The department is primarily
responsible for delivery of extension services and development and transfer of appropriate
agricultural technology to respective districts.

The Department of Animal Health and Production is one of the largest Departments in the
Ministry of Agriculture. The Department of Animal Health and Production is responsible for
the prevention and control of economically important animals diseases, development of


                                                                                             60
livestock and fisheries, extension services to farmers and artificial insemination. The plan
therefore, serves as an instrument for the attainment of a globally competitive, diversified and
sustainable livestock industry. It consists of six divisions classified as follows, Animal
Production and Products Development, Animal Disease Control (Field Services), Abattoir
Hygiene and Meat Quality Control, Veterinary Research and Laboratory Services, Tsetse fly
and Trypanosomiasis Control and Environmental Safety and Department Management.

7.1.2    Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
7.1.2.1 Ministry of Agriculture
In order to enhance productivity and performance in the Agricultural sector, new policies,
strategies and programmes have been formulated. These include the fencing component of the
1991 Agricultural Policy, and the National Food Strategy. Other programmes and strategies to
be implemented to increase agricultural output include the National Master Plan for Arable
Agriculture and Dairy Development (NAMPAADD), diversification into ostrich farming and
commercialization of the same. Agriculture would during this plan period develop a
sustainable, diversified and competitive agriculture and conservation of natural resources to
contribute to the achievement of food security, poverty alleviation and socio-economic growth
in partnership with its stakeholders.

7.1.2.2 Ministry of Trade, Wildlife and Tourism
In partnership with Agriculture, is the Ministry of Trade, Wildlife and Tourism. This Ministry
would create an environment conducive for operations of businesses through proper land use
planning and servicing.

7.1.2.3 Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment
During this plan period, this Ministry would ensure management and development of land
through land use planning for all land use activities and development control. Land Boards at
the District level control development through land allocation and leases.

7.1.3    Agricultural Consultation Priorities
To take its stakeholders on board, in its effort to improve the welfare of the farming
community through training and introduction of appropriate technologies and enhanced service
delivery.

7.1.3.1 Water Resources
The community wanted the existing dams to be maintained and to extend water network to
cover the lands areas as well. The community also recommended that the underground polluted
water be used for irrigation purposes.

7.1.3.2 Land use Conflicts
The community was concerned that fertile land is being used for other developments at the
expense of agriculture.

Also, population pressure around settlements was noted not only to lead to overgrazing but also
to expansion of the settlements into grazing land.



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7.1.3.3 Land Degradation
The community noted with concern over exploitation of forest resources which result in
deforestation which in turn leads to land degradation. It was suggested that education on
environmental conservation and establishment of woodlots should be intensified. Also, due to
the hilly terrain found in the district, it was felt that there is a high risk of soil erosion. The
community suggested that some soil conservation measures should be intensified.

7.1.3.4 NAMPAADD
During consultation, insufficient credit facilities were mentioned as one of the major
constraints to agricultural development. The National Development Bank (NDB) was said not
to adequately address credit needs of farmers.

Also, the 150 hectors of land as stipulated in NAMPAADD as a requirement was said to be too
big. The community felt that this would also encourage many settlements in the district which
will further decrease grazing capacity.

7.1.3.5 Fencing Policy
Due to land scarcity in the district it was felt that fencing of the communal land was not
suitable.


7.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

7.2.1    Community Based Strategy for Rural Development
The community based strategy for rural development, was approved by the Rural Development
Council in 1997. Its main aim is to improve rural livelihoods and reduce poverty in a more
effective and sustainable way and consequently reduce dependence on government. The
strategy is a valuable device which links conservation and rural development thereby
improving the rural livelihoods. Through the strategy, communities are mobilized and
encouraged to initiate and run projects of their own, thus creating opportunities for the
inclusion of communities in management decision. In implementing the community-based
strategy, the district has adopted the participatory rural appraisal tool which empowers
communities to be independent and be able to generate income for themselves.

Though much has not taken place so far, the implementation of this strategy is expected to gain
momentum during this plan period (DDP 6).

7.2.2    District Settlement Strategy
The National Settlement Strategy (NSS) supported by the District Settlement Strategy is the
overall document guiding settlement structure. It discourages proliferation of settlements.
However, given that the population size of a settlement to be recognized has been reduced from
500 to 250, it is now questionable as to whether the strategy will meet one of its major
objectives. Moreover, the current agricultural policy wants farmers to settle at the farming
areas. In essence, the reduction of population size for a recognized settlement and the notion of
encouraging farmers to stay at the lands, will ultimately lead to the creation of many
settlements even at the lands and cattle post areas. This situation might not be affordable in this
plan period (DDP 6) since these would need services.



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The MLG expects the Districts to carry out a settlement study and then formulate the District
Settlement Strategy which will detail how to go about servicing the new settlements. While the
South East District is committed to reserve fertile land for farming to achieve food security, the
encroachment of Lobatse and Gaborone urban centres within the District is worrisome.

7.2.3    National Policy on Agricultural Development
The Agricultural Development Policy during DDP5 focused on crop pricing, diversification,
targeted subsidies, food security, water development and technology among others. During
DDP 5 the Ministry facilitated the process of agricultural development through research,
training extension and essential services, this strategy would still be pursued during DDP6.

The Ministry of Agriculture engaged the services of an Israeli consultant to assist in the
development of the National Agriculture Master Plan for Arable, Agriculture and Dairy
Development (NAMPAADD).             The study aims at transforming the operations of
traditional/subsistence farmers to a commercial level and to enable commercial farmers
upgrade their level of management and technology application. This will be derived by
focusing on intensive mechanical and irrigated arable farming and dairy development. This, if
implemented accordingly would make arable agriculture and dairy farming more attractive and
profitable to farmers thereby creating employment opportunities, increase rural incomes and
reduce rural-urban migration. Hence the national objective of diversification, food security and
sustainable development will be achieved.

7.2.4    Agricultural Resource Act
The Agricultural Resources Board was set up in 1974 through the Agricultural Conservation
Act of 1974 with the following functions:

       Exercise supervision over the agricultural resources of Botswana.
       Advising the Minister on matters relating to the legislation necessary to secure or
        promote proper conservation use and improvement of these resources.
       Stimulate public interest in proper use and conservation of these resources.
       Issue conservation and stock control orders, and make conservation regulation in
        accordance with the provisions of the Act.
       Consult with any Land Board and District Council to give them advice concerning
        proper use of any land within such tribal areas.

During DDP6 the South East District Conservation Committee will continue to provide basic
knowledge, information and technologies on sustainable Management of Natural Resources.
The division will provide conventional information products such as mapping to initiate field
data collection on plants of economic importance in the district. The division will continue to
facilitate some conservation projects in the district, together with other stakeholders.

7.2.5    Animal Breeding Policy
An intensive animal-breeding programme will be adopted mainly through a decentralized
artificial breeding programme, to improve the quality of livestock.




                                                                                             63
7.2.6    Animal Health Policy
Government will continue to prevent and control diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease,
Anthrax, Blackquarter, Brucellosis and Rabies through restriction of animals and animal
products as well as compulsory and free vaccinations.

7.2.7    Dairy Farming Policy
The Policy advocates for transformation of traditional farming to commercial farming.
NAMPAADD was formulated among other things to develop dairy production within the
country.

7.2.8    Animal Breeding Policy/Artificial Insemination
Artificial insemination was introduced to provide semen from superior bulls to the small
farmer who could not afford to purchase such bulls. This offers several advantages over natural
breeding, it is cheaper and also there are some government AI centres. Farmers are however,
encouraged to practice the ON-Farm AI in their respective farms.

7.2.9    Animal Health Policy
The policy covers animal diseases that farmers could not individually control them through
restriction of animals and animal products as well as compulsory and free vaccination. These
are diseases such as Foot and Mouth Diseases, Anthrax Blackleg, Brucellosis and Rabbies.

7.2.10 Fencing Policy
The Policy advocates for fencing of communal areas to control stocking rate, diseases and for
better planning on breeding and marketing programmes. This policy might not be fully utilized
by the district due to insufficient land. However, where feasible farmers would be allowed to
fence livestock farming land, either as individuals, groups or communities.


7.3      AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ACTIVITIES

7.3.1    Natural Resources Sub-Sector
Due to the absence of alternative fuel sources, both local residents and residents of Gaborone
continue to exert pressure on limited fuel wood supply in the district.

To address environmental and natural resource issues, some programmes and projects were
implemented as follows:

       The Forestry Nursery establishment was commenced; fenced and following structures
        constructed, shade netting and seedbeds, to start production in 2002.
       Due to the hilly terrain nature of the district, there is slightly high risk of serious soil
        erosion. The soil conservation works such as construction of gully control structures;
        contour banks and diversion channels were particularly done at Mogobane, Otse and
        Metsimaswaane. Heavy rains which occurred over the short period during DDP5
        resulted in the destruction of some of the structures. During DDP6 the soil conservation
        project will be extended to cover some parts of the district and also to maintain the
        existing structures.



                                                                                               64
       Beekeeping project was started to encourage individuals to generate income through
        sale of bee products. One demonstration apiary was established and thirteen (13)
        beekeeping projects are in production.

7.3.2    Crop Production Sector
Low and erratic rainfall, endemic droughts and uneven distribution of land resources hamper
rain-fed farming. In addition to the natural constraints other problems which affect the
agricultural sector and make it ineffective and an unreliable source of income are high input
costs, lack of supporting infrastructure, limited access to credit and low levels of technology.
Furthermore, there has been out-migration of able-bodied labour force to urban centre leaving
the sub-sector manned by an ageing labour force consequently contributing to the decline in
crop production.

Although crop farming is expected to contribute to households‘ food basket, there has been low
hectorage ploughed/planted, 2805ha in 1999/200, 585ha in 2000/2001 and 1539ha in
2001/2002 against the district‘s production baseline of 7800ha. It logically means that more
than 35% of cultivatable land has been ploughed/planted. For the few farmers who planted,
yields have not yet reached the optimal level. A majority of farmers normally plant on the
average 3Ha and harvest less than 210-350kg per ha of sorghum, maize and pulses. If this
situation persists, the envisaged food security, rural development and poverty alleviation were
not achieved during DDP5.

In an effort to address the issues of the sub-sector, the Arable Lands Development Programme
(ALDEP) was put in place to provide an enabling environment for farmers. The emphasis of
the programme was on technology transfer and strengthening of the extension system. The
major objectives of the programme were:

   To improve the income levels and food security in rural areas through subsidized inputs.
   To assist small scale farmers to increase productivity of the main food grains such as
    maize, sorghum and pulses.

Distribution of ALDEP packages progressed quite well during DDP5 and this programme has
played an important role in the lives of the small farmers. It was revealed that the use of these
packages encourages farmers to adopt technologies. The only constraint encountered in the
District was shortage of draught power (cattle) available for sale. The ALDEP has been
suspended and the district is working on clearing the backlogs. The programme is to be
reviewed.

It is nevertheless anticipated that with the intervention of NAMPAADD larger outputs are
expected in the sub-sector.

7.3.3    Horticultural Sub-Sector
Horticulture has been identified as a priority area for diversification of the agricultural
production base for the generation of rural incomes and employment to improve food security
at both household and national levels.

The majority of the projects are small scale characterized by low productivity. Major
constraints are unfavorable climatic conditions, lack of marketing infrastructure, inadequate
water supply for irrigation and poor management of horticultural enterprises. When FAP was
introduced, horticulture was an important component of the diversification policy.

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       7.3.4      Livestock Sub-sector
       Low and erratic rainfall, endemic droughts, poor grazing and uneven distribution of land
       resources hamper livestock productivity and shortage of fresh milk. As a result about 80% of
       fresh milk is imported from South Africa and the level of technology remains low level. During
       the course of the DDP 5, the district experienced an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease from
       South Africa as a result picketers were deployed to patrol along the Botswana border with
       South Africa for a period of nine months.

       With regard to poultry production the district is self- sufficient as evidenced by a considerable
       number of poultry holdings within the district. Piggery has also performed well over the plan
       period. Though there is a considerable amount of interest and market on small agricultural
       holdings, unavailability of land has served as a setback over the plan period.

       The Livestock Trace Back System [LITS] was undertaken during the course of the DDP 5 and
       a total of 17384 animals were inserted with boluses.

       The fencing component of the Agricultural Policy in the district is focusing on the
       Rankoromane ranch and the consultation with stakeholders is still ongoing.

       Farmers were trained in small-stock management, dairy management, poultry management,
       hides and skins, vegetable provision. During bolus insertion a few farmers refused to insert
       their cattle with boluses as a result the percent coverage of the district was reduced. The
       vaccination coverage was quite good.

       Ostrich farming has also gained ground in the district, depicting efforts to diversify the sub-
       sector.


       7.4       AGRICULTURAL SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


         Table 7.1:      Agriculture Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                 Objectives                                              Performance Target
                 Department of Crops
To prevent soil erosion              To promote construction of gully control structures     Crop germination to be increased by 40%
                                                                                             in 2006 and by 80% in 2009.
                                        To promote construction of contour banks and         Increase soil fertility by 50% in 2009
                                        diversion channels
To promote conservation methods         To conduct EIA on all major projects                 -
and optimal use of natural resources.   Promote use of animal manure in improving soil       Increase of yield to 400kg/ha by 2009.
                                        fertility
                                        Enhance production of seedlings of both fruit and    Reduction in imports of fruit by 40% in
                                        non-fruit trees                                      2009.
                                        Facilitate plantation of woodlots within farms       Increase soil fertility by 30% in 2009
To prevent veldt fire arising from      To educate the public on veldt fires management      No veldt fires by 2009.
burning of agricultural land            policy and put in place the necessary precautions.
                                        To finalize the Veldt fires Management Policy.       Veldt fires policy to be implemented by
                                                                                             beginning of 2004.
To encourage the implementation of      To conduct EIA on the new technologies before        -
friendly or appropriate technologies.   adopting them.
                                        To promote the use of environmentally friendly       Increased soil fertility by 80% in 2009.
                                        fertilizers and pesticides




                                                                                                                              66
Goal                                 Objectives                                           Performance Target
                                     To conduct surveys which will assess soil salinity   Identification of good arable land and be
                                                                                          depicted in soil maps accompanying land
                                                                                          use plans.
                   Animal Health and Production
To improve livestock production    To diversify and sustain livestock production          No imports of fresh milk and other dairy
                                   through       implementation      of     appropriate   products by 2009.
                                   technologies.
                                   To achieve a healthy livestock population through      To reduce disease out break by 2009.
                                   effective disease prevention and control measures.
                                   To encourage practice of integrated farming by         Integrated farming adopted by half of the
                                   mixing crops and livestock.                            farmers in 2009.
Development of extension services  Improvement of the housing situation in the            Construction of houses
                                   district.




       7.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

       7.5.1     Evaluation Of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
       The use of pesticides has increased over the years, but encouraging implementation of
       friendly/appropriate technologies like fertilizers and pesticides are good as pest and diseases
       combatants, but most of them are hazardous to the environment and are a health risk. It is
       therefore important to monitor their impact as they continue to be used. As a mitigation
       measure, a periodic environmental impact assessment would be done to determine their impact
       on non-target species such as plants, soils and water.

       An Environmental Impact Assessment will be undertaken to determine the general impact of
       friendly/appropriate technologies to be able to prepare management plan thereof for each
       discipline.

       The goal on improvement of livestock production would have a negative environmental impact
       as the district is already faced with land degradation. The district would embark on establishing
       the stocking rate.

       7.5.2     Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
       Some programmes such as NAMPAADD may encourage the increase of settlements in
       different parts of the district.

       The Fencing Policy might lead to unprecedented range degradation and inefficient grazing
       system and due to land scarcity the policy might not be fully utilized in SED.

       The Animal breeding Policy might also lead to land degradation.




                                                                                                                          67
   7.6         STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   7.6.1        Crop Production and Forestry Sub Sector


       Table 7.2:         Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goals                       Project                                  Potential Impacts                  Mitigation Measures
To     improve   and        To establish        6    horticultural   Loss of vegetation cover due to    Undertake an Environmental
commercialize arable        projects.                                land clearing.                     Impact Assessment and socio-
agriculture                                                                                             economic studies.
                                                                     Depletion of underground
                                                                     water resources as a result of
                                                                     increased number of irrigation
                                                                     projects.
                            To develop 2 irrigation schemes.         Loss of vegetation cover due to    Undertake an environmental
                                                                     land clearing.                     impact assessment and socio-
                                                                                                        economic studies.
                                                                     Soil    and     surface  water
                                                                     contamination from use of          Collaboration     with    other
                                                                     pesticides and agrochemical.       stakeholders               e.g.
                                                                                                        environmentalists     in    the
                                                                     Increased soil and salinity due    development of environmentally
                                                                     to excessive use of fertilizer.    friendly     pest   management
                                                                                                        programmes.
                            To rehabilitate 1 dam.                   Loss of vegetation cover due to    Undertake an environmental
                                                                     land clearing.                     impact assessment and socio-
                                                                                                        economic studies.
                                                                     Erosion, noise and dust from
                                                                     machinery.                         Fencing of dam.

                                                                     Overgrazing.
To encourage the            To establish 5 beekeeping projects,      Land use segregation               N/A
implementation       of     construct 2 water tanks, upgrade 1
friendly/appropriate        farmer      demonstration   apiary,
technologies                establish 1 demonstration apiary &
                            rehabilitate 2 apiaries.
                            To clear the ALDEP backlog, have         Soil erosion                       Farmers to use row planting
                            demonstrations         and    crop
                            competitions.
                            To undertake an agro processing          N/A                                N/A
                            feasibility study.
To prevent soil erosion     Land Rehabilitation at Tlokweng,         None                               None
                            Kike, Mogobane, Metsimaswaane,
                            Ramotswa/Dikgatlhong
Development           of    Construction of 2 ADS houses             Loss of vegetable cover due to     Landscaping
extension services.                                                  bush clearing                      Use low noise machinery during
                            Renovation of office for DAHP                                               construction and sprinkle water
                                                                     Soil erosion, noise and dust due   daily on the construction site.
                                                                     to construction.




To improve livestock        Anthrax QE,        CA    &    Rabies     Soil erosion, degradation.         Alternate vaccination areas.
production.                 Vaccination.

                            Farmers Training.

                            Bolus insertion.

                            Veterinary   inoculator‘s     fresher    None                               N/A
                            course.




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7.7        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

7.7.1       Issues and Strengths for Agriculture


   Table 7.3:      Issues and Strengths for Agriculture
Issues                                                       Strengths
Low production of arable crops and horticultural yields      Demonstration farms and officers based in the district.
Endemic drought leading to low yields and negative impact    Effective disease control and prevention
on livestock industry
Low adoption of improved technologies                        Strategically deployed skilled staff
Low adoption of integrated pest management techniques        Availability of funds
due to farmers attitudes
Lack of markets for Agricultural products
Shortage of land in SED is a constraint to agricultural
developments
Weak and outdated Legislation
Poor Communication network like roads



7.7.2       Resource Requirement and Implementation schedule for DDP6


   Table 7.4:      Resource Requirements and Implementation Schedule for DDP6
Goal                                                   Project Component                    Estimated Cost     Year

To      encourage      the     implementation     of   Clear ALDEP backlog                  900 000            2003/04
friendly/appropriate technologies                      Demonstrations                       100 000            2004/05
                                                       Crop competitions                     20 000            2005/06
                                                       Farmer Training                      100 000            2003/04
Development of extension services                      Construction of ADs houses            274 337           2004/05
                                                       Renovation of DAHP office             617 000           2004/05
To improve and commercialize arable agriculture        Agro processing Feasibility study     112 500           2003/04

                                                       EIA Study on irrigation and           200 000           2003/04
                                                       water development
                                                       Design & Installation                 200 000           2004/05
                                                       Design & Installation                 500 000           2005/06
                                                       Monitoring                            200 000           2008/09
To prevent soil erosion                                Land Rehabilitation                  1 129 800          2003/04        -
                                                                                                               2008/09
To improve livestock production                        Anthrax QE, CA & Rabies              654 000            2003/09
                                                       Vaccination
                                                       Farmers Training                     300 000            2003/09
                                                       Bolus insertion                      420 000            2003/09
                                                       Veterinary inoculator‘s fresher        9 000            2003/09
                                                       course


7.7.3       Plan Monitoring Program
Respective departments would prepare Quarterly financial and physical progress report and
Annual Performance Plans for discussion at the District Development Committee. Also there
would be annual reviews of these plans leading to the DDP 6 Midterm Review after three years
of implementation




                                                                                                                         69
CHAPTER 8
8        TRADE, INDUSTRY, WILDLIFE AND TOURISM

8.1      INTRODUCTION

The Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism sector is viewed as a sailing boat that would take
Botswana‘s narrow economic base to a diversified, broad economy that would yield products
which can with stand global competition thereby attaining the prosperous, productive and
innovative pillar of the Vision 2016. A number of policies put in place by the Government
have the potential to re-orientate Botswana‘s reliant in diamond sector to a multi-faceted
production base. This would entail facilitating involvement of communities by encouraging
them to venture in activities that will yield socio-economic benefits and at the same time
conserve the environment, and privatisation of government services where the private sector
has comparative advantage. The results of this are two-tied, on one hand it would promote
citizen empowerment and create employment opportunities and on the other hand it would curb
rural-urban migration. Among the sub-sector in this ministry, tourism and trade can easily be
developed to benefit the rural populace in the SED.

Industry and trade have not progressed well as depicted by few industries in the local economy
and the un-diversified commercial sector. Efforts to boost the commercial and industrial
resource base will be will be pursued during the plan period in view of the potential of the
district in terms of better means of transport (rail and road) its closeness to the two urban
centres which can provide an extended market for local products and the established
commercial ventures.

Within the district, the tourism sector has under-performed though there is a potential for
tourism development which will be exploited during DDP6.

The challenge is to diversify the tourism product from that of the eco- Tourism and encourage
local community participation in tapping historical and cultural resources to diversify the
product in the southern part of the Country. It is in this area that South East will have a chance
to explore and identify tourism attraction sites and products.

Furthermore there are a number of scenic sites that could be developed for tourism and tourism
trails from the neighbouring Districts like Kweneng, Gaborone and Lobatse could be extended
to cover South East. Its boundary with South Africa and the three border posts opens it for
international tourism.

8.1.1    Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism (MTIWT) is responsible for creating an
enabling environment for promotion of trade and industry in the country. It is also responsible
for the development and dissemination of information on tourism industry, sustain wildlife
population and its habitats. For the Ministry to effectively carry out its mandate, it has been
restructured and formed two ministries of Trade and Industry and that of Wildlife, Tourism and
Environment. At the district level, these two ministries comprise of the following departments:
Industrial Affairs, Wildlife and National Parks.


                                                                                             70
The department of Industrial Affairs is charged with the responsibility of entrepreneurial
development of small scale and micro businesses. The communities are given training in
required artisan and technological skills. This fulfils the challenge that the department faces in
Vision 2016 of having diversified, self-sustaining and competitive industries which would
contribute significantly to gross domestic product.

The district-based department of Wildlife and National Parks office is responsible for
conservation of indigenous wildlife resources and habitants both within and outside the
protection area and their associated activities.

Within the district council there is the department of commercial affairs which is responsible
for issuing licenses to hawkers, street vendors, retail outlets and industrial activities. The unit
also monitors these businesses and ensures that they operate within the confines of the issued
license.

8.1.1.1 Strategic Plans for the Ministry
National Development Plans call for Botswana to focus on sustainable growth and
diversification of the economy through the development of sustainable enterprises and
employment creation. In order for the Ministry to contribute towards the long term vision of
the country, it would during DDP 6 cover issues of sustainable growth and diversification
under which the issues of stakeholders partnership, citizen empowerment, use of local
resources, global competitiveness, industrialisation, manufacturing, trade, small scale
businesses, tourism and wildlife fall.

As one of its challenges during the plan period, the Ministry would also promote sustainable
utilisation of Botswana‘s wildlife resources as well as the commercial exploitation of its tourist
attraction.

8.1.2    Role of the Private Sector
Private sector is generally involved in the development of the country through joint venture
partnership like the Vulture study Group; which is a working group of the Endangered Wildlife
Trust which is involved with the conservation of vultures. Also, investment promotions are
highly supported by the private sector through business activities.

8.1.3    Consultation Priorities
       The community felt that it was about time that recreational parks are developed in the
        district. The business community complained about delays in provision of serviced
        plot.
       It was noted that indeed people had abused the Financial Assistance Policy.
       Regarding wildlife, the community raised a concern that wildlife causes a lot of damage
        to their livestock and crops and compensation is minimal.


8.2      NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

8.2.1    National Tourism Policy
The National Tourism policy and the recently developed eco- tourism draft strategy of 2001 are
expected to bring desired results in the tourism development.

                                                                                              71
8.2.2    Privatisation Policy
The Privatisation Policy of April 2000 is also expected to create opportunities for local
empowerment and community participation as jobs will be created through out-sourcing some
of council‘s activities. To date council has not out-sourced any of its functions but
consideration has been made for refuse collection. Draft guidelines from the Department of
Sanitation and Waste Management for this undertaking has been availed to Councils for
consideration. The move towards privatisation is expected to realise efficiency within
government service delivery system as well as have positive implications of citizen
empowerment.

8.2.3    Industrial Development Policy
The Industrial Development Policy, which accentuates on industrial development, regulates
activities of manufacturing enterprises. The Policy requires that employees with less than 10
employees should have an industrial license prior to engaging in any processes. The policy is
also emphatic on provision of serviced land to encourage private participation.

Also, within the District Council, there is commercial affairs unit which is responsible for
issuance of trade licences and monitoring businesses to ensure that they operate within the
confines of the issued license.

The district has serviced 22 industrial and 16 commercial plots in Lenganeng in 1998 and 69
plots in the Selokwane industrial. The major setback is lack of development by allotees. Mostly
people acquire land for speculation purposes, thereby resulting in delay in developing them and
a further delay by hampering the realization of the achievement of the envisaged industrial and
commercial development.

8.2.4    Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act Consumer Protection Act
The Act was enacted by parliament in 1992, and it deals mainly with conservation and
protection of the Fauna and Flora for sustainable utilisation by the future generation. It also
deals with the protection, conservation and management of wildlife in the country. In the
district, Manyelanong Game reserve is one of the protected areas.

8.2.5    Consumer Protection Act
The act deals with business malpractice and faulty goods to protect the consumers. This act is
hardly realised in this district as the implementing unit is based in Gaborone. The populace in
the district has to therefore seek advice there.

8.2.6    National Licensing Act
The act is cited as the Trade and Liquor Act. It is implemented by district councils through the
Commercial Affairs unit. It is mainly responsible for issuing licenses and monitoring of
hawkers, street vendors, retail outlets and industrial activities.




                                                                                           72
8.2.7    Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA)
CEDA was established in 2001 and Financial Assistance Policy was terminated. CEDA mainly
is concerned with economic diversification, employment creation, and Entrepreneural
development and poverty alleviation. Some entrepreneurs in the district have benefited.

8.2.8    Local Procurement Programme
The programme was reviewed in 2000/01 and it was found that the programme had positive
impact as a result it was extended to local authorities. The policy deals with procurement and
encouraging local entrepreneurs to produce quality goods and services. At the district level,
30% should be procured from local entrepreneurs.

8.2.9    Wildlife conservation (Hunting and Licensing) Regulations 2001
Wildlife conservation and hunting regulations were effected in October 2001 to regulate
hunting in Botswana Licenses which can be issued in South East are bird license and
landholders privilege.

8.2.10 Ostrich Management Plan Policy of 1994
The policy advocates for the promotion of ostrich conservation through sustainable utilisation
in accordance with the wildlife conservation policy. It also calls for commercial exploitation in
a sustainable and responsible manner. For the district due to limited land, ostrich farming can
create a lot of problems, as an 800 meters buffer should be kept between the birds and the
chickens for purposes of disease control. However, there is one functional ostrich farm and two
people have been given a go ahead to rear these.


8.3      TRADE AND INDUSTRY

8.3.1    Financial Assistance Policy
Financial Assistance Policy (FAP) default rate has been high mostly due to the following
reasons: First, lack of serviced industrial and commercial plots make it difficult for
entrepreneurs to undertake proposed businesses. Secondly, high utility costs have threatened
the viability of many projects. Thirdly, sources of funding for owners contribution have
remained limited. Financial institutions do not find small-scale entrepreneurs a very attractive
clientele. Fourthly, most products are of poor quality and face fierce competition from better
quality and competitively priced quality. Fifth, endemic project failures are due to lack of
commitment from promoters, inadequate technical and managerial skills and high labour
turnover. Sixth, there had been prevalent abuse of FAP. Some beneficiaries acquire FAP
funded assets to re-sell or use for other purposes. Unscrupulous supplies collude with
promoters to supply poor quality materials and machinery. Finally, shortage of manpower and
transport to effectively monitor implementation of FAP negatively affects projects. It is after a
series of these failures that a decision was made to have FAP taken over by CEDA.

Due to lack of housing units in the district, the staff has been suffering from lack of residential
accommodation.




                                                                                              73
8.3.2    Citizen Entrepreneur Development Agency (CEDA)
Citizen Entrepreneur Development Agency has been established to consolidate existing as well
as future citizen empowerment schemes. A restructuring exercise in the Ministry of Commerce
and Industry has considered the possibility of Industrial Field Services operating under a Local
Enterprise Authority. The Ministry has also released a strategic plan, which guides the
Ministry to become an efficient service provider. With these new reforms, it is difficult to
suggest the form and pace at which these policy reforms should be or their relationships or
assess their expected impact yet. Though as of now indications of reluctance on the uptake of
the programme can be detected as people are mostly discouraged by the details required in the
applications, concerted efforts in pursuance to community mobilisation will be emphasised
during the plan period.

8.3.3    Local Procurement Programme
Local Procurement Programme is expected to encourage local contractors/suppliers to compete
with their foreign counterparts. The scheme is expected to economically boost locals for them
to be able to compete globally as enunciated in the NDP9 theme. It is furthermore expected
that participation of the private sector will increase as opportunities enlarges; the new
privatisation policy is expected to create opportunities for locals as more jobs are contracted
out and hived-off to the private sector.

8.3.4    Tourism
Tourism has been identified as an economic sub-sector with potential to contribute to economic
diversification, thus identified as an engine of growth. The major thrust of the industry has
been to accrue as much as possible net socio-economic benefits from tourism resources such as
scenic beauty, wildlife and unique ecological and cultural characteristics. The benefits of
tourism are expected to create employment for rural dwellers, reduce the urban drift and also to
increase participation of locals in the ownership and management of tourism enterprises. The
formulated National Tourism Strategy is envisaged to enhance tourism potential in the district
and encourages exploration of alternative tourism development which is not based on
ecological resource.

In the district, the potential tourist attraction area include Lentswe la Baratani, Manyelanong,
Old Manganese mine etc. During DDP 5 a preliminary inventory of tourism attraction areas
including potential areas was completed. These areas will need to be developed to be made
more attractive and further the notion of protecting them. Communities will also be encouraged
to take advantage of such sites for development through Community Based Natural Resources
Management (CBNRM). The approach is three-tied, it realizes devolving resource tenure and
user rights to the community. i.e. decentralizes management of resources, it achieves effective
and efficient management of resources and lastly it achieves rural development as income
accrues to communities. Within the CBNRM, there is a recognized positive relationship
between conservation and income generation.

With the above availability of a preliminary profile on tourist attractions, there will be need to
adequately emphasis on tourism development during DDP6.

The cape vulture could have been the best tourist attraction area but due to their sensitivity to
noise the area is not visited. A centre has been developed during DDP5 and it is open to the
public for information on the vultures.



                                                                                             74
Though privately owned there are parks and conservation centres in the district namely the
Mokolodi Conservation and the Lion Park. These attract a lot of visitors.

Old Manganese Mine and Lentswe la Baratani (the Hill of Lovers) are also historical attraction
sites.

8.3.5    Wildlife
The district-based Wildlife Department is responsible for all wild life activities in the district.
The office was set up to protect a colony of cape vultures breeding in Manyelanong Hill. Due
to the decline of the cape vultures in the past years, the area was protected in 1985. The office
is additionally responsible for combating poaching, control problem animals and teaching the
people of South East district about the importance of wildlife conservation or natural resources
conservation through Kgotla meetings and addressing school children in their respective
schools. As for Association of Environmental Clubs of Botswana, the office covers both the
South East and Southern Districts.

An increasing human population disturbs the vulture habitat and has led to a steady decline in
the number of chicks born each year. This could lead to extinction of the Cape Vulture species
in Botswana if it goes unchecked. During this plan period, measures to protect vultures will be
intensified.

It is difficult to be exact on the number of wildlife population in the district because it is
difficult to conduct aerial surveys due to the hilly terrain, however the department is in a
process of doing road counts. Even though it is difficult to count animals from the air, the
population of animals has grown, though most of the animals are on privately owned land like
Mokolodi Nature Reserves and Lion Park. Patrols are ongoing to monitor animals so as to
combat poaching or any illegal capture or translocation.

In view of assimilation wildlife conservation in school curricula and programmes the
department has encouraged a number of wildlife clubs in school.

8.3.6    Wildlife farming
Wildlife has recently gained ground as an alternative and viable venture to rearing of livestock,
as depicted by the increasing number of ostrich farms. To this end there are 3 of them in the
district and more participation is needed in this venture.




                                                                                              75
8.4         TRADE, INDUSTRY, WILDLIFE AND TOURISM SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 8.1:      Trade, Industry, Wildlife and Tourism Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                                    Objectives                                                                   Performance Target
                            Industrial Affairs
Increased industrial and commercial development         Establishment of Vibrant Self sustaining firms in industries that can meet   Establishment of a service centre to advise the local
in the district                                         the challenges of the intensifying regional and international competition    entrepreneurs on their opportunities and access to credit by
                                                                                                                                     2006/07.
                                                        Development of a business culture in the district to be able to produce      Satisfied consumers who are willing to buy locally by 2004/05.
                                                        high quality goods and tradable services in a manner that does not erode
                                                        and compromise consumer interest.
To enhance private sector participation/investment      To provide serviced land for private development and construct factory       Establishment of more companies in the district by 2004/05
                                                        shells and market stalls.
                                                        To create opportunities through privatization of some of the public          Reduction of bureaucracy in the assistance of the general
                                                        services.                                                                    public and provision of a one stop service by 2004/05
                                                        To facilitate training and equipping staff with appropriate work             Motivated staff
                                                        competences
To enhance efficiency and effectiveness of the          To provide staff housing                                                     Provision of staff houses by 2003/04
staff through adequate provision of infrastructure
                             Wildlife and National Parks
Sustain wildlife population and Habitats            To protect endangered species                                                    An increase in the number of wildlife in the district throughout
                                                                                                                                     the plan period
                                                        To intensify patrols                                                         Less number of poaching cases by the end of the plan period




To encourage communities to utilize wildlife            To educate the public about the importance of wildlife and conservation      The increased number of CBNRM by 2004/05
resources sustainably                                   of the same.
                                                        To combat poaching or any illegal capture or translocation of wildlife       Less reported cases of poaching and illegal capture of wildlife
                                                                                                                                     by the end of the plan period
                                                        To manage or intensify measures to protect the cape vultures species in      An increase in the number of birds born per year
                                                        Botswana
To develop sustainable physical infrastructure          To motivate staff to perform to acceptable standards                         Offices and a house built by 2004/05.
                           Department of Tourism
To develop the district as a tourist destination area   To encourage CBNRM to instigate viable tourism oriented projects             Tourist projects in the area




                                                                                                                                                                                               76
Goal                                             Objectives                                                              Performance Target
                                                 To diversify the local resource base from small business ventures to    Diversification into tourism activities
                                                 tourism activities like cultural village, hotels.
                                                 To have an information base for people interested in eco-tourism        To have updated a profile on historical sites and tourists sites
                                                                                                                         by 2003
To facilitate development and implementation     To involve the community in planning, development, implementation and   The number of viable community projects
activities of the tourism industry through       management of tourism related projects
partnership with the public and private sector   To hold workshops to empower communities with viable tourism projects   The number of workshops held in the district
organizations




                                                                                                                                                                                   77
8.5      FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

8.5.1    Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
8.5.1.1 Industrial Affairs
Goal 1 and 2: The increased industrial and commercial development in the district would lead
to littering at both the individual, community and enterprise levels. It would also lead to
debushing especially for new business ventures. To combat these there will be need to have a
coordinated litter management at both the individual, community and enterprise level.

The new enterprises would be encouraged to landscape and preserve some of the trees that
were found in the plots.

Goal 3 would lead to land biodiversity, waste generated from construction and indiscriminate
dumping and unsightly stockpiling of waste during construction.

8.5.1.2 Wildlife and National Parks
Goal 1: An increased population of wildlife may ultimately lead to degradation and conflict
between wildlife and the public. There would be continuous monitoring of wildlife population
to guard against soil erosion.

Goal 2: There is no negative environmental impact.

Goal 3: There would be debushing and felling of trees. Depending on the type of roofing,
wildlife might be scared off and be displaced. Also soil erosion might result.

8.5.1.3 Department of Tourism
Goal 1: Major activities undertaken may lead to felling of trees. This will affect the scenic
beauty of the area. Aesthetic quality in the development of hotels would be emphasised. There
will also be conflicting land uses, as some of these will encroach in agricultural land calling for
change of use.

Goal 2 does not have any environmental impact.

8.5.2    Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
8.5.2.1 Ostrich Farming Policy of 1994
The policy advocates for the promotion of Ostrich conservation through sustainable utilization
in accordance with the wildlife conservation policy of 1986. Ostrich farming in SED can create
a lot of problems. In order for a place to be approved as an ostrich farm, it must be 800 metres
from where chickens are kept for the purposes of disease control. For the district, due to acute
shortage of land this is impossible except on private farms. Also, air pollution may result from
rearing of ostriches.




                                                                                              78
8.5.2.2 Industrial Development Policy
The Industrial Development Policy accentuates on industrial development and regulates
activities of manufacturing enterprises. The policy is also emphatic on provision of serviced
land to encourage private participation.

The policy may encourage encroachment into agricultural land and servicing of land may lead
to loss of vegetation and tree species due to bush clearing and indiscriminate dumping. Also,
infrastructural developments that are likely to arise would have an effect on land biodiversity.




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8.6        STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE TRADE, INDUSTRY, TOURISM AND WILDLIFE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

8.6.1      Proposed Projects


   Table 8.2:     Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goal                          Project component           Environmental impact                   Mitigation Measures            Total Estimated Cost   Year of implementation
                        Department of Wildlife and National Parks
To develop sustainable Wildlife Office Block Displacement of animal species                      Selective debushing/           500 000                2004/5
physical infrastructure       Extension at Otse           and removal of vegetation              Cutting of trees shall be
                                                                                                 done and landscaping
                               2 x 3 bedroomed house at     Removal        of     vegetation,    Landscaping,         rubbles   400 000
                               Otse for Wildlife Officers   indiscriminate    dumping    and     dumped at the dumping site
                                                            pollution                            & use water to control dust.

                                                                                                                                                       2005/06
Sustain wildlife populations   Aerial and ground counts     N/A                                  N/A
and habitats                   of animals in the district                                                                                              2003 -2009
                                                                                                                                300 000
To encourage communities CBNRM                              N/A                                  N/A                            100 000                2004 - 2005
to utilise wildlife resources
sustainably
                        Department of Industrial Affairs
To enhance efficiency and 2 medium cost houses              Land       biodiversity.    Waste    Construction waste should      398 013                2003/04
effectiveness of the staff                                  generated from construction.         be disposed off at the
through adequate provision                                  Indiscriminate     dumping     and   landfill.
of infrastructure                                           unsightly stockpiling of waste



* Tourism related activities would be held if and only if the community has proposed tourism activities in the area. Therefore these are not
estimated for per district.




                                                                                                                                                                                80
   .
   8.6.2        Mitigation measures
   Ensuring strict adherence to waste management in all investors‘ factories, strict monitoring on
   disposal of waste from investment; landfill facilities must be used, planting of trees to replace
   debushed vegetation during structure construction, proper drainage systems and landscaping
   must be taken into account.


   8.7         RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

   8.7.1        Issues and strengths for Trade and Industry


         Table 8.3:    Issues and Strengths for Trade and Industry
Issues                                                                 Strengths
                                   Industrial Affairs
Lack of diversification of the trade sector in the rural economy as    A comprehensive and clear Industrial Development Policy
it is skewed towards general dealers and butcheries
High failure of most of the industries resulting in loss of
employment by locals
Location of business enterprises along the road reserve affects the
aesthetic scene of the district villages.
The incidence of vandalism reverses district‘s efforts to lure
investment into the district
There is need for district tourism officers as well as environmental
liaison officers.
                              Wildlife Department
Concentration of wildlife species in private farms denies the          Issuance of hunting application forms to other areas
people in the district the opportunity to hunt.
Lack of manpower to improve capacity to guard against poaching         Sensitisation of the community on wildlife conservation
                                                                       Intensive patrol to guard against poaching and problem animal
                                                                       control.




   8.7.2        Plan Monitoring Programme
   Respective departments would prepare Quarterly financial and physical progress report and
   Annual Performance Plans for discussion at the District Development Committee. Also there
   would be annual reviews of these plans leading to the DDP 6 Midterm Review after three years
   of implementation.




                                                                                                                              81
CHAPTER 9
9        EDUCATION AND TRAINING

9.1     INTRODUCTION

Education has been recognized as a means of empowerment. It is through education that
human resources are developed as depicted by the use of the literacy level as human
development indicator. The district intention is to ensure that all educational plans are geared
towards achieving one of the visions pillars of ―an educated and informed nation.‖ Informed,
because the strategy is to go beyond provision of education to the school going age. The out of
school category and also the old generation of our society would also be reached. Through the
Brigades, citizens would be empowered to become best producers of goods and services.
Provision of the requisite skills will facilitate the development of not only of the educated and
informed but also that of a prosperous, productive and innovative workforce in the district
which will enhance the diversification and sustainability of the Botswana economy. Primary
education as a base for human capital development would be given priority during this plan
period.

9.1.1    Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Education is charged with the responsibility of providing quality education
accessible to all through curriculum development, pre-service and in-service training of
teachers. To effectively carry out its mandate, the ministry has the following departments;
Primary, Junior and Senior Secondary Education, Non-Formal, Tertiary and Vocational
Education. The Ministry of Local Government through district councils, shares the
responsibility with the Ministry of Education in primary education. Councils are responsible
for school buildings and grounds, supplies and teachers‘ housing.

9.1.2    Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
9.1.2.1 Ministry of Education
The Ministry in pursuance of implementation of the Revised National Policy on Education
would provide an environment conducive for teaching and learning. The Ministry is also
charged with ensuring that education reaches all irrespective of the cultural, physical ability,
economic status or geographical location of such populace.

The Ministry would increase access to vocational and technical education through an
accelerated expansion of Vocational Education Training system. A number of Technical
Colleges would be built around the country and the existing colleges and brigades would be
upgraded to increase their enrolment capacities. Teaching staff would also be upgraded with
the introduction of a College for Technical and Vocational Education which is yet to be built.

9.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The MLG is responsible for provision of a teaching and learning environment by construction
of school buildings, provision of ancillary staff, procurement of textbooks, stationary and



                                                                                            82
equipments, feeding and provision of teachers housing and transportation needs of the teachers
and pupils.

9.1.2.3 Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs
Working closely with the Ministry of Education on vocational training is the Ministry of
Labour and Home Affairs. The Ministry is assigned the overall responsibility for policy on
vocational education and training. The Botswana Training Authority advises the Minister on
policy matters.

9.1.3    Role of the Private Sector
The private sector‘s contribution to education is quite high with a number of private primary
schools in the district. This also applies to pre-schools.

With regard to non-formal education, the SOS, Tlamelong Rehabilitation Centre and BPC
provide learning facilities and allocate time to their employees to attend literacy lessons.

Regarding brigade training schools, these are community-based organizations which are
regulated through Deed of Trust, with government contribution being grants and capital
development. These are charged with provision of quality training with production skills.

9.1.4    Consultation Priorities
The community was concerned on the distance traveled by some pupils to schools and called
for provision of new schools. Also, it was felt that classrooms should be well equipped with
air-conditioning.

The community felt that provisions of gardens are a necessity in schools which lack such a
facility and that all schools should be electrified and be provided with computers.

There is no proper curriculum for pre-schools.

The curriculum for primary schools does not provide for vocation education hence the lack of
early interest in the vocational training for the youth.


9.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

9.2.1    Revised National Policy on Education
The education system in Botswana is guided by the Revised National Policy on Education. The
policy accentuates on a well-structured system, which will meet the demands of the labour
market. It further articulates on the need for proper learning environment in terms of provision
of physical infrastructure and efficient educational delivery and impart by teachers.

The RNPE has a mandatory position of enriching curriculum delivery through training of
teachers at district and inspectoral level. Inspection of schools would also enrich curriculum
implementation in the district. While for brigades, the policy guides future development of
vocational education and training. It recognises that attention should be focused on a training
system which is distinct from general education.




                                                                                           83
For special education, the district has incorporation special education in some of its schools
system for the mentally retarded children.

9.2.2    Policy on Tertiary Education
The major emphasis of the policy is on provision of ―a high level manpower and research
support needed for economic development.‖ The policy encompasses skills level training for
both formal and informal sectors as well as promoting life long training as an integral part of
human resource development. The skills training would achieve Botswana‘s development
objectives as education is recognized as a form of economic empowerment.


9.3     EDUCATION

9.3.1.1 Pre-schools Education
Against the backdrop of a well-structured guideline on pre-primary education the district has to
this end made an effort to integrate pre-primary education in the primary education in one
school. For lack of the referred to guideline there has not been any plans to further improve on
the pre-primary education system.

9.3.1.2 Primary Education
The curriculum formulation, and human resource development and management, and the
development of primary education are the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. The
Ministry of Local Government and specifically District Councils are charged with the
responsibility of provision of primary education facilities and schools supplies (books and
stationery).

To achieve an improved education delivery system the training of teaches shall be pursued
during DDP6. Teacher quality is deemed as an important input into basic education.
Furthermore teachers training form basic qualifications of Primary teachers Certificate (PTC)
to Diploma in Primary Education. Currently of the 364 trained teachers 229 are PTC holders
represented by 62%, which is unacceptable on the higher side if we are to achieve quality
education.

The district has a total of 19 primary schools with an enrolment of 8789 pupils and 353
teachers. An annual increase of 10% is expected with a resultant of 472 classroom deficit.

The problems that were encountered during implementation are that the policy stipulates that
for every two classrooms built there should be one teachers‘ house. This policy has
contributed to the backlog of teachers‘ quarters. This backlog is reflected in table 9.1.

The Disability Policy stipulates that units should be set up to integrate the disabled children
with the normal ones in primary schools. The policy has a shortcoming in the sense that it does
not have provision for these children beyond the seven years of primary schooling.




                                                                                           84
    Table 9.1:      Education Roll, Facilities and Backlog
Name Of School               Roll        No.        Of   Streams        C/R      Def/Sup        T/Q   DEF/SUP   P/L   W/C   P/L +   Def/Sup      A/B   S/K
                                         Teachers                                Of C/R               OF T/Q                W/C     Of Toilets
1. Baratani                  320         15              14             12       -2             12    -4        3     19    22      -2           1     1
12. Batlokwa                 638         23              22             22       -              13    -10       -     28    28      -14          1     1
3. Botsalano                 618         20              19             19       -              13    -7        -     29    29      -9           1     1
4. Ketswherebothata          634         21              20             20       -              18    -3        -     27    27      -13          1     1
5. Kgetheng                  324         13              12             12       -              7     -6        -     15    15      -9           1     1
6. Kgosikgosi                276         12              12             12       -              4     -8        -     13    13      -11          1     1
7. Lesetlhana                641         22              21             21       -              17    -5        4     34    38      -4           1     1
8. Mafitlhakgosi             640         22              21             22       +1             17    -3        2     23    25      -19          1     1
9. Magopane                  375         17              15             20       +5             17    -         3     24    27      -13          1     1
10. Mogobane                 387         15              14             14       -              9     -6        -     18    18      -10          1     1
11. Mojadife                 142         8               7              7        -              6     -2        4     7     11      -1           1     1
12. Mokgosi Iii              706         29              26             25       -1             9     -20       4     27    31      -19          1     1
13. Otse                     528         19              18             16       -2             13    -6        6     20    26      -6           1     1
14. Seboko                   771         24              23             24       +1             20    -4        2     36    38      -10          1     1
15. Siga                     578         20              19             18       -1             13    -7        8     26    26      -10          1     1
Sub Total                    7578        280             263            264      6 Def, 7-Sup   158   -107      36    346   382     -150         15    15
16. St. Bernard‘s            433         16              16             14       -2             10    -6        5     18    23      -7           1     1
17. St. Conrad‘s             636         22              20             26       +6             6     -16       16    7     23      -21          1     1
18. St. Joseph‘s             150         8               7              6        -1             4     -4        3     8     11      -1           -     1
19‘ School For The Deaf      99          14              13             12       -1             4     -10       -     -     -       -30          -     1
Sub – Total                  1318        62              56             58       4 Def, 6 Sup   182   -36       24    33    57      -59          2     4
GRAND – TOTAL                8896        342             319            322      10Def,13sup    170   -143      60    379   439     -209         17    19
Source: South East District Council, 2002            KEY:      C/R = Classrooms
                                                               T/Q = Teachers Quarters
                                                               P/L = Pit Latrines
                                                               W/C = Water Closets
                                                               A/B = Administration Block
                                                               S/K = School Kitchen




                                                                                                                                                        85
    Table 9.10: Primary Education Achievements and Backlog
Facility                                   Planned           Achieved            Current Backlog
Classrooms                                 24                88                  42
Teachers‘ quarters                         62                115                 69
Toilets                                    48                66                  66
Administration Blocks                      4                 3                   1
Hostels                                    2                 -                   -
Kitchens                                   4                 3                   -
Electrification                            99


9.3.1.3 Secondary School Education
The Ministry of Education is responsible for planning and construction of secondary schools.
The South East District currently has 11 Secondary schools of which 3 are senior schools as
depicted in the table below. There has been a considerable shortage of teachers in secondary
schools, hence the use of unqualified teachers. However this options compromises the quality
and mode of education impartation to students. It is nevertheless the only plausible option in
view of shortage of teachers in the country. Efforts to increase teacher enrolment in teacher
training colleges are in place and it is anticipated that midway DDP6 all unqualified teachers
will be phased out.

Major expansion of both community and senior secondary schools that was experienced during
the DDP5 has eased classroom and teachers‘ accommodation problems. Expansion should
continue to keep pace with increases in student enrolment. However, at Kagiso Senior
Secondary School, expansion and the consequent increase in the enrolment has put pressure on
boarding facilities. There is still a deficit of classrooms in some of the junior secondary
schools.

    Table 9.1:    Secondary Schools
School           Enrolment   Streams   Class         Specialist   Hall   Teachers                      Houses
                                       rooms         rooms
                                                                         Q      NQ          Total
CJSSs
Baratani         339         9         6             5            1      20     2           22         16
Baitlotli        514         13        8             9            1      30     7           37         22
Kelemogile       752         18        12            8            1      32     6           38         34
Mogobane         187         5         4             5            1      16     2           18         13
Ramotswa         461         12        8             10           1      38     1           39         31
Taung            395         12        8             8            1       29    2           31         23
Matlala          467         13        14            8            0      29     1           30         20
Tlokweng         466         15        12            7            1      32     1           33         26
Senior Schools
Kagiso           1303        42        39            19           2      85     1           86         60
ST Joeseph‘s     1212        36        36            26           3      80     7           87         79
College
Moeding          1570        42        42            24           3      90     2           92         91
Source: Department of Secondary Education, 2002               Key: Q = Qualified, NQ = Not Qualified


In an attempt to integrate special education at secondary school level, a special unit for children
with hearing disability has been introduced in Ramotswa Junior Secondary School. Though



                                                                                                            86
performance of these students has not been satisfactory overtime, intensified education skill
development on teachers will be pursued during DDP6.

The population growth in Tlokweng recorded at 6% as per the 2001 population and housing
census, exhibits a high growth. This growth undoubtedly will indicate a corresponding growth
in the school going population hence the need for provision of a senior secondary school to
adequately absorb Junior Certificate completers. Logically, it has always been assumed that
students will be absorbed in the schools in Gaborone but this has other related social
constraints.

The secondary education curriculum provides for some form of vocational education and
training in practical subjects such as art and design, agriculture and home economics. However
this opportunity is not fully exploited by students since they reluctantly pursues vocational
training after school. Most people who join Brigades do so as a last resort mainly due to the
education system which in the past promoted academic achievement over skills development.

9.3.1.4 Private Schools
Participation of the private sector in the provision of education is relatively minimal. It is more
skewed towards day care centres and pre-schools. To this end there are two private primary
schools and no private secondary schools in the district.

Ramotswa does not have a private school except the Tswelelopele Evening Programme which
offers academic upgrading at Botswana General Certificate of Education level.

9.3.1.5 Non-Formal Education
The Department of Non-Formal Education is charged with the responsibility of provision of
Out of School Educational programmes for adults, youth and children. The programme is
geared towards fulfilling social, cultural, occupational and economic challenges of the diverse
and varied needs of the clientele as guided by the Revised National Policy on Education and
the vision 2016 pillar of ‗an educated and informed nation.‘ Overall the department objective is
to provide equitable and quality lifelong education and training to out of school population by
equipping them with essential and productive life skills.

The Department does not have a vocational education and training curriculum but emphasis in
on reading and writing skills.

A total of 242 learners as per Table 9.2, are registered in the programme. This is quite low in
relation to the district literacy level, which stood at XX% in 2001. It clearly depicts a low
uptake of the programme, as there is a considerable number of the illiterate population.

   Table 9.2:    Learners and Establishment as per Area of Operation in 2001
Cluster         Villages   No. of Adult    No. of Literacy Group   No.    of   No. of Learners   Total
                covered    Educators       Leaders                 Groups
                                                                               M          F
Ramotswa        Taung      1               7                       14          61         73     134
                Boatle
Tlokweng                   1               2                       4           13         12     25
Mogobane        Otse       1               4                       9           31         52     83
Totals                                                                         108        137    242
Source: Department of Non-Formal Education, South East, 2001




                                                                                                 87
The National Literacy Programme provided literacy and income generating projects. The
projects are to be viable and be able to sustain livelihoods or augment the available little
resources of learners as well as provide employment in line with the Visions pillar of
prosperity, innovation and productivity. Literacy at the work place classes were opened at
Tlokweng and Ramotswa and 2 reading rooms are in operation in Otse and Mogobane. Seven
school going age children were transferred to primary schools. While current figures may not
be available, the 1993 National Survey Literacy in Botswana indicated that there were 5681
people aged 12 years and above who have never attended school. There were 163 literacy
learners in 1998, 167 in 1999 and 186 in 2000 in the entire district. Though it is difficult to
assess the impact of the literacy programme because of relapses and drop-outs, the figures are
considered low A day care centre project was established in Ramotswa and is operating
satisfactorily. A bakery project in Mogobane collapsed due to poor management. A screen-
printing project could not be started because the literacy group was unable to raise owners‘
contribution.

During this plan period the Adult Basic Education Course should be improved to a level of
Primary School Leaving Examination (PCLE), parallel primary education course for out of
school children shall be provided.

9.3.1.6 Special Education
The district has 5 special unit centres, one in Tlokweng, Tlamelong Special Centre, two in
Ramotswa, School for the Deaf and Mokgosi Special Unit; and one in Otse Legodimo Trust.
These are non-government initiatives except for Ramotswa CJSS and Mokgosi Special Unit,
which is are practical efforts of developing special education as an intergral part of regular
education system to promote inclusive practices. These efforts further promote the social
interaction of the disabled with their peers.

A Braille and hydrotherapy unit was constructed during DDP5/NDP8 for the Tlamelong
Special Unit in Tlokweng, there is need for additional facilities in the centre for it to effectively
carry out its duties.

The Mokgosi Special Unit Primary in Ramotswa has 66 students. During DDP5 a modified 25-
seater mini bus was procured for the unit in pursuant to the RNPE which accentuates on
ferrying children to and from school.

9.3.1.7 Tertiary
Brigades

There are two brigades in the district namely Tswelelopele Brigade and Tlokweng Rural
Development Centre. Their main task is to infuse entrepreneurship and skill development
modules in courses provided to enhance innovation within learners in all fronts. This in view
of recent exposure of globalisation, which requires utmost competitiveness and the need for a
relevant training for the labour market situation.

During DDP5, phase 1 of the brigades‘ development projects was implemented and it covered
expansion of Tswelelopele Brigade Centre and Tlokweng Rural Development Centre. The
expansion has enabled the Tswelelopele Brigade Centre and Tlokweng Rural Development
Centre to increase trainee intake by 20% and 99% respectively, the enrolment for the two
facilities are depicted on Tables 9.8 and 9.9 below. Six instructors and 1 accountant were



                                                                                                88
trained at Tswelelopele Brigade Centre. Tswelelopele Brigade has been upgraded to National
Craft Certificate Level.

   Table 9.3:    Tswelelopele Brigade Centre Enrolment
Programmes         Year 1C         Year 2C          Year 3B            NCC 4         NCC 5       NCC       TOTALS
                                                                                                 final
                   M         F     M     F          M         F        M     F       M       F   M     F   M        F
Builders           31        1     13    1          15        1                      23      3   21    1   103      7       110
Auto               9         7     12    3          9         4                                            30       14      44
Carpentry          23        9     23    6          19        10                                           65       25      90
Deaf               4         2     -     -          -         -                                            4        2       6
Draughting         19        5     9     3          18        5                                            46       13      59
Business           7         33    8     23         -         -                                            15       56      71
TOTAL              93        57    65    36         61        20       0     0       23      3             263      117     380
Source: Tswelelopele Brigade Centre 2002.


   Table 9.4:    Tlokweng Brigade Centre Enrolment
PROGRAMMES                Year 1        Year 2           Year 3            Year 4         Year 5      M        F      TOTALS
                          M      F      M F              M     F           M     F        M      F
National Certificate in   3      17     2    15                                                       5        32     37
Secretariat
Cabinet Making            11      2     11     0         10        2                                  32       4      36
Dress Making              -       10    2      10        -         2                                  2        22     24
Computer Operations       9       11                                                                  9        11     20
TOTAL                     23      40    15     25        10        4                                  48       69     117
Source: Tlokweng Brigade Centre, 2002.

During DDP 6, phase 2 of the development of the brigades will be undertaken but
Tswelelopele brigade will not be funded as it benefited in phase I.Also during this plan period
the brigade shall broaden its curriculum to include computer software maintenance, Audio
Electrical course and computer aided design– Architectural Draughting. This is an attempt to
succumb to the labour trends.

However the Tlokweng Rural Development Centre does not offer electronic skills which are a
necessity in the era of computers and sophisticated sound systems and the demand in the
industrial and commercial sectors.

College of Education

The district has one College of Education based in Tlokweng. The facilities in the college were
provided during NDP 7 and no upgrading was done during NDP 8. There has been inadequacy
in facilities and will be upgraded in this plan period.

The curriculum offered is a Diploma in Teaching with relevant areas of specialties. Table 9.8
below depicts the enrolment at the college according to sex and area of specialties.

   Table 9.5:    Enrolment at Tlokweng College of Education
Subject of Specialty                         Male                                Female               Totals
English and Setswana                         39                                  60                   99
Maths and Science                            34                                  50                   84
Social Studies                               29                                  55                   84
Practical Subjects                           40                                  58                   98
TOTAL                                        142                                 223                  365
Source: Tlokweng College Education, 2002



                                                                                                                            89
   9.4         EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


       Table 9.6:      Education and Training Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                            Objectives                                          Performance Target
District Council
Provision of adequate and appropriate            To accelerate construction of core facilities       All schools to have 22 classrooms
educational facilities                           like classrooms, teachers quarters and toilets      by the end of the plan period
                                                 To construct schools as dictated by increase in     Double shift phased out
                                                 enrolment and distance traveled
                                                 Ensure that designs of facilities provided          Accessibility of all schools by
                                                 accommodate needs of all learners even those        pupils with disability
                                                 with special needs.

Provision of      a    conducive     learning    Provision of transport for children with and        Minimise private hire for schools
environment                                      without disability
                                                 To promote access and use of information and
                                                 communication      Technology       in    the
                                                 management and delivery of education
Non Formal Education
Provision of resource to meet the needs of all   To provide transport                                Provision of a vehicle
learners
                                                 To    infuse    HIV/AIDS,       environmental       HIV/AIDS infused during the plan
                                                 conservation into the curriculum
Tswelelopele Brigade Centre
To plan, promote and deliver skills training     To provide continuing education and training        Incorporate      information and
and provide adequate facilities to meet          for skills upgrading and training in the light of   communication technology skills
specific standards and quality targets defined   rapid technological change.                         into the curriculum by 2005
by all stakeholders
                                                 To contribute to the productive development
                                                 of the informal sector.
                                                 To provide initial training for school leavers      Upgrade all courses to National
                                                 of basic education to acquire skills which will     Craft Certificate level by 2004/05
                                                 enhance their opportunities for employment or
                                                 self-employment.
                                                 To achieve equity in the provision of               Increase by up to 25% training slots
                                                 vocational education and training.                  for disadvantaged groups (deaf&
                                                                                                     physically disabled) by 2005/06
                                                 Provide enabling environment for learning           Improvement of the literacy level to
                                                                                                     10% by 2009.
Tlokweng Rural Development Centre
To provide qualified workman force to meet       To be able to produce qualified technicians in      An electronic unit functional by
the demands in the market                        the electronic field.                               2005/06
                                                 To be able to satisfy the labour market in the
                                                 electronic field
                                                 To diversify
To provide one of the basic human needs and      To provide staff housing                            Houses provided by 2005/06
improve staff morale




   9.5         FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

   9.5.1        Evaluation of environmental Key Issues with sector goals and objectives
   The District Council goal of providing adequate and appropriate educational facilities would
   have an impact of air pollution, indiscriminate dumping of rubbles and debushing.
   Construction of other facilities like teachers quarters may require land elsewhere which may
   lead to encroachment into the agricultural land. Also, loss of vegetation and tree species due to
   bush clearing may result from construction.



                                                                                                                               90
However, provision of an environment conducive for learning would not have any negative
environmental impact.

The Non Formal Education goal of providing resources to meet the needs of all learners would
have an impact of air pollution through the use of their vehicle.

For Tswelelopele Brigade Centre, the goal may result in indiscriminate dumping and unsightly
stockpiling of waste; also land pollution may be experienced.

The Tlokweng Rural Development Centre goals would lead to indiscriminate dumping and
unsightly stockpiling of waste resulting form construction. Still on construction there may be
disused burrow pits resulting from extraction of sand and gravel for development.


9.5.2    Evaluation of sector policies and programmes
9.5.2.1 Revised National Policy on Education
Implementation of the RNPE commenced at the beginning of the District Development Plan 5
and not so much has been achieved in relation to the medium term objectives of the policy and
more is still need to be done. The RNPE recommends reduction of classroom, teacher‘s
quarters, administration blocks and toilets deficits. Such facilities would result in land
dereliction due to the growth that may encroach into surrounding areas. Indiscriminate
dumping and unsightly stockpiling of waste may also result. Also there may be loss of
vegetation and tree species due to bush clearing during construction and dust emanating from
construction would lead to pollution.

9.5.2.2 Policy on Tertiary Education
The policy advocates for skills training as an integral part of human resource development. The
skills‘ training goes together with facilities such as classrooms. Provision of these would lead
to land dereliction due to the growth of these academic areas. Indiscriminate dumping and
unsightly stockpiling of waste may also result.




                                                                                           91
9.6        STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE EDUCATION AND TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

9.6.1      Proposed Projects


   Table 9.7:     Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goal                         Project component                              Environmental impact                  Mitigation Measures       Total Estimated Cost   Year to implement
                                                                                                                                            (Pula)
                          District Council
Provision of adequate and Upgrading of school kitchens at Kgetheng,         Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
appropriate    educational Magopane, Mokgosi III, Siga, St Conrad‘s,        dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
facilities                   Lesetlhana, Botsalano, Baratani, StBernards,                                         landfill, use water to
                             Mojadife & St Josephs                                                                minimise air pollution
                             Provision of the Admin Blocks at New           Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             school,      Magope,      Siga,      Seboke,   dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                             Ketshwerebothata, Magopane, Mokgosi,                                                 landfill, use water to
                             Magopane,Mokgosi,                                                                    minimise air pollution
                             St.Conrad‘s,Botsalano,                                                               Landscaping
                             Batlokwa,New                         School-
                             Lenganeng,Otse,Baratani&St.Joseph‘s
                             Provision of Teachers Quarters St.Conrad‘s,    Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             New School Magope,Mokgosi,                     dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                             St.Conrad‘s,Centre For Deaf,Siga,                                                    landfill, use water to
                             Magope,St.Joseph‘s,                                                                  minimise air pollution
                             Otse,Mogobane,
                             Mojadife,Bojantsa,
                             Botsalano,Batlokwa,
                             New School & Lenganeng
                             Provision of Science Labs at New Schools:      Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             Magope,Bojantsa & Lenganeng                    dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                                                                                                                  landfill, use water to
                                                                                                                  minimise air pollution
                             Provision of libraries at New School,Magope,   Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             Ketshwerebothata,                              dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                             Kgetheng,Lesetlhana,                                                                 landfill, use water to
                             Siga,Seboko,Kgosikgosi,                                                              minimise air pollution
                             Mafitlhakgosi,New School Lenganeng,
                             Batlokwa



                                                                                                                                                                               92
Goal                         Project component                               Environmental impact                  Mitigation Measures       Total Estimated Cost   Year to implement
                                                                                                                                             (Pula)
                             Provision of blocks of 2 classrooms at          Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             St.Joseph‘s,Kgetheng,                           dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                             Lesetlhana,Magope,                                                                    landfill, use water to
                             Ketshwerebothata,Botsalano,                                                           minimise air pollution
                             Kgosikgosi,New                   School
                             Lenganeng,Mogobane,
                             Mojadife,
                             Otse,Bojantsa
                             Provision of resource centres at New            Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             School,Magope,                                  dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                             Ketshwerebothata,                                                                     landfill, use water to
                             Kgetheng,Lesetlhana,                                                                  minimise air pollution
                             Siga,Otse,New                    School
                             Bojantsa,Mafitlhakgosi,
                             Batlokwa,Kgosikgosi

                             Provision of Guard Shelters at new schools of   Air   pollution,     indiscriminate   Rubbles       to     be
                             Magope Bojantsa &Lenganeng                      dumping of rubbles and debushing      disposed off at the
                                                                                                                   landfill, use water to
                                                                                                                   minimise air pollution
                           Non –Formal Education
Provision of resources to Vehicle                                            Air pollution                         Continuous servicing       100 000
meet the needs of all                                                                                              of the vehicle                                   2004/05
learners
                                  Special Education
Provision of a conducive Hydrotherapy                             Braille    N/A                                   N/A                       38 500 000
learning environment          Production(Special)Education Facility @                                                                                               2003/04
                              Tlokweng
                           Tlokweng Rural Development Centre
To     provide    qualified Equipment & Tools                                N/A                                   N/A                       200 000                2005/06
workman force to meet the Electronic Workshop                                Soil degradation                      Waste generated by        527 100                2005/06
demands in the market                                                        Air and noise pollution               construction, should
                                                                             Surface and groundwater pollution     be disposed off at the
                                                                                                                   landfill.

                                                                                                                   Minimise         noise
                                                                                                                   pollution




                                                                                                                                                                                93
Goal                          Project component                      Environmental impact                   Mitigation Measures       Total Estimated Cost   Year to implement
                                                                                                                                      (Pula)
To provide one of the basic   Staff houses                           Land pollution will result from poor   Management           of   80 000                 2005/06
human needs and improve                                              waste disposal and management.         hazardous waste.
staff morale                                                                                                Construction     waste
                                                                     Land dereliction will result from      should be disposed off
                                                                     building.                              at the dumping site.

                          Tlokweng College of Education
                             Home Economics laboratories                                                                              6 200 000              2004/05
                          Education Centres
                             Education Centre Upgrading - Tlokweng   Land dereliction will result from      Waste generated by        1 000 000
                                                                     building.                              construction, should
                                                                                                            be disposed off at the
                                                                     Air and Noise pollution                landfill

                           Tswelelopele Brigade Centre
To plan, promote and Upgrading of Auto Mechanics equipment           N/A                                    N/A                       1 200 000              2004/05
deliver skills training and Construction of school library           Land dereliction will result from      Waste generated by        3 500 000
provide adequate facilities                                          building.                              construction, should
to meet specific standards                                                                                                                                   2005/06
                                                                     Land pollution will result from poor   be disposed off at the
and quality targets defined                                          waste disposal and management          landfill
by all stakeholders          New Unit (IT related)                   N/A                                    N/A                       5 000 000              2006/07




                                                                                                                                                                         94
9.7         RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

9.7.1        Issues and Strengths


    Table 9.8:      Issues and Strengths for Education Sector
Issues                                                                                   Strengths
Primary Education
The RNPE states that provision of accommodation of teachers should be near
school. This has not been possible where the institutions have already been
established (in a built area) and there is no space for development of houses near
the school.

There is a clash between the RNPE and the National Settlement Policy (NSP)               The Non-formal education department
specifically on the water provision aspect. The RNPE accentuates on a two-               managed to organise and facilitate
teacher school for a minimum of 10 children in an area, while the NSP                    literacy classes in all the villages in the
recommended for provision of water to a minimum 150 people. It has been                  district; additionally it has managed to
cumbersome to logically assume that an area with 10 children may necessarily             provide in service training and refresher
have 150 people they could be less and may not be eligible for provision of water.       courses for staff.
The RNPE states that provision of accommodation of teachers should be near
school. This has not been possible where the institutions have already been
established (in a built area) and there is no space for development of houses near
the school.
Contractors abandon projects before completion.                                          Through Drought Relief the district was
                                                                                         able to build some of the facilities like
                                                                                         classroom, toilets and teachers houses.

A lot of training is still needed on HIV\AIDS education in schools; so far               A bus has been acquired for transporting
television and video sets have been installed in the 19 primary schools in the           pupils during sports and education tours
district.                                                                                and two mini-buses for the disabled.

The new Feeding programme is progressing well because improved kitchens have
been completed in all schools and cooks & kitchen hands were employed in 2002.
Training Institutions
There is still need to further look into the relevance of courses provided in tertiary   Skill training.
institutions to the labour market. Some of the completers are no able to find
employment.

The district is characterized by a lot school leavers who in turn resort to theft,       Technical and vocation education can
vandalism, robbery and other social ills which predisposes them to HIV/AIDS              address the economic needs on Human
infection.                                                                               Resources Development, the resultant of
                                                                                         which would be a productive workforce.
There is need for a policy guideline for the running of tertiary institutions. This
will assist in standardizing the curriculum as well as the qualification offered.
Inadequate structured policy guidance for pre-primary school education coupled
with uncoordinated structural arrangement.


9.7.2        Plan Monitoring
Respective departments would prepare Quarterly financial and physical progress reports and
Annual Performance Plans for discussion at the District Development Committee. Also there
would be annual reviews of these plans leading to the DDP 6 Midterm review after three years
of implementation.




                                                                                                                              95
CHAPTER 10
10       HEALTH

10.1    INTRODUCTION

As captured in NDP8 and Vision 2016, the health of a nation is a crucial resource needed for
the pursuance of national objectives. The South East District through the Clinics section would
ensure that health services are available, affordable, acceptable and accessible to all
communities irrespective of their distance from the service centre (clinic/health/post) in line
with Vision 2016. This would also go a long way in building a healthy nation

The government of Botswana through the Ministries of Health and Local Government is set to
pursue policies that will provide the nation with lives of ―optimum duration and quality‖. Such
governmental commitment manifests itself at the district level through the implementation of
Primary Health Care (PHC).

Further, emphasis for the health sector in the district would be towards a better plan,
organization and management of the health care system. Emphasis would be placed on inter-
sectoral collaboration and community involvement in setting priorities for action. The district
like others has been hard hit by the HIV/AIDS scourge. It would therefore plan on how to curb
its spread over the plan period.

10.1.1 Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Health is responsible for policy formulation, professional guidance and
supervision of health care delivery system. It does this through the following departments:
Ministry Management, Primary Health Care, Hospital services, Health manpower and
Technical support services.

The department of Health Manpower is one major department in Ministry of Health,
responsible for ensuring that Human Resources (HR) for Health in all disciplines, at all levels
of service are provide, equitably and appropriately distributed and optimally utilized.

The Health Training Institutions includes Ramotswa Mission School, which offers training in
various disciplines with a view to meet health sector requirements.

The Ministry of Local Government is solely responsible for implementing Primary Health Care
and Public Health through the Council District Health Team (DHT). The two most significant
sections in the DHT department are the Environmental health section and the Health clinics
sections.

Apart from the DHT department, there are also a number of NGOs, which have an extension
role in the district health delivery system. In the South East District there is the Bamalete
Lutheran Hospital, this privately owned hospital makes a significant amount of contribution in
the district since it offers technical advice to communities in matters such as family planning,
family hygiene and HIV/AIDS and furthermore acts as a referral hospital.



                                                                                           96
10.1.2    Strategic Plan for the Ministry of Health
The Ministry of Health exists to improve the physical, mental, and psychological well being of
every individual, families and communities in Botswana. The ministry is committed to lead in
providing comprehensive, promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health care
services.

The plan of the ministry of health is to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness of health
services; to ensure equitable distribution of services, to train appropriate skilled health
personnel and to strengthen primary health care programmes.

The Ministry decided to adopt the following as its main objectives to address the challenges
that it has to deal with:

    Financial sustainability: thus the ability to generate sufficient reliable resources to
   enable continued and improved provision of health care for a growing population.
    System sustainability: thus the capacity of the health system to function effectively over
   time with a minimum of external inputs.
    Quality: thus the management approach of an organisation, centred on quality, based on
   the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer
   satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organisation and to society.
    Appropriateness: thus the ministry will define ways of choosing appropriate
   technologies which suit the development of its nation.
    Health sector reform, by strengthening of the health policymaking and the introduction
   of innovative management systems.
    Strengthening of health services, especially secondary health and some improvements
   in tertiary facilities.
    Strengthening of support to different levels of the health care services.

10.1.3 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
10.1.3.1 Ministry of Local Government
The Ministry of Local Government is responsible for implementing a network of primary
health care and public health services through the District Health Teams. The two pivotal
networks are directed by the environmental health and clinics sections in the SEDC. The
Ministry through DHTs is responsible for the coordination, supervision, support and
implementation of all health services in the district and report progress to the Ministry of
Health for monitoring and professional guidance.

10.1.4 Role of the Private Sector
Though not many, there are a number of private sector institutions, which play a significant
role in the health sector in the district such as Emmanuel Counselling Centre, Otse Home
Based Care Society which also offers home based care services including counseling and the
community as Home Base Care volunteers.

Bamalete Lutheran Hospital; a mission hospital plays a significant role in the district as it
serves as a District/Referral Hospital for the whole region. The hospital also provides technical
advise to communities in matters such as family planning, hygiene and HIV/AIDS testing.
These institutions work hand in hand with the District Council clinics and the District Health
Management. Through such work, the district is working towards achieving one of the vision
pillars of being a compassionate, just and caring.

                                                                                            97
10.1.4.1 National AIDS Coordinating Agency
The agency views HIV/AIDS as a cross cutting issue rather than a health issue. It therefore
advocates for HIV/AIDS mainstreaming into all ministries, parastatals and the private sector.
At national level, it addresses the prevalence of HIV/AIDS by conducting annual sentinel
surveillance amongst pregnant women attending local clinics, government hospitals and
mission hospitals. This endeavor is geared towards finding ways of mitigating the infection,
reducing stigma and instituting A.R.V, coupled with pre, post, supportive and adherence
counseling. This project amongst others is done in collaboration with Family Health Division
(PMTCT unit).

Under the Ministry of Local Government, there is the AIDS Coordinating Unit which works
closely with NACA. It has been tasked solely with the responsibility of ensuring that
HIV/AIDS related issues are taken into consideration at district level. In a nutshell, the
agency‘s responsibility is to coordinate and come up with a strategy which will ensure that
stakeholders at district level take the necessary action in the country‘s campaign against
HIV/AIDS. Further, at district level there are established committees such as the DAMSAC.

10.1.5 Health Consultation Priorities
The community raised a concern on proper disposal of AIDS related waste by households in
the district. Also, the stigmatization of the AIDS epidemic is still prevalent in the district as
people still hide their AIDS patients which in turn lead to uncoordinated waste disposal such as
throwing such waste in public rubbish collection points.

Secondly, there is need to address other health related issues such as educating the community
on the use of polluting materials especially underground, the need to keep their environment
clean and further appreciate the dangers of alcohol, drugs and cigarette smoking and hygiene of
food.

Other priorities were that communities did not take part in waste management, hence dirtying
the environment through indiscriminate dumping of litter and waste. Also lack of waste
facilities was cited as a constraint to communities.


10.2    NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

10.2.1 National Policy on HIV/AIDS
Since HIV/AIDS was first detected in Botswana in 1985 the country has experienced a rapid
spread of the virus first in urban to peri-urban areas such as Ramotswa and Tlokweng, then to
rural areas. The policy therefore seeks to provide guidance to all stakeholders in fighting the
spread of the disease and to make appropriate responses to its impact. The National AIDS
Control Programme is formulated to address prevention of further spread of HIV/AIDS impact
at individual, family and societal levels.

10.2.2 National Health Policy
The Botswana National Health policy states that, the government shall when planning its
activities, put health promotion and care and disease prevention among its priorities. The basic
objective of this policy has been accepted as; all citizens of Botswana shall have equitable



                                                                                            98
access to essential health care irrespective of their financial resources and geographical
location.

10.2.3 Waste Management Act
The Act was enacted in 1998 under the stewardship of the Department of Sanitation and Waste
Management. The act makes provision for planning, facilitating and implementation of
advanced systems for regulating the management of controlled waste to prevent any harm to
human, animal and plant lives. Also, to minimise pollution of the environment, conservation
of resources and to cause the provision of Basel Convention to apply in regulating trans-
boundary movement of hazardous waste and disposal thereof. The act also calls for local and
national waste management, waste recycling and litter plans.

It confers powers on Local authorities to collect; remove and dispose waste and also prohibits
littering and illegal dumping. The District Council is therefore charged with imposing fines to
polluters through the Public Health Act.

10.2.4 Public Health Act
The act came into effect in 1971 and emphasis is on notification for certain diseases and their
control. The Act intends to prevent spread of specified diseases and regulates sanitation of
housing, provides for the protection of foodstuffs and water supplies, regulates use of
cemeteries and makes provisions for public health. In the district there is the environmental
health unit which implement all environmental legislation, hence concerned with hygiene of
premises, cleanliness of surroundings, provision of sanitary facilities, water quality monitoring,
air pollution and the hygiene of food.


10.3     HEALTH

10.3.1 Hospital Services
The South East District has a mission owned Bamalete Lutheran Hospital. The hospital is
known for its outstanding E.N.T. services of which all Batswana from all walks of life have
access to. It also serves as the council referral centre for Ramotswa and surrounding village
clinics and health posts. It is however a plausible argument to propound that due to the
district‘s peri-urban status it makes hospital medical services in both Gaborone and Lobatse
accessible to the district‘s residents.

During NDP 8 preparation it was noted that all district hospitals were overcrowded and were in
a poor state of disrepair. It was further noted that most hospitals needed support facilities such
as general and medical records stores and staff housing.

10.3.2 District Health Delivery System
The district provides health services through a network of health facilities operating by way of
a referral system. This system comprises of the National Referral Hospital, District Referral
Hospital, Clinic with/without maternity, Health Post and Mobile stops. The criteria used to
distribute those in the district is as provided by the national health policy which stipulates the
population for consideration of the size of the facility to be erected and the distance which the
patient/client should travel to the health facility. The distribution of health facilities in the
district is as follows:



                                                                                             99
Tlokweng is served by two clinics one with a maternity wing and three health posts. It is
further worthy of note that given the proximity of Tlokweng to Gaborone it is very easy for
residents of Tlokweng to easily utilise facilities in Gaborone. Furthermore, Tlokweng enjoys
the services of private medical practitioners both in Tlokweng and Gaborone.

The village of Ramotswa on the other hand is served by one Catholic Mission clinic, Bamalete
Lutheran Hospital and two council clinics. Due to its specialisation in ears, noses and throat
diseases the Bamalete Lutheran Hospital can to a very large extent be referred to as a referral
hospital. Like Tlokweng, the Ramotswa community enjoys the services of private practitioners
based in the village and those in Gaborone. It should further be brought forth that the District
intends to build one clinic in Ramotswa in the next plan period.

Otse is on the other hand served by one clinic with a maternity wing and one health post, there
is however a notable shortage of medical facilities in Otse and as such the District intends to
build one health post in the next plan period. Mogobane is served by one clinic with a
maternity wing and a health post. The district has a very serious shortage of accommodation
for nurses and these should be provided over the next plan period. Two other areas within the
district‘s jurisdiction are Metsimaswaane that is served by a Health post and the Lobatse Farms
which are served with a mobile clinic.

   Table 10.1: Existing Health Facilities
Location                       Facility                                        Number
Ramotswa                       Bamalete Lutheran Hospital                        1
Ramotswa                       Clinics with no maternity wing                    3
Ramotswa                       Total Health Facilities                           4
Tlokweng                       Clinics with maternity wing                       1
Tlokweng                       Clinics without maternity wing                    1
Tlokweng                       Health Posts                                      3
Tlokweng                       Total Health Facilities                           5
Otse                           Clinic with maternity wing                        1
Otse                           Total Health Facilities                           1
Mogobane                       Clinic with maternity wing                        1
Mogobane                       Health posts                                      1
Mogobane                       Total Health Facilities                           2
Sakutswane                     Health Posts                                      1
Taung                          Clinic without maternity wing                     1
Kgale                          Clinic without maternity wing                     1
Metsimaswaane                  Health Posts                                      1
Police College                 Clinic with a maternity wing                      1
Source: SED, 2002


10.3.3 Primary Health Care
Primary health care is defined as the strategy to achieve health for all. Provision of promotive,
preventive and rehabilitative services is pivotal to this strategy. Other organisations at the
Ministry of Health that undertake primary health care programmes are UNICEF and WHO.
SEDC has ensured that these components of PHC though faced with inevitable implementation
constraints by ensuring:

       Adequate provision of essential drugs in all clinics.
       Prevention and treatment of childhood illnesses.
       Health Education.
       Provision of safe drinking water.


                                                                                           100
         Treatment of common illnesses.

These measures are in line with the PHC declaration of A1-Mata of 1978.

   Table 10.2: Health Statistics – South East
                                                                        Indicator
Crude Death Rate (per 1000)                                             25
Crude Birth Rate (per 1000)                                             10
Total Fertility Rate (births)                                           3.8
Life expectancy at Birth (years)                                        62.3
Population within 15km of a Health Facility (%)                         10
Population within 8km of a Health Facility (%)                          90
Population per Doctor (number)                                          1 Doctor per 5000
Population per Nurse (number)                                           2 nurses per 1000
Population per FWE (number)                                             1FWE per 1500
Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)                            13 per 1000
Under 5 Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)                           4
Source: District Health Team, South East, 2001


10.3.4 Control Measures for Pandemic Diseases
10.3.4.1 HIV/AIDS
As with the rest of the country, the HIV/AIDS pandemic is rapidly spreading in the district, as
previous research information has shown, peri–urban places such as Ramotswa and Tlokweng
are the most hit after urban centres. The magnitude of the disease requires it to be regarded as a
national crisis and all Ministries and sectors are expected to treat it as such. For effective
control of the disease, a multi-sectoral approach is engaged at both the national and district
levels. Measures such as:

         Pre and post counselling
         Programme on mother to child infection transmission (PMTCT)
         Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT)
         Community Home Based Care (CHBC)
         Anti-retroviral therapy (ARV)
         Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI)
         Public awareness on HIV/AIDS through individual and group health education and
          seminars and workshops, drama (in primary schools and communities), media (TV,
          Radio, pamphlets) are in place to control the spread of the epidemic.

   Table 10.3: HIV/AIDS Tested Individuals By Age And Sex – 2001
Age            Male                               Female                   Total
Group                                                                      Male       Female
               Positive            Negative       Positive   Negative      Positive      Negative
<1 YR          2                   0              0          0             2             0
1–4            5                   3              2          8             7             11
5 – 14         1                   2              1          3             2             5
15 – 19        2                   2              5          20            7             22
20 – 24        4                   8              24         24            28            32
25 – 29        9                   13             33         30            42            43
30 – 34        9                   3              24         24            33            27
35 – 39        9                   9              8          14            17            23
40 – 44        15                  9              13         8             28            17
45 – 49        1                   4              3          3             4             7
50+            5                   9              3          6             8             15
Grand          62                  62             116        140           178           202


                                                                                                    101
Age          Male                                Female                Total
Group                                                                  Male       Female
             Positive           Negative         Positive   Negative   Positive      Negative
Total
Source: District Health Team, South East, 2001

Worthy of note about the information above is that 53% of males and 38% of females tested
for HIV turn out to be HIV positive.
10.3.4.2 Tuberculosis
The TB control programme is well run in all the health facilities in the district. Despite the
good health care the district has, TB statistics increased by 2% in 2001 as compared to the year
2000, this was mainly as a result of HIV/AIDS pandemic in the world. Pulmonary TB accounts
for 84% while extra pulmonary accounts for 16% of TB cases in the district. The number of
defaulters from the medication programme is recorded as very low.


   Table 10.4: Tuberculosis Statistics
Year           Type of Tuberculosis                                                   Total
               Pulmonary                          Extra Pulmonary
2000           369                                61                                  430
2001           369                                70                                  439
Source: District Health Team, South East, 2001


10.3.4.3 Malaria Control
South East District lies outside the malaria zone. So far there is no record of any epidemics or
case identified from the district. Since there is no immunity to the district and people, the
district health department workers are trained in the management of malaria and are constantly
alerted on the disease. In 2001 there were six confirmed and 19 unconfirmed cases of malaria
reported from the district health facilities and all of them were imported from other districts.

10.3.4.4 Institute of Health Sciences
The District has a mission health training institution with a student capacity of 36. The
curriculum offered was enrolled nursing upgraded program which started in 1996 and ended in
2003 during NDP 8. Currently the school is preparing to train midwives who will provide
comprehensive health care to individuals and families in a variety of settings.

10.3.4.5 Environmental Health
The Environmental Health Unit under SEDC is charged with the implementation of all
environmental legislation. Hence their main concern is the hygiene of premises, cleanliness of
surroundings, provision of sanitary facilities, water quality monitoring, air pollution and
hygiene of food.

The sub-district of Tlokweng forms part of the greater Gaborone and currently shares waste
management facilities, such as the landfill and sewerage ponds with the same. Villages outside
the district headquarters are serviced from Ramotswa by both human and other resources.

Pollution of the underground water aquifer forced implementation of the latrine project to
change low cost sanitation in the form of VIPs to a relatively more expensive technology.
However, developers who are not benefiting from the latrines project and have not submitted a
planning application continue to pollute the water resources. For those who benefit from the


                                                                                                102
latrine project, they are unwilling to complete the superstructures after council complete the
substructure. The project therefore needs guidelines to eliminate implementation setbacks.

Waste management facilities have suffered problems of land acquisition; as most people are
weary of being close to refuse shelters, skips and landfills. Refuse shelters even though quite
effective due to their proximity to points of waste production was rejected by the community
and adhoc emptying by council and abuse further exacerbated this problem. Also,
unwillingness to pay sanitation charges, especially refuse collection, results in lack of
appreciation of the service, hence abuse.

Enforcement of Bye Laws and poor/old legislative pieces such as the Public Health Act have
played a role in inhibiting progress in the implementation of programmes. Involvement of the
Botswana Police in enforcing Environmental Legislation has been limited. Proposals to elevate
the powers of the Bye Law Officers have been made. Botswana Police has indicated shortage
of manpower to adequately address issues effectively, but acknowledge the presence of the
Waste Management Act (1998) and the necessity to step up its enforcement.

The HBC programme has created a new problem of clinical waste as this is generated at homes
instead of at the health centers. The problem of stigma still associated with HIV/AIDS makes it
difficult for the district to put a strategy in place to handle this waste. This waste is a threat to
communities and those who have to handle refuse such as Sanitation Attendants, and
scavengers. Provision of equipment and plant better suited to contain and transport this waste
such as Clinical waste vehicles must be purchased, and a practical strategy to collect from
homes is explored.

Construction boom, industrial development and higher standards of living has resulted in more
demolition waste, more scrap metals and hazardous waste which the district was not yet
equipped to handle in the absence of a proper landfill site. The Landfill facility and Waste
Management equipment and plant provided for in DDP6 should address the problem.




                                                                                               103
10.4       HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


   Table 10.5: Health Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                                        Objectives                                                                             Indicators
                 Environmental Health and HIV/AIDS
To promote local management of clinical waste generated in   To facilitate the formulation of Policies on how clinical waste can be managed in an
affected homes                                               environment where HIV/AIDS stigma is high

                                                             Promote separation of clinical waste from ordinary waste.

                                                             Provide appropriate onsite sanitation like avoiding direct contact between
                                                             groundwater and waste.

                                                             Promote information dissemination of sustainable landfill utilization.
Ordinary Waste Management                                    Facilitate coordinated litter management activities at individual, community and       The use of pit latrines in the district
                                                             enterprise level.                                                                      should be reduced by 50% in 2008.

                                                             Facilitate pre-treatment of waste before disposal at the landfill

                                                             Promote waste reduction measures e.g. incineration before disposal

                                                             Avoid ground water contact by disposing waste not close to the water table.

                                                             Rehabilitate abandoned burrow pits to prevent indiscriminate disposal of waste into
                                                             the pits.

                                                             Place billboards in such area to warn the public not dispose waste in those areas.

                                                             Strategically place skips and educate the public on proper use of skips

                                                             Intensify on enforcement of byelaws and promote extensive monitoring to ensure
                                                             waste management compliance with legislation.
To promote proper chemical waste management                  Formulate policies on proper management of chemical waste

                                                             Instigate a monitoring system to ensure compliance
To control and prevent environmental pollution               Subject major projects to EIAs

                                                             Set up and implement mitigation measures

                                                             Promote landscaping for areas cleared to facilitate construction

                                                                                                                                                                                   104
Goals                                                           Objectives                                                                                 Indicators

                                                               Investigate suspected pollution and enforce mitigation (air, water, soil etc)
                 Institute of Health Sciences (Mission School)
To provide competent and trained human resources               To expand the institution to enroll more students and increase programs offered

                                                                To provide adequate resources for training

                                                                To develop, review and update curricula offered by March 2004


To facilitate provision of infrastructure development           To upgrade infrastructural development of the school by 2006

                                                                To develop and implement management information system


                  HIV/AIDS Coordinating Unit
To achieve total control of the epidemic by lowering the        To enable the district sectors to implement 100% planned interventions by 2009             100% Planned interventions in place by
incidences of HIV/AIDS and it outcomes in the district                                                                                                     2009
                                                                To ensure implementation through provision of necessary resources
                                                                                                                                                           100% Provision of necessary resources
                                                                To increase access to care, treatment and support services as well as utilization of the   by 2009
                                                                services.
                                                                                                                                                           80% accessibility by 2009

                                                                                                                                                           The level of new HIV/AIDS infections
                                                                                                                                                           to be reduced by 10% by 2006.




                  Bamalete Lutheran Hospital
To build matching laundry functions with hospital capacity.     To enhance infection control practices.                                                    Laundry built by the end of the plan
                                                                To have enough storage.                                                                    period.




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Goals                                                           Objectives                                                                        Indicators
To increase space for new maternal and child health services.   To enhance effectiveness and efficiency of the hospital as a district hospital.   Midwifery training to start in August
                                                                                                                                                  2003 by the BLH School of Nursing.
                                                                To provide an environment conducive learning for midwifery students.
                                                                                                                                                  Upgraded clinical area for Midwifery
                                                                To accommodate cancer, screening and HIV/AIDS programmes.                         practice to         meet the training
                                                                                                                                                  expectations.
To improve on accessibility of physiotherapy & other health     To reduce congestion in the current wards (MW/FW)                                 Provision of isolation wards.
services.
                                                                To increase patients safety                                                       Provision of cubicles for surgical cases.

                                                                To provide isolation facilities for infections conditions.

                                                                To accommodate a few beds for specialized services.

                                                                To reduce possibility of cross infection in the wards.



To improve on working conditions                                To alleviate problem of acute shortage of accommodation                           To accommodate at least half of the
of employees.                                                                                                                                     staff in hospital houses.




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10.5    FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

10.5.1 Evaluation Of Environmental Key Issues With Sector Goals and Objectives
The health sector is committed to improving the quality of service delivery through
development and implementation of comprehensive health policies and standards. Thus the
Home Based Care programme is a government initiative that is now experiencing problems
such as poor disposal of AIDS related waste by households. Thus procurement of clinical
waste vehicles, destigmatisation of the disease and subsequent collection of the generated
clinical waste would address indiscriminate dumping.

Further, there will be indiscriminate dumping of rubbles during construction; deforestation and
eventually soil erosion will result. This can be addressed by encouraging contractors or
individuals to practice strategic debushing during construction to avoid unnecessary
deforestation and soil erosion.

For the HIV/AIDS goal there might be indiscriminate disposal of clinical waste resulting in
environmental pollution.

10.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
It could be propounded that the HIV/AIDS policy do not have environmental impact embedded
in it, yet there is generation of clinical waste by households.

Others policies do not have any negative environmental impact.




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10.6       STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE HEALTH SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

10.6.1 Proposed Projects


   Table 10.6: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goal                              Project Component                   Environmental Impact              Mitigation measures                   Total Cost                Year to Implement
                                                                                                                                              Pula
                      Mission School
To provide competent and Computerisation              of    Mission   None                              None                                  3 140 333                 2005/06
trained human resources         Schools
                                Furniture & Equipment                 None                              None                                  1 726 000                 2005/06
                                Library Books                         None                              None                                  1 560 000                 2007/08
                                Recreational Facilities               debushing                                                               3 315 000                 2007/08
To facilitate provision of Staff housing                              Debushing,         uncontrolled   Strategic    debushing       during   7 219 334                 2004/05
infrastructure development                                            extraction of sand & gravel and   construction to avoid unnecessary
                                                                      soil erosion                      deforestation and soil erosion.
                                                                                                        Landscaping
                                  Upgrading of the mission School     debushing during construction,    Strategic    debushing       during   29 312 667                2004/05
                                                                      deforestation,     uncontrolled   construction to avoid unnecessary
                                                                      extraction of sand & gravel and   deforestation and soil erosion.
                                                                      soil erosion.                     Landscaping

                                  Vehicles of Mission Schools         Emissions of smoke                Regular Servicing                     520 000                   2004/05
To achieve total control of the   1 Workshop yearly for DMSAC         N/A                               N/A                                    64 800                   2003-2009
epidemic by lowering the          members on capacity building
incidences of HIV/AIDS and
it outcomes in the district


                             Training of Peer educators and           N/A                               N/A                                   810 000                   2003- 2009
                             counselors once in two years on
                             Training of Peer educators on            N/A                               N/A                                   129 600                   2003- 2009
                             condom use and behavioral change
                             once a year
                             Putting up a VCT Centre in the           N/A                               N/A                                   Outside funding           2003/04
                             District
                             Recruitment and training of HBC          N/A                               N/A                                   176 400                   2003 - 2009
                             volunteers once a year
                Bamalete Lutheran Hospital
To build matching laundry Laundry                                     debushing during construction,    Strategic    debushing      during    Not       yet   funded.   Oct. 2003 – April 2004

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Goal                             Project Component   Environmental Impact              Mitigation measures                   Total Cost               Year to Implement
                                                                                                                             Pula
functions    with     hospital    Building           deforestation,     uncontrolled   construction to avoid unnecessary     Funding would       be
capacity.                                            extraction of sand & gravel and   deforestation and soil erosion.       sourced elsewhere
                                                     soil erosion.                     Landscaping

To increase space for new        MCH Clinic and      debushing during construction,    Strategic    debushing       during    955 000 + 1 230 000     Oct 2004 - 2005
maternal and child health         Maternity ward     deforestation,     uncontrolled   construction to avoid unnecessary     Funding     not    yet
services.                         renovation and     extraction of sand & gravel and   deforestation and soil erosion.       available
                                  expansion.         soil erosion.                     Landscaping

To improve on accessibility of   Physiotherapy       debushing during construction,    Strategic    debushing       during                            April 2004 – Sept 2005
physiotherapy health services.    dept. completion   deforestation,     uncontrolled   construction to avoid unnecessary     Not yet funded
                                  of phase II AND    extraction of sand & gravel and   deforestation and soil erosion.
                                  III                soil erosion.                     Landscaping

To reduce congestion in the      Additional ward     debushing during construction,    Strategic    debushing       during   1 985 000                Oct. 2005 – March
current wards and increase                           deforestation,     uncontrolled   construction to avoid unnecessary                              2006
patients safety                                      extraction of sand & gravel and   deforestation and soil erosion.       Not yet funded
                                                     soil erosion.                     Landscaping

To improve      on   working     Staff flats         debushing during construction,    Strategic    debushing       during   2 500 000                April 2006 – March
conditions                                           deforestation,     uncontrolled   construction to avoid unnecessary                              2007
of employees.                                        extraction of sand & gravel and   deforestation and soil erosion.
                                                     soil erosion.                     Landscaping




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        10.7       RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

        10.7.1 Issues and Strengths of the Health Sector


           Table 10.7: Issues and Strengths for Health Sector
Issues                                                      Strengths
Stigmatization of the HIV/AIDS virus hence reluctance of    The South East District has good public health services system, this is mainly due
people to dispose AIDS related waste in a prescribed        to the district‘s peri-urban status, and health facilities in both Lobatse and
manner due to a number of fears and hence end up            Gaborone which are accessible to the district‘s communities.
disposing the waste in a manner most likely to affect
innocent society members.
Shortage of Home Based Care volunteers                      Shortage of skilled manpower
Pollution of the environment through illegal dumping
Stringent budget allocations and delays in taking some of   Deployment of the District Aids Coordinator in the district.
the programmes to the districts coupled with manpower
shortages can be very influential in determining the pace
with which national aspirations will be achieved.



        10.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme
        Respective departments would prepare Quarterly financial and physical progress report and
        Annual Performance Plans for discussion at the District Development Committee. Also there
        would be annual reviews of these plans leading to the DDP 6 Midterm review after three years
        of implementation.




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CHAPTER 11
11       LABOUR AND HOME AFFAIRS

11.1     INTRODUCTION

The Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs provides crucial services such as creation and
maintenance of national harmony, welfare and justice. It promotes human resource
development such as construction of sports facilities; it also facilitates mainstreaming of gender
issues in development planning process and promotes cultural heritage. Some of its key role
such as issuance of residents permits; workers permit, attendance of employee/employer‘s
conflict and others are fundamental to both internal and international security and public
relations. Also, within this Ministry is the Botswana National Library Service through which a
culture of reading for recreation and advancement amongst Batswana can be developed.

In this regard, Ministry‘s task furthers vision 2016 ideals of educated and informed,
compassionate, just and caring; safe and secure as well as moral and tolerant nation.

11.1.1 Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs is responsible for provision of a wide range of social
services that are geared towards the development of the country. This is done through a number
of departments represented in the district such as Immigration and Citizenship, Culture and
Youth, Labour and Social Security, Botswana National Library Service; others like Prisons and
Rehabilitation, Sports and Recreation, Women‘s Affairs are based in Gaborone.

Under Immigration there are three border posts that are meant to provide secure entry and exit
from Botswana for legal immigrants.

The Youth are also catered for under the Youth Policy which has a National Action Plan which
was launched in 2002. This touches areas on youth education and training, culture,
employment, health, leadership development, recreation and sports and also youth in difficult
circumstances.

The BNLS, even though old and small caters for easy access to information sharing through
research and provision of leisure books for the district populace.

11.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
11.1.2.1 Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs
Through its strategic foundations, the Ministry portrays a culture of customer orientation and
service excellence, with emphasis on the need for a compassionate and caring service delivery.
Hence the strategic plan of the Ministry is centred on human resource development,
communication and information management, marketing, privatization, research and
development and also youth development and their empowerment.

The Ministry would also continue to provide a nation wide access to information services.



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11.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The strategic plan for the Ministry of Local Government comprises mobilization of social
welfare and community to facilitate community participation in the development process. It
also provides the social safety nets that are needed to sustain the district populace.
11.1.2.3 Information and Broadcasting
The strategic plan for Information and Broadcasting Department is centred on the promotion of
quality service delivery and customer satisfaction


11.2    NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

11.2.1 Women and Development Policy
Uninhibited access to economic opportunities and decision-making positions is central to a
policy that advocates for development of women. The policy seeks to achieve full integration
of gender issues in the development process. The Department of Women‘s Affairs has not
decentralized and most of their activities are done in Gaborone.

11.2.2 Youth Policy
The policy defines youth as a segment of population that falls within the age range of 12 to 29
years. In 2002, the National Action Plan for Youth was launched. The plan enables
implementation of the policy and it considers six critical areas of youth education and training,
youth employment, health leadership development, recreation and sports, youth in difficult
circumstances.

11.2.3 National Library Act
The act was enacted in 1967 and calls for the provision of a comprehensive and efficient
library service to the public and provision of any resources needed for fulfilling the service.
The Ramotswa library to this end has extended its services to the rest of the district through
village reading rooms and book box service.

11.2.4 Births and Deaths
The Act stipulates that registration or notification should be done within a period of three
months (3) for birth and a month for deaths. Registration of births and deaths is done at health
facilities and District Commissioner‘s office at district level. Failure to comply with the above
would lead to a fine of not more that P200.00 or three months imprisonment or both for birth.
As for death, the fine would be an amount not exceeding P200.00 or one-month imprisonment
or both.

11.2.5 National Registration Act
Every citizen of Botswana who is sixteen (16) or above qualifies to apply for registration and
submission of the application should be within one month of reaching the age of sixteen years.
Any person who fails to register as prescribed by National Registration Act, is fined an amount
not exceeding five hundred Pula (P500.00) or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six
months (6) or to both.




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11.2.6 Marriages Act
The Act stipulates that publication of marriage should be done in a public place for three
successive weeks. Special license can be considered for those with commitments that do not
allow them the three weeks publication. Marriages can be solemnised between people aged
18-20 if they produce the consent of parents or guardians, unless that person is a widower or
widow.


11.3     LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICES

11.3.1 Information and Broadcasting
The Department of Information and Broadcasting aims at developing and exploiting media so
as to assist Ministries and Departments to perform their routine and extension duties.
Information dissemination and sharing is facilitated through this department.

11.3.2 Sports and Recreation
There is lack of adequate sports and recreational facilities in the district. The existing sports
facilities include football grounds that are located within schools through out the district.

However, Government recognizes the need to provide and improve sports facilities nation
wide. During DDP 5 an integrated sports facility was expected to be built at the District
headquarters but due to lack of funds it has been postponed further to DDP 7. Recreational
parks are proposed during the plan period. Lack of funding may be a constraint.

11.3.3 Social and Community Development
During DDP 5, various social welfare policies and programmes have been implemented at
District level to cater for the economically weak communities/individuals. The same is still
going to be done during this plan period.

11.3.4 Youth
A large proportion of youthful population characterizes South East District, as is the case with
other districts in Botswana. This population has a wide range of problems – including
unemployment, low levels of education, HIV/AIDS, teenage pregnancy, among others.

During DDP 5, a Youth office was established at the district headquarters to cater for various
needs of the youth throughout district. The office offers a wide range of services including
educational workshops, which disseminate information on programmes that could be utilized
by the Youth for their benefit. Unfortunately this department is manned by only one officer and
has shortage of both office accommodation and manpower to effectively carryout their work.

The Youth Policy came into effect in 1996 and this policy has never been reviewed. Also, the
district has a problem of ―Ditlou‖; a youth group which terrorizes the villagers.

The policy clashes with other policies like the Land Board Policy which does not allow a youth
less than 21 years to apply for a plot. At the same time the Electoral Act recognises that youths
aged 18 can elect and be elected. There is therefore need to harmonize these policies.




                                                                                           113
11.3.5 Botswana National Library Service
Botswana National Library Service (B.N.L.S) is a department responsible for providing
information and enhance access to knowledge thereby reduce literacy levels among Batswana.

Ramotswa Public Library is the only branch in the District. The branch has proved to be too
small to serve the village as a primary center with a population of 24 130 people according
2001 census. Therefore there is need to have an extension of this facility.

It is also essential to have another library in Tlokweng Sub-District which has a population of
22 038.

Most of the library‘s clients are students; therefore the facility supports the RNPE as it
supplements the reading material and study environment by offering free information not only
to them but also to the public. Through this, contribution is done towards realization of Vision
2016 vision pillar of having an informed and educated nation.

Even though the library is providing a wide access to information services, it lacks adequate
transport, therefore untimely rendering of the book box service and village reading room
services. This results in dissatisfaction of customers.

11.3.6 Immigration
The Department of Immigration mainly processes applications for citizenship, resident permits
and passports. It also enforces and administers laws that govern movement of people in and out
of the country.

In South East District, as already mentioned there are three designated border posts namely,
Pioneer Gate, Ramotswa and Tlokweng border posts. The latter was expanded during DDP 5
so that it could perform commercial duties like collection of Value Added Tax (VAT). Despite
the fact that the Ramotswa border post currently experiences heavy flow of traffic and
overcrowding, it could not be expanded since it would not be economically viable to have
another border post nearby collecting VAT.

11.3.7 National and Civil Registration
There are two offices, which are charged with the responsibility of national and civil
registration matters in the South East District. These offices are based at the district
headquarters in Ramotswa. The main activities of these offices are issuance of National
Identity cards (Omang) and death/birth certificates, registration of marriages, births and deaths.
Currently, Omang office faces a challenge of making sure that applicants collect their cards
and reduction of the processing time for Omang because most of the activities are still
centralized.

Decentralization of some of the duties to the district level like births, deaths, marriages, change
of surname has been done.

Production of Omang Cards is centralised even though the forms are filled at district level.
The process of producing the cards delays as there is shortage of manpower.




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11.3.8 Labour
There is an increasing number of labour disputes in the district. The labour officer visits the
district and listens to the labour disputes twice a week. There is need for a district based labour
officer during the plan period.


11.4       LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

11.4.1 Labour, Culture and Social Services Sector Goals and Objectives


   Table 11.1: Labour, Culture and Social Welfare Sector Goals
Goals                                                        Objectives                          Performance Targets

             Culture and Youth
To develop and empower young people economically             To be able to embark on self        Establishment    of    youth
                                                             sustaining projects                 businesses and reduction of
                                                                                                 unemployment        amongst
                                                                                                 youth.
                                                             To be able to provide guidance      Reduction in youth crimes
                                                             to the out of school youths from
                                                             delinquency
To promote preservation of the nations culture through       To have cultural villages and       Establishment of cultural
education, information dissemination and implementation      state theater                       villages and construction of a
of culture related policies                                                                      state theatre.
               Botswana National Library Services
To generate, acquire and disseminate information through     Construction of facilities that     Extension of the Library
efficient services for purposes of education, research and   will create a conducive
recreation, personal empowerment and socio-economic          environment for assimilation of
development                                                  knowledge
                                                             To preserve cultural and            Historical        information
                                                             historical information for future   preserved
                                                             posterity
To improve customer satisfaction by providing services in    To promote self service & use       Registration      of       new
an excellent, efficient and friendly manner                  of technological information        customers
                                                             services
                                                                                                 Feedback from customers
             Civil and National Registration
To provide services in a timely and satisfactory manner.     To educate the public on Civil      Kgotla meetings held
                                                             and National Registration and
                                                             their importance.
                                                             To reduce the collection time       Reduction in the processing
                                                             for Omang Cards                     time for Omang from 3
                                                                                                 months to 1 month by 2004.




11.5       FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

11.5.1 Evaluation of environmental key issues with sector goals and objectives
For culture and Youth there is a possibility of using agricultural land for the purposes of
cultural village this would lead to conflict in land use.

For Botswana National Library Service expansion of the library might lead to soil erosion
indiscriminate dumping of waste and noise pollution during construction.




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   11.5.2 Evaluation of sector policies and programmes
   All other policies are environmental friendly except for the youth policy and national library
   act. These encourage projects which might have negative impact on the environment. These
   possibly might lead to de-bushing, soil erosion and encroachment into agricultural land.

   Civil and National Registration goal is environmental friendly.



   11.6        STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LABOUR, CULTURE AND SOCIAL SERVICE SECTOR
               GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   11.6.1 Proposed Projects


         Table 11.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
   Goal                                  Project Component       Potential           Mitigation        Total Cost       Year
                                                                 Environmental       Measures          (Pula)
                                                                 Impact
                      Botswana National Library Services
   To      generate,    acquire    and Ramotswa        Library   Reduction in the    Landscaping       1 546 400        2004/06
   disseminate information through Extension                     vegetation/grass
   efficient services for purposes of                            cover, loss of
   education, research and recreation,                           bio diversity.
   personal empowerment and socio-
   economic development
                      Culture and Youth
   To develop and empower young Skills and business              N/A                 N/A                  130 000       2003-08
   people economically                   Training         and
                                         Workshops
   To promote culture and create an Out Of School Youth          N/A                 N/A                 221 000        2003-09
   enabling environment for youth and Programme
   the general public to participate in
   cultural development in this
   country.
                      National and Civil Registration
   To provide services in a timely and Hold four Kgotla          N/A                 N/A                                2003-09
   satisfactory manner.                  meetings yearly



   11.7        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

   11.7.1 Issues and Strengths


         Table 11.3: Issues and Strengths for Labour, Culture and Social Welfare
Issues                                                                 Strengths
                 Culture and Youth
HIV/AIDS affecting both the youth and the officers                     Well-established policy and enough funds.

Resignation by officers                                                The office deals with multidisciplinary issues
                    Botswana National Library Services
Inadequate facility to accommodate the increased number of new         Provision of Village Reading Rooms and the Book Box
users                                                                  Service
Information is not easily retrieved
Lack of manpower
                   Civil and National Registration
Omang Cards takes long to be produced and collected                    Production of Identity cards for ease of identification for the
                                                                       locals


                                                                                                                           116
11.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme
Respective departments would prepare Quarterly financial and physical progress report and
Annual Performance Plans for presentation to the District Development Committee to ensure
that targets are met. Also there would be annual reviews of these plans leading to the DDP 6
Midterm review after three years of implementation.




                                                                                      117
CHAPTER 12
12        MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER

12.1      INTRODUCTION


The Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources is characterized by the production of
good quality diamonds that contribute to the bulk of GDP. However, on the weaker side,
excessive extraction of river sand, clay etc. and wood harvesting often lead to environmental
degradation. It is also worrisome that the Ramotswa Aquifers are highly polluted and this has
compelled the Department of Water Affairs to source water from Gaborone dam in order to
supply Ramotswa, Boatle and Taung. Tlokweng is also supplied with water from Gaborone
dam. Council Water Unit supplies Mogobane and Otse with water from boreholes, while
Metsimaswaane is bowsed water by Council Water Unit.

Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) has been tasked by Botswana Government to provide grid
electricity in rural villages. So far, it has covered a good number of villages in Botswana
including five in the South East District but a lot more still remains else where in the Country.

Water is a scarce and important resource in Botswana that is needed for domestic, industrial,
construction and Agriculture use. This is recognised in Vision 2016, which states that by the
year 2016 Botswana must have a national water development and distribution strategy that will
make water accessible and affordable to, including those who live in small and remote
settlements. It also emphasises that Batswana must use water as efficiently as possible through
innovative technologies and various water conservation techniques such as water harvesting
from rooftops.
12.1.1 Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources is responsible for formulation,
direction, coordination, development and implementation of national policies and programmes
for minerals, energy and water sectors, through its various organs/divisions.

Stakeholders involved in water provision in Botswana are as follows:

        The Department of Water Affairs carries out water supply in peri-urban villages and
         district capitals also known as major villages. Currently it suppliers major villages in
         the district namely Ramotswa and Tlokweng.
        Supply and distribution of water outside major villages is the responsibility of District
         Councils. In unrecognized settlements District Council Water unit bowse water to those
         areas like in Metsimaswane.

The Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources have the portfolio responsibility for the
national water resources planning and development. This responsibility is discharged through
its Department of Water Affairs. National water resources planning is undertaken in
consultation with major stakeholders such the sister Department of Geological Survey, Water
Utilities Corporation, the Ministry of Local Government, District Councils, Ministry of Lands,
Housing and Environment (through Land Boards) as well as the Ministry of Agriculture. The


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Department is also responsible for water apportionment to all sectors through the Water
Apportionment Board. The Department acts as the secretariat of the Board whose members
include major stakeholders in government, farmers and the community at large. The Board
grants water rights to all users include specification of maximum water amounts that individual
user are allowed to abstract. Monitoring for the adherence to water quantities specified in the
water rights is only carried out for big groundwater users such mines and the power station.
However, efforts are done to inspect and ensure that those abstracting water illegally for
whatever use are identified and dealt with in accordance with the law.

The Board also monitors the water quality by specifying the quality of wastewater discharge
into the environment. The Department also cooperates with District Council Health units,
Ministry of Health as well as the National Conservation Strategic Agency in the area of water
quality.

12.1.2 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Affairs
The strategic plan for the Ministry of Minerals Energy and Water Affairs takes cognisance of
Vision 2016, which is the focal point of all national plans and policies. The Ministry therefore
emphasizes the need for efficiency in delivery of products and services, loyalty to customers
and stakeholders, good quality products and services among others, all of which could be
achieved through its strategic goals. The Ministry has also provided the strategic objectives,
which provide targets.

12.1.3 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Land, Housing and Environment
The strategic plan of the ministry comprises management and development of land through
land-use planning and development control. The ministry also advises other ministries to align
their developments with environmental conservation and it also coordinates environmental
projects and activities.

12.1.4 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Local Government
The strategic plan of the ministry is to provide physical and social infrastructure e.g. provision
of water at district level.

South East District will implement a number of policies and programmes to complement
MMEWA‘s strategic plan in the DDP 6 plan period.

12.1.5 The role of the Private Sector
As far as SED is concerned the role of the private sector has always been limited to agriculture.
Most farmers rely on personal water supply, that is, boreholes and wells to mainly water
livestock and also to carryout some horticultural and poultry farming. These are however
potential pollutants as these are situated along the riverbanks.

Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) is a parastatal organization that supplies and distributes
electricity in both urban and rural areas. The private sector also plays a role in meeting the
energy needs of various sectors of the economy through the supply of gas, coal, paraffin and
firewood. In the district, electricity is supplied to all five villages namely Mogobane, Otse,
Ramotswa, Taung and Tlokweng.




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Private companies in partnership with Botswana Government carry out exploration of minerals
in the entire country. It is unfortunate because South East District is not endowed with
minerals, except for gravel and sand.


12.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

12.2.1 Mineral Sector
The Mines and Minerals Act No. 17 of 1999 deals with control of mining activity. This Act,
among other things requires that a permit or a license be obtained from Department of Mines
for any mineral extraction. In some areas in the country especially those area that are not
endowed with minerals this act is thin on the ground. For South East District there is
indiscriminate extraction of minerals especially the ones used during construction. There are
unscrupulous people who extract river sand and other minerals for sale.

12.2.2 Energy Sector
12.2.2.1 Energy Policy
The main aim for the policy is to provide a least cost mix of supply reflecting total life cycle
costs and externalities such as environmental damages. It will also strive to intergrades gender
equality issues in development planning, project monitoring and evaluation as aspired under
the Women in Development Programme and National Gender Programme framework.
Government has come up with a National Energy Master Plan, which provides a framework for
energy supply.

12.2.3 Water Sector
12.2.3.1 National Water Master Plan
National Water Master Plan that was completed in 1991 and covers a planning period of 30
years. The plan advocates for efficient use and management of water resources. It will continue
throughout DDP 6 to be the guiding plan for all large water development projects in Botswana.
The review of the plan will be carried out in early DDP 6. Parallel to the review of the
NWMP, a detailed study looking at the operations of all the water supply authorities in
Botswana will also be conducted in early DDP 6 to develop alternatives of the best
arrangement for Botswana. As part of the NWMP the District has been connected to the North
South Carrier Project. Tlokweng and Ramotswa have been connected for quite some time to
Gaborone Dam and Mogobane and Otse are in the process of being connected in the first year
of DDP 6.

12.2.3.2 Waste Water and Sanitation Policy
The overall purpose of the policy is to promote the health and well being of communities
through provision of appropriate and sustainable wastewater/sanitation management and to
introduce mechanisms for protection and conservation of water resources. In South East the
main source of underground water pollution has been identified as pit latrines. Pursuant to
protect the aquifers in Ramotswa village, a sewerage network was under taken during DDP5
while in Tlokweng a water and sewerage project were undertaken by the Department of Water
affairs on behalf of Council. It is planned that an integrated sewerage network for Otse and
Mogobane villages will be undertaken during DDP6 pursing the protection of abundant water
resources the district is endowed with. Pertaining to sanitation a landfill was constructed during
DDP5, which its implementation over spilled into DDP6.Construction of the captioned is


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perceived as a milestone in reducing indiscriminate dumping of waste. Due to prudent waste
management, better health and well being of the community will be accomplished hence
promoting a Healthy Nation as enshrined in ‗‘Vision 2016.‘‘

12.2.3.3 National Settlement Strategy
National Settlement Strategy provides a framework for the preparation of District settlement
strategies, which provide guidance to water supply for settlements. It espouses for supply of
water to settlements, which have been considered or declared villages. The District Council is
supplying water to Otse and Mogobane villages. Underground water for these two villages is
contaminated and the main source of pollution has been identified as pit latrines. By end of
DDP5 consultancy was engaged to design water tanks and network of the two villages for
ultimate connection to the Water Utilities Pipeline. At present the actual construction and
connection is ongoing.

For those settlements not yet recognized as villages like Metsimaswaane settlement, Council is
bowsing water to them as it has proved to be cost effective. A viability study is been planned
during DDP6 to determine whether the area can be declared a settlement or not.

12.2.3.4 Water Act
There are several statutes currently in use for the administration of water resources in
Botswana. These are;

Water Act, Cap. 34:01 is the main legislation that deals with the administration of water
resources. Works Act (Cap: 34.03), regulates the management and construction of water
works.

Aquatic Weeds Control Act (Cap 34.04) deals with the control of weeds in our major rivers;

Boreholes Act (Cap: 34.02) deals with the drilling of boreholes and management samples and
data from such drilled holes.


12.3     MINING, ENERGY AND WATER

12.3.1 Mining Sector
In South East District, there are no known large-scale mineral deposits. However, a number of
small-scale mineral deposits occur at various parts of the district. These include granite,
dolomite, carbonates, river sand, gravel, rock quarries and clay. Of these, gravel and river sand
are extensively used within the district and neighbouring towns for numerous construction
projects that are carried out by private contractors, government and individuals. Though
impact analysis has not been undertaken, it is evident that the adverse effects of extraction have
often resulted in loss of biodiversity and poor visual quality due to lack of rehabilitation.

12.3.2 Energy Sector
Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) is a statutory body responsible for generation,
transmission and supply of electricity. In order to enhance the much needed industrialization,
there is need to develop a cost effective energy source. It has been realized that there is
tremendous potential for solar energy, which should be exploited for the benefit of settlements
that are not within reach of the national grid.

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As investment and population continue to grow in South East, so will the demand for energy.
While the majority of people in the primary centres of the District use gas for their domestic
needs, a significant proportion of the population still uses firewood. From an environmental
point of view, this contributes to desertification and its associated negative impacts. Therefore
there is need for legislation that would guide consumers, especially government institutions to
use alternative sources of energy.

12.3.3 Water Sector
12.3.3.1 Water Supply
Portable water provision in South East District will continue to be based on the South East
District Settlement Strategy (SEDSS). This will go a long way towards achieving the
objectives of the National Settlement Policy (NSP), central to which is sustainability of natural
resources.

The South East District Settlement Strategy classifies Ramotswa as the only primary centre in
the District. The village has experienced tremendous physical growth over the last plan period.
This has put pressure on the village water supply, particularly the underground water that has
been contaminated with nitrates. During District Development Plan 5 period upgrading and
expansion of the sewerage scheme was undertaken in the anticipation to curb further pollution
of the abundant underground water resource. This pollution is mainly caused by human waste
from pit latrines.

Furthermore, there was also provision for sewerage and water supply system in Tlokweng,
which also qualifies as a primary center according to preliminary census figures of 2001. This
project was implemented under the supervision of the Department of Water Affairs and was
handed to the District Council upon completion by the end of DDP 5

The District Council undertook the rehabilitation and expansion of portable water supply
schemes of Otse and Mogobane villages. These are classified as tertiary II in the settlement
hierarchy. In addition, provision of water supply was also extended to settlements such as
Metsimaswaane, which falls out of tertiary category.

The district council in terms of operation and maintenance runs water schemes in rural villages
while major village schemes (Ramotswa, Taung and Boatle) are run by the Department of
Water Affairs. Due to contamination of the Ramotswa aquifer the greater Ramotswa area is
supplied with water from Gaborone dam.

The current supply facility has reached capacity therefore some parts of the villages at certain
times are not able to receive water. To circumvent this problem, the DWA has undertaken a
major project to upgrade the supply system in order to supply the village up to year 2011.
However a provision will be made for future extension to supply up to year 2021. This project
comprises a booster pump station at Boatle, storage reservoir and associated works.

12.3.3.2 Water Conservation and Management
Due to limited water resources, there is an urgent need to use water wisely so as not to exhaust
the resources. The costs of surface water treatment have proved to be very high. These costs
can only be recovered by passing them to the consumers. Only consumers in urban and peri-
urban areas can afford the costs. The Department of Water Affairs is supplying Ramotswa


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consumers at subsidised tariffs. That is to say the tariffs do not reflect the actual costs of
making the water available in the village. There are public standpipes where water is drawn
free. This is one area where there is great loss of water through wastage, abuse such as
livestock watering and illegal bowsing. In view of this, pre-paid meters standpipes were piloted
in Tlokweng and these proved to be successful and will be extended to other areas in the
district during DDP6.

12.3.3.3 Water Protection
The Ramotswa well-field aquifer is very shallow and close to the surface. As a result the
quality of water from this aquifer is very poor such that it cannot be used for human
consumption. The boreholes have since been abandoned. The source of contamination is
seepage of waste from pit latrines and graveyard. The newly constructed sewer project will
address this problem of underground water pollution. It is hoped this will gradually phase out
pit latrines and septic tanks.

As regard to surface water, there are two rivers (Ngotwane and Taung) passing through the
district that feed the Gaborone dam. The district itself falls within the catchments area for these
two rivers and there is need to keep the catchments area free from any possible pollutants. The
Metsimaswaane and Tlhawane rivers also pass through the district. In order to protect these
water resources all stakeholders (DWA, WUC, SEDC, the private sector and the community at
large) need to work together.

12.3.3.4 Water Demand
Ramotswa has got a population of over 30 000 and population projection for year 2009 is over
43 000. Taking that the average consumption is 120 L/person/day the projected demand for
year 2009 is 5160 m3/day

12.3.3.5 Population and Water Demand Projections
The figures used as the basis for population projections are of the 1991 Central Statistics Office
(CSO); figures that are also used in the Ramotswa Area Development Plan. These projections
cover Ramotswa, Taung, Boatle and their localities, from 2003 to 2009.

   Table 12.1: Population Projection (source CSO)
         Growth Rates: Low      Mid            High
                      3.2%     4.1%            4.7%
Year     Population (NO)                                     Water Demand (M3)
         Low      Mid      Mid          High   High    Mid   Low Mid        Mid             High
         High Low Mid      Low      Mid                                     High
         High              High                High

2003     30758             33544               37190         3445           3757            4165
2004     313742            34920               38938         3555           3911            4361
2005     32758             36351               40768         3669           4071            4566
2006     33806             37842               42684         3786           4238            4781
2007     34888             39393               44690         3907           4412            5005
2008     36004             41008               46791         4032           4593            5241
2009     37156             42690               48990         4162           4781            5420


12.3.3.6 Water quality
The quality of water supplied by Water Utilities Corporation is within acceptable standards.
However chlorine residual in water is very low when it reaches the consumer. The proposed

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booster station incorporates a chlorine booster plant to address this problem. DWA will
continue to carry quarterly bacteriological tests and appropriate action will be taken as soon as
the situation demand.

12.3.3.7 Water Sources
The sources of water for the district are the following provided through the WUC treatment
plant: Gaborone, Letsibogo, Bokaa and Molatedi dam.




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12.4       MINERALS, ENERGY AND WATER SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

12.4.1 Sector Goals and Objective


   Table 12.2: Minerals, Energy and Water Sector Goals
Goals                                                        Objectives                                                                       Indicators
                    Minerals Sector
To monitor mining activities with a view of maintaining      Preparation of environmental management plans and guidelines for all mining
sustainable utilization of natural resources                 activities
                    Energy Sector
To reduce dependence on non-renewable sources of energy      Promote use of solar energy
                                                             Promote thermal efficiency in buildings
                                                             Encourage use of gas for domestic needs in rural areas
                                                             To further explore alternative source of energies
                   Water Sector
To contribute to the improvement of quality of life of the   To assess effective utilisation of standpipes in all major villages by October   Map up unknown valves and rehabilitate all
people in major villages by providing sustainable and good   2003.                                                                            valves chambers and meters in the district.
quality water
                                                             To expand reticulation networks in all major villages to cover 100 percent of
                                                             village planning area by December 2006
                                                             To develop map production capacity in all outstations and improve accuracy of
                                                             existing maps by December 2003.



To promote the conservation and protection of national       To reduce the quantity of unaccounted for water to a maximum of 12 percent in    Collect data for number of breakdowns and
water resources through development and implementation       all major villages by December 2005.                                             produce quarterly reports.
of effective water conservation and protection
strategies/policies                                                                                                                           Check compliance to trenching specifications
                                                                                                                                              and produce half-yearly inspection report
                                                                                                                                              during pipeline construction

                                                                                                                                              Install pipe markers for water reticulation
                                                                                                                                              network.


                                                             To review and seek approval of water legislation by December 2004.




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Goals                                                        Objectives                                                                         Indicators
                                                             To promote innovative technologies and water conservation initiatives by
                                                             December 2003.
                                                             To develop and implement water regulations by June 2005.
                                                             To install pre-paid metering system within waterworks areas in major villages by   Phase out meter reading standpipes in the
                                                             December 2003.                                                                     district and replace them with pre-paid meters
                                                             To develop a mechanism for charging bulk withdrawal of water resources for
                                                             construction purposes by December 2004.
                                                             To implement water losses monitoring programme in major villages by March          Collect data for number of breakdowns and
                                                             2005.                                                                              produce quarterly reports.

                                                                                                                                                Check compliance to trenching specifications
                                                                                                                                                and produce half-yearly inspection report
                                                                                                                                                during pipeline construction

                                                                                                                                                Install pipe markers for water reticulation
                                                                                                                                                network.



To satisfy customers and stakeholders by providing quality   To develop departmental plans for water supply projects and implement
services and products through an effective customer          according to schedule as from July 2003
service strategy.                                            To develop and implement customer service strategy in consultation with            Evaluate and produce summary quarterly
                                                             stakeholders by November 2003.                                                     reports on customer suggestion in the
                                                                                                                                                outstation.

                                                                                                                                                Sanitizes staff on customer service

                                                                                                                                                Review of customer service index every 6
                                                                                                                                                months


                                                             To reduce customer waiting-time for paying bills to 15 minutes by December
                                                             2002.




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Goals                                                       Objectives                                                                        Indicators
                                                            To establish the billing cycle time and develop the standards by December 2003.
                                                                                                                                              Standardize the billing cycle.

                                                                                                                                              Transport for billing

                                                                                                                                              17 meter readers to be trained as pipe-fitters

                                                                                                                                              Meter repair and replacement within two days
                                                                                                                                              from reporting period
                                                            To put administrative measures in place that allow water connection fees to be    Collect data and produce quarterly reports on
                                                            paid in installments by December 2003                                             customer waiting time.

                                                                                                                                              Evaluate data to determine            appropriate
                                                                                                                                              customer waiting time
                                                            To assess and inter-link DWA paying points in major villages by July 2004
To contribute to environmental protection through the use   To enforce environmental protection legislation in areas of water pollution and
of environmental friendly technologies and programs.        land degradation
                                                            To develop and implement environmental protection guidelines for DWA
                                                            projects by December 2006.

                                                            To set up water pollution monitoring points at vulnerable major water resources   To set-up pollution monitoring points by end of
                                                            by 2005.                                                                          December 2002.
                                                            To physically demarcate the protection zones around all major water sources by
                                                            December 2005




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 12.5        FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

 12.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives


     Table 12.3: Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
Goal                                                          Environmental Assessment
To contribute to the improvement of quality of life of        Construction and development activities has impact of
people in Otse and Mogobane villages by providing             reducing the vegetation /grass cover which eventual leads to
constant flow of quality water                                disturbance of the environment.
 To Provide constant flow of portable water to                Construction activities i.e. excavation has an impact of
Metsimaswaane.                                                disturbing the environment.
To improve the existing on-site sanitation systems in Otse    Construction activities i.e. site clearing and excavation has an
and Mogobane                                                  impact of disturbing the environment.
Villages
To provide an effective and efficient sewerage system in      Construction activities i.e. has the impact of disturbing the
Ramotswa and Tlokweng.                                        environment.
Objectives                                                    Environmental Assessment
Assess effective utilisation of standpipes in the district.   Increase digging and excavation of trenches for water pipes,
                                                              which adversely affect the environment by cutting down of
                                                              trees and deterring inhabitants of that area.
Expand reticulation network to cover 100% of village          Excavation of trenches will disturb the ecosystem and
planning area by December 2006.                               exacerbate soil erosion.
Reduce quantity of unaccounted water to a maximum of          Recovered water will increase water supply.
12% by December 2004.
Install pre-paid metering system within waterworks areas      Implementation of prepaid meters is perceived to reduce
by December 2003                                              water loses hence increase water supply.
Develop and implement environmental protection                Environmental externalities will reduce as all concerned
guidelines for DWA projects by December 2006                  projects will have EIAs and will be required to provide
                                                              mitigation measures.
Set up water pollution monitoring points at vulnerable        Water pollution especially underground water will gradually
major water resources by 2005.                                reduce and in time water purity will be accomplished.




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12.6       STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

12.6.1 Proposed Projects for Council Water and Sewerage Services - South East District Council


   Table 12.4: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goals                         Project Component                   Environmental                  Mitigation                         Total Cost (Pula)   Year of Implementation
                                                                  Impact
To improve the existing on-   Feasibility studies and design of     None                         Undertake EIA and         socio-   P2, 000,000         2003/04
site sanitation system in     a sewerage system at Otse /                                        economic studies.
Otse and Mogobane.            Mogobane.
To provide constant water     Feasibility studies prior to        Const. activities reduce       All PMs must                       P950, 000           2003/04
Supply to the settlement of   drilling of 2 x boreholes at        vegetation/ grass cover        Include EIA and HIV/Aids
Metsimaswaane.                Metsimaswaane                       which will eventual leads to   components.       All    Council
                                                                  soil erosion.                  developers should consider the
                                                                                                 protection of the environment.
To    provide    sewerage     Construction                                                                                          102, 612,000        2004/07
system for Otse and           of a sewerage system at Otse
Mogobane                      and Mogobane                            Ditto                      Ditto
To improve the      water     Extension of exiting Water                                                                            2,000,000           2003-2005
supply system in Otse and     Supply Scheme within the two                                       Ditto
Mogobane village              villages at Otse                       Ditto
                              and
                              Mogobane
To provide an effect and      Extension of the existing                                                                             5,000,000           2006-2008
efficient sewerage system     Sewerage Scheme at Tlokweng
in Tlokweng.
                                                                     Ditto                       Ditto
To provide an effect and      Extension of the existing                                                                             5,000,000           2007-2009
efficient sewerage system     Sewerage Scheme at Ramotswa
in Ramotswa village.
                                                                     Ditto                       Ditto




                                                                                                                                                                             129
12.6.2 Proposed Projects for Water Affairs Department
Goals                        Project Component             Environmental                       Mitigation                                 Total Cost (Pula)   Year to Implement
                                                           Impact
To boost water pressure.     Booster station at Boatle     Clearing of bush will disturb the   On completion road/pipeline servitude      1 510 000           2003/04
                                                           inhabitants of the ecosystem.       will not be fenced to allow free
                                                                                               movement of animals.
Collection of water for      Boatle -Collector reservoir   Cutting down of trees and           Some of the dug up material will be        1 300 000           2003/04
experiments         before                                 blasting of rocks when digging.     used during construction which means
distribution and to guard                                                                      rehabilitation measures will be applied.
against periods of pipe
breakages
To relocate to more          Sepitswane - DWA Office       Digging of trenches.                Disturbed trees will be replaced.          5 000 000           2003/04
spacious location.           Block and Workshop.




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12.7       RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

12.7.1 Issues and Strengths

Table 12.6:        Issues and Strengths for
Issues                                             Strength
Water contamination                                Solid deposits that block water mains are traced and removed. Water
                                                   metres are repaired /replaced.
Underground water pollution.                       Sewer network has been constructed with the view to encourage people to
                                                   use water borne toilets as pit latrines are identified as the main polluter.
Gaborone to Ramotswa transmission experiences      Frequent patrolling enforced along the transmission line.
frequent failures due to aging and also networks
breakages.
Frequent breakdowns of pumps that supply           The two villages are connected to Gaborone /Lobatse Water Utilities line.
Otse/Mogobane villages.
Shortage of portable water in Matsimaswane         A feasibility study proposed in next financial year to determine weather to
                                                   drill boreholes in this settlement.


The challenge that lies with this Ministry is to explore alternative sources of energy, to speed
up cleaning of coal for domestic purposes as well as to formulate policy guidelines in mining
of sand. While the use of polluted water is going to be explored, efforts should be made to
protect the Ramotswa aquifer from further pollution, since continued water recharge normally
ends up purifying the polluted groundwater, therefore it can be used in future. If implemented,
the above measures can go a long way in achieving diversification and sustainable
development as outlined in the theme of NDP 9.

Botswana‘s water resources management approach used to emphasise that water needs are
requirements, which must be met and consequently focused on development of new sources
and structures in an attempt to manipulate the resources to meet the perceived needs. It has
been realised that water is a finite resource and no amount of manipulation can change that
fact. Therefore it is now imperative to consider water needs as demands that are variable and
changeable. More investment needs to be put on water demand management and conservation
in order to reduce overuse, wastage and misuse which leads to water losses of more than 30%
in some water supply schemes in this District.

12.7.2 Performance Targets
        To reduce by 80% waiting period for private water /sewerage connections by 2005
        To reduce 90% time and cost of delivery service to the Community by developing and
         implementing preventive maintenance programmes.
        To expand the water supply schemes in Otse and Mogobane villages as well as the
         sewerage schemes in Ramotswa and Tlokweng.

12.7.3 Plan Monitoring Program
Respective Sectional heads within the department will be requested to draw up a monitoring
programme during the plan implementation period. A quarterly and annual projects reviews
shall be submitted to ensure that targets are met.




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CHAPTER 13
13       WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

13.1     INTRODUCTION

Infrastructure network is fundamental for the operation of efficient and sustainable economy
since it acts as a catalyst in the development process. Botswana‘s fast economic growth is
attributed by among other things to good communication links. During District Development
Plan 5, the ministries were rationalised looking at their portfolio responsibilities and functions.
The Ministry of Works Transport and Communication was one of those ministries that was
rationalised to form two ministries of Works and Transport and that of Communications,
Science and Technology. The Departments falling under the latter would also be discussed in
this chapter.

Ministry of Works and Transport supervises Departments such as Architectural and Building
Services, Electrical and Mechanical Services and Roads, Transport and Safety at district level.
It also oversees activities of parastatals such as Botswana Railways.

The Ministry of Communications, Science and Technology oversees activities of parastatal
organizations like Botswana Telecommunications Corporation and Botswana Postal Services.

13.1.1 Institutional Framework
The major sectors falling under these two ministries are Works, Transport and
Communications.

At district level infrastructure and services are provided through departments of DABS and
DEMS. Central Transport Organisation, Meteorological Services and Roads Department
provide services in the district but are based in Gaborone. The Roads Transport and Safety is
also based in Ramotswa.

The Parastatals of Botswana Railways and Botswana Postal Services are also based in the
district while others like Botswana Telecommunications Corporation, Botswana
Telecommunications Authority and service the district from Gaborone.

At district level, the District Council which falls under the Ministry of Local Government
compliments the efforts of the above sector. Council is charged with provision and
maintenance of the secondary and tertiary roads in the district.

13.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
13.1.2.1 Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication
The Ministry of Transport, Works and Communications seeks to provide efficient, cost
effective, safe, reliable, sustainable and environmentally sound infrastructure services
commensurate to international standards, which will support government strategies for social
and economic development of Botswana.



                                                                                             132
13.1.3 Ministry of Local Government
The strategic plan for the ministry is to provide physical and social infrastructure such as
drainage systems, bus ranks, streetlights, tertiary and access roads.

13.1.4 Works Sector
At a district level, the Department of Architecture and Building Services and Electrical and
Mechanical Services are responsible for providing and maintaining Government and
institutional buildings and the necessary electrical and mechanical services installations. The
Department of Meteorological Services provides weather information and data to the public as
well as to other departments such as Civil Aviation and Ministry of Agriculture. The Central
Transport Organisation provides central government transport and is also responsible for
maintaining the fleet.

The District Council does the design, tender and construction of housing for other local
institutions, primary education and primary health facilities through the buildings Section. It
also maintains Council buildings.

13.1.5 Transport Sector
The Department of Roads is responsible for the design, construction and maintenance of
primary and secondary roads including bridge construction. The Department of Road
Transport and Safety is responsible for national road policies including vehicle registration and
licensing, safety, transport regulation and promotion. The Department of Civil Aviation
constructs and operates government airports and air navigation infrastructure and also oversees
standards governing all civil aviation activities. The Botswana Railways provides rail transport
for passengers and luggage as a parastatal organisation.

13.1.6 Communications Sector
13.1.6.1 Botswana Postal Services
The Botswana Postal Services (BPS) now trading as Botswana Post is a commercial enterprise
of the government whose main objective is to provide an efficient and effective internal and
international postal communications service. Provision of these services would lead to
economic growth with a view of improving the socio-economic and cultural development of
the rural populace.
Botswana Post provides and operates postal services network throughout the country, while
communities provide postal agencies where post offices are not viable.

Due to most postal services running at a loss, rural areas would continue to be serviced by
postal agencies which are established on request by the Village Development Committees.

13.1.6.2 Botswana Telecommunications Corporation
Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is incorporated to provide telecommunication
through the cable and the wireless local loop which does not only provide telephonic
communication but also facilitates the use of internet and e-mail in major villages and urban
areas. Most peri-urban areas are covered by this facility since it operates within a given radius.
It extends its services to the rural areas by providing a wire network. Though the corporation is
keen to bring phones to the remote areas, cost effectiveness is one of the prime scenarios in



                                                                                            133
determining the location of the telephone services. Therefore rural telecommunication is
funded by the government and BTC offer technical assistance.

Since the introduction of cellular networks in the country through two companies, BTC has
also supplied the backbone network to facilitate cellular communication. The private
payphones have further strengthened accessibility to telecommunication lines.

Works that are beyond the capacity and/or the technical expertise of the traditional departments
and parastatal are awarded to the private sector to undertake.


13.2    NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

13.2.1 Road Traffic Act
The revised 1997 Roads Act gives the Roads Department Authority to construct and maintain
primary and secondary roads.

Further to this, the 1994 Road Maintenance study categorized roads in a hierarchically order -
thus determining which roads should be done by Council and which ones should be done by
Central Government Roads Department.

Settlements within 10 km of a new paved road will have an access road also paved to the
Kgotla. Any extension beyond the Kgotla should be negotiated with the Ministry of Local
Government.

13.2.2 Transport and Safety Policy
Cost recovery policy will constitute an integral part of Government‘s strategy to ensure that
funds will be available for maintenance of road infrastructure.

13.2.3 Telecommunications Policy
The policy is administered by the Botswana Telecommunications Authority. It aims at creating
a vibrant and competitive telecommunication industry through a liberalised market. The advent
of Mascom and Orange with their services in the town has complemented the aim of this
policy.

13.2.4 Civil Aviation Policy
The policy thrust for Civil Aviation is to recover an increasing proportion of the cost of
infrastructure and facilities provided by Government. Unfortunately land shortage in the
district will not entertain the construction of such a facility.

13.2.5 Works Policy
The policy thrust within the area of public works is geared towards greater use of the private
sector in the provision of services, which are currently not used much by the Government.
This new approach is necessary because the Government‘s overall policy restrains the growth
of the public sector by privatizing where possible.




                                                                                          134
With more out-sourcing of services, the roles of DABS, DEMS and CTO in project
implementation will be reduced from that of providing services, that is, design, documentation,
construction, supervision and maintenance to that of ensuring that specifications are followed.

It is the Government‘s intention to merge DABS & DEMS since their works compliment each
other and this move will strengthen the availability of resources in the two departments such as
transport.

13.2.6 Meteorological Services Policy
In the area of Meteorological Services, Government‘s role is to provide weather data and
information for aviation purposes, agriculture and public weather services in general. Weather
forecasts are important for a large number of activities, including planning and air safety. In
agriculture, weather information may indicate to farmers when to commence ploughing or
whether to increase stock off-take to minimise losses in the event of a looming drought.

13.2.7 Postal Services Act
The act was enacted in 1989 and the post was given legal status to facilitate independent
management and accountability to respond more effectively to market requirements. It also
made it possible to accelerate postal developments and facilitate customer access to postal
services.


13.3    WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

13.3.1 Primary and Secondary Roads
A Bitumen road proposed to link South East with Kweneng (Boatle/Mmankgodi road) was
completed during DDP 5, while Mogobane/Ranaka road commenced in August, 2002. The
Notwane river crossing is still impassable during rainy season since the proposed bridge was
not undertaken during DDP 5.

The other problem envisaged is the deterioration of Taung Border post shoulders.

13.3.2 Telecommunications
The lines from the existing exchange station in Ramotswa are all used up. Tlokweng has no
problems since it is benefiting from the wireless loop in Gaborone. Otse and Mogobane are
connected to Lobatse through a wireless loop. In Taung/Boatle there are 550 lines and only 229
were used by August 2002.

13.3.3 Meteorological Services
This Department noted that global warming and climate change poses a serious threat to the
environment. The service for the district is provided by the Gaborone office.

13.3.4 Postal Services
All the post offices in South East are subsidized in terms of running costs with the exception of
Tlokweng post office. It has also been observed that there is a lot of paper work used in the
current system.



                                                                                           135
13.3.5 Department of Road Transport and Safety
Transport to other districts like Gaborone and Lobatse is adequate but the problem is the
uneven distribution of the local combis, which concentrates only on the primary road and some
few tertiary roads.


13.4        TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 13.1: Transport and Communications Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                                   Objectives                                            Indicators
                    Works, Transport and Communications Sector
To provide a safe, secure, accessible, To recover the maintenance costs by ensuring public
cost effective, and environmentally safety through inspection of the conditions of
sustainable infrastructure and          vehicles, crews and operators in both the passenger
                                        and freight transport services.




To provide a universal service and        To create good working relations with customers     Zero waiting list for
meet customer demands in major            To operate competitively                            post boxes during the
centres                                   To offer efficient communication options            plan period.
                                          To provide high quality products and services and
                                          meet customer satisfaction.                         Achieve 95% mail
                                                                                              delivery between major
                                                                                              centres within 24hours
                                                                                              by 2004.
To provide services that are acceptable   To provide public booths to meet market demands     To have provided 27
and competitive internationally to meet                                                       Public booths in the
the expectation of vision 2016                                                                district by 2009




13.5        FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

13.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and objectives
The provision of infrastructure development under this goal may lead to borrow-pits which
would be reclaimed immediately when they cease to be active. Indiscriminate cutting of big
trees in the road reserves, soil erosion and indiscriminate dumping of rubbles.

The second goal is environmental friendly. Goal 3 might lead to de-bushing and digging of
borrow pits.




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   13.6      STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE WORKS, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


       Table 13.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goal                                     Projects                              Environmental Impacts    Mitigation measures                        Total Cost   Year
                    Department of Roads
To provide a safe, secure, accessible, Dualling of Gaborone-Tlokweng border    De-bushing               Selective debushing within the road        59 000 000   2004/05
cost effective and environmentally post road.                                                           reserve.
sustainable infrastructure                                                     Digging of borrow pits
                                                                                                        Replacing of trees within 1m radius of
                                                                                                        the reserve.

                                      Eastern by-pass plus interchange along   De-bushing               Selective debushing      within the road   44 000 000   2004/05
                                     the Gaborone/Tlokweng                                              reserve Replacing of     trees within 1m
                                                                               Digging of borrow pits   radius of the reserve.
                                     Mogobane/Ranaka Road construction         De-bushing               Selective debushing      within the road   20 000 000   2004/05
                                                                                                        reserve Replacing of     trees within 1m
                                                                               Digging of borrow pits   radius of the reserve.
                                     Construction of Notwane Bridge in         Digging of borrow pits   Selective debushing.                       1 000 000    Date not yet
                                     Ramotswa                                                                                                                   known


   * The other part of funding will be provided by Government of the Republic of South Africa.




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13.7     RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

13.7.1 Issues and Strengths
Issues

Though all the recognized settlements have been provided with electricity and telephone lines
in SED, it still has to make these facilities reliable by way of correcting occasional
interruptions in the systems. Construction of primary and secondary roads in the district is
fairly well provided but the interconnection of the District with Gaborone has to be improved
together with internal roads in villages. Replacement of boarded vehicles by Central Transport
Organization (CTO), maintenance of buildings by Department of Electrical and Mechanical
Services (DEMS) and Department of Architecture and Building Services (DABS) as well as
construction of projects leaves much more to be desired. To a larger extent the latter
department has contributed to poor implementation of projects and this has led to the carrying
over of projects from NDP 8/DDP 5 to NDP 9/DDP6

To maintain a high rate of growth in the country, it is imperative that works and
communications sectors should improve performance and this would certainly carry us along to
the realization of one of the vision pillars of prosperous, productive and innovative nation.




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CHAPTER 14
14       LAW, JUSTICE AND SECURITY

14.1     INTRODUCTION

This sector‘s role is to maintain justice, peace, social and political equity as well as ensuring
internal stability and protection of the country against external intrusion. The task performed
by this department is inevitable since it safe guards capital assets, human and other natural
resources like land which enable the development process to take place.

Through effective operation of this sector, the district would achieve some of the stated vision
pillars of safe, secure, accountable, open, and democratic and a united nation.

14.1.1 Institutional Framework
The Ministry of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration is charged with responsibility
of making sure that justice prevails.

The Departments of Tribal and District Administration also play an important part in the justice
administration at the district level. These come under the umbrella of Ministry of Local
Government. They mainly deal with matters of indigenous custom and try criminal cases of
certain jurisdiction. The District Commissioner reviews judgments for customary court cases.

The magistrate courts and the high court adjudicate cases.

There are also Immigration services under Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs whose role is
to protect society against the entrance, residence and movement in and out of the country of
people with undesirable behaviour. They also ensure the smooth passage of genuine travelers.

The Ministry of Communication, Science and Technology which is a newly established
Ministry would be discussed under this chapter in relation to Information and Broadcasting.

14.1.2 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
14.1.2.1 Ministry of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration
The strategic plan for Ministry of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration would
continue to deal with the security of the nation to ensure a stable and peaceful environment
conducive for the nation‘s development.

The departments under this Ministry include Botswana Police whose mandate is to provide a
professional law enforcement service in order to achieve a peaceful, safe and secure society.

Also within this Ministry, there is the Judiciary which services the district from Gaborone.

The Department of Information and Broadcasting would during the plan period develop
communication capacity particularly in the electronic media, that is, the radio and television,
towards the realisation of an informed and educated nation. Through information sharing with

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the public on government policies and programmes, the public by the year 2016 would be well
informed on policy interventions, development issues, and education and also on
entertainment.

14.1.2.2 Ministry of Local Government
The Ministry of Local Government would during the plan period facilitate people‘s
participation in the development process and provide the same with wide range of services.
These services include the presiding over criminal and civil cases by Dikgosi who falls under
Tribal Administration. The District Commissioner would still continue to review these cases.
Also under TA there are local police officers who enforce law and order.

14.1.2.3 The Role of the Private Sector
The private sector takes a strong role in this particular sector. For policing there are forums like
the crime prevention committees, neighbourhood watch committees, business community
forums and others. There are however, no private law firms in the district due to its proximity
to Gaborone, so the public gets this service there. The same goes for the private media.

14.1.2.4 Consultation Priorities
During consultation, the community felt that there were delays in attending to reports by the
police officers. Also, there is a problem of juvenile delinquency that starts from Primary level
up to Senior Secondary levels. It was observed that there is lack of control of teenagers by the
parents or guardians.

The community was worried about the influx of illegal immigrants and illegal border crossing
especially from South Africa where it has led to cattle theft in the district.

The contractors tend to hire illegal immigrants as opposed to citizens because they provide
cheap labour.


14.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

14.2.1 Botswana Police Act
The Act stipulates that the service would be employed throughout the country to protect life
and property, prevent and detect crime, repress internal disturbances, maintain security and
public tranquillity apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. In the district the police has
10 patrol areas and covers an area of 724 square kilometres with a high ratio of police officers
to the community at 1: 553 people. This makes policing difficult.

14.2.2 Chieftainship Act
The act is an instrument used for the appointment and removal of chiefs. The act recognises
Dikgosi as custodians of the customary law where expectation is that they preside over
criminal and civil cases and give appropriate sentences. These are also empowered to cascade
developmental issues to their tribes in consultation with other three local institutions.

In the District there are two paramount Chiefs for the Balete and Batlokwa tribes, heading the
district headquarters and the sub-district respectively. Every village thereafter is headed by the



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Chiefs representative assisted by the headman of record and other supporting staff like court
clerks and local police.

14.2.3 Customary Court Procedure
The procedure guides the chiefs and staff as it stipulates ways of conduct by individuals, ways
to conduct both civil and criminal cases. The Customary Court procedure is followed during
prosecution of cases in the district.

14.2.4 Local Police Act
The Botswana Police Act is a statutory body established under section 3 of the Local Police
Act Cap 21:04. The Local Police is established under acts no 13 of 1972 to provide
appointment and discipline of officers in the service. The Ministry of Local Government may
issue standing orders for the general control, direction and administration of the service.

The act is an instrument used for the appointment, dismissal and a guide to police personnel. It
also states disciplinary measures to be applied to the police officers.

14.2.5 Magistrate Courts
The courts are established by Cap 04.04 of the Laws of Botswana. This stipulates the grading
for Magistrates to be able to operate in any Magistrate court. In the district there is a visiting
grade 1 Magistrate. The Magistrate presides over criminal, traffic and civil cases.

14.2.6 Prisons Act
The Prisons are established by Cap 21:03 of the Laws of Botswana. The act stipulates that
running of prison services in Botswana. The district does not have a prison facility available
except for the police cells which are used for initial detentions of up to 48 hours in Ramotswa,
Tlokweng, Naledi and Woodhall Lobatse. For further remand of detainees, Lobatse, Gaborone
and Molepolole prisons are used.

14.2.7 Immigration Act
The act stipulates that every person entering Botswana should on arrival at the point of entry,
presents themselves immediately to the nearest immigration officers and should use gazetted
points of entry. In the district there are two gazetted points being Ramotswa and Tlokweng
border posts.

14.2.8 Broadcasting Act
The act freed the airwaves for commercial and community broadcasting. Through this act, the
department recognises the importance of developing efficient information systems and
networks for the support of research, education, development and communication with the rest
of the world, as espoused by Vision 2016.

14.2.9 Information Media – Policy Directive (1969)
The policy sort to provide a nation-wide dialogue on public policy issues, announce national
goals and finish the requisite climate of nationhood.



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14.3     LAW JUSTICE AND SECURITY

14.3.1 Customary Law and Courts
The Minister of Local Government through the Chieftainship Act appoints chiefs. Their
hierarchy stands as: Paramount Chief, Deputy chief, Senior Chiefs representative, Chiefs
representative, Headman of Record and Headman of Arbitration. The Customary Courts deal
with customary laws which are not written and other laws of Botswana as stipulated in the
Customary Court Act.

Customary law has been noticed to differ from tribe to tribe and these try 85% of both criminal
and civil cases in the Country. The chiefs however, have difficulties in collecting fines due to
transport and manpower constraints. Also, it is sometimes difficult to implement sentences for
people of a different tribe in a different tribal area.

14.3.2 Police
At district level, the duties of the Police service are to protect life and property; prevent and
detect crime; maintain security and public tranquillity among others, generally maintaining law
and order.

Prosecution of criminal cases is also done by the Police officers at both the Magistrate and
Customary Courts. Prosecution at the Magistrate Courts is done on behalf of the Attorney
General.

In South East District, there are two police stations. These are situated in the primary centres of
Ramotswa and Tlokweng. Their area of jurisdiction however, transcends the boundaries of the
District into neighbouring districts, as is the case with other police stations throughout the
country.

14.3.3 Immigration
The immigration office is charged with responsibility of controlling movement people in and
out of the country, while customs deals with movement of goods in and out of the country. It
also makes a point that Value Added Tax (VAT) is paid where necessary.

Immigration also deals with the issues of prohibited immigrants when such people are found
within the country these are arrested, detained and repatriated to their countries of origin.

The district-based office is charged with payment of passport fees and residents permit while
the passports are processed in Gaborone.

The district immigration office is faced with the influx of foreigners in the district who works
illegally, that is, without both the residents and work permits.

14.3.4 Fire Services
South East District Council offers fire Services. A plot has been acquired to build a fire station
and funds will be availed during DDP 5 to construct fire station.




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     14.3.5 Information and Broadcasting
     The Department of Information and Broadcasting takes cognizance of the fact that all
     Batswana should access information either through print or electronic media. This will ensure
     an informed and educated nation, which would be able to participate in national issues and
     make informed decisions. The functions of the Department are to interpret the policies and
     actions of Government to the people by:

              A continuing service of information and public relations.
              Campaigns and concentrated publicity on particular subjects.


     The department is also charged with advising Government on public opinion and in the field of
     public relations generally.

     The BOPA office is also charged with the responsibility of gathering and compiling news for
     Radio Botswana News Desk, the Daily News, as well as Kutlwano magazine.

     The department has a wide clientele as it covers government, private sector and even individual
     people on the street, as these are all potential sources of news and assist in developing story
     ideas with facts and opinions.

     The paper however, has not been widely read as the district received copies of it a day or so
     after circulation. The paper was also not attractive to the clients‘ eye as it was in black and
     white print.


     14.4        LAW, JUSTICE AND SECURITY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


         Table 14.1: Law, Justice and Security Sector Goals and Objectives
Goals                           Objectives                                                  Performance Target
                  Botswana Police Services
To maintain law and order         To cub and monitor various crime rates                    10% reduction yearly on all crimes

                                  Construct adequate infrastructure which will create       Construction       of        residential
                                  conducive environment for efficiency and effectiveness    accommodation, provision of vehicles
                                  performance                                               and communication facilities
                                  To increase public confidence in the police               Feedback from the public
                  Customary Courts
To maintain law and order and     To bring services closer to people                        Construction of a customary Court office
provide improved services for
staff in Tlokweng Sub District.
                                  To provide adequate facilities to motivate staff          Provision of office and residential
                                                                                            accommodation and transport

                  Immigration
To educate the public on          To sensitize the public about the dangers of harbouring   To     have   discourage  the    local
immigration issues                illegal immigrants                                        communities to interact and protect
                                                                                            illegal immigrants by 50% in the year
                                                                                            2004/05 and by 80% at the end of the
                                                                                            plan period.

                                  To issue Botswana Passports within a week of              Issuance of passport within a week
                                  application




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Goals                           Objectives                                            Performance Target
To sensitize the community on To inform people on immigration procedures              Reports from the public
citizenship procedures
                  Information and Broadcasting
To provide quality reporting,   To win and retain the consent of the people to the    Provision of feedback on government
and prompt service delivery     policies, aims and objectives of the government and   policies and programmes
                                provide feedback.
                                To educate and entertain people in accordance with    An increased number of people reading
                                national development aims and goals.                  and listening to the media




     14.5       FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

     14.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals and Objectives
     The environmental impacts that are likely to arise from this goal are debushing, air pollution
     and disturbance of the natural habitat.

     For Customary Courts, the impacts are likely to be debushing during construction,
     deforestation, uncontrolled extraction of sand & gravel and soil erosion.

     For Immigration, the goals do not have any negative environmental impact.

     14.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
     All the Policies and Acts used discussed under this sector are environmental friendly.




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14.6       STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LAW JUSTICE AND SECURITY SECTOR, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

14.6.1 Proposed Projects


   Table 14.2: Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Goal                                    Project Component                     Environmental Impact                     Mitigation                    Estimated Cost   Year
                                                                                                                                                     (Pula)
                                        Magistrate Court                      Reduction of the vegetation/grass                                      14 619 500       Unfunded
                                        House & Vehicle                       cover,   which    will     result in
                                                                              environmental degradation.


To maintain law and order               Improvement to 10 low cost houses-    None                                                                    1 000 000       2003/04
                                        Rams
                                        Construction 1HC, 9MC & 23LC          Reduction of the vegetation/grass                                      10 449 000       2004/05
                                        houses                                cover,   which    will     result in
                                                                              environmental degradation.


                                        Office Upgrading & Staff Houses-      Bush clearing may result in soil                                        4 000 000       2005/06
                                        Ramotswa border                       erosion
                                        Office Upgrading & Staff Houses       Reduction of the vegetation/grass                                      7 300 000
                                                                              cover,   which    will     result in
                                                                              environmental degradation.


                                        Revenue Offices                       Bush clearing may result in soil                                        5 000 000
                                                                              erosion
To educate the public on immigration    Hold Kgotla meetings 3 times a year   N/A                                      N/A                            10 000          2003/04 –2008/09
issues
To sensitize the community on           Hold Kgotla meetings                  N/A                                      N/A                           10 000           2003 - 2009
citizenship procedures
To maintain law and order and provide   Construction of Customary Court       deforestation, uncontrolled extraction   Selective cutting of trees,   2 828 000        2004/05
improved services for staff in          Office, provision of transport        of sand & gravel and soil erosion        and landscaping
Tlokweng Sub




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14.7        RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

14.7.1 Issues and Strengths for Law, Justice and Security


    Table 14.3: Issues and Strengths for Law, Justice and Security
Issues                                                       Strengths
Botswana Police
Inadequate manpower and resources to effectively deal with   Police College offers an opportunity for the district security
crime                                                        forces to acquire some skills
Immigration
A rise in illegal immigrats                                  Issuance of passports in the district
Illegal border crossing                                      Operations are carried out by different stakeholders which has
                                                             forged a link between these
Tribal Administration
Shortage of office and residential accommodation             Majority of cases are handled by TA
                                                             It has offices at both urban and local districts
Information and Broadcasting
Budget for the projects in the district is centralised       The department has increased the news paper volume from
                                                             eight pages to sixteen in order to cover more news stories
Although the department intends constructing some district   The paper has also gone full colour.
offices during NDP9/DDP6, Ramotswa has not been catered
for due to budgetary constraints.
The office is unable to reach small settlements with paper   People have access to the news of the day as early as the open
distribution because of staff and transport shortage         of business.
Office accommodation is a problem as it is difficult to      Daily News, is the only daily newspaper in the country
conduct group interviews


14.7.2 Plan Monitoring Programme
Respective departments would prepare Quarterly financial and physical progress report and
Annual Performance Plans for presentation to the District Development Committee to ensure
that targets are met. Also there would be annual reviews of these plans after each Annual Plan
period. These would pave way to the DDP 6 Midterm review which will be done after three
years of implementation.




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CHAPTER 15
15        LOCAL GOVERNMENT

15.1      INTRODUCTION

The Ministry of Local Government plays a major role in the development process since it has
set four local institutions whose part of their task is to facilitate coordinated consultations.
Community consultation is one of the elements that reflect democratic principles of Botswana
Governance. Through local authorities Botswana has realised devolution and de-concentration
of power from the centre to a local level. This meant mandating this sector to deliver services
and physical infrastructure to the local communities particularly in the rural areas. These
include construction of Primary Health Education access and tertiary roads just but to mention
a few of those.

Local authorities as the main implementing and coordinator bodies of policies at the rural
areas, role is among others disseminate information.

During DDP 5, was divided into two Ministries being Ministry of Local Government and
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment.

15.1.1 Vision 2016
The Ministry of Local Government is implementing vision 2016 which intends to propel
Botswana‘s socio-economic development into that of a competitive, winning and prosperous
nation. The Local Authorities have also roles to play towards the realization of the vision
ideals. Amongst the seven key goals(pillars) for vision 2016, this Ministry is also focusing on
the following pillars; an educated and informed nation, a prosperous, productive and innovative
nation, a compassionate, just and caring nation and a safe and secure nation.

15.1.2 Institutional Framework
Local institutions are structured in order to effectively carry out the Ministry of Local
Government‘s mandate to provide physical infrastructure, social and judicial services to the
community. The local institutions consist of:

        District Administration – which deals with settling of disputes, both civil and criminal.
         In 1994, District Administration was merged with Food Relief Services to form one
         department.
        District Council – is charged with the responsibility to provide physical infrastructure
         services like education facilities, health facilities water, roads, social services, e.t.c.
        Land Boards (Malete and Tlokweng) – manage and distribute land equitably to all
         stakeholders.
        Tribal Administrations (Balete and Batlokwa) – aim at maintaining law and order
         through protection of life and property as well as prevention of crime.




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15.1.3 Strategic Plans for Respective Ministries
15.1.3.1 Ministry of local Government
The Ministry of Local Government‘s strategic plan consists of six Key Result Areas(KRA‘s):

      Physical and social infrastructure provision
      Social protection provision
      Enhanced Local governance
      Policy implementation effectiveness
      Productivity and organization effectiveness
      Customer satisfaction

15.1.3.2 Ministry of Health
The Ministry‘s strategic plan is to improve the physical, mental and psychological well being
of every individual, families and communities in Botswana through provision of physical
infrastructure and social services.

15.1.3.3 Ministry of Education
The Ministry‘s strategic plan is to provide quality of education accessible to all through
provision of physical infrastructure and social services.

15.1.3.4 Ministry of Labour and Home
The Ministry‘s strategic plan is to provide excellent customer service in Labour
Administration, Trade Disputes, Vocational Training, Correctional Services, Civil Registration,
Immigration, Sports, Information, Gender, Youth, National and Cultural Heritage.

15.1.3.5 Ministry of Mineral Energy and Water Affairs (Water Supply)
The Ministry of Mineral, Energy and Water Affairs Strategic plan is to provide reliable,
adequate and good quality water and energy services, and efficient administrative services for
mineral exploitation.

15.1.3.6 Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication (Roads)
The Ministry‘s strategic plan is to create an environment conducive for business, and manage
wildlife resources to meet local and global challenges.

15.1.3.7 Ministry of State President (Disaster, Elections)
Strategic plan for Independent Electoral Commission is basically to conduct free, fair and
correct elections for members of National Assembly and Local Authority in a stable (peaceful)
environment.

15.1.3.8 Ministry of Lands, Housing and Environment
The Ministry‘s strategic plan is management and development of land, facilitation of housing
delivery as well as promoting the conservation of the environment.




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15.1.4 Role of the Private Sector
The role of private sector is considered very crucial in provision of basic infrastructure if
services have to be delivered efficiently and effectively by government. Government has taken
a deliberate move to promote private sector initiatives. It will do that by providing an enabling
environment for private sector to participate as workers, consumers, farmers, business people,
contractors, consultants etc. When private sector is provided with an enabling environment it
will create employment, diversify the economy, provide housing, attain sustainable
development and efficiency. Already, private sector‘s contribution has been substantial in
assisting government to provide schools, health facilities, roads, sewerage and water systems,
houses in their own capacity or in partnership with government. This arrangement will help to
reduce work load to the over-stretched manpower available and improve service delivery to the
community. For example, maintenance of vehicles, collection of litter, the operation of
landfill, construction of schools, clinics can be done by private sector to reduce the Local
Authorities on the workload.

15.1.4.1 Social and Community Development
Because of HIV/AIDS scourge, not so many private sectors are engaged in Community based
activities such as Home based care, Community and clients counseling and construction of
community day health care centres to provide spiritual, social, medical and feeding of patients
with the assistance of SEDC e.g. Otse Home based care centre, Emmanuel Counseling centre
and Botlhale jwa Phala to mention just a few. These groups are really showing the spirit of a
―compassionate and Caring Nation‖ – Vision 2016.
15.1.4.2 Primary Education
The role of private sector is considered crucial in provision of school in partnership with
government.
Provision of school supplies and construction infrastructure is mainly provided by private
companies through tender procedures.

15.1.4.3 Tribal Administration
Responsibilities of private sector pertaining Law, Justice and Security are to contribute in the
curbing of crime and to develop other strategies to assist the Government. There are security
companies, Mechanical and electrical appliances for security, Crime Prevention Committees
and neighbourhood Committees.
15.1.5 Local Government Consultation Priorities
      Village Infrastructure.
      Issues of dusty roads in the villages due to untarred roads.
      Flooding due to poor storm water drainage.
      Increase in crime hence a need to provide street lighting to assist the police in
       combating it.
      The issue regarding the intermittent water supply in Otse and Mogobane.
      Non -availability of sewers in some parts of Ramotswa and Tlokweng.

15.1.5.1 Primary Education
      During consultations the communities emphasized on provision of classrooms and the
       new schools in areas where children were travelling long distances from school.



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      The communities also felt classrooms should be installed with air conditioners to
       provide warmth to children more especially in winter seasons.
      Provision of school gardens and sports grounds in schools where they are not available.
      Electrification of all school facilities and provision of computers.

15.1.5.2 Tribal Administration
      The Consensus was that there is need for a Customary Court to be built in one of the
       extension areas in Tlokweng to decrease the workload on the current strength.

15.1.5.3 Sanitation and Waste Management
      There is need for strategies on clinical waste collection from homes.

15.1.5.4 Land Board
      There is need to enforce on repossession of undeveloped plots and limit the number of
       plots per person.

15.1.5.5 Other General Issues
      There is need to intensify on poverty alleviation strategies.
      There is need to address the issue of lack of employment opportunities


15.2     NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

15.2.1 District Administration
The Department of District Administration was established before independence of Botswana
without corporate status. It is headed by the District Commissioner who also co-ordinates
other Central Government Departments, advises Central Government on political activity, and
security situation and interprets policy guidelines to other local authorities. It is also in charge
of Food Relief Services. The following are acts used by DC.

The Magistrate Courts Act empowers the District Commissioner/District Officer to perform
various judicial functions as stipulated in the Laws of Botswana. However they are not given
any induction to enable them to diligently perform such duties.

The DC/DO for a certain district are designated marriage officers and they solemnize
marriages after satisfying that there are no legal impediments to the proposed marriages.
Premarital and post marital counselling will continue to be given by the District Officer if
couples so desire.

The DC/DO use the Penal Code and Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act to review
conviction and fines procedures referred to District Officers by customary courts. However
there is need to give these officers ample review time to ascertain that the correct fines have
been imposed.




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15.2.2 Tribal Administration
Tribal Administration has been established under the Customary Court Act Cap 04:05. Tribal
Administration consists of three units and these are the Chiefs, Local Police and
Administration. Within Chiefs Unit, there are Chiefs, Deputy Chiefs, Senior Chiefs,
Representative Headmen of Record and Headmen of Arbitration.

The Chieftainship Act, the Customary Court Act/Procedure and the Local Police are acts
instrumental to functions of Tribal Administration/Customary Courts. Chieftainship Act is for
appointment and removal of Chiefs, it also stipulates powers and functions of a Chief.
Customary Act/Procedure is a guide to the Chief and staff as it stipulates ways to conduct
oneself as well as conduct trials of both civil and criminal cases. Local Police Act is an
instrument to appoint, dismiss, and a guide to Police personnel, as it also deals with discipline.

Customary Courts deals with customary laws which are not written and other written laws of
Botswana as stipulated in customary Court Act Cap 04:05.
Customary Courts try 85% of cases both criminal and civil in Botswana.

Customary laws are sometimes a constraint as they differ from tribe to tribe and sometimes to
implement decisions made by a Chief of a different tribe to a person of another tribe is
difficult.
Customary Courts have problems with collection of fines due to shortage of manpower and
transport.

South East District has two Tribal Administrations: Batlokwa in Tlokweng and Balete in
Ramotswa; two Paramount Chief‘s Representative in Ramotswa and Tlokweng respectively.
There are also Chief‘s Representatives in the villages of Otse, Mogobane and Taung.

15.2.3 District Council
District Councils were established under Local Government (District) Council Act 1965 Cap
40:01. South East District has its headquarters in Ramotswa and Sub-District headquarters in
Tlokweng. The Council Secretary and the Assistant Council Secretary head these respectively.
The Council Secretary directly co-ordinates developments of Council.

The core functions of the District Council are meant to secure and promote the health, order
and good government of its jurisdiction. However, services that Council provides have been
increasing in response to demand of communities. Some of these functions have been
delegated to Councils through other Acts and National Policies such as the Decentralization
Policy, Town and Country Planning Act 1977 Cap 32:09 that empowers Local Authorities to
control development through Physical Planning and Building Committee. The Trade and
Liquor Act 1986 empowers Councils to issue trade licenses

15.2.4 Waste Management Act
The Act was enacted in 1998 under the stewardship of DSWM, enforced and implemented by
different officers under different departments who must be appointed by the Minister.

 The Act establishes DSWM, makes provision for planning, facilitating and implementation of
advanced systems for regulating the management of controlled waste in order to prevent harm
to human, animal and plant life; to minimize pollution of the environment, to conserve
resources, to cause the provision of Basel Convention to apply in regulating trans-boundary


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movement of hazardous waste and disposal thereof. Consequently calls for local and national
waste management, waste recycling and litter plans; Registration and licensing of waste
carriers and waste facilities; confers powers on Local Authorities to collect, remove and
dispose off waste; prohibits littering and illegal dumping and provides hefty fines (compared to
the Public Health act) to polluters; gives rights to enforcement and provide a basis for
formulation of Regulations.

15.2.5 Public Health Act
This Act came into force in 1971 and demands for notification for certain diseases and controls
such disease; intends to prevent spread of specified diseases and regulates sanitation of
housing; provides for protection of foodstuffs and water supplies, regulates use of cemeteries
and makes general provisions for public health.

The Act provides for sanitizing of premises and conveyances exposed to certain communicable
diseases and prescribe matter relating to vaccinations; identifies what constitutes a nuisance
and procedures to deal with same; confers powers on Health Officers and generally provides
for the health of the public.

15.2.6 District Council Water Supply and Sewerage
The District Council Act 1965 Cap 40:01 mandates the Council to provide physical
infrastructure i.e. water supply and sewerage services, social services to the local community.

15.2.7 District Roads
Laws of Botswana CAP 40.01 Section 27 stipulate that Councils are empowered to make, alter
and maintain public roads other than those undertaken by Central Governments Roads
Department. In view of the Government Policies, tertiary and access roads are provided, which
would connect villages or settlements, it also includes provision of culverts and bridges and
equipment or plant used for road construction.

15.2.8 Township and District
Laws of Botswana CAP 40.01 Section 27 stipulate that Councils are empowered to make, alter
and maintain public roads other than those undertaken by Central Governments Roads
Department. In view of the Government Policies, tertiary and access roads are provided, which
would connect villages or settlements, it also includes provision of culverts and bridges and
equipment or plant used for road construction.

15.2.9 Revised National Policy on Education
The policy stipulates that for every two classrooms built there should be one teacher‘s houses,
this policy has contributed to the present backlog of teachers houses, because half of the
teachers will be accommodated. The Revised National Policy on Education., amongst others,
emphasises on the provision of adequate infrastructure to provide a conducive, teaching, as
well as learning environment. To that extent the district can attest to having managed to
achieve more than it had initially planned. It is worth making mention of; the fact that it would
appear that the district had under estimated its infrastructural requirements, and some facilities
like science laboratories, libraries, etc have for the time being been sidelined in an effort to
address the backlog of the core facilities such as classrooms, teachers‘ quarters, and toilets in
attempt to phase out the double shift system.


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Enough classrooms should be provided and other facilities such as libraries, science
laboratories and recreational facilities. Even though funds may be available the problems
encountered in construction is tendency of some contractors to abandon projects before
completion. The main problems addressed in Primary Education are summarized as below:

Access and Equity: A high level of access to Primary Education has been achieved. There are
some primary school age children outside the system. Some live far from schools others are
children with disabilities.

Administration: The shared responsibility for Primary Education between the two Ministries of
Education and Local Government causes confusion as to who is to provide what.
In order for primary education to function smoothly its administration must be streamlined.

Disabled: The Special Education Unit in the Ministry of Education was set up in 1984. it was
set up in order to assist Local Authorities to set up Units and resource centers for Special
Education, which are attached to ordinary schools. In South East there is one such Unit at
Mokgosi III Memorial School for mentally retarded children.

For a long time transport was a problem for children attending this school. In the year 2001
Council purchased a mini bus which is modified for the needs of the children to transport them
to and from school on daily basis and when going for educational tours.

The problem with the policy is that it has only stipulated that units should be provided in
primary schools to integrate the disabled children with the normal but after they have been
trained for seven years there is no provision for them to go some where else in order to create
space for the younger ones.

The policy does no address any environmental issues. The HIV/AIDS policy is being
implemented in schools because already all schools in the South East have been installed with
Televisions and Video sets to start up the programme.

15.2.10 Social Welfare
15.2.10.1Destitution Policy
The policy ensures provision of minimum assistance to the destitutes persons and their
dependants in order to raise their good health and welfare status. It provides material (food
packages, clothing, housing, etc and direction for their distribution) and psycho-social support(
rehabilitation and counseling)

15.2.10.2Early Childhood Education and Development
      Provides the nurturing of children
      Registration and monitoring pre-school institution that provides for their development.
      Council runs for Day Care Centres that is meant to set pace for voluntary organization
       and private run centers.

15.2.10.3Short-term Plan of Action of Orphan Care Programme
      Provides for the welfare of orphans and vulnerable children by assisting with material
       and psycho-social support.
      Caters for registration and monitoring of the programme.


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      Provides food packages, clothing and school needs.
      Provides psycho-social support- Counselling of children and care givers; advocating for
       their rights, etc.

The worsening situation of HIV/AIDS resulted in the creation of further two units under Social
Welfare being Orphan Care and Community Home Based Care to provide material and
psycho-social support

15.2.10.4Poverty Alleviation Policy
The policy creates programmes that facilitate interventions that will relief communities from
poverty, e.g. provision of handouts, and introduction of rehabilitation programmes for able-
bodied and counselling.

Other Acts and international Conventions that facilitate the rights and protection of children:
Adoption Act, Children Act, Property Act, will, etc
United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children, African Charter on the Rights and
responsibilities of children.

15.2.11 Rural Development Policy and Community Based Strategy
The policy guides the department and other extension departments on how to mobilize, educate
and assist communities to identify and plan projects to facilitate implementation of the policies.

15.2.12 Land Boards
Land Boards are established under the Tribal Land Act. 1968 Cap 32:02. Land Boards are
custodians of land. They are responsible for administration of tribal land allocation, settling
disputes and land demarcation. The tribal land is vested in Land Boards (in trust) for the
benefit of citizens of Botswana. The Minister of Local Government is responsible for
appointing members of the Land Boards. South East District has two Land Boards: Malete
Land Board based in Ramotswa and Tlokweng Land Board based in Tlokweng.


15.3     LOCAL GOVERNMENT

15.3.1 District Administration
The District Administration is headed by the District Commissioner who also co-ordinates
other Central Departments. The District Commissioner is the Chairman of the District
Development Committee which is an advisory body responsible for preparing and
implementing the District Development Plan and Annual Plans. It consists of senior
representatives of Central Government Departments, the District Council, the Land Boards, the
Tribal Administration and other development agencies at the District level. DDC is assisted by
the Plan Management Committee (PMC) which is a sub-committee (executive) among others
like Education Planning Committee, Health Planning Committee, Production Development
Committee, District Extension Team. However, the existing manpower is constrained to
effectively co-ordinate the development activities. In 1994, the District Administration was
merged with Food Relief Services to form one department. The main functions of District
Administration are as follows:

      Supervision of Central Government Departments


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       Co-ordination of development in the District through District Development Committee
        and Plan Management Committee.
       Settling of disputes
       Handling matrimonial matters
       Registration of births and deaths
       Reviewing cases from customary Courts, authorizing judicial warrants, listening to and
        recording confessions and performing other functions of a judicial nature.
       Ensuring payment of war veterans and pensioners

The department is also charged with national feeding programme during drought and non
drought periods to supply food to vulnerable groups, primary School children and the under
fives in clinics. As the department deals with food storage, warehouses become an important
facility. The District is currently supplied from Sebele Depot.

Storage and Distribution Facilities: Drought has been persistent and has now become part and
parcel of our rural setting. The district population has also grown, hence the number of school
going children and beneficiaries for supplementary feeding. For efficient delivery of food
supplements it then necessitated the provision of a district‘s storage and distribution facility.

Staff Housing: Central Government Department housing has continued to be a constraint in the
district during the plan period as the Department provides accommodation also for others.
Shortage of houses at headquarters and small villages is a constraint to the Officers who are
posted in the district.

Office Accommodation: Shortage of office accommodation has continued to be a constraint in
Ramotswa as the number of offices does not match with that of staff available. Phase II of
RAC development has not been implemented during the period and as a result sharing of
offices is common and not conducive to good working environment.

   Table15.1: District Administration as March 2003
Establishment P&P                                      69
Offices                                                18
Vehicles                                                6
Staff houses                                           96 (including those under construction)


Constraints: The District Administration is constrained with manpower particularly in
coordination, preparation and implementation of the plan.

15.3.2 Tribal Administrations (Balete and Batlokwa)
The main functions of the Tribal Administration are:

       To preside over our criminal and civil cases at customary courts as defined by the Act
        to maintain law and order. This helps to bring social justice to the community
        (judiciary)
       To provide traditional leadership in various development matters such as VDCs,
        Farmers Committees, Village Health Committees. Chiefs are ex-officio of these
        committees In order to promote development in rural areas.
       To keep peace through trial of cases and maintaining unity among people.
       To enforce the law by arresting the offenders and bringing them to book at customary
        Courts by Local Police.


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      Local Police protect people‘s lives and their properties through patrols and detection.

During DDP5, Mogobane Improved Type I Office was constructed. VDC have completed
several projects during the DDP5 plan period such as 30 houses, 3 market stalls, 2 reading
rooms, kgotla shelter etc. However, Tribal Staff including Police continued to experience
critical housing shortage especially in villages like Otse, Mogobane and Taung as Central
Government does not provide accommodation. This results into Local Police renting houses
from VDC and private individuals in these villages.

15.3.3 Council
Councils are mandated to provide physical infrastructure like education facilities, health
facilities, roads, water and social services. The main functions of District Council are:

      Provision of primary education and other educational service in relation to primary
       education.
      Making, altering and maintaining public road and streets other than those the
       maintenance of which have been undertaken by the Central Government and naming all
       roads streets within the jurisdiction of Council. Construct tertiary and access roads as
       well as taking charge of the maintenance programme
      Provision of water supply outside water works areas
      provision for protection of common property e.g fire services
      entering into contracts or concessions for the sale of land or premises or of any interest
       therein.
      Carrying into effect any bye-laws made by Council
      Securing proper working of the Council (and any committees thereof and the welfare of
       its employees)
      Provision of public electricity supplies e.g street lighting
      Building, maintaining and letting housing.
      Establishment, maintenance and operation of Abattoirs.
      Acquisition of land by purchase for development for particular purposes and sell such
       land in serviced lots
      Provision of SHHA Programme to non-township areas (policy)
      Provision and maintenance of cemeteries, parks and recreational services etc
      Provision of health services (clinics) etc
      Construction of roads using Labour Based Techniques and maintenance there-of.
       Provisions of culverts, drifts, road markings signs and as well as construction of streets
       lights are other responsibilities of the Department.

The above stated functions overstretch the Council Works Department especially that there is
no Roads Engineer and shortage of equipments such as grader and front wheel loader (JCB)
compound this problem.

While the number of services provided by Council has increased, this has not been matched
with financial, manpower and physical resources required. Thus Council‘s capacity to deliver
quality services is hampered by the above constraints.

It should be noted that the posts of District Engineer, Architect, Quantity Surveyor and
Principal Community Development Officer among others were filled during DDP5. But the
introduction of new programmes/expansions such as SHHA, home based care, fire fighting



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services, parks and cemeteries services, sewerage and water systems expansion require more
manpower in the district.

Office Accommodation: There is critical shortage of office accommodation as Phase II
development of RAC has not been implemented. As a result sharing of offices and use of porta
camps both in Ramotswa and Tlokweng is common.

Staff Housing: Due to the substantial increase in the number of manpower, backlogs of 116 and
130 houses for staff and teachers respectively were reported in September 2001.

   Table 15.2: District Council as March 2002
Establishment P&P                               295
Offices                                         72
Vehicles                                        92
Staff House                                     111


Constraints: The District Council is constrained with manpower and land availability for
implementation of projects.

15.3.3.1 Primary Education
The management of primary Education is a shared responsibility between the two Ministries of
Education and that of Local Government.

The Ministry of Local Government is responsible for construction of school buildings and
ancillary staff, procurement of textbooks, stationery and equipment, feeding and provision of
teachers housing and the transportation needs of the teachers and pupils.

The Ministry of Education is responsible for employment and management of teachers,
maintenance of educational standards through curriculum development, pre-service and in-
service training of teachers.
The district has a total number of 19 primary schools with an enrolment of 8789 pupils, 353
teachers. The 10% annual increase in schools intake will escalate the deficit problem because
at the end of the plan period the enrolment will have increased to 14156 pupils divided by 30,
therefore a total of 472 classrooms will be required.

The district has 19 primary schools out of which the Roman Catholic Mission owns three (3)
and they are fully subsidized by council. The Centre for Deaf runs one (1) school, which is also
subsidized by council. The 15 schools are exclusively owned and operated by council.
The thrust of the education construction programme during the DDP 5 was pursuant to a large
extent to the Revised National Policy on Education. The policy, amongst others, emphasises
on the provision of adequate infrastructure to provide a conducive, teaching, as well as learning
environment. To that extent the district can attest to having managed to achieve more than it
had initially planned. It is worth making mention of; the fact that it would appear that the
district had under estimated its infrastructural requirements, and some facilities like science
laboratories, libraries, etc have for the time being been sidelined in an effort to address the
backlog of the core facilities such as classrooms, teachers‘ quarters, and toilets in attempt to
face out the double shift system.
During DDP 6 emphasis will still be on the provision of basic facilities i.e. Teachers houses,
classrooms, administration blocks and toilets. Towards the end of the Plan period, emphasis
was put in the provision of improved school kitchens to be commensurate with the recent
development of improving the feeding programme for primary schools. Other facilities such as

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libraries, resource centres, home economics and science laboratories will be provided in some
schools. Other facilities could have been provided for but due to the stringent budget allocation
they could not be accommodated.

The district is under going a transformation manifested by increase in population growth more
especially the Tlokweng Sub District because of its proximity to the City of Gaborone.

The education construction programme during the DDP5 was in pursuant to a large extent to
the Revised National Policy on Education. The district managed to achieve more than it had
initially planned because it appeared the district had under estimated its infrastructure
requirements. Other facilities like science laboratories libraries were sidelined in an effort to
address the backlog of the core facilities such as classrooms, teacher‘s houses and toilets in
order to phase out the double shift system.

Though the district seemed to have achieved more than planned the backlog still exists,
attempts to clear it are pursued because the Ministry of Local Government has put in place
funds to construct school facilities over and above the normal budget.

Some planned facilities during the DDP5, like the school for Lobatse Farms were not
implemented its viability was questionable. A study commissioned by the Research Unit of
MLG was undertaken and it recommended provision of hostels in Lobatse than to put up a
fully-fledged school in Lobatse Farms owing to fears that it will be underutilized in the long
run. The proposal is expected to be operational during the DDP6 when the hostels are
constructed.

A total of 172 classrooms as indicated in table below, as a critical area, are required to clear the
backlog. Nevertheless, during DDP6 30 classrooms will be constructed. Other facilities include
30 teachers houses, 22 multi-purpose halls, 71 toilets 3 guard shelters 4 administration blocks
and construction of 3 new schools in Tlokweng ,Ramotswa and Taung refer to Table 16.7.
These planned facilities are based on the 1:30 recommended teacher –pupil ratio. During DDP5
the ratio used was 1:40.

The table below indicates what was planned and achieved during DDP 5. From the table it can
be noted that though the district has seemingly achieved more that it had planned for the
backlog still exists, attempts to clear it will be pursued during DDP6.
The district is under going a transformation manifested by increase in population growth more
especially the Tlokweng Sub District because of its proximity to the City of Gaborone.

The education construction programme during the DDP5 was in pursuant to a large extent to
the Revised National Policy on Education. The district managed to achieve more than it had
initially planned because it appeared the district had under estimated its infrastructure
requirements. Other facilities like science laboratories libraries were sidelined in an effort to
address the backlog of the core facilities such as classrooms, teacher‘s houses and toilets in
order to phase out the double shift system.

Though the district seemed to have achieved more than planned the backlog still exists,
attempts to clear it are pursued because the Ministry of Local Government has put in place
funds to construct school facilities over and above the normal budget.

Some planned facilities during the DDP5, like the school for Lobatse Farms were not
implemented its viability was questionable. A study commissioned by the Research Unit of
MLG was undertaken and it recommended provision of hostels in Lobatse than to put up a

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fully-fledged school in Lobatse Farms owing to fears that it will be underutilized in the long
run. The proposal is expected to be operational during the DDP6 when the hostels are
constructed.

A total of 172 classrooms as indicated in table below, as a critical area, are required to clear the
backlog. Nevertheless, during DDP6 30 classrooms will be constructed. Other facilities include
30 teachers houses, 22 multi-purpose halls, 71 toilets 3 guard shelters 4 administration blocks
and construction of 3 new schools in Tlokweng, Ramotswa and Taung refer to Table 16.7.
These planned facilities are based on the 1:30 recommended teacher –pupil ratio. During DDP5
the ratio used was 1:40.

The table below indicates what was planned and achieved during DDP 5. From the table it can
be noted that though the district has seemingly achieved more that it had planned for the
backlog still exists, attempts to clear it will be pursued during DDP6.

   Table 15.3     Primary Education Achievements and Backlog
Facility                                    Planned            Achieved       Current Backlog
Classrooms                                  24                 88             42
Teachers‘ quarters                          62                 115            69
Toilets                                     48                 66             66
Administration Blocks                       4                  3              1
Hostels                                     2                  -              -
Kitchens                                    4                  3              -
Electrification                             99


Though the provision of primary school facilities was accelerated during DDP5 the district had
not achieved the desired level as some of the financial years the district was not funded. At the
beginning of the plan period the backlog on primary school facilities was considerably high,
efforts to reduce it were successfully instigated, notwithstanding the growth in such schools
adding to the deficits of facilities. Table 16.6 below shows the amount of facilities in each
school and the backlog in each. If acceleration on provision of school facilities continues, much
is anticipated that the backlog will be reduced by 95% by the end of the next plan.

Some of the planned facilities during DDP 5 were school that should have been built in the
Lobatse farms but had not been implemented because its viability was in question. A study
commissioned by the Research Unit of MLG was undertaken and it recommended provision of
hostels in Lobatse than to put up a fully-fledged school in Lobatse Farms owing to fear of
under utilisation in the long-run. This proposal is expected to be operational during DDP6
when the hostels are constructed.

A total of 172 classrooms as indicated in Table 16.6 below, as a critical area, are required to
clear the backlog. Nevertheless, during DDP6 30 classrooms will be constructed. Other
facilities include, 30 teachers houses, 22 multi-purpose halls, 71 toilets, 3 guard shelters, 4
administration blocks, and construction of 3 new schools in Tlokweng, Ramotswa and Taung
refer to Table 16.7. These planned facilities are based on the 1:30 recommended teacher-pupil
ratio. During DDP5 1:40 ratio was used.

15.3.3.2 Social and Community Development
Social Welfare

The department seeks to enhance the social functioning of individuals, families, groups and the
communities by providing/promoting an enabling environment for their economic psycho-

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social development. It also assists/mobilises individuals, groups and communities to
identify/articulate their socio-economic and cultural needs/problems; plan and implement their
solutions using available resources. This is a revolutionary process that involves development
of people‘s initiative and creativity recognition of their ability to think and make decisions.
The department is divided into four units.

Home Economics: Enhances and empowers the community with skills and knowledge that
assists them to improve their standard of living. This involves Home Management, Consumer
Education, production (income generating projects and food) and exposure of government
policies and funding available for their use.
Social Welfare

Family Welfare: Employs all sources that unite a family as a basic entity of any respectful
society.

Child Welfare: Orphan care, Day Care Centres, juveniles and advocacy of the Children‘s
Rights - hence usage of all documents that deal with the Protection of a Child.

Community Development: Strives to upgrade standard of living through utilization of available
resource, full involvement and participation of the community.

Research

Identification of problem areas and probing into the root causes so that they are attended to.
During DDP 5, the Department fully participated in reviewing the Destitute Policy, Adoption
Act, Children Act, VDC Guidelines and Drawing of Alternative Care Guidelines, Job
Description for Community Home Based Care CHBC (SW) and popularization of Short Term
Plan for Orphan Care Programme through talks at gatherings and during workshops for
community leaders.

The worsening situation of HIV/AIDS resulted in the creation of further two units under Social
Welfare being Orphan Care and Community Home Based Care to provide material and
psycho-social support. The department also concentrated on improving the standard of houses;
Youth Centre Offices and Community Centres built through LG 109 and Drought Relief funds.

Under Training and Logistical Support, some equipment were purchased such as public
address system used for both mobilization and addressing the communities; audio-visual aids
(TV and VCR) Sewing machines were used for skill training. 80% of Youths who have been
trained are employed in Industries and O.05% have gone for further training to upgrade their
certificates to TRADE TEST ‗B‘ level.

Community Projects – LG 1109

The project aims at improving the economic and social well being of communities. It gives
communities opportunity to come up with sustainable projects, which can improve the physical
infrastructural level of their villages as well as meet their social needs and consequently
communities derive prudent economic benefits from the project. During DDP 5 emphasis was
on raising the standard of old VDC structures by providing them with different social
amenities. Although progress was recognized it was minimal and there will be need to mobilize
communities during DDP 6 to improve on their efficiency.




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With involvement of the communities endeavour to establish and support institutions that will
facilitate implementations of some interventions e.g. foster homes; houses for foster parents;
social welfare committee; day care centres etc.

15.3.3.3 LG 1107 Labour Intensive Public Works Programme
The programme has always been a feature for creation of employment for the rural populace as
safety net mechanisms as also and a source of income. Although the programme is an effort to
reduce the incidence of poverty it has been recognized that poverty dominant in rural areas is
structural and therefore needs a multi-faced combat. Drought has been recognized as the major
factor accentuating poverty hence the creation of the labour intensive drought relief
programmes.

During DDP 5, through the programme roads projects, culverts and debushing were
successfully completed while 15 houses were still ongoing at the end of DDP5. The provision
housing will continue to be done through labour intensive during DDP 6.

Initially through this programme only roads projects and debushing were implemented,
however at the end of DDP5 construction of houses through this programme was taken aboard
and it will continue during DDP6.

15.3.3.4 Primary Health
The Ministry of Local Government is responsible for implementing a network of primary
health care and Public Health services through the District Health Teams (DHT‘s). These two-
pivotal networks of services are directed by the Environmental health and Clinics Sections.

The health of a Country‘s Citizen is very paramount for the pursuant of its national objective.
The Ministry of health in collaboration with the Ministry of Local Government objective is
geared towards the set objectives. The Ministry of health is responsible for policy formulation,
professional guidance and supervision of health care delivery in its entirely in Botswana,
irrespective of the type of health provider or institution. The health Sector will emphasise on
the following during DDP 6:

      Public and individual education to do away with stigma attached to HIV/Aids.
      Intensive education to the public in particular on ongoing pre, post, supportive and
       adherence counselling to sustain lives of all citizens either negative or positive with
       HIV/Aids.
      To introduce palliative care to the H.B.C patients so that the pain becomes bearable
       even at the time of death.

15.3.3.5 National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA)
The Agency also addresses the prevalence of HIV/Aids in Botswana by conducting annual
sentinel surveillance amongst pregnant women attending local clinics, Government Hospitals
and Mission Hospitals. This endeavour is geared towards finding ways of mitigating the
infection, reducing stigma and instituting A.R.V, coupled with pre, post, supportive and
adherence counselling. This project amongst others is done in collaboration with Family
Health Division (PMTCT unit).

The intrinsic twinning relationship between HIV/Aids and T.B. has reversed the thought of
being able to control T.B. but has instead become a National emergency. The UN/WHO in


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collaboration with BOTUSA are effortlessly trying to find new ways of curbing the infection
(twinning) through programme like Daily Observed Therapy(DoT) and IPT (Isoniazid
Preventive Therapy). Public education is also ongoing vigorously to do away with stigma
attached to TB & HIV/Aids.

15.3.3.6 Municipal Services
Fire Services

The project will focus on providing a fire station and fire fighting equipment. Provision of fire
services is an essential component in the attempt to diversify the local economy thereby
broadening the rural resource base through creating an environment conducive for investment.
During DDP5 a significant level of industrial and commercial development took place, and
more industrial development is needed. The need for fire services cannot be overemphasized.
A fire engine was procured for the district during DDP 5 and has not been adequately
functional for lack of a fire station and skilled manpower it is not prudent for the district to be
receiving services from the Gaborone City Council. Efforts will be made to develop this
section of council during DDP6.

15.3.3.7 Local Authority Infrastructure Maintenance
The district has over the years been providing a web of infrastructure stock such as roads,
houses, classrooms etc. This infrastructure requires extensive maintenance due to the backlog
that exists. Currently in the last year of DDP 5 2002/3 and the first years of DDP6 efforts will
be concerted to clear the maintenance backlog, thereafter maintenance will be covered under
the recurrent budget as it should be. For this the district has been allocated P9 million.

15.3.3.8 Recreational Facilities
It is within the mandate of the district council to provide recreational facilities for the rural
populace. Overtime much has not been done in this area. In this plan period the council shall
endeavor to develop recreational parks and develop community centers both in Ramotswa and
Tlokweng as a starting point. It is envisaged that these will work as a youth engagement
strategies to deter youth from unscrupulous activities.

15.3.3.9 Rural Administration Centre
Office accommodation has proven to be inadequate during DDP5, resultantly through drought
relief intervention a 12 roomed office block was constructed in the new RAC compound. It was
anticipated that the district will get RAC phase II as it was planned, unfortunately due financial
limitation the same could not be undertaken. For phase I, the district had anticipated to get 45
offices and unfortunately only 29 offices were given this further compounded the inadequacy
of office accommodation. It is planned that during DDP 6 phase II both RACs in Ramotswa
and at the Tlokweng sub-district be undertaken.

15.3.3.10District Roads
Council is responsible for the tertiary and access road network in the district, which comprises
45km bitumen roads, and 65km gravel roads as well as some informal tracks. This includes
storm water drainage, pothole and shoulder repairs, re-gravelling and spot improvement of
village access and link roads. Most of the tertiary roads within Ramotswa and Tlokweng are
tarred, except a few, which are graveled and regularly maintained by Council.


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In Otse and Mogobane almost all the roads are gravelled but SEDC fails to do regular
maintenance work as intended due to shortage of equipments.

Among projects planned for DDP 5, all were achieved with the exception of the upgrading of
the Tlokweng old bridge.

Re-gravelling of Maratadiba/Modipane road (12 km), Mogobane/Ramosele road(12km) and
construction of culverts at Mojadife and Goo-Rabadukane in Mogobane are some of the
projects that were carried out during DDP 5. Other unresolved problem areas include the
following:

      Dusty roads and muddy during rainy season
      Difficulties in procurement of adequate funds resulting in works being executed on a
       piece meal basis in particular for Labour Based Programme.

15.3.3.11Village Infrastructure
A total of P7 million was allocated to the district for promotion of the infrastructural
development. It was recognition of the fact that infrastructural development can capacitate the
district to be a viable alternative investment location and equally compete with its counterparts.
Pursuant to this, 22 commercial and 12 industrial plots in lenganeng were serviced, while
through the peri-urban development project commissioned by the Ministry of Local
Government 46 industrial and 3 commercial plots in Selokwane area in Tlokweng were
serviced. The expected industrial and commercial development and the employment creation
have not been realized yet as the allotees are sluggish in development of these plots. Though
the district has planned to undertake infrastructural development including storm water
drainage, street lighting, tarmacking of internal roads for Ramotswa and Tlokweng, these could
not be undertaken due to insufficient financial resources.

Flooding during DDP5 became persistent problem for lack of proper drainage infrastructure in
the district. The 1994 study commissioned by the Office of the President proved that the
district is prone to flooding.

During DDP6 emphasis will be put on storm water drainage, street lighting, tarmacking of
internal roads, and development of bus ranks, industrial and commercial plots. It is anticipated
that the physical development standard of the district will be improved.

15.3.3.12Sanitation and Waste Management
Duties of Environmental Health Unit (EHU)

EHU is duty bound to see to the implementation of all environmental legislation, hence
concerned with hygiene of premises, cleanliness of surroundings, provision of sanitary
facilities, water quality monitoring, air pollution and the hygiene of food.

Community involvement in the waste management - It is vital that households appreciate the
importance of paying for refuse collection as a rateable service similar to power, water and
telecommunications.




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Curbing littering illegal dumping - The Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
campaign must result in some change of attitude as the environment and health of communities
can no longer tolerate further deterioration.

IEC about poor food hygiene practices and the ability to identify of symptoms of food
poisoning may encourage individuals to report episodes essential for necessary collaborative
work towards sustainable solutions to the benefit of public health.

Constraints contributing to poor implementation of statutes include but are not limited to the
following:

      A mild penalty as in the case of Public Health Act does not give the polluter an
       incentive not to pollute and frustrates the officers implementing
      Absence of attorney in Council to advice and provide the necessary skills result in poor
       responses to reported cases/emerging nuisances
      Officer implementing are too few and duties too vast. The district continues to grow
       and expend commercially with no corresponding growth of staff. District villages other
       than the HQ and Sub district are far from service center and have to wait for assistance.
      Departments providing back up such as Bye Law are ill staffed and have minute
       powers. The Police is understaffed and respond to reports by priority of the seriousness
       of the crime. Violations of Environmental Law have not yet become a serious crime by
       comparison to other issues.
      PHA too old and overtaken by many events – still regulates small pox, venereal
       diseases other than HIV/AIDS. Amendment of this act is way overdue as there is now
       new infections and new environmental problems which require legislative responses.
      Late appointment of implementing officer also a problem and delays in preparation of
       Regulations (WMA)
      The district has a number of freehold farms and ease of access to provide services of
       environmental concern meets with some reluctance.

Training
Training is too general, there is need to provide training that is relevant to needs of the country
– officers are trained say in food, and are engaged to do waste.

In most cases officers do not utilize skills where needed as the unified local government system
gets them transferred – officers are trained in landfill operations, but are transferred to districts
with no landfills.

Working conditions need to improve – housing; health and safety. Employees are largely
expected to produce good results under very trying conditions of overcrowding and
understaffing.

Training, improved conditions of service are commensurate with vision 2016 as these would
make it possible for officers better able to produce a healthier, well informed nation.

Environmental health problems often require a multi sect oral approach to resolve. Currently,
EH is segmented over several Ministries and departments, making coordination difficult.

Manpower, skills, motivating environment; office accommodation which is air conditioned,
spacious and well furnished, networked computers and internet access



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EHO and Health Assistants are too few to deal adequately, with environmental health problems
in the district. They are based only at district health team level and are expected to cover the
entire district – Pioneer, Lobatse Farms, Otse, Mogobane, Khale Farms , cover by officers
based in Ramotswa and Tlokweng.

By and large, the ration of serving officers to population is far from the recommended WHO
standards of 1:5000 for senior staff and 1: 3000 for health assistants.

The population continues to grow while staff levels are stagnant, especially industrial class
which was frozen since 1998/1999. Not only does population grow, also commercial and
industrial activities along with significant environmental problems, especially waste. There are
also more pieces of legislation being promulgated in response to emerging problems, but there
is no corresponding provision of staff to implement.

15.3.3.13District Council Water Supply and Sewerage
The district Council is supplying Otse and Mogobane villages. Bacterial contamination has
been identified in the water. The main source of pollution has been identified as pit latrines. By
the end of DDP5 consultancy was engaged to design water tank and the network of the two
villages for the ultimate connection to the Water Utilities Pipeline. The actual construction and
connection will be done by the end of 2003.

There has been water shortage in Metsimaswaane area.Though the area is not yet declared
settlement, the District Council has been bowsing water to the area. This has shown not to be
cost –effective. A study will be undertaken during DDP6 to determine whether the area can be
declared a settlement or not. Thereafter, boreholes will be sited and drilled for the area.

Pursuant to protect the aquifers in Ramotswa village, a sewerage network was under taken
during DDP5, while in Tlokweng, a water and sewerage project were undertaken by the
Department of Water Affairs on behalf of the Council. It is planned that an integrated sewerage
network for Otse and Mogobane villages be undertaken during DDP6 pursing the protection of
abundant water resources the district is endowed with.

Constraint

The department‘s main constraints are manpower, machinery and funds to implement planned
development projects.

15.3.3.14Local Authority Fleet Development
It is essential for proper logistics to be in place for efficient delivery of services to the general
public by the district councils. The council is charged with the responsibilities of providing
social infrastructure, health care, inspectorate of projects and business outlets; to efficiently
carry out these services there is need for transport. During DDP 6 a total of 16 vehicles will be
procured for the district council.

15.3.3.15Tribal Administrations (Balete and Batlokwa)
The main functions of the Tribal Administration are:




                                                                                               165
      To preside over our criminal and civil cases at customary courts as defined by the Act
       to maintain law and order. This helps to bring social justice to the community
       (judiciary)
      To provide traditional leadership in various development matters such as VDCs,
       Farmers Committees, Village Health Committees. Chiefs are ex-officio of these
       committees In order to promote development in rural areas.
      To keep peace through trial of cases and maintaining unity among people.
      To enforce the law by arresting the offenders and bringing them to book at customary
       Courts by Local Police.
      Local Police protect people‘s lives and their properties through patrols and detection.

      During DDP5, Mogobane Improved Type I Office was constructed. VDC have
       completed several projects during the DDP5 plan period such as 30 houses, 3 market
       stalls, 2 reading rooms, kgotla shelter etc.

However, Tribal Staff including Police continued to experience critical housing shortage
especially in villages like Otse, Mogobane and Taung as Central Government does not provide
accommodation. This results into Local Police renting houses from VDC and private
individuals in these villages.

15.3.4 Land Boards (Malete and Tlokweng)
Landboards are custodians of land and aim at managing and distributing land equitably.
The major functions of Land Boards are:

      Granting rights to the use of land (this includes change of land uses)
      Canceling of grant of any rights to the use of a piece of land
      Hearing of appeals
      Imposing restrictions on the use of tribal land
      Collection of lease rent

Office Accommodation: Both Land Boards experience shortage of office accommodation
particularly Tlokweng Land Board. Currently the land board and the kgotla are operating in the
same premises. During Kgotla meetings the operation of the land board is disturbed by the
singing and the loud speakers at the kgotla meeting session. Due to financial constraint,
Tlokweng Land Board could not build new offices during DDP5. It is proposed that new
offices amounting to P8m should be constructed in DDP6

Staff Housing: Land Boards have also shortage of houses as there are more employees than
houses available.

Transport: There is also shortage of transport in Land Boards. Tlokweng Land Board proposes
to purchase 3 (4 x 4) vehicles during DDP6.

   Table 15.4: Land Boards
Land Board            Establishment    Offices            Vehicles              Staff Houses

Tlokweng              26               15                 8                     23
Malete                30               24                 9                     24
TOTAL                 54               39                 17                    47




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15.4        LOCAL GOVERNMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


    Table 15.5: Local Government Sector Goals and Objectives
GOALS                                                               OBJECTIVES                                                         Performance Indicator
Village Infrastructure
To provide infrastructural development that capacitate the          To tar roads in Ramotswa and Tlokweng in order to address          To complete the project by the end of 2004/05
district to be a viable                                             the problem of dust.
Economic base and                                                   To provide security and safety by providing street lighting in     To complete the project by the end of 2004/05
alternative investment location                                     both villages
                                                                    To Control flooding by constructing proper drainage system.        To complete the project by the end of 2004/05
District and Urban Roads
                                                                                                                                       Tarmac road in Tlokweng by 2004/5
The overall goal is to provide safe, secure, accessible, cost       To construct and maintain tertiary and access rural roads
effective and environmentally sustainable infrastructure.           which connect villages or settlements.                             Gravel road in Ramotswa by 2004/05

                                                                    Rural roads which connect villages to main roads.                  Construct bridge & culvert by 2004/05

                                                                    Construction of culverts and bridges.

                                                                    To purchase equipment and plant to be used for maintenance         Purchase grader by 2003/04
                                                                    of roads.
                                                                                                                                       Purchase excavator and vibrating roller by 2005/06
Village Water Supply & Sewerage
To meet water requirements of population through provision          To provide constant flow of sustainable and good quality           To expand the water supply schemes in Otse and Mogobane
of constant flow of quality water; clean, reliable and affordable   water                                                              villages
to all
To protect pollution of underground water                           To provide effective and efficient sewerage service/               To expand the sewerage schemes in Ramotswa and Tlokweng
                                                                    waterborne sewerage system to the residents

                                                                    To improve the existing onsite sanitation system in the villages
Labour Intensive Public Works Programme
To create employment to the rural populace/communities by           To reduce the incidence of poverty by providing source of          To have employed the affected people during the course of the
implementing viable projects                                        income by way of engaging in construction of labour based          project.
                                                                    projects like houses
To provide accommodation                                            To provide housing in order to alleviate the shortage of           Construct houses of a acceptance standards in order to create
                                                                    housing accommodation                                              conducive living environment.
Primary Health Facilities
To provide quality health services to Batswana and improve          To provide accessible health care to all communities with          To have constructed a health post and nurses houses to suit the
their health status                                                 construction of health facilities                                  health need.
                                                                    To provide proper housing for nurses                               To have constructed nurses houses

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GOALS                                                              OBJECTIVES                                                         Performance Indicator
Sanitation and Environment
To create, sustain and maintain a clean environment free from      To control vector borne and other communicable diseases, to        To have provided waste receptacles(skips, sorting containers)
waste for the promotion of public and environmental health.        reduce incidences of diseases related to poor sanitation and       and provide waste carriers( Vacuum tankers, refuse trucks)
                                                                   hygiene

                                                                   To identify and prevent environmental and public health
                                                                   problems in order to promote human health
                                                                   To prevent and reduce the incidences of excreta related            To construct toilet substructures and provide septic tanks and
                                                                   diseases by constructing latrine substructures for beneficiaries   other privies emptying services
                                                                   through the National Rural Sanitation programme
                                                                   To provide weekly refuse collection and disposal services to       To have purchased
                                                                   all residential, commercial and institutional establishments and   refuse trucks
                                                                   twice weekly for industrial premises.
To ensure protection of underground water resource                 To provide septic tanks and other emptying services required       To have purchased vacuum tankers
                                                                   by community members and establishments.
Primary Education Facilities
Provision of both basic and relevant education to acquire skills   To provide facilities accentuated in the Revised National          To have provided Classrooms, Teachers houses, toilets,
which will enhance opportunity for employment or self-             Policy on Education                                                kitchens, libraries, etc.
employment
                                                                   To empower citizens to be in line with the vision                  Teachers to be accommodated in better houses and not sharing
                                                                                                                                      accommodation.
                                                                   To phase out double shift system in primary schools
                                                                                                                                      Projects for each financial year to be completed within their
                                                                   To provide housing for teachers                                    stipulated time, close monitoring of contractors

                                                                   To provide transport for school tours                              To have purchased buses for he district schools

                                                                   To phase out double shift system in schools                        To have cleared the backlog of Classrooms.
Social Welfare and Development
To improve the economic and social wellbeing of communities        To empower the communities so that they refrain from               To have VDC‘s generating their own incomes by
                                                                   depending on Government/Donor handouts                             implementing sustainable projects and derive economic
To plan, promote and deliver skills training to meet specific                                                                         benefits from projects
standards and quality targets defined by all stakeholders and to   To strengthen local to effectively carry out their community
contribute significantly to productive development of the          development works
informal sector
                                                                   To promote village and District initiatives that are aiming at
                                                                   improving socio-economic status of families and communities
Municipal Services
To diversify the local economy by broadening the rural             To create a conducive environment for investment by                To have constructed fire services
resource base                                                      providing fire services
                                                                   To develop community centers to work as a youth engagement         Having provided community centres
                                                                   strategy to deter them from unscrupulous activities

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GOALS                                                               OBJECTIVES                                                    Performance Indicator
Rural Administration Centres
To provide adequate office accommodation                            To construct offices                                          To have constructed offices
Recreational Facilities
To provide recreational facilities to the rural populace            To develop recreational parks and community centers to work   Having constructed parks and community centers and
                                                                    as a youth engagement strategies to deter them from           functioning effectiveely
                                                                    unscrupulous activities
MLG/LA Fleet Expansion
To provide proper logistics and efficient delivery of services to   To provide enough transport                                   Having managed to secure funds to purchase vehicles where
the general public                                                                                                                there is need.
Land Boards Development
To administer Tribal land allocation effectively by providing       To provide offices, equipment, furniture, land compensation   Having managed to provide all planned resources
necessary resources                                                 and vehicles for landboards

Tribal Administration
To maintain Law and Order                                           To bring service to the people                                Construction of a customary court in one of the extension
                                                                                                                                  areas, furniture, vehicle and LA 2 houses.
                                                                    To provide housing for staff

                                                                    To provide transport

                                                                    To provide enough Office accommodation
District Administration
To provide adequate facilities to ensure safe, storage and          To provide warehousing for food commodities                   To have constructed a warehouse by 2008/2009
distribution of food commodities
                                                                    To ensure hygienic handling of food commodities




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15.5     STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

15.5.1 Evaluation of Environmental Key Issues with Sector Goals
Primary Education, District Housing, Labour Intensive Public Works, Primary Health,
Recreational Facilities, Municipal Services, Rural Administration Centres: These mainly
provide physical infrastructure (Classrooms, Houses, Offices, health posts) and have some
negative effects on the environment like bush clearing, soil erosion, indiscriminate disposal of
waste and shortage of land.

Mitigation: Selective cutting of trees and landscaping will be practiced to curb soil erosion.
Rubbles will be disposed to the landfill. To resolve the problem of shortage of land, the district
will construct double storey flats.

Village Infrastructure and District Roads: Village infrastructure aim at providing infrastructure
development to capacitate the district to be a viable investment location. The district road
provides a safe, secure, accessible and cost effective infrastructure. Tarring roads, construction
of drainage/culverts/bridges, gravelling roads have effects on the environment like digging
burrow pits, dust, noise, disposal of bitumen.

Mitigation: Effects will be controlled by reclaiming borrow pits when they cease to be active,
dispose bitumen to the landfill, sprinkle water to control dust and avoid blasting as much as
possible to reduce dust.

15.5.1.1 National Sanitation Programme/District water and Sewerage
      Sanitation- the goal is to maintain a clean environment free from waste
      Water – Goal is to provide clean, reliable and quality water

The objective is to protect underground water by improving the existing onsite sanitation
system and expanding water supply schemes to ensure constant supply of water. Construction
activities like site clearing will cause soil erosion. These would be controlled by selective
cutting of trees.

15.5.2 Evaluation of Sector Policies and Programmes
Most of the policies we have mainly intend to provide social services and infrastructure;
Revised National Policy On Education, Village Infrastructure, District Roads, Destitute policy
etc. Generally they have environmental impacts like debushing, digging borrowpits.
Large-scale developments like housing and classrooms will be subjected to an environmental
impact analysis before implementation. Due to shortage of land, The District has now resorted
to building double storey houses.




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15.6    STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE SECTOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

15.6.1 Proposed Projects, Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures




                                                                                    171
    Table 15.5: Planned Projects for Computerisation Projects (LG 101)
Goal                              Project Component & Location             Environnemental Impact                     Mitigation Measures                     Cost             Year
                                                                                                                                                              (Pula)
To improve information            1 computer – MLB Ramotswa                Indiscriminate disposal of rubble waste,   Proper disposal of waste to the         15 000           2003/4
management and establish                                                   soil excavation                            landfill
appropriate access    to          2 Lap computer – SEDC – DCS & EP         Nil                                        Nil                                     30 000           2003/4
information                       Ramotswa
                                  1 computer – S & CD Ramotswa             ―                                          ‘‘                                      15 000           2003/4
                                  1 computer – Engineering Ramotswa        ―                                          ―                                       15 000           2003/4
                                  2 Lap computer - DA (DOL & DOD                                                                                              30 000           2003/4
                                  Ramotswa
                                  2 Computer – DA (Typist)Ramotswa                                                                                            30 000           2003/4
                                  2 Computer – TA Ramotswa                                                                                                    30 000           2003/4
                                  1 computer – Secretariat - recording                                                                                        15 000           2003/4
                                  Ramotswa
                                  1 Local Area Network – SEDC & DA                                                                                            350 000          2003/4
                                  1 computer – TLB Tlokweng                                                                                                   15 000           2003/4
                                  5 computer – TA Tlokweng                                                                                                    75 000           2003/4
                                  1 computer – clinic – DHT Tlokweng                                                                                          15 000           2003/4
                                  1 computer – S & CD Tlokweng                                                                                                15 000           2003/4
                                  1 Lap computer – ACS Tlokweng                                                                                               15 000           2003/4




    Table 15.6: Planned Projects for FRS Storage Distribution Facilities (LG 301)
Goal                      Project                                               Environmental Impact         Mitigation Measure            Total                  Year of implementation
                          Component                                                                                                        Cost (P)
To provide storage        Ramotswa -Warehouse                                   Debushing, Rubble waste      Selective cutting of trees,   3 990 000              2008/9
and      distribution     Ablution Block                                                                     Landscaping,       Proper
facility                  Office Block                                                                       disposal of rubble to the
                          Equipment, Furniture & Computer                                                    landfill




    Table 15.7: Customary Courts (LG 901)
Goal                                Project Component                   Environnemental Impact         Mitigation Measure                              Cost                    Year
To        provide       Office      Ramotswa        Renovation     of   Debushing, Rubble waste        Selective cutting of trees, Landscaping,        P86 600-00              2003/04
accommodation,            staff     existing office                                                    Proper disposal of rubble to the landfill       P3 210 250- 00
accommodation,        security,     Type III office Extension plus 24
transport,    furniture    and      Parking Shades

                                                                                                                                                                                      172
Goal                           Project Component                  Environnemental Impact         Mitigation Measure                           Cost              Year
equipment
                               Otse,Taung, Mogobane 14 air        None                           None                                        P33 600-00         2003/04
                               conditioners
                               Otse, Taung, Ramotswa Security     Bush clearing                  Selective bush clearing                     P250 000-00        2003/04
                               fence
                               SED Mounting of cash boxes         None                           None                                        P5 000-00          2004/05
                               Sub-Total                                                                                                     P3 585 450-00
                               Tlokweng New Office at one of      Debushing, Rubble waste        Selective cutting of trees, Landscaping,    2 800 000-00       2004/05
                               the extension areas, Furniture,                                   Proper disposal of rubble to the landfill
                               twin cab (4x4) plus 4 LA2                                                                                     28 800-00
                               Houses.
                               Landscaping
                               Tlokweng 1 Photocopier             None                           None                                        65 000-00          2004/06
                               Office furniture for the vacated   None                           None                                        500 000-00
                               land board office
                               Sub-Total                                                                                                     3 393 800-00
                               GRAND TOTAL                                                                                                   P6 979 250-00




   Table 15.8: Planned Projects for Municipal Services (LG 1112)
Goals                               Project                               Environmental impact                  Mitigation Measure                Total        Year
                                    Component                                                                                                     Cost
To     create    a    conducive     1 Fire Station in Ramotswa            Smoke emissions                       Regular servicing of vehicle      5 600 000    2003/4
environment for investment, staff   3 Housing                             Debushing, Rubble waste               Selective cutting of trees,       1 400 000
housing                                                                                                         Landscaping, Proper disposal of
                                                                                                                rubble to the landfill
                                    TOTAL                                                                                                         7 000 0000
                                    1 Ware house in Ramotswa              Debushing, Rubble waste               Selective cutting of trees,       1 200 000    2004/5
                                                                                                                Landscaping, Proper disposal of
                                                                                                                rubble to the landfill
                                    1 Day Care Centre                     Bush clearing                         Selective cutting of trees,       1 200 000
                                                                                                                Landscaping
                                    2 Fire light vehicles in Tlokweng     Smoke emissions                       Regular servicing of vehicle      600 000
                                    TOTAL                                                                                                         3 000 000
                                    1 Mechanical Workshop in Ramotswa     Debushing, Rubble waste               Selective cutting of trees,       3 000 000    2005/6
                                                                                                                Landscaping, Proper disposal of
                                                                                                                rubble to the landfill
                                    TOTAL                                                                                                         3 000 000



                                                                                                                                                                        173
    Table 15.9: Planned Projects for Recreational Facilities (LG 1103)
Goal                                    Project                             Environmental Impact                       Mitigation Measure                          Total          Year
                                        Component                                                                                                                  Cost
To       provide        recreational    Development of a park in Ramotswa   Bush clearing, Soil erosion                Landscaping, Selective cutting of trees     200 000        2003/4
facilities to the rural populace
                                        Upgrading of a park in Ramotswa     Bush clearing, Soil erosion                Landscaping, Selective cutting of trees     200 000        2004/5
                                        Community center in Ramotswa        Debushing, Rubble waste                    Selective cutting of trees, Landscaping,    2 000 000      2004/5
                                                                                                                       Proper disposal of rubble to the landfill
                                        Upgrading of a Park in Ramotswa     Bush clearing, Soil erosion                Landscaping, Selective cutting of trees     200 000        2005/6
                                        Development of a park in Tlokweng   Bush clearing, Soil erosion                Landscaping, Selective cutting of trees     200 000        2006/7
                                        Community center in Tlokweng        Debushing, Rubble waste                    Selective cutting of trees, Landscaping,    2 000 000      2004/5
                                                                                                                       Proper disposal of rubble to the landfill
                                        Upgrading of a park Tlokweng        Bush clearing, Soil erosion                Landscaping, Selective cutting of trees     200 000        2007/8
                                        Upgrading of a Park in Tlokweng     Bush clearing, Soil erosion                Landscaping, Selective cutting of trees     200 000        2008/9
                                        TOTAL                                                                                                                      5 200 000




    Table 15.10: Planned Projects for Rural Administration Centres LG 1105
Goal                                            Project                            Environmental Impact      Mitigation Measure                        Total                   Year
                                                Component                                                                                              Cost
To provide adequate                    office   RAC Phase II in Tlokweng           Debushing, Rubble waste   Selective     cutting    of    trees,     2 875 000               2003/4
accommodation                                                                                                Landscaping, Proper      disposal of
                                                                                                             rubble to the landfill
                                                Warehouse in Tlokweng              Debushing, Rubble waste   Selective     cutting    of    trees,     700 000
                                                                                                             Landscaping, Proper      disposal of
                                                                                                             rubble to the landfill
                                                TOTAL                                                                                                  3 575 000
                                                Office block in Taung              Debushing, Rubble waste   Selective     cutting    of    trees,     250 000                 2004/5
                                                                                                             Landscaping, Proper      disposal of
                                                                                                             rubble to the landfill
                                                Office Extension in Otse           Debushing, Rubble waste   Selective     cutting    of    trees,     300 000
                                                                                                             Landscaping, Proper      disposal of
                                                                                                             rubble to the landfill
                                                TOTAL                                                                                                  550 000
                                                RAC Phase II in Ramotswa           Debushing, Rubble waste   Selective     cutting  of trees,          8 000 000               2005/6
                                                                                                             Landscaping, Proper disposal of
                                                                                                             rubble to the landfill
                                                TOTAL                                                                                                  8 000 000



                                                                                                                                                                                           174
   Table 15.11: Planned Projects for District and Urban Roads (LG 1115)
Goal                              Project                                   Environmental Impact       Mitigation Measure                      Total         Year
                                  Component                                                                                                    Cost
To construct and maintain         1 Grader-Ramotswa                         Emission of smoke          Regular servicing                       1 700 000     2003/4
access, tertiary, secondary and
primary roads
                                  Tarmacking of 12km Modipane-              Debushing                  Project to be subjected to EIA          10 800 000
                                  Maratadiba road-Tlokweng                  - Debushing                - Cutting of big trees in the road be
                                                                            - Digging of borropits     avoided
                                                                            - Indiscrimate             - Borrow pits to be reclaimed as they
                                                                            - Dumping of bitumen       cease to be active.
                                                                                                       - Rubbes taken to a Landfill
                                                                                                                                               12 500 000
                                  Gravelling of 10km Ramotswa –                                        Rehabilitation,                         1 250 000     2004/5
                                  Matlapekwe road and culvert-              - Debusing                 - Cutting of big trees in the road
                                  Ramotswa                                  - Digging of borrow pits   reserve be avoided
                                                                            - Dust                     - Reclaiming of borrow pits
                                                                                                       - Controlling of dust by sprinkling
                                                                                                       water
                                  Tlokweng Old Bridge-Tlokweng              Bush clearing              Selective cutting of trees              2 000 000
                                                                                                                                               2 350 000
                                  Multi-purpose backhoe        excavator-   Emission of smoke          Regular servicing                       750 000       2005/6
                                  SEDC
                                  Vibrating roller-SEDC                     Emission of smoke          Regular servicing                       400 000
                                                                                                                                               1 150 000
                                                                                                                                               16 900 000




   Table 15.12: Planned Projects for Primary Health Facilities (LG 1104)
Goal                              Project                                   Environmental Impact        Mitigation Measure                     Total        Year
                                  Component                                                                                                    Cost
To      provide   health care     nurses houses x 4-Tlokweng                Debushing, rubble waste     Landscaping, disposal of waste to      700 000      2003/4
facilities, houses transport,                                                                           landfill
furniture and equipment           ambulance – Mafitlhakgosi x 1 -           Smoke emisssion             Regular servicing                      200 000
                                  Tlokweng
                                  Furniture and equipment – Tlokweng        None                        None                                   360 000
                                  Main Clinic

                                                                                                                                                                      175
Goal                               Project                                 Environmental Impact           Mitigation Measure                    Total           Year
                                   Component                                                                                                    Cost
                                   Furniture    and      equipment     –   None                           None                                  1 500 000
                                   Mafitlhakgosi Clinic with maternity
                                   health Post plus furniture and          Debushing, rubble waste        Landscaping, disposal of waste to     500 000
                                   equipment x 1 _ Otse                                                   landfill
                                   Low cost houses x 1 Otse                Debushing, rubble waste        Landscaping, disposal of waste to     150 000
                                                                                                          landfill
                                                                                                                                                3 410 000
                                   DHT phase II - Ramotswa                 Debushing, rubble waste        Landscaping, disposal of waste to     2 875 000       2004/5
                                                                                                          landfill
                                                                                                                                                2 875 000
                                   Magope Clinic                           Debushing, rubble waste        Landscaping, disposal of waste to     2 300 000       2005/6
                                                                                                          landfill
                                   1 Ambulance – Magope Clinic             Smoke emisssion                Regular servicing                     200 000         2005/6
                                   Nurses houses                           Debushing, rubble waste        Landscaping, disposal of waste to     700 000         2005/6
                                                                                                          landfill

                                   Nurses Houses - Tlokweng                Debushing, rubble waste        Landscaping, disposal of waste to     350 000         2006/2007
                                                                                                          landfill
TOTAL                                                                                                                                           350 000




    Table 15.13: Planned Projects for Village Infrastructure LG 1111
Goal                                      Project                                  Environmental Impact     Mitigation Measure      Total                   Year
                                          Component                                                                                 Cost
To capacitate the district to be a        Designs – Infrastructural Development-   None                     none                    1 500 000               2003/4
viable alternative investment location.   Ramotswa/Tlokweng
                                                                                                                                    1 500 000
                                          26km Internal roads and associated       Bush clearing,           Selective cutting of    26 000 000              2004/5
                                          drainage – residential-Ramotswa          dust                     trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                            water
                                          1.5km Commercial and     local center-   Bush clearing,           Selective cutting of    1 500 000
                                          Ramotswa                                 dust                     trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                            water
                                          2.5km New industrial area-Ramotswa       Bush clearing,           Selective cutting of    2 500 000
                                                                                   dust                     trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                            water




                                                                                                                                                                         176
Goal                                Project                                    Environmental Impact           Mitigation Measure       Total                     Year
                                    Component                                                                                          Cost
                                    10km Storm water drainage- Ramotswa        Bush clearing,                 Selective cutting of     7 500 000
                                                                               dust                           trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                              water
                                    15km Street lighting(250        poles)-    None                           None                     750 000
                                    Ramotswa
                                    Bus/taxi rank- Ramotswa                    Bush clearing,                 Selective cutting of     6 000 000
                                                                               dust                           trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                              water
                                                                                                                                       44 250 000
                                    15km Internal roads and associated         Bush clearing,                 Selective cutting of     12 000 000                2006/7
                                    drainage – residential-Tlokweng            dust                           trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                              water
                                    8km Storm water drainage-Tlokweng          Bush clearing,                 Selective cutting of     6 000 000
                                                                               dust                           trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                              water
                                    10km Street lighting-Tlokweng              None                           None                     600 000
                                    Bus/taxi rank-Tlokweng                     Bush clearing,                 Selective cutting of     6 000 000
                                                                               dust                           trees, Sprinkling of
                                                                                                              water
                                                                                                                                       24 600 000




   Table 15.14: Planned Projects for Labour Intensive Public Works (LG 1107)
Goal                                Project                                   Environmental Impact             Mitigation Measures                     Total              Year
                                    Component                                                                                                          Cost
To create employment to the rural   3 Medium costs in Ramotswa                Bush clearing, Rubble            Selective cutting of trees & disposal   540 000            2003/4
populace by implementing viable                                               Debushing                        of rubble to landfill
projects                                                                      -Digging of foundations
                                                                              -Indiscriminate    dumping of    Excavated materials from foundation
                                                                              excavated material.              be used as backfill material or
                                                                              -Cutting of big trees in the     dumped at appropriate sites.
                                                                              construction site
                                                                                                               - No cutting of big trees within the
                                                                                                               construction site
                                    4 Low cost houses in Ramotswa             Bush clearing, Rubble            Selective cutting of trees & disposal   480 000            2004/5
                                                                                                               of rubble to landfill
                                    1 Medium cost in Tlokweng                 Bush clearing, Rubble            Selective cutting of trees & disposal   180 000
                                                                                                               of rubble to landfill
                                                                                                                                                       660 000

                                                                                                                                                                                 177
Goal                               Project                                 Environmental Impact        Mitigation Measures                     Total         Year
                                   Component                                                                                                   Cost
                                   1 Medium cost -Mogobane                 Bush clearing, Rubble       Selective cutting of trees & disposal   180 000       2005/6
                                                                                                       of rubble to landfill
                                   1 Medium cost -Mogobane                 Bush clearing, Rubble       Selective cutting of trees & disposal   180 000
                                                                                                       of rubble to landfill
                                   2 Low cost houses-Tlokweng              Bush clearing, Rubble       Selective cutting of trees & disposal   320 000
                                                                                                       of rubble to landfill
                                                                                                                                               680 000
                                   2 Low cost houses-Tlokweng              Bush clearing, Rubble       Selective cutting of trees & disposal   320 000       2006/7
                                                                                                       of rubble to landfill
Ramotswa                           2 Medium cost                                                                                               360 000
                                                                                                                                               680 000




   Table 15.15:         Planned Projects for Land Board Development (LH 1001)
Goals                               Project                                     Environmental Impact   Mitigation Measures             Total             Year
                                    Component                                                                                          Cost
To provide office accommodation,    saloon car-Tlokweng                         None                   None                            95 000            2003/4
houses     transport and   land     4 x 4 twin cabs –TLB-Tlokweng               None                   None                            150 000
compensation                        Construction of an office block-Tlokweng    None                   None                            8 000 000
                                    Land inventory-Tlokweng                     None                   None                            2 000 000
                                    Compensation-Tlokweng                       None                   None                            500 000
                                    GPS -Ramotswa                               None                   None                            360 000
                                    Computer Network-Ramotswa                   None                   None                            250 000
                                    Compensation-Ramotswa                       None                   None                            500 000
                                    TOTAL                                                                                              11 855 000
                                    Wall fence and Paving -Ramotswa                                                                    320 000           2004/5
                                    Compensation-Ramotswa                       None                   None                            500 000
                                    TOTAL                                                                                              820 000
                                    Compensation-Tlokweng                       None                   None                            500 000           2005/6
                                    Networking -Tlokweng                        None                   None                            500 000
                                    Plot Numbering-Tlokweng                     None                   None                            150 000
                                                                                                                                       1 150 000
                                    Compensation-Ramotswa                       None                   None                            500 000           2006/7
                                    Compensation-Tlokweng                       None                   None                            500 000
                                    TOTAL                                                                                              1 000 000
                                    Compensation-Ramotswa                       None                   None                            500 000           2007/8
                                    Compensation-Tlokweng                       None                   None                            500 000
                                    TOTAL                                                                                              1 000 000

                                                                                                                                                                    178
Goals                                       Project                            Environmental Impact           Mitigation Measures          Total            Year
                                            Component                                                                                      Cost
                                            Compensation-Ramotswa              None                           None                         500 000          2008/9
                                            Compensation-Tlokweng              None                           None                         500 000
                                            TOTAL                                                                                          1 000 000




    Table 15.16: Planned Projects for Land Board Fleet Development
Goal                                         Project                      Environmental Impact           Mitigation Measures                    Total          Year
                                             Component                                                                                          Cost
To provide essential proper logistics        4 x 4 twin cabs -Ramotswa    Emission of smoke              Regular servicing of vehicle           150 000        2003/4
and efficient delivery of services to the
general public by providing transport
                                             2.5 ton truck-Ramotswa       ‗‘                             ‗‘                                     120 000
                                                                          ‗‘                             ‗‘                                     270 000
                                             4 x 4 twin cabs -Ramotswa    ‗‘                             ‗‘                                     150 000        2004/5
                                             4 x 4 twin cabs -Tlokweng    ‗‘                             ‗‘                                     150 000        2004/5
                                                                                                                                                300 000
                                             4 x 4 twin cabs -Ramotswa    ‗‘                             ‗‘                                     150 000        2005/6
                                             4 x 4 twin cabs -Tlokweng    ‗‘                             ‗‘                                     150 000        2005/6
                                             TOTAL                                                                                              300 000




    Table 15.17: Planned Projects for National Rural Sanitation Programme (EWT 501)
Goal                                   Project                           Environmental Impact          Mitigation Measures                      Total       Year
                                       Component                                                                                                Cost
To create, sustain and maintain a      Skipsx10                          None                          None                                     140 000     2003/4
clean environment free from waste
for the promotion of public and
environmental health
                                       water bowser x 1                  Emission of smoke             Regular servicing of vehicle             300 000
                                       Flat Truck x 2                    Emission of smoke             Regular servicing of vehicle             500 000
                                       Clinical Waste Vehicle x1         Emission of smoke             Regular servicing of vehicle             180 000
                                       Crane Truck x1                    Emission of smoke             Regular servicing of vehicle             340 000
                                       Sorting out containers x 4                                                                               56 000
                                       TOTAL                                                                                                    1 516 000
                                       Skips x 16                                                                                               224 000     2004/5
                                       Toilets x 55                      May pollute if malfunctions   Maintenance,     monitoring,     sound   275 000

                                                                                                                                                                        179
Goal   Project                     Environmental Impact           Mitigation Measures                       Total       Year
       Component                                                                                            Cost
                                                                  contractual agreements
       Refuse Truck x 1            Noise, Air pollution, smells   Regular maintenance, Acceptable           250 000
                                   if not looked after            collection times(day not night),
                                                                  Controlled speed, skills to operators –
                                                                  reduce idling time.
       Skip lagger x 1                                                                                      300 000
       Sorting out container x1                                                                             14 000
       Vacuum Tanker x 1           Noise, Air pollution, smells   Regular maintenance, Acceptable           300 000
                                   if not looked after            collection times(day not night),
                                                                  Controlled speed, skills to operators –
                                                                  reduce idling time.
       Tractor x 1                 Emission of smoke              Regular servicing of vehicle              175 000
       Refuse Compactor x 1                                                                                 300 000
       Sanitation Depot            Bush clearing, soil erosion    Landscaping                               1 500 000
       Total                                                                                                3 538 000
       Skips x 16                                                                                           224 000     2005/6
       Toilets x 72                May pollute if malfunctions    Maintenance,      monitoring,    sound    360 000
                                                                  contractual agreements
       Refuse Truck x 1            Noise, Air pollution, smells   Regular maintenance, Acceptable           250 000
                                   if not looked after            collection times(day not night),
                                                                  Controlled speed, skills to operators –
                                                                  reduce idling time.
       Sorting Out Container x 1   Visual     impact/intrusion,   Community        involvement     -VDC     14 000
                                   May pollute if overflow        monitored, provide regular service,
                                                                  contact out the collection service,
                                                                  provide alternative receptacles for
                                                                  HBC waste and dead animals
       Compressor x 1                                                                                       70 000
       Refuse Truck x 1            Noise, Air pollution, smells   Regular maintenance, Acceptable           250 000
                                   if not looked after            collection times(day not night),
                                                                  Controlled speed, skills to operators –
                                                                  reduce idling time.
       Total                                                                                                1 168 000
       Skips x 16                  Visual     impact/intrusion,   Community       involvement   -VDC        224 000     2006/7
                                   May pollute if overflow        monitored, provide regular service,
                                                                  contact out the collection service,
                                                                  provide alternative receptacles for
                                                                  HBC waste and dead animals
       Toilets x 104               May pollute if malfunctions    Maintenance,     monitoring,  sound       520 000
                                                                  contractual agreements


                                                                                                                                 180
Goal                                  Project                          Environmental Impact             Mitigation Measures                   Total       Year
                                      Component                                                                                               Cost
                                      Skip Lagger x 1                                                                                         300 000
                                      Total                                                                                                   1 044 000
                                      Skips x 50                       Visual     impact/intrusion,     Community       involvement   -VDC    420 000     2007/8
                                                                       May pollute if overflow          monitored, provide regular service,
                                                                                                        contact out the collection service,
                                                                                                        provide alternative receptacles for
                                                                                                        HBC waste and dead animals
                                      Toilets x 52                     May pollute if malfunctions      Maintenance,     monitoring,  sound   260 000
                                                                                                        contractual agreements
                                      Total                                                                                                   680 000
                                      Skips x 12                                                                                              168 000     2008/9
                                      Total                                                                                                   168 000
                                      GRAND TOTAL                                                                                             8 114 000




   Table 15.18: Planned Community Projects
Goal                         Project                                   Environmental Impact              Mitigation Measures                  Total       Year
                             Component                                                                                                        Cost
To improve the economic      Brick moulding Day Care Centre-Ramotswa   None                              None                                 25 000      2003/4
and social wellbeing of      Brick moulding Poultry-Ramotswa           ‗‘                                ‗‘                                   20 000
communities                  Paving Thuto-Boswa - Ramotswa             ‗‘                                ,,                                   5 000
- To advocate for new        Brick moulding Day Care Centre-Tlokweng   ‗‘                                ,,                                   25 000
available resources for      Screen wall at Tlamelong -Tlokweng        ‗‘                                ,,                                   40 000
emerging social problems     Plumbing 5-roomed house-Otse              ‗‘                                ,,                                   40 000
that hinders Social Work     Wiring Day care center-Taung              ‗‘                                ,,                                   20 000
profession            i.e.
                             Storeroom-Mogobane                        Indiscriminate   disposal   of    Proper disposal to the landfill      30 000
harmonization          of
                                                                       Rubble
resources that will/can
improve the individual       1 x 2 toilet block-Mogobane                                                                                      10 000
and communities socio-       Vehicle-Mogobane                          Smoke emission                    Regular servicing                    150 000
economic environment.        Training and logistical support-SEDC      None                              None                                 20 000
                             Total                                                                                                            385 000
                             Day Care Centre-Ramotswa                  Indiscriminate disposal     of    Proper disposal to the landfill      100 000     2004/5
                                                                       Rubble
                             Poultry Project-Ramotswa                  Land conflict, bad smell                                               80 000
                             Day Care Centre-Tlokweng                  Indiscriminate disposal     of    Proper disposal to the landfill      100 000
                                                                       Rubble
                             Horticulture-Otse                                                                                                60 000


                                                                                                                                                                   181
Goal   Project                                             Environmental Impact             Mitigation Measures                       Total     Year
       Component                                                                                                                      Cost
       Enviro Conservation project ; Pilot project to      Unsightly if can are full        Recycling,    regular   collection   of   60 000
       collect & separate litter in cans for recycling -                                    waste
       Mogobane
       Training; and logistical Support -Mogobane          None                             None                                      40 000
                                                                                                                                      500 000
       Bus Shelter-Ramotswa                                Indiscriminate   disposal   of   Proper disposal to the landfill           20 000    2005/6
                                                           Rubble
       2 Kgotla shelter-Ramotswa                           Indiscriminate   disposal   of   Proper disposal to the landfill           50 000
                                                           Rubble
       2 Enviro Project-Tlokweng                                                                                                      120 000
       House-Mogobane                                      Indiscriminate   disposal   of   Proper disposal to the landfill           60 000
                                                           Rubble
       House-Taung                                         ,,                               ,,                                        60 000
       Block Grant- SEDC                                                                                                              40 000
       Training and logistical support--SEDC                                                                                          30 000
                                                                                                                                      380 000
       2 Brick moulding Poultry-Ramotswa                                                                                              20 000    2006/7
       Development of park-Ramotswa                        Bush clearing                    selective cutting of trees                80 000
       Enviro Project—Tlokweng                                                                                                        80 000
       House-Mogobane                                      Bush clearing, Indiscriminate    Proper disposal to the landfill,          60 000
                                                           disposal of Rubble               selective cutting of trees
       House-Otse                                          Bush clearing, Indiscriminate    Proper disposal to the landfill,          60 000
                                                           disposal of Rubble               selective cutting of trees
       House-Otse                                          ,,                               ,,                                        60 000
                                                                                                                                      360 000
       Poultry-Ramotswa                                                                                                               80 000    2007/8
       Completion of BCW house-Otse                        ,,                               ,,                                        20 000
       Income generating project-Taung                     None                             None                                      50 000
       Training and logistical Support-Taung               ,,                               ,,                                        20 000
                                                                                                                                      170 000
       Training and logistical Support                     ,,                               ,,                                        20 000    2008/9
                                                                                                                                      20 000




                                                                                                                                                         182
   Table 15.19: Planned Projects for Primary School Facilities (LG 1102)
Goal                                    Project                                     Environmental Impact                Mitigation Measures                Total               Year
                                        Component                                                                                                          Cost
To provide adequate School facilities   Upgrading of school kitchen, Toilets,       Debushing, soil erosion, rubbles,   Landscaping, Proper disposal of
                                        Teachers quarters, Classrooms, Libraries,   shortage of land                    rubble to the landfill, Building
                                        Science Labs, Administration Blocks,                                            double storey flats
                                        Resource Centres, Guard Shelter
                                        65 Seater bus                               Smoke emmission                     Regular servicing.




   Table 15.20: Planned Projects for Primary School Development (LG 1102)
Location              School                        Project                                             Quantity         Unit Cost            Total                Year of Implementation
                                                    Component                                                                                 Cost
Ramotswa              Kgetheng-Ramotswa             Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500              2003/4
                      Magopane-Ramotswa             Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
                      Mokgosi III-Ramotswa          Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
                      Siga-Ramotswa                 Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
                      St Conrads-Ramotswa           Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
                                                    t/q                                                 6                175 00               1 050 000
                      Lesetlhana-Ramotswa           Upgrading of Admin block                            1                350 000              350 000
Tlokweng              Botsalano-Tlokweng            Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
                                                    T/q                                                 4                175 000              700 000
                      Kgosikgosi-Tlokweng           Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
Otse                  Baratani-Otse                 Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
                                                    t/q                                                 2                175 000              350 000
Mogobane              Mogobane:-Mogobane            t/q                                                 4                175 000              700 000
Taung                 :St Bernards-Taung            Upgrading of school kitchen                         1                402 500              402 500
Kgale                 St Joseph‘s-Kgale             Block of 2x classrooms                              1                276 000              276 000
                                                    t/q                                                 2                175 000              350 000
                                                    Toilets                                             2                11 000               22 000
SEDC                  All Schools-SEDC              65 Seater bus                                       1                300 000              300 000
                      TOTAL                         1 x bus, 2 x c/r, 10 x kitchens, 1 x admin block,
                                                    18 x t/q                                                                                  7 773 000

Ramotswa              New School Magope             C/r                                                 4                276 000              1 104 000
                                                    T/q                                                 4                175 000              700 000
                                                    T/l                                                 6                11 000               66 000               2004/5
                                                    Kitchen + hall                                      1                402 500              402 500


                                                                                                                                                                                      183
Location        School                Project                                           Quantity   Unit Cost   Total       Year of Implementation
                                      Component                                                                Cost
                                      Admin Block                                       1          310 500     310 500
                                       resource centre                                  1          400 000     400 000
                                      Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                      science lab                                       1          600 000     600 000
                                      Guard Shelter                                     1          35 000      35 000
                Mokgosi               T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
                St Conrads            T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
                School for the deaf   T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
Tlokweng        Batlokwa              T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
                Botsalano             T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
                                      Admin Block                                       1          310 500     310 500
Otse            Otse                  T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
Mogobane        Mojadife              Upgrading of kitchen                              1          402 500     402 500
Kgale           St Joseph‘s           Upgrading of kitchen                              1          402 500     402 500
Lobatse Farms   New School            Hostels                                           2          287 500     575 000
                                      Kitchen and dinning hall,
                                      low cost house                                    1          287 500     287 500

                                                                                        1          175 000     175 000
                                      2 x mini buses                                    1          200 000     400 000
                TOTAL                 3 kitchens, 2 hostels, 17 t/q, 1 admin block, 6                          8 720 500
                                      toilets, 1 Guard Shelter, 4 c/r
Ramotswa        Ketshwerebothata      C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000     2005/6
                                       resource centre                                  1          400 000     400 000
                                      Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                Kgetheng              Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                      Resource Centre                                   1          400 000     400 000
                Centre for the deaf   T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
                Siga                  T/q                                               6          175 000     1 050 000
                                      T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
Tlokweng        Botsalano             C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                      T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
                Batlokwa              Admin block                                       1          200 000     200 000
                Kgosikgosi            C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                      T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
                                      Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                      Resource centre                                   1          400 000     400 000
Mogobane        Mogobane              C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                      T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000


                                                                                                                                            184
Location   School                Project                                           Quantity   Unit Cost   Total       Year of Implementation
                                 Component                                                                Cost
                                 T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
Otse       Otse                  C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                 T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
                                 Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                 Resource Centre                                   1          400 000     400 000
           TOTAL                 5 resource centres, 5 libraries, 1 admin block,                          9 070 000
                                 10 c/r 10 t/q, 10 t/l
Ramotswa   Kgetheng              C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000     2006/7
           Lesetlhana            C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                 T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
                                 Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                 Resource Centre                                   1          400 000     400 000
           Siga                  Admin Block                                       1          200 000     200 000
                                 Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                 Resource Centre                                   1          400 000     400 000
           Magope                C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                 T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
                                 T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
Taung      New School Bojantsa   C/r                                               4          276 000     1 104 000
                                 T/q                                               4          175 000     700 000
                                 T/l                                               6          11 000      66 000
                                 Kitchen + hall                                    1          402 500     402 500
                                 Admin Block                                       1          310 500     310 500
                                  resource centre                                  1          400 000     400 000
                                 Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
                                 science lab                                       1          600 000     600 000
                                 Guard Shelter                                     1          35 000      35 000
Tlokweng   Kosikgosi             C/r                                               4          276 000     1 104 000
           Mafilthakgosi         resource centre                                   1          400 000     400 000
                                 Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
Mogobane   Mojadife              C/r                                               2          276 000     552 000
                                 T/l                                               2          11 000      22 000
                                 T/q                                               2          175 000     350 000
Ramotswa   Seboko                Admin Block                                       1          310 500     310 500
                                  resource centre                                  1          400 000     400 000
                                 Library                                           1          450 000     450 000
           Ketshwerebothata      Admin Block                                       1          310 500     310 500
           Magopane              Admin Block                                       1          310 500     310 500



                                                                                                                                       185
Location        School                 Project                                               Quantity   Unit Cost   Total       Year of Implementation
                                       Component                                                                    Cost
TOTAL                                  16 c/r, 8 t/q, 5 libraries, 5 resource centres, 5                                        12 346 000
                                       admin blocks, 12 t.l
Tlokweng        New School Lenganeng   C/r                                                   4          276 000     1 104 000   2007/8
                                       T/q                                                   4          175 000     700 000
                                       T/l                                                   6          11 000      66 000
                                       Kitchen + hall                                        1          402 500     402 500
                                       Admin Block                                           1          310 500     310 500
                                        resource centre                                      1          400 000     400 000
                                       Library                                               1          450 000     450 000
                                       science lab                                           1          600 000     600 000
                                       Guard Shelter                                         1          35 000      35 000
Otse            Otse                   Admin Block                                           1          200 000     200 000
TOTAL                                  6 c/r, 6 t/q, 8 t.l, 1 resouce centre, 3 admin                               5 392 000
                                       blocks. 1 library, 1 sience lab, 1 guard shelter, 1
                                       kitchen hall
Ramotswa        Magope                 C/r                                                   2          276 000     552 000     2008/9
                                       T/q                                                   2          175 000     350 000
                                       T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
                Mokgosi                Admin Block                                           1          200 000     200 000
                                       T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
                St Conrads             Admin Block                                           1          200 000     200 000
                                       T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
Tlokweng        Lenganeng              C/r                                                   2          276 000     552 000
                                       T/q                                                   2          175 000     350 000
                                       T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
                Batlokwa                resource centre                                      1          400 000     400 000
                                       Library                                               1          450 000     450 000
Taung           Bojantsa               C/r                                                   2          276 000     552 000
                                       T/q                                                   2          175 000     350 000
                                       T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
Mogobane        Mojadife               T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
Otse            Baratani               T/l                                                   4          11 000      44 000
                                       Admin Block                                           1          200 000     200 000
Lobatse farms   Lobatse                Hostel                                                1          287 500     287 500
Kgale           St Joseph‘s            Admin Block                                           1          200 000     200 000
SEDC                                   65 seater bus                                         1          300 000     300 000
TOTAL                                  6 c/r , 6 t/q, 24 t/l, 4 admin blocks, 1 library, 1                          5 207 500
                                       resource centre, 1 hostel a bus



                                                                                                                                                 186
    Table 15.21: Planned Projects for Fleet Expansion for DA and TA (LG 102)
Goals                                 Project                                      Environmental Impact   Mitigation Measures                   Cost         Year
                                      Component
To provide essential proper           Station Wagon (Chrisler JeepCherotee         Smoke Emission         Regular servicing of vehicle          200 000      2003/04
logistics and efficient delivery      3.7)-TA Ramotswa
of services to the general public     Twin Cab Hilux 4x4-TA Ramotswa               ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    150 000
by providing transport                Station Wagon (Chrisler Jeep Cherotee        ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    200 000
                                      3.7)-TA –Tlokweng
                                      7 ton truck-DA Ramotswa                      ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    195 000
                                      16 seater combi- DA Ramotswa                 ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    200 000
                                      TOTAL                                                                                                     945 000
                                      1 twin cab 4*4- DA Ramotswa                  ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    150 000      2004/5
                                      1 single cab 4*2 DA Ramotswa                 ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    90 000
                                      Car-DA Ramotswa                              ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    150 000
                                      Station Wagon (Chrisler JeepCherotee         ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    150 000
                                      3.7)-DA Tlokweng
                                      Twin Cab 4 x 2- TA Tlokweng                  ‗‘                     ‗‘                                     90 000
                                      TOTAL                                                                                                     630 000
                                      Twin cab Hilux 4x4-TA Otse                   ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    150 000      2005/6
                                      Twin cab Hilux 4x4-TA Taung                  ‗‘                     ‗‘                                    150 000
                                      Total                                                                                                     300 000
                                      GRAND TOTAL                                                                                               P1 875 000




    Table 15.22: Planned Projects for Fleet Expansion for Council (LG 102)
Goal                                  Project                                 Environmental Impact        Mitigation Measures            Cost                Year
                                      Component
To provide essential proper           2.5 ton truck with crane                Smoke Emission              Regular servicing of vehicle   520 000             2003/4
logistics and efficient delivery of   Saloon car                              ‗‘                          ‗‘                             120 000
services to the general public by     Twin cab x 2                            ‗‘                          ‗‘                             300 000
providing transport                   Single cab                              ‗‘                          ‗‘                             120 000
                                      TOTAL                                                                                              1 060 000
                                      1 twin cab                              ‗‘                          ‗‘                             150 000             2004/5
                                      1 single cab                            ‗‘                          ‗‘                             120 000
                                      2.5 ton truck x 2                       ‗‘                          ‗‘                             600 000
                                      Single cab 4 x 2                        ‗‘                          ‗‘                             90 000
                                      TOTAL                                                                                              960 000

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Goal                                 Project                                          Environmental Impact                  Mitigation Measures                     Cost               Year
                                     Component
                                     twin cab x 3                                     ‗‘                                    ‗‘                                      450 000            2005/6
                                     TOTAL                                                                                                                          450 000
                                     single cab – 4 x 2                               ‗‘                                    ‗‘                                      90 000             2006/7
                                     saloon car                                       ‗‘                                    ‗‘                                      100 000
                                     TOTAL                                                                                                                          190 000




    Table 15.23: Planned Projects for Village Water Supply and Sewerage (LG 1110)
Goals                          Project Component                                               Environmental       Mitigation Measures                                  Total          Year
                                                                                               Impact                                                                   Cost
To improve the existing        Integrated sewerage        system       -    designs        –     None              Undertake EIA and socio-economic studies             P2 000 000     2003/4
on-site sanitation system in   Otse/Mogobane
Otse and Mogobane.
To provide constant water      2 x siting and drilling of boreholesMetsimaswaane               Const. activities   All PMs must                                         P950 000       2003/4
Supply to the settlement of                                                                    reduce              Include EIA and HIV/Aids components. All
Metsimaswaane.                                                                                 vegetation/ grass   Council developments.
                                                                                               cover which will    will take into consideration the protection of the
                                                                                               eventual leads to   environment.
                                                                                               soil erosion.
To     provide     sewerage    Integrated sewerage        system   –       Construction-       ,,                  ,,                                                   P102 612 000   2004 - 2007
system for Otse and            Otse/Mogobane
Mogobane
To improve the existing        Extension of Water supply scheme-Otse                           ,,                  ,,                                                   2 000 000      2003 - 2005
on-site sanitation system in
Otse and Mogobane.
To     provide     sewerage    Expansion of Sewerage scheme-Tlokweng                           ,,                  ,,                                                   5 000 000      2006 – 2008
system for Otse and
Mogobane
To     provide     sewerage    Expansion of Sewerage scheme-Ramotswa                           ,,                  ,,                                                   5 000 000      2007 - 2009
system for Otse and
Mogobane




                                                                                                                                                                                              188
CHAPTER 16
16       CONTINGENCY PLANNING

16.1     INTRODUCTION

Contingency Planning is intended to spell out measures, procedures and resources that are
geared towards attending to the occurrence of disasters. Disaster itself refers to an event that
seriously disrupts the normal pattern of activities in a given area as a result of natural or other
calamities.

Botswana is prone to among other disasters drought, veldfires, floods, pest infestations and
transport accidents.

16.1.1 Institutional Framework
Disaster can affect anyone and it is therefore everyone‘s responsibility to deal with this
contingency when it arises. However, the overall responsibility for disaster management rests
with the District Commissioner in partnership with the Council Secretary. South East like
other Districts has a multi-sectoral disaster management committee with responsibility for
planning and overseeing implementation.

It comprises the D.C. as the Chairperson, DOD as the secretariat, representatives from Central
and Local Police, Agriculture, Food Relief Services Division, BDF, Roads, Meteorology,
Geological, Civil Aviation, Fire, Botswana Red Cross Society, Health, Social Community
Development Office, Water Affairs, Botswana Press Agency (BOPA), Botswana Power
Corporation, Tribal Administration, Wild Life, Insurance Company, the business community,
NGO‘s and membership can change depending on locally relevant expertise.

For the disaster activities including monitoring to be continuous, there is need to have a focal
person to specifically oversee the district‘s activities.

Similar structures should be put in place at a village level. The overall responsibility for
disaster management in South East villages would rest with traditional leaders and any
identified organized group. At the moment there are not well organized village disaster
committees.

16.1.2 Strategic Plan for Ministry of Local G overnment
Currently, there is no specific strategy that relates to disaster management. When there is
disaster the District Commissioner in liaison with the Council Secretary alerts other agencies
about the occurrence of such a disaster and facilitates the response to the emergency. Members
of the Disaster Management Committee have responsibility to alert others when they notice or
come to know about disaster occurrence.




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16.1.3 Drought and Food Relief Management
Drought as one of the common or regular disasters in Botswana, it has its own monitoring
system. The drought relief programme at the district level is implemented by the Drought
Relief Committee which is a sub-committee of the District Development Committee. Various
departments are involved in the implementation of the drought relief programme. There are
Drought Relief Unit, Water Affairs, Council Water Department, Health Clinics, Social and
Community Development, Agriculture (both crops and livestock) Education, Food Relief
Services, Council Roads Unit, etc. These departments report to the Drought Relief Committee
on a quarterly basis.

The drought relief coordinator is responsible for the overall mostly the poor, crop production,
the range land, animal health and production as well as wildlife. The South East District is
always ready and prepared to implement any relief strategies as directed by the government
such as feeding and free seed distribution.

When implementing the Labour Intensive public works projects, there is normally shortage of
Labour due to unattractive wage rate of P8.00 per day.

16.1.4 Disaster Relief Sector Priorities
Primary and Secondary Settlements in Botswana are industrializing and as such require fire
services Department to be established within the District Councils. It becomes imperative for
government to expedite training of adequate personnel to deal with fire out breaks. Moreover,
fires out breaks in the rural areas have not decreased despite a lot of campaign against fire out
breaks especially by His Honour the Vice President.

According to the flood disaster report of year 2000, it became apparent that the standard design
guidelines for infrastructure have been overtaken by the events. Of particular significance are
the out-dated bridge plans for flood return, especially given the global warming phenomenon,
which is on the increase. We are likely to experience even worse flood disasters than ever
before. A review of these designs is recommended.

Education campaigns on disaster management are not adequate. Both the public and the private
sector need to be educated in this aspect.


16.2    NATIONAL POLICIES AND LEGISLATION

16.2.1 National Disaster Management Plan
The National Policy on Disaster Management talks about the National Disaster Plan which is
supposed to guide the society in disaster management and mitigation. The existence of this
plan has not reached its maximum publicity. People need to know about it.

16.2.2 National Food Security Strategy
The National Food Strategy lays down the framework within which the national and household
food and economic security processes and activities are to be carried out. The scope of the
strategy is as follows:

      Providing economic access to food for household by attainment of a broad-based
       income security.


                                                                                           190
      Assurance of household food security is availability through national food imports and
       production.
      Within the scope of this strategy, there will be joint responsibility reflecting the
       partnership of Government, private sector, and household in the availability and access
       to nutritionally safe and adequate food.

Regarding food security, Council will continue to implement programmes designed for certain
vulnerable groups in order to get maximum intended benefits from the programmes. These
programmes include orphan care, home based care, destitution and assistance to needy
students. The Department of Crop Production and Forestry will continue to encourage
production of vegetables.


16.3    CONTINGENCY PLANS

Regarding drought programme there is need to review the wage rate with an aim to increase it.
Provision should be made during the first two years of the plan period to take the fire services
to the rural area

Public campaigns ought to be an ongoing in process. This will go a long way in achieving
2016 goal of an informed nation. Once the Committee is well informed about disaster
preparedness, the community will endeavour to construct durable structures that can resist the
intensity of any form of calamity. They will be in a position to develop mechanisms to
safeguard themselves and their properties.


16.4    FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

      After every serious disaster, an Environmental Impact Assessment should be
       undertaken.
      The disaster preparedness Committee should not stop planning its activities unless
       plans and/or funds are underway to rehabilitate or reconstruct that public structure such
       as roads, bridges, offices etc. Monitoring plans should be prepared and be followed by
       the committee.
      If the concerned department could not raise such funds to rehabilitate/construct a
       structure, disaster management funds should be used.


16.5    PROPOSED PROJECTS

      Disaster preparedness committee members should be trained in relevant fields so that
       they can be able to deal with disaster and complement each other in skills/knowledge.
      Two officers should be trained every year and priority should be given to committee
       members that come from sectors which are prone to disasters such as Agriculture and
       Water Department as well as the Secretary and Chairperson of the Committee.
      2003/2004 – Disaster Campaign schedule should be formulated.
      2004/2005 – Disaster Campaigns should be implemented.




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16.6    RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DDP6

16.6.1 Issues and Strengths for Water Sector
      The Central Government Water sector has well trained manpower but it is limited.
      There is need to employ an officer to be a focal point in the District by the year
       2004/05.
      Over and above the quarterly and annual progress report, there should be yearly dialog
       in the form of conferences and workshops organized by the National Disaster
       Preparedness.




                                                                                       192
CHAPTER 17
17       PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION

17.1     INTRODUCTION

Plan monitoring and evaluation are components of the planning process which comprises plan
preparation, implementation and review. It is imperative that the plan is monitored to mark
progress and if they are any hick-ups they can be attended to in time. On another hand, a
review would enable project managers and planners to improve their future performance.

17.1.1 The Institutional Framework
The DOD, who is secretary of the DDC co-ordinates much of the planning at district level by
working closely with Council Economic Planner who is also the co-secretary of DDC. The
DOL on the other hand is concerned mostly with matters pertaining to land in a wider sense
with resource utilization and management with adequate liaison with the Council Physical
Planner. DOL is secretary of District Land Use Planning Unit (DLUPU). The planners play a
central role in monitoring DDP through Annual Development Plans and progress reports. They
liaise with heads of departments so that the latter submit quarterly reports to DDC for review.

17.1.2 Plan Management
Plan management is pivotal in the planning process to ensure that the annual plans are well
coordinated, achieve goals and objectives and corrective measures are taken if necessary.

Monitoring is carried out by heads of respective departments for projects/activities that are
reflected in annual plans and then submit reports quarterly to DDC on progress made.
Generally DDP review is done during mid of the plan period to determine how implementation
has progressed or whether priorities have changed which may require attention. Plan reviews
are not done at district level alone but also at ministerial and national levels as DDP is integral
part of NDP – the plans are interdependent. A living example is when Government has made a
national budget to Ministers and Ministries in turn allocating budget (TECS) to districts.


17.2     ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ACTIVITIES

First and foremost, it is important to note that sustainable development is a process of change
with which exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of technology
development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future
potential to meet needs and aspirations.

Before projects take off there is need to take stock of all natural resources and human activities
that impact on the former. Natural resources provide inputs for human activities and offer life
support services to human beings. All human activities are directly or indirectly dependent on
natural resources e.g. land, water, air, mining, agriculture, veld products, wildlife, trees,
infrastructure and services.



                                                                                             193
Development depends on expansion of capital and on its efficient equitable and sustainable
use. It is therefore, essential to monitor the trends of human activities on natural resources not
only during plan preparation but also after implementation. Environmental changes or impacts
(positive or negative) have to be assessed in terms of quality and quantity. Monitoring is
essential to ensure that poverty alleviation activities are addressed with sustainable utilisation
of resources (SEA)


17.3     FINANCIAL AND PERSONNEL CONSTRAINTS

Local Authorities are constrained by financial and personnel resources at their disposal to
monitor environmental activities effectively. Most environmental impacts have not been
adequately assessed in monitoring of human activities. The district had recommended the
engagement of District Environmental Liaison Officer who could coordinate environmental
monitoring.


17.4     PROPOSED PLAN MONITORING ACTIVITIES DURING DDP6

Strategic Environmental Assessment shall form the basis of monitoring environmental
activities to determine sustainable ways of implementing projects. Alternative ways of
achieving goals and objectives shall be taken aboard so that contamination of water supply,
vegetation loss and land degradation and land use conflicts among others are avoided.
Indiscriminate dumping of waste and mitigation measures taken to protect environment.
Similarly, existing burrow pits should be monitored for rehabilitation, funds permitting.

Utilization of natural resources should be monitored particularly in institutional projects with
regard to optimum use of land they use less space by building double storeys, use of fuel wood
for cooking should be discontinued by using gas. It will also be necessary to monitor the
number of plots that have been allocated but not developed during the agreed period so that
they are repossessed and reallocated to those in need.

Assessment study for the Gaborone Dam Catchment area which is expected to be completed
during DDP 5 will help the district not only in monitoring environmental activities but also
with mitigation measures during DDP 6.




                                                                                            194
APPENDIX A: DISTRICT/MINISTRY MATRICES
The District/Ministry Matrix is comprised of spreadsheets designed to show the details of DDP
6/NDP IX financial allocations of each project, from each ministry. It is a detailed breakdown
of the NDP IX financial allocations by town, disaggregated both by components of specific
projects, and where possible into the six annual phases of the plan period. The matrix data
contained in the spreadsheets is at two levels:

      Ministry allocations per district for all relevant projects.
      District allocations within particular projects by component and annual phasing, where
       applicable, over the six-year plan period.

The purpose of the matrix is to enable the district, ministry planners and project managers to
negotiate at a more detailed and specific level about the allocation of funds for the different
projects in each phase. The matrix also provides an effective reference document for all
projects and components during the implementation and monitoring stages of the plan period.
All users of the plan can therefore quickly and easily see the agreed amount of project funding
for al the agreed amount of project funding for all projects at the start of the plan period.

It has not been possible to get a full set of data on the dis-aggregation of some central
government projects by component and phase over the six-year plan period. This data was only
available for projects implemented by the Ministry of Local Government and sporadically for a
few ministries.

The matrix in this plan is linked to the national matrices; therefore every effort has been made
to ensure that the data in the district matrix is accurate and has been based on the inputs from
the ministries.




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