Social Science

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					                             Social science is the study of the society
and the man behind its invention was Auguste Comte who became interested
in studying the changes that were taking place in society after French
and Industrial revolution. Social sciences concern people's relationships
and interactions with one another. During the French revolution France
system changed dramatically and people changed their positions;
aristocrats lost their positions and peasants who were in low positions
in society rose into more powerful and influential positions. In
Industrial revolution some people abandoned their agricultural activities
and they moved to the city to look for jobs in the factories. They were
oppressed by their employees for they were forced to work long hours and
sometimes they did not receive their payment. Comte looked keenly into
the changes that were brought forth by both revolutions and he felt that
the social systems that were existing during that time were not
addressing chaos and upheavals he saw around him.(Frankfurt,1998)..He
decided to come up with anew science and he named it sociology which
comes from a Latin word socius which means companion or being with
others. To understand the society in a better position,Comte argued that
certain procedures have to be followed and such procedures are known as
scientific methods. These are systematic and specific procedures that are
used to test theories in psychology, natural sciences and other fields.
By use of sociology, the society can be made a better place for people
and to inspire social reforms. Comte also believed in positivism, which
is the application of the scientific method to the analysis of
societySociology evolved differently depending on where it was taught and
who was teaching it. There are two major types of sociology that emerged,
quantitative and qualitative sociology. Most of the universities in the
world use both qualitative and quantitative methods for information as
not one method is necessarily better than the other. Qualitative
sociology is concerned with trying to obtain an accurate picture of a
group and how it operates in the world. Small and his group from the
University of Chicago tied to study how immigration was affecting the
city and its residents. A large number of people were migrating to the
United States from a variety of countries. Sociologists were fascinated
by the social changes they saw taking place and began conducting
qualitative studies which involved personal interviews and observations
of ethnic rituals and ceremonies.(Diederick,2003)Quantitative sociology
relied on statistical analysis to analyze experience and trend that
people took. Some researchers talked to the people and observed them but
many preferred to remain within the confines and quantify their data
suitable for statistical manipulation. Apart from the two types of
sociology, there are other types of sociology, they include;
anthropology, political science, psychology and economicsAnthropology-
this usually concerns individual cultures in a society but not a society
as a whole. It is holistic science of man and it deals with the
integration of different aspects of humanities, human biology and social
sciences.Political Science this concerns government of various societies
and it considers the kind of government a society is having. It also
considers how the leader of this society attains positions of power
within a particular government. It also considers the relations of people
in a society to whatever form of government they have.Psychology is the
study of human brain and how it functions, considering issues such as
memory, dreams, learning and perception. Psychology always takes an
individual out of his/her social circumstances and examines her mental
processes taking place. Economics. This focuses on the production and
distribution of society's goods and services. Economists study why a
society chooses to produce what it does, how money is exchanged, and how
people interact and cooperate to produce goods.There have been certain
principles which have been recognized and accepted in the social
sciences, this are; effect of scale and agglomeration economics, transfer
costs etc and all are integrated into a simplified model of world
hierarchical structure. Vectors are used to illustrate hierarchy of
places and services. Service areas of the nodes conforming to the size
and scale most efficient and appropriate for specific activities and
functions are illustrated involving, for example, steel production at
major regional primary nodes and elementary schools in the smallest
service areas. Presence of political boundaries or other barriers
inhibits optimal spatial organization, opportunity costs are therefore
introduced which detract from potential benefits. Recognition of the
social science framework in which a system of world law should ideally
operate must be complemented by identification of adjudicative criteria
for balancing conflicting goals such as participation, efficiency and
equality; therefore some measures of participation and analytic
frameworks for reconciling goals are suggested.People with training in
sociology pursue a variety of different career and research paths.
Because "society" is such a broad field of study, a background in
sociology helps support dozens of different career choices. What follows
are several broad areas in which sociologists frequently choose to apply
their skills and interests. People need to understand that science is a
religion that is already established.(Frankfurt,1998). Most of the people
who have influence from science have more or less the concept of
authority. There are two concepts; admiration toward the established
"authority" of science and the yearning for becoming an authority
oneself. These two are connected and complement each other. The privilege
concept does not only hamper man's direct exploration of truth but also
replace his veneration of God. Through their true nature people can learn
the truth of the universe and learn the principles of the cosmos by
continuous cultivation of morality. On the other hand, the concept of
authority has obliterated this; within the science authorities are not
only the symbols of who control the scientific truth;generally they are
also in charge of research money and they control others explorations;
this means that authorities have the control over the others
lives.(Pyburn,1998)Authority is the source of this structure and
organization of science and people minds give up their consciousness of
directly exploring truth on their own. Scientific authorities are
regarded as authorities of life and that nobody will ever remain"
nobody". This is because people's real thinking is clouded by this
concept of authority, and they have completely lost their own
comprehension. Since it's dangerous for any opinion to conflict with the
authority's opinion, what people can do in science is merely do some
small "repairing" around the authority's ideas.Science also has great
influence on social structure and state, many people believes that
freedom, equality and law as very holy and therefore they conclude that
science is the most holy. Before the birth of science, people used to
believe the truths from the bible because at first man believed in God.
Science does not only repel and negate man's faith in God and orthodox
morality; it limits man's way of thinking within the boundary of
experimental science. Furthermore, it fundamentally destroys man's social
structure. Science has brought to man many errors as he tries so many
concepts that are related to science some of are not even proven. They
don't see the truth about science at all, and cannot see the devastation,
suppression and damage it has done to man's true nature.The social
sciences are at times criticized as being less rigorous than other
natural sciences, in that they are seen as being less empirical in their
methods. This claim has been made in the so-called Science Wars. This is
most commonly made when comparing social sciences to wholly different
fields such as physics, chemistry or biology in which corroboration of
the hypothesis is far more incisive with regard to data observed from
specifically designed experiments. Some physicists have expressed their
view that social sciences do not qualify as science. Characterized as
observational, the social sciences explanations for cause-effect
relationships are largely subjective. A limited degree of freedom is
available in designing the factor setting for a particular observational
study. (Garry 2003)

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