chapter 20

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					The Roaring Twenties
              Post War America
U.S. Population Wanted “Normalcy”
1. Renewed Isolationism
  a. Moving away from the rest of the world
2. A resurgence of Nativism
   a. Fear of those foreign born
3. Political Conservatism
   a. Turning away from progressivism
4. Reactionary Politics
            Communist Revolution
                    “Workers of the world unite”
The Russian Revolution
1.October 1917
2.New Fear of Communism
3. Vladimir Lenin
   a. Bolshevik Revolution
4. Communist Government
   a. What is communism?
                      Cultural Changes
  a. Emancipated woman of the time
  b. Pushing of social expectations
     * assertive/ Smoked/ Drank/ Danced

The Family
1.Kids spent their days at school
   a. Adolescent culture
2. Ready Made:
   a. Clothes
   b. Food
3. Decline in birthrate (due to birth control)
4. Marriages were becoming based almost
completely on personal choice
       Social Changes In The United States
               Because Of The War
The Great Migration
 1. African Americans In The South
   Moving To Northern Cities
   a. Africa-American
      *Chicago 2% to 33%
      * Southern African
       American Influence
2. Stage 1 (1910 -1930)
   Stage 2 (1940 – 1970)
                The Harlem Renaissance
African American Neighborhoods
1. Development of a Black Consciousness
   a. Black Empowerment
   b. Pride in culture

2. Black political and social leaders
   a. Langston Hughes
   b. Marcus Garvey
   c. W.E.B. Du Bois

3. Explosion of Black Culture
   a. “New Negro”
       * Call for equality
   b. Black Communities
   c. Black Schools
   d. Black Professionals

4. White Kids & Harlem
            Fear of Communism
The Red Scare in The United States
1. 70,000 join Communist Party in United States
   a. People in U.S. afraid
2. Bombs in Government Buildings
   a. scared of anarchist & communists
 3. Mitchell Palmer (Attorney General)
    a. “Red Scare”
                Fear of Communism
The Palmer Raids
1. J. Edgar Hoover
  a. Get rid of Radicals and Anarchists
  b. Government Agency becomes Federal Bureau of
    Investigation (FBI)
  c. Violations of Civil Rights
2. Communists plot on May Day ?
                    Sacco and Vanzetti

Sacco & Vanzetti
1.Anarchists from Italy
2.South Braintree Mass. (April 1920)
   a. two men shot & killed a paymaster
   b. robbed $15,000
   c. Witnesses say the suspects were Italian
3. Sacco & Vanzetti are arrested
   a. had alibis
   b. only circumstantial evidence tied them
      to the case
   c. Judge made prejudice remarks
4. Found Guilty
   a. executed August 23rd 1927
   b. Protests all over the world
The Klu Klux Klan (KKK)
1. Started 1870s (Dies out a bit)
2. Resurges 1920s
    a. 4.5 Million (1924)
3. Dominated Politics in….
   (Arkansas, Ohio, California,
     Indiana, Oregon, and Texas)
4. Stated they were for 100%
     a. Reactionary
5. Used violence
                Limiting Immigrations
Nativisim – a turning to the indigenous culture in opposition to
            enculturation/ Opposed to immigrants.

How were immigrants seen?
1. Anarchists
2. Less need for them
  (Unskilled Labor)
3. Racism
 - Madison Grant (book example)
              Limiting Immigration
The Emergency Quota Act (1921)
1. Quota System
  a. maximum number of of people who
    could enter the U.S. from a specific
2. Discrimination
  a. Only 2% of the amount of that
   nationality already living in the U.S.
             Religious Fundamentalism
Protestant Movement
1.Literal interpretation of the Bible
2.Reaction to:
   a. Religious tolerance
   b. Acceptance of science
3. Rejection of the Theory of Evolution
   a. Did not want it taught to their children
4. Achieve Political Power 1920s
   a. Alarmed moderates

The Scopes Trial
1.Evolution in Class
2.ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union)
3.Scopes is fired
4.Legacy of the trial
               Isolationism and World Affairs

Harding Administration Through Hoover Administration

Fordney -McCumber Tariff
 a. Raised tax on imported goods
   to its highest level ever
 b. What would this do?
   1. War Debts
       - Britain / France
        / Germany
             Isolationism and World Affairs

Treaty of Versailles (1919)
1.Differences of Opinions
   a. Britain = Easy Reparations
   b. France = Harsh Reparations

US Becomes Isolationist (1919)
1. Wants Britain and France to pay
   their debt
2. No League of Nations

Germany & Russia (1922)
1.Treaty of Rapallo

Ruhr Crisis (1923)
1.France invades Germany
2.German Hyper-Inflation
                         International Problems &
Causes                    The Dawes Plan (1924)
1. The Ruhr Crisis & Hyper Inflation

The Plan
1. Made loans available to Germany
2. Froze payments for two years
3. Lowered payments

1. Persuades France to withdraw troops
2. Germany could make payments
3. Germany tries to fulfill the Treaty of Versailles &
 is allowed in the League of Nations
           Isolationism and World Affairs

Washington Naval Treaty
1.Japan/ US / Britain
2. 5:5:3

Kellogg- Briand Pact (1929)
 1. 64 nations
 2. One Problem ?
                Domestic Politics
                 1920 Presidential Election
                 Start of 12 Years of Republic Rule
Republicans (GOP)
Warren G. Harding & Calvin Coolidge
Democrats (D)
James M. Cox & Franklin Roosevelt

Republicans: 16 Million
Democrats:    9 Million
             Domestic Politics
       12 years of Republican Rule

1920 Warren Harding (Republican)

     James Cox (Democrat)

1924 Calvin Coolidge (Republican)

     John Davis (Democrat)

1928 Herbert Hoover (Republican)

     Alfred Smith (Democrat)
          Domestic Politics (Harding)

Harding’s Administration on Harding’s Administration
1. Good Choices
 a. Charles Evans Hughes
 b. Herbert Hoover
2. Bad Choices
 a. The Ohio Gang
   * Close Friends From Harding’s State of Ohio
        Domestic Politics (Harding)

“The Ohio Gang”
1. Inadequate
2. Drunkards
3. Poker Players
4. Crooks
            Domestic Politics (Harding)

Teapot Dome Scandal
 1. Teapot Dome (Wyoming)
   Set aside by conservationist legislation
  a. Oil rich government lands
  b. Pan-American Petroleum/ Mammoth Oil
    & Albert F. Fall (Sec. of the Interior)
        Domestic Affairs (Coolidge)
      Government is Pro Business in the 1920s

Pro Business President
       Calvin Coolidge
“ The chief business of America is business… The man
who builds a factory builds a temple-- the man who
works there worships there.”
            New Consumption Habits
Electrical Conveniences
2. Washing Machine
3. Vacuum Cleaner
4. Electric Sewing Machine
5. Refrigerators
6. Lights
Mass Media
1. Newspapers in wider circulation
2. Magazines (Life / Reader’s Digest /
   Saturday Evening Post)
3. Radio (Most important)
              New Consumption
New Transportation
1. Automobile
    a. much more prominent
    b. changes American life
       * Side Industries
       * 1 car for every 5 people
2. Airplane
   a. commercial passenger planes
      * Ford (10 People)
        New Consumption Habits
Big Business
1. Corporate interests
2. Advertising Explosion
   a. Advertising on Madison Ave.
   b. Seduction and Suggestion
   c. Convince people they were
3. Consumer perceived needs
   far exceed resources
    a. Credit & Installment Plans
    b. People live beyond their means
              New Consumption
The Stock Market
1. Easy money
2. Buying Stock on Credit
3. Huge Amounts of Speculation
4. Laissez – Faire Approach
    a. “Hands Free”
    b. Very little oversight