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maya_ aztec and inca 2

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					                The Maya

Originated in Yucatán around 2600 BC, they rose to
               height around 250 A.D.
                    Technology
• Developed astronomy, an intricate calendar and
  hieroglyphic writing.

Two calendars: the solar
calendar and the Sacred
Almanac. The solar
calendar was 365 days
long; which consisted of
18 months; 20 days a
piece and 5 "unlucky"
days.
                     Technology
• The Maya architecture: all built without
  metal tools.




   Palenque Palace



                                  The Nunnery
               Religion
• Believed in many gods, each day involved
  a new god with new challenges
First, glyphs do not represent just sounds or
ideas, they can represent both, making it
difficult to know how each glyph or cartouche
should be read.
In addition, many Maya glyphs can have more
than one meaning, and many Maya concepts
can be written in more than one way.
Plus the Maya had 31 languages.
                    Society
• Farmers cleared large sections of tropical
  rain forest and built sizeable underground
  reservoirs for the storage of rainwater.
• They were weavers, potters, had
  extensive trade networks with distant
  peoples.
  – Traded salt, flint, feathers, shells and honey
    as well as textiles and jade ornaments        Grand

  – Used cacao beans instead of money to          Cenote

    barter for goods
                     Society
• Mayan civilization - organized into city-states
  (50 sites found)
  – Each city-state a farming community and large
    urban sites built around ceremonial centers
                          Fall
• It started to decline around A.D. 900 when the
  southern Maya abandoned their cities.
                      Toltec Warrior
- Many of the Maya were integrated into the
  Toltec society by A.D. 1200
  – some peripheral (outer areas) cities continued to
    thrive until the Spanish Conquest in the early
    sixteenth century.
Aztec
                   Tenochtitlan
• Aztecs were migratory at first.
• In the year 1325, they stopped their migratory
  pattern on the southwest border of Lake Texcoco
  as they beheld an eagle sitting on the stem of a
  prickly pear.
  – He was holding a serpent in this talons and his wings the
    open to the sun. They saw this as an omen, announcing
    the location of their future city and capital, Tenochtitlan.
• To build their city, swamps and standing water
  around them was drained and artificial islands were
  constructed
Map of Tenochtitlan, possibly made for
Cortes. Woodcut from Praeclara Ferdinandi
Cortesii de Nova Maris Oceani Hispania
Narratio, Nürnberg, 1524 (first publication of
Cortes's letters.) Courtesy of the New York
Public Library.
                      Religion
• Human sacrifices
   – 20,000-50,000 people were sacrificed yearly.
• Principal Aztec god, Huitzilpochti
• Tribute gathered by raiding and warring
                        Huitzilopochtli battled the forces of
  parties               darkness each night and was reborn
                        each morning.
• Among the conquered peoples, rebellions
                        As the Legend of the Five Suns
  often flared up.      shows, there was no guarantee that
                        the sun would always win.
• When armies from Spain arrived, they found
                        To give the sun strength to rise each
                        day, the Aztecs ruled by
  allies among peoples who were offered humanthe
                        sacrifices.
  Aztec empire.
At the center of the Aztecs'
calendar stone is the sun
god, Tonatiuh.
He is surrounded by
symbols of the five world
creations.
The symbols of the 20
days of the solar month
are depicted on the stone.
Also, eclipses of the sun
were foretold by the
calendar stone.
Society                Technology
                       Farming
• Trade
  – golden jewelry,
                      • chinampas
    feather caps,      – giant reed mats
    tortoise shell       and placed them on
    cups, spices,        top of the water
    and cocoa beans    – planted corn,
• Merchants also         tomatoes, potatoes,
                         chili peppers, and
  served as spies
                         squash
             Technology
               Writing
• Pictographic writing
• Some pictures symbolized ideas while
  others stood for the sounds of syllables
                     Fall
• Other tribes began to rebel against
  Montezuma II and the Aztecs
  – Resented the growing demand for tribute and
    sacrificial victims
• Cortez and the Spanish
  – Quetzalcoatl returns?
  – Gained support of the other tribes
  – Superior weapons
  – Disease—small pox
Inca Empire
              2,500 miles
              Their territory was
              very diverse both in
              climate and in
              terrain, for it
              included the high
              peaks and fertile
              valleys of the Andes
              mountains, the
              tropical forests on
              the eastern edges of
              the mountains and a
              long strip of drought-
              stricken desert
              along the western
              coast.
• Originally a warlike
  tribe from the Andes
  mountains
• By 1500 were the
  largest and richest of
  the ancient empires of • Mountain roads
                           (14,000 miles),
  the Americas.            bridges and sacrificial
• Andean Cordillera,       platforms were built
  second in height and     by the Inca.
  harshness to the          – Superior
                              engineering and
  Himalayas                   architectural skill
                            – Runners were used
                              to carry messages
                 • Society
• Clans lived and worked together and were
  supervised by a chief.
  – They formed a self-supporting farm
    community growing potatoes/maize and
    cotton
  – Terrace farming using simple tools and no
    draft animals or the wheel
    • domesticated animals: llamas to transport goods,
      alpacas for wool, and dogs, guinea pigs and
      poultry.
  – They manufactured ceramic pottery, clothing
    and blankets, metal ornaments, tools, and
    weapons.
                   Society
• Rigidly structured under a god-like, all
  powerful ruler, called the Inca.
  – the Only Son of the Sun
  – Cuzco was his home
• People's lives were strictly controlled, but
  the government protected them and made
  sure that they were well fed and had what
  they needed to live and work.
                   Technology
• Silver and gold were abundant, but only used for
  aesthetics.
  – Kings and nobles put in their tombs
• Money existed in the form of work.
  – Each subject of the empire paid taxes by laboring on
    the roads, crop terraces, irrigation canals, temples, or
    fortresses—mita system
  – In return, rulers paid their laborers in clothing and
    food.
                      Fall
• The territory had become too large to
  manage
  – Too difficult to distribute food and other goods
    efficiently
  – Tribes began to rebel
• The stable government ended in 1525
  when civil war broke out
  – Atahualpa and Hus-car fought over who
    would be king
• Pizarro conquered the Inca in 1532
Copper death mask                       Mummy of a 6 year-old




                    Figurines found with mummies
                    Technology
With no written language, the Inca devised a tool
for recording the movement of people and goods.

The quipu is a series of colored, knotted strings.
The type of knot indicated a number, and the
knot’s placement signified units of 1, 10, 100, or
more. All the cords hung from a main string, and
their positions and colors likely signaled what was
being counted—troops, supplies, population data,
and agricultural inventories.
                          Religion
• Sun god-creator of the universe as well as a number of gods
  representing the weather, the earth, the sea and the moon.
• Ancestors were also worshipped as protective spirits who
  acted as links between the living Incas and the gods.
• The bodies of dead rulers were preserved as mummies and
  sealed in stone tombs, and people came there to pray.
• They brought sacrifices usually in the form of cloth, plants,
  and animals. Only in times of great disaster were humans
  sacrificed.
• The Incas believed in an afterlife with a heaven for the souls
  of virtuous people where they lived with the sun god himself;
  evil people went to a cold underworld with only stones for
  food.
   – They feared that evil would befall at any time. Sorcerers
     held high positions in society as protectors from the spirits.
   – They also believed in reincarnation, saving their nail
     clippings, hair cuttings and teeth in case the returning
     spirit needed them.
The Inca sometimes interred (buried) their
dead in mummy bundles, layers of cloth
encasing a body and personal effects. The
bundles often had false heads, textiles stuffed
with cotton, propped on top. Some wore masks
or wigs.



 Whole families may have been interred in
 one mummy bundle. In Tupac Amaru,
 Peru, up to seven bodies have been
 found in a single bundle.

 Personal effects such as pottery, food,
 and clothing were usually wrapped with
 the bodies. Other objects revealed the
 deceased’s social status. A feathered
 headdress, for example, might
 accompany a member of the upper class,
 and a powerful warrior might be buried
 with a mace.

				
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