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Attitudes and Scaling


To collect data, you need to have
     something to measure

            Measurement is the process of
            assigning numbers or scores to
            characteristics or attributes of the
            objects or people of interest
• When we measure the attributes of an object, we
  obtain a value that varies between objects.
• For example consider the people in this class as
  objects and their height as the attribute
• The attribute height varies between objects, hence
  attributes are more collectively known as variables
• Variables can be measured on four different scales
Expressions of inner feelings that reflect whether a
 person is favorably or unfavorably predisposed to some
 object -- a brand, a brand name, a service, a service
 provider, a retail store, a company, an advertisement,
 in essence, any marketing stimuli.
A large amount of questions in marketing research are
 designed to measure attitudes
Marketing managers want to understand consumers’
 attitudes in order to influence their behavior
Three Components of Attitudes
The ABCs of attitudes:
   The Affective Component (based on feelings or
    overall evaluation) Feelings of like or dislike

  The Behavioral Component (likely action
   toward object; e.g. from a consumer behavior
   point of view, the consumer’s intention to buy a
   product) Intentions to behave

  The Cognitive Component (based on beliefs;
   what you think about a marketing stimulus) –
    Information possessed
                        Nominal Scale
Classifies data according to a
category only.
E.g., which color people select.
Colors differ qualitatively not
A number could be assigned to
each color, but it would not have
any value.
The number serves only to
identify the color.
No assumptions are made that
any color has more or less value
than any other color.
                       Nominal Scale

 Assign subjects to groups or categories
   – Mutually exclusive
   – Collectively exhaustive
 No order or distance relationship
 No arithmetic origin
 Only count numbers in categories
 Only present percentages of categories
 Chi-square most often used test of statistical
                  Other Examples
Sex                        Social status
Marital status             Days of the week (months)
Geographic location        Seasons
Ethnic Group               Types of restaurants
Brand choice               Religion
Job Type: Executive, Technical, Clerical

 Coded as “1”                              Coded as “2”
                    Nominal Scale

Which of the following media influences your purchasing
decisions the most?
   –1 Television
   –2 Radio
   –3 Newspapers
   –4 Magazines
                        Ordinal Scale
Classifies data according to
some order or rank E.g. names
ordered alphabetically
With ordinal data, it is fair to
say that one response is greater
or less than another.
E.g. if people were asked to
rate the hotness of 3 chili
peppers, a scale of "hot",
"hotter" and "hottest" could be
used. Values of "1" for "hot",
                                    The gap between the
"2" for "hotter" and "3" for
                                    items is unspecified.
"hottest" could be assigned.
                 Ordinal Scale
Can include opinion
and preference scales
Median but not mean
No unique, arithmetic
items cannot be added
In marketing research
practice, ordinal scale
variables are often
treated as interval scale
                       Ordinal Scale
Rank    Player            Points
 1      Tiger Woods.       20.6              Examples
 2      Jim Furyk,         9.0
 3      Phil Mickelson,    7.3
                                       Small medium large
 4      Adam Scott,        7.1
 5      Ernie Els,         6.1
                                       Likert scales, rank on a
 6      Retief Goosen,     5.7         scale of 1….5 your
 7      Padraig Harrington 5.6         degree of satisfaction

 8      Vijay Singh,        5.6        Women’s dress sizes

 9     Luke Donald,         5.4
 10    Geoff Ogilvy         5.2 As at Oct 2007
Please rank the news programs offered in the following four
   networks based on your preference.(1 for most preferred, 4
   for least preferred).
   _____ CTV
   _____ Global
   _____ CITY TV
   _____ CBC
                Interval Scale
assumes that the measurements are made in
equal units.
i.e. gaps between whole numbers on the scale
are equal.
e.g. Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales
an interval scale does not have to have a true
zero. e.g. A temperature of "zero" does not mean
that there is no is just an
arbitrary zero point.
Can’t perform full range of arithmetic
equations. 40 degrees is not twice as hot as 20
Permissible statistics: count/frequencies, mode,
median, mean, standard deviation
                    Interval Scale
How likely are you going to buy a new automobile within the
next six months? (Please check the most appropriate category)

      Definitely will not buy     ___    1
      Probably will not buy       ___    2
      May or may not buy          ___    3
      Probably will buy           ___    4
      Definitely will buy         ___    5
                     Ratio Scale
similar to interval scales except that
the ratio scale has a true zero value.
e.g. the time something takes
allows you to compare differences
between numbers.
Permits full arithmetic operation.
If a train journey takes 2 hr and 35
min, then this is half as long as a
journey which takes 5 hr and 10 min.
                      Ratio Scale

• Indicates actual amount of variable
  – Shows magnitude of differences between points on scale
  – Shows proportions of differences
• All statistical techniques useable
• Most powerful with most meaningful answers
• Allows comparisons of absolute magnitudes
      height, weight, age,
7     Market share
    1.What is your annual income
      before taxes? $ _______

    2. How far is your workplace
      from home?      _______
           Primary Scales of Measurement

Nominal      Numbers
             Assigned to           4        81      9


Ordinal      Rank Order of

                                 Third   Second   First
                                 Place    Place   Place

Interval     Performance
             Rating on a 0 to     8.2     9.1     9.6
             10 Scale
Ratio        Time to Finish in
             Seconds             15.2     14.1    13.4
  Comparison of Measurement Scales
                 Label Order Distance Origin

Nominal scale    Yes     No     No      No

Ordinal scale    Yes     Yes    No      No

Interval scale    Yes    Yes    Yes    No

Ratio scale       Yes    Yes    Yes    Yes
      Use of Measurement Scales
• Nominal
  – Used to categorize objects
• Ordinal
  – Used to define ordered relationships
• Interval
  – Used to rank objects such that the magnitude of the
    difference between two objects can be determined
• Ratio
  – Same as interval scale but has an absolute zero point
  Always use the most powerful scale possible
          Adding Sophistication To Scales
• Concept: Desire to watch Star Wars movies

  – If a Star Wars movie is on television will you watch it?
     • Yes _____ No _____
  – How likely are you to watch a Star Wars movie shown
    on television?
     • Very Likely ____       Likely ____ Indifferent ___
     • Unlikely _____ Very Unlikely _____
      Another way to describe variables
• Qualitative variables: have a nominal scale of

• Categorical variables: have a nominal or ordinal
  scale of measurement.

• Quantitative variables: have an interval scale of

• Continuous variables: have an Ordinal, interval,
  or ratio variables scale of measurement.
          Practice describing variables
• Q: What kind of variable is educational
  attainment, and what scale is it measured in?
•A: Education is measured in number of years of
schooling, and is therefore a discrete quantitative
variable measured on an interval scale. (Or is it?)
•How could education be measure using…
   –A nominal scale
   –An ordinal scale
      A Classification of Scaling Techniques
                     SCALING TECHNIQUES

             Comparative                           Non-Comparative
               Scales                                   Scales

  Paired     Rank    Constant     Others       Continuous    Itemized
Comparison   Order     Sum                       Rating       Rating
                                                 Scales       Scales

                                Likert                      Stapel
     Types of Scaling Techniques
  • Involve the respondent directly comparing stimulus objects.
  • e.g. How does Pepsi compare with Coke on sweetness

  • Respondent scales each stimulus object independently of
  other objects
  •e.g. How would you rate the sweetness of Pepsi on a scale of 1
  to 10
    Comparative Scales: Paired
       Comparison Items
If we have brands A, B, C and D, we would have
      respondents compare
• A and B
• A and C
• A and D
• B and C
• B and D
• C and D

–Usually limited to N < 15
         Comparative Scales: Paired
            Comparison Items

Please indicate which of the following airlines you prefer
  by circling your more preferred airline in each pair:
       Air Canada             WestJet
       Air Transat            Air Canada
        Jazz                  WestJet
       WestJet                Air Transat
       Air Canada             Jazz
       Jazz                   Air Transat
 Comparative Scales: Constant Sum
Allocate a total of 100 points among the following soft-
drinks depending on how favorable you feel toward each;
the more highly you think of each soft-drink, the more
points you should allocate to it. (Please check that the
allocated points add to 100.)
   Coca-Cola     _____     points
   7-Up          _____     points
   Dr. Pepper    _____       points
   Tab           _____       points
   Pepsi-Cola    _____       points
                100 points
  Comparative Scales: Constant Sum
Please divide 100 points among the following characteristics
so the division reflects the relative importance of each
characteristic to you in the selection of a bank
Hours of service            ________________
Friendliness                _______________
Distance from home          ________________
Investment vehicles         ________________
Parking facilities          __________________
 Comparative Scales: Rank Order

Rank the following soft-drinks from 1 (best) to 5 (worst)
according to your taste preference:
Coca-Cola          _____
7-Up               _____
Dr. Pepper         _____
Pepsi-Cola         _____
Mountain Dew       _____

    –Top and bottom rank choices are ‘easy’
    –Middle ranks are usually most ‘difficult’
 Comparative Scales: Rank Order

Indicate your preferred type of music with a 1,
  your second favorite with a 2, and so on for each
  type of music:
     ____   Heavy Metal
     ____   Alternative
     ____   Urban Contemporary
     ____   Classical
     ____   Country
Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. Begin by picking out
the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. Then find the second
most preferred- brand and assign it a number 2. Continue this procedure until you
have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference. The least
preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 10. No two brands should receive the
same rank number. The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. There is no
right or wrong answer. Just try to be consistent.
    Brand               Rank Order
 1. Crest
 2. Colgate
 3. Aim
 4. Mentadent
 5. Macleans
 6. Ultra Brite
 7. Close Up
 8. Pepsodent
 9. Plus White
10. Arm and Hammer

      Compared to Chevrolet, Ford is:

less                 about the           more
innovative           same                innovative

  1          2   3    4          5   6     7
            Non comparative scale
Continuous scale
   • How would you rate Marketing Research to
     other courses this term
The worst   X                        X       The Best
            10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
         Itemized Rating Scales

Semantic       The Likert scale   Staple scale
Non-Comparative Scales
                   Semantic Differential Scale

Here are a number of statements that could be used to describe
WalMart. For each statement tick ( ) the box that best
describes your feelings about WalMart.

Modern Store                                Old- fashioned store
Low prices                                  High prices
Unfriendly staff                            Friendly staff
Narrow product range                        Wide product range
Sophisticated customers                     Unsophisticated customers
                       Likert scale

                Strongly   disagree    Neither    agree   Strongly
                 agree                agree nor            agree
Cost is the        1          2          3         4         5
when buying a
new car
The Likert scale

  •Strongly Agree
                            •Agree Strongly
  •Agree                    •Agree Moderately                           •Agree
  •Undecided                •Agree Slightly        •Agree
  •Disagree                 •Disagree Slightly     •Disagree
                            •Disagree Moderately                        •Disagree
  •Strongly Disagree        •Disagree Strongly

                                                   •Completely Agree
  •Agree Very Strongly                             •Mostly Agree        •Disagree Strongly
  •Agree Strongly           •Yes                   •Slightly Agree      •Disagree
  •Agree                                                                •Tend to Disagree
                                                   •Slightly Disagree
  •Disagree                 •No                                         •Tend to Agree
  •Disagree Strongly                               •Mostly Disagree     •Agree
  •Disagree Very Strongly                          •Completely          •Agree Strongly

  •Very Frequently   •Always
  •Frequently        •Very Frequently                          •Almost Always
  •Occasionally      •Occasionally                             •To a Considerable Degree
                                        •About Half the Time
  •Rarely            •Rarely                                   •Occasionally
  •Very Rarely       •Very Rarely                              •Seldom
  •Never             •Never

  •A Great Deal                         •Always
  •Much                                 •Very Often
  •Somewhat                             •Sometimes
  •Little                               •Rarely
  •Never                                •Never

      •Very Important
      •Moderately Important          •Very Important
      •Of Little Importance          •Moderately Important
      •Unimportant                   •Unimportant


      •Very Good              •Extremely Poor
      •Good                   •Below Average         •Good
      •Barely Acceptable      •Average               •Fair
      •Poor                   •Above Average         •Poor
      •Very Poor              •Excellent

                       •To a Great Extent
  •Like Me             •Somewhat                          •True
  •Unlike Me           •Very Little                       •False
                       •Not at All

                       •Almost Always True
                       •Usually True                      •True of Myself
  •Very Probably
                       •Often True                        •Mostly True of Myself
                       •Occasionally True                 •About Halfway True of Myself
                       •Sometimes But Infrequently True   •Slightly True Of Myself
  •Probably Not
                       •Usually Not True                  •Not at All True of Myself
  •Very Probably Not
                       •Almost Never True
                    Staple scale
+5             +5
+4             +4
+3             +3
+2             +2
+1             +1
High quality   Poor service
-1             -1
-2             -2
-3             -3
-4             -4
-5             -5
        A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image
Select a plus number for words that
you think describe the store                   WalMart
accurately. The more accurately you
think the work describes the store,    +5      +5     +5
the larger the plus number you         +4      +4     +4
should choose. Select a minus          +3      +3     +3
number for words you think do not      +2      +2     +2
describe the store accurately. The     +1      +1     +1
less accurately you think the word     High Poor Wide
describes the store, the larger the    Quality Service Variety
minus number you should choose,        -1      -1     -1
therefore, you can select any number   -2      -2     -2
from +3 for words that you think are   -3      -3     -3
very accurate all the way to -3 for    -4      -4     -4
words that you think are very          -5      -5     -5
Staple Scale
      The following questions concern your ratings of several
       suppliers that provide products for use in your store.
Poor Product      -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   1    2    3    4     5

Costly Products   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   1    2    3    4     5

Fast Service      -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   1    2    3    4     5

High Quality      -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   1    2    3    4     5

Innovative        -5   -4   -3   -2   -1   1    2    3    4     5
          Some Basic Considerations
           When Selecting a Scale
                       Selecting a Rating, Ranking,
                       Sorting, or Purchase Intent

Number of Categories                                  Odd or Even Number of
                                                         Scale Categories

Forced Versus Non-forced                              Balanced Versus Non-
         Choice                                       balanced Alternatives
             Odd versus even
if neutral responses likely, use odd number

           Odd                           Even
Strongly Agree      _____ Strongly Agree_____
Agree               _____ Agree                 _____
Neutral             _____ Disagree              _____
Disagree            _____ Strongly disagree___
Strongly disagree_____
       Balanced vs. Unbalanced

        Balanced            Unbalanced
Very good   ______   Excellent   ______
Good        ______   Very Good   ______
Fair        ______   Good        ______
Poor        ______   Fair        ______
Very Poor   ______   Poor        ______
    Balanced and Unbalanced Scales

      Balanced Scale       Unbalanced Scale


Extremely good          Extremely good
Very good               Very good
Good                    Somewhat Good
Bad                     Good
Very bad                Bad
Extremely bad           Very bad
                Forced vs. Unforced

            Forced                Unforced

Extremely Reliable     ___   Extremely Reliable     ___

Very Reliable          ___   Very Reliable          ___

Somewhat Reliable      ___   Somewhat Reliable      ___

Somewhat Unreliable ___      Somewhat Unreliable ___

Very Unreliable        ___   Very Unreliable        ___

Extremely Unreliable   ___   Extremely Unreliable   ___
                             Don’t know             ___
        Labeled vs. End Anchored

        Labeled                  End Anchored
Excellent         _____   Excellent        _____
Very Good         _____                    _____

Fair              _____                    _____

Poor              _____                    _____

Very Poor         _____   Poor             _____
  Intervals May Not Reflect the Semantic
  Meaning of the Adjectives

                                           Excellent _____

         Labeled                                  Intervals Are
                                                   Not Equal
Excellent           _____
Very Good           _____                  Very Good_____

Fair                _____                  Fair            _____

Poor                _____                  Poor            _____
                                                  Intervals Are
Very Poor           _____                          Not Equal

                                           Very Poor _____
            Number of Scale Points

        5 Point                   10 Point
Excellent         _____   Excellent          _____________


                  _____                      _____________
                  _____                      _____________

                  _____                      _____________
                          Poor               _____________
Poor              _____
                    Choosing the Appropriate Scale
Attitude            Itemized   Rank Constant   Likert   Semantic
component           category   order sum                differential
 Awareness          A
Attribute beliefs   A          B    B          B        A
Attribute           A          B    A          B
Affect or Liking
 Overall            A          B    A          B        B
 Specific           A          B    B          B        A
 intentions         A          B    A          B

A = Very appropriate, B = Sometimes appropriate
           Characteristics of Good
            Measurement Scales
1. Reliability
    • The degree to which a measure accurately captures a true
      outcome without error; Accuracy
    • synonymous with repetitive consistency
2. Validity
    • The degree to which a measure faithfully represents the
      underlying concept; Fidelity (it asks the right questions)
3. Sensitivity
    • The ability to discriminate meaningful differences
      between attitudes. The more categories the more sensitive
      (but less reliable)
4. Generalizability
    • How easy is scale to administer and interpret
        Validity and Reliability
 Reliability can be more easily determined than

 If it is reliable, it may or may not be valid

 If a measure is valid, it may or may not be reliable

 If it is not reliable, it cannot be valid

 If it is not valid, it may or may not be reliable
    Reliability and Validity

Neither Reliable   Reliable But   Reliable
Nor Valid          Not Valid      And Valid
    Example of low validity, high
• Scale is perfectly accurate, but is capturing the
  wrong thing; for example, it measures
  consumers’ interest in creative writing rather
  than preference for kinds of stationery.
Example of modest validity, low
• Scale genuinely measures consumers’
  interest in kinds of stationery, but poorly
  worded items, sloppy administration, data
  entry errors lead to random errors in data
• Note that reliability sets an upper limit on
  validity -- a measure with a lot of errors is
  limited in how well it can capture a concept

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