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									 Chapter 3: Ancient Indian Civilizations
     Section 3 – Hinduism and Buddhism

    Hindu Om / Aum
represents the Supreme   Buddhist Wheel of Life
    Being, Brahman
III. Hinduism
Hinduism became India’s major religion,
deeply interwoven with the caste system

                    The Trimurti: The Supreme
                    Triad consisting of three great
                    gods: Brahma, Visnu, and
                    Siva. This Triad represents all
                    aspects of the Supreme
III. Hinduism
Hinduism teaches that Brahman, a divine
essence, fills all things in the universe
III. Hinduism
Brahman and Atman, an individual’s essence,
are one and the same; all things are of the
same essence as God
III. Hinduism
This belief in the unity of God and creation is
called monism

 Monism: "Doctrine of oneness."
 1) The philosophical view that there is only one
    ultimate substance or principle.
 2) 2) The view that reality is a unified whole without
    independent parts.
A. Hindu Beliefs
Hinduism teaches that the material world we
see is an illusion, called maya

Maya is the power that deludes. It is caused through the
senses. The Bhagavad Gita explains the process: "By
constantly thinking of the sense objects, a mortal being
becomes attached to them. Attached thus he develops
various desires, from which in turn ensues anger. From
anger comes delusion, and from delusion arises
confusion of memory. From confusion of memory arises
loss of intelligence ,and when intelligence is lost, the
breath of life is also lost.”
A. Hindu Beliefs
People only gain salvation by recognizing and
rejecting maya; it may take many lifetimes
Useful Example - Mistaking a rope for a snake:
      Maya literally means "that which is not." In the
      twilight, one may easily mistake a rope for a
      snake. In so doing, we feel fear. Hence fear and
      other emotions may often be based on illusion,
      an incorrect perception of reality.
Related Proverbs/Sayings:
      "All that glitters is not gold."
      "Being led up the garden path"
      "A wild-goose chase"
      "The grass is always greener”
      “A red herring”
A. Hindu Beliefs
Hindus believe in reincarnation - a soul does
not die but is reborn in another human or
   According to Hinduism a soul reincarnates again and
  again on earth till it becomes perfect and reunites with
its Source (Moksha.) During this process the soul enters
   into many bodies, assumes many forms and passes
     through many births and deaths. This concept is
     summarily described in the following verse of the
                        Bhagavad Gita:
  "Just as a man discards worn out clothes and puts on
    new clothes, the soul discards worn out bodies and
                  wears new ones." (2.22)
A. Hindu Beliefs
Souls advance in the next life through
dharma, doing one’s moral duty in this life

 Hinduism describes dharma as the natural universal
    laws whose observance enables humans to be
  contented and happy, and to save themselves from
  degradation and suffering. Dharma is the moral law
combined with spiritual discipline that guides one's life.
  Hindus consider dharma the very foundation of life.
A. Hindu Beliefs
Karma is the good or bad created by one’s
actions that affect one’s rebirth

Karma is a sum of all that an individual has done and is
 currently doing. The effects of those deeds actively
 create present and future experiences, thus making
          one responsible for one's own life.
 With good karma, a person can be reborn into a higher
  caste, or even to godhood. Bad karma can relegate
  one to a lower caste, or even to life as an animal in
                     their next life.
A. Hindu Beliefs
Souls who grow spiritually can reach nirvana,
a perfect spiritual peace and unification with

 The goal of Hinduism is to escape the cycle of rebirth
  by reaching Nirvana. Nirvana is a Sanskrit word that
 means ending. Hindus and Buddhists believe Nirvana
    is a state of happiness without change or pain.
A. Hindu Beliefs
The Hindu god Brahma can be represented
as Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva the destroyer

   Brahma          Vishnu           Siva
 The Creator    The Preserver   The destroyer
A. Hindu Beliefs
Other gods that are a part of Brahman are
represented as trees, animals, or people

    Lord Krishna              Ganesh
B. Hindu Religious Practices
Many Hindus practice yoga to bring the body
and soul together

      Sri Tat Wale Baba, about 85 years old
 B. Hindu Religious Practices
  Festivals represent the seasonal course of
  nature,combining ceremonies and rituals with

Ganesha Chaturthi, the great Ganesha festival, is celebrated
by Hindus around the world as the birthday of Lord Ganesha.
B. Hindu Religious Practices
 Some animals are sacred to Hindus
III. Buddhism
A. The Buddha
Buddhism was founded in India by Siddhartha

        Siddhartha seeking enlightenment
A. The Buddha
ca. 563 BC - Siddhartha was born a prince’s
son, raised in luxury and shielded from the
realities of life
A. The Buddha
At age 29, he left his palace and was shocked
to see disease, poverty, and death

                       In his outings through the
                          four gates of the city,
                       Prince Siddhartha realizes
                       the true circle of life: birth,
                       old age, illness and death.
 A. The Buddha
  He gave up his life of luxury and left his wife
  and loved ones - The Great Renunciation

Prince Siddhartha looks at his wife   Prince Siddhartha leaves the
and son before leaving the palace     city and starts a homeless life
A. The Buddha
He spent years wandering, meditating, and
fasting in a search to understand suffering

                         For six years, Siddhartha
                   underwent hardships by the banks
                    of the Nairanjana River. So great
                   were his austerities that the ribs of
                   his back could be seen. He drank
                     one drop of water a day. He ate
                   only one grain of rice a day and in
                      this way achieved the highest
                              meditative state
A. The Buddha
He discovered the truth that forms the basis
of life and became the Buddha - the
Enlightened One

                      Prince Siddahartha attained
                    Enlightenment on the eighth of
                    December under the Bodhi tree
                  after defeating the three daughters
                    of Mara the Evil One - Craving,
                          Discontent, and Lust
B. The Buddha’s Teachings
 Salvation comes from knowing the “Four
 Noble Truths” and following the “Eightfold
The Four Noble Truths:
There is suffering.
There is a cause of suffering,
which is attachment and desire
There is a way out of suffering,
which is to eliminate
attachment and desire.
The path that leads out of
suffering is called the Eightfold
B. The Buddha’s Teachings
The Buddha stressed ethics more than
ceremony – Dharma
                     Dharmachakra -- Wheel of
                     Truth: The Dharma Wheel
                  represents the truth about our
                  situation and the many ways of
                   understanding it more clearly.
                  Buddha encouraged people to
                   rely on their own experience,
                  rather than depending upon or
                  worshiping authority figures or
                     gods. His teaching is often
                  called "turning the wheel of the
B. The Buddha’s Teachings
People of any caste could reach nirvana if
they practiced virtuous conduct, nonviolence,
and poverty

 Nirvana is an eternal state of being. It is the state in
 which the law of karma and the rebirth cycle come to
 an end. It is the end of suffering, a state where there
 are no desires and individual consciousness comes
                        to an end.
C. The Spread of Buddhism
Between 200 BC and 200 AD Buddhism split
into two branches – Theravada and
C. The Spread of Buddhism
 Theravada Buddhists believe the Buddha to
 be a great teacher and spiritual leader

Shakyamuni Buddha Statue in Taiwan. World’s Largest Seated Buddha Statue
C. The Spread of Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhists regard the Buddha as a
god and savior
C. The Spread of Buddhism
Buddhism spread from India and reached its
greatest strength in other parts of Asia

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