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									  The Renaissance

The ―Rebirth‖ of Civilization
When was the Renaissance?

               Although it is hard to
                find an exact starting
                and ending date for
                the Renaissance,
                most scholars agree
                it lasts from c. 1350
                – 1550.
    Where was the Renaissance?
   The Renaissance
    began in Florence and
    quickly spread to
    other parts of Italy,
    including Rome,
    Milan, and Naples.
   It later spread to N.
    Europe, including
    Flanders, the Dutch
    Republic, England,
    and parts of the HRE.
   Europe in
    What was the Renaissance?

   Renaissance, French word for "rebirth"
   What was reborn?? A ―rebirth‖ of civilization
   A renewal of interest in classical (Greek &
    Roman) ideas and ideals and a desire to imitate
    the classical world Greece & Rome
               What else???
   A relaxation of strict, church-controlled
    attitudes toward education, individualism,
    and action.
   a time of creativity and change-spirit of
    adventure & a time of intellectual and
    economic changes that occurred in Europe
   Only a small percentage of the Middle and
    aristocratic class population was involved
   Used classical ideas to find man’s purpose
    within Christian teachings and promote
    learning of all kinds
Why did the Renaissance Happen?
   Florence became a very wealthy state due
    to trade (esp. in wool) and banking.
   The reintroduction of ―new‖ works by the
    Moors ignited an intellectual revolution.
      Why else???

   The Medici family was extremely
    wealthy and spent great sums of
    money in Florence.
   The church was losing its power &
    authority in the wake of new
    discoveries and the Great Schism.
              Other Factors

   Agrarian economy is becoming a
    commercial business
   Workers who survived the plague can
    demand higher wages
   Powerful and wealthy merchant class is
    growing in the cities
   Fortunes are being made in banking and
          Why else did it happen?
   Castiglione’s The Courtier:
    uomu universale skilled in all
    arts, sciences, handsome,
    soldier, athlete, poet,
    student. Also, sprezzatura.

   Machiavelli’s The Prince:
    demonstrated how noble
    princes should lead
    but sanctioned realpolitik.
   Printing Presses made
    works available.
        Why else did it happen?
   Perhaps what was most important
    was Humanism—the rebirth of the
    human spirit.
       An emphasis on human everyday experience,
        the here & now!
       Individual achievement was highly valued
       Developing an educational background from
        the classical
       The ‖Renaissance ―man‖ or ―woman‖ ideal
        was the person with talent in many fields.
    Humanism, the Renaissance Spirit

   A new intellectual movement
    that started in Italy
      Studied classical cultures
       & writings philosophers
       Greek and Romans
      Focused on secular (non-
       religious) themes not
   Believed education could
    improve oneself and
    stimulate creativity
   Opened schools teaching
    humanities: Greek, Latin,
    Philosophy, History, Poetry,
    Grammar and Literature
   Writers of the era focused
    on topics of ambition and
    individual success
          Results of Humanism

   Experienced an age in which artistic,
    social, scientific and political thought
    turned in new directions
   More people are concerned with their
    jobs, money and status.
   Religion becomes less important in
    western Europe but maintains its hold in
    the interior of the continent.
   Appreciation for the arts as a product of
    mankind; not just a religious symbol
   Known as the father of           Petrarch
    humanism for his restoration
    of the Latin language and
    push for the study of
    classical literature
   First modern poet
   Pushed for the use of ancient
    Greek and Roman
    manuscripts: Homer, Virgil &
   His own writings inspired
    others like Shakespeare and
   Most famous for his Sonnets
    to Laura
    Why did the Ren. Begin in Italy?
   Center of the Roman
    civilization –had all the
    remains of the glory that was
    Rome in architectural and
    artistic fields
   Italian cities had survived the
    Middle Ages and grown into
    prosperous centers of trade
    and manufacturing.
   A wealthy merchant class in
    the Italian city-states stressed
    education and individual
    achievement and spent
    lavishly on the arts.
           The Role of Florence

   Like most city-states, it was a center of banking,
    trade and manufacturing
   Became the cultural center of Europe whose patron
    influence by the Medici family made it possible
   Florence produced an amazing number of gifted
    poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists.
The Medici Family
    Leaders of the Cultural Revolution

   Medici: Italian banking and political family-
    ruled Florence for almost three centuries.
   Through its extensive European commerce
    and banking, the family became one of
    the richest in 15th-century Italy.
   Invited philosophers and writers to their
    homes and court when in political power.
   Patronage of the arts became a tradition
    in the Medici family and encouraged
    patronage by others in the community.
            Lorenzo the Magnificent
   A gifted poet in his own
    right, Lorenzo surrounded
    himself with the leading
    artists and intellectuals of
    his day.
       One of the largest spenders of
        the Medici’s for the arts
       Among those who enjoyed his
        patronage were the painters
        Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and
        Michelangelo and poets and

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