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					               Early Days
• Born in 1940 at the start of World
  War II
• Luckily my Parents (mother matron,
  father hospital admin) not called up,
• However several moves as a
  consequence of bombing
• Wound up in Banbury 60 miles from
  London of nursery rhyme fame
  “Ride a cock horse to Banbury
  Cross” (attributed to Elizabeth I)
                Growing Up
• From there to Cornwall
  home of legend (King
  Arthur), worked out tin
  mines, and the so called
  Cornish Riviera since
  warmer (and wetter) than
  rest of England and on the
• Shebbear: 2nd Oldest Methodist
  Public School in Britain
• Boarding school
• Located on the outskirts of Dartmoor
  of “Hound of the Baskervilles” fame
• Strong Boy Scouts movement led by
  ex-military school teachers.
  – Capture the flag, building structures
    from ropes and logs, long hikes
    (escape from school)
• Joined as Cub scout,
  continued onto Senior
  Scouts and awarded the
  Queens Scout Award in
• Honor conferred at
  Gilwell (home of
  Scouting) by Chief Scout
  of the British
  Commmonwealth and
  Empire Lord Rowallen
• In Manchester: heart of the
  Industrial revolution, still
  recovering from loss of Empire
• University physics famous for
  Rutherford, Thomson, Geiger
• Home of Manchester United
  Soccer Club
• Honors BSc physics, then a PhD in
  Nuclear Physics
• Applied and accepted by Rolls
  Royce, CERN and SLAC among
• SLAC just finished getting first
  beams, Offered permanent post by
  future Nobel Prize winner Richard
• Wooed by promise of surfing and
  Beach Boys music
• Planned to come for 2 years
           Nobel prize

• SLAC new lab, exploring frontiers of science
• Late 60’s and early 70s’ worked night and
  day on experiments that resulted in the
  discovery of the quark
• Leaders awarded Nobel prize 1990
• Traveled to Stockholm took part in week’s
Year’s leave of Absence at IBM UK
• Awarded Patent (US 4688181) for
  Interactive Cursor Motion & Image
• Returned to SLAC to take up leadership of
  the computer networking group
         China & the Internet
• With Panofsky’s encouragement went to
  Beijing & IHEP
  – A few months after Tiananenmen Square
  – Installed and made work a 9.6k modem that
    provided dial up mail and logon capability
• For next 3 years worked on getting satellite
  connection and eventually the first
  permanent Internet connection for
  mainland China
  – Last mile hard

• China 200M
  Internet users in
        High Speed Networking
• Two times World LAN speed record
  holder in collaboration with Caltech
  and others
  – In 2004 Guinness Book of Records
• Three consecutive years won the
  SuperComputing Band Width
  – 2005 reached 150Gbits/s for an hour
               Recent Work
• High speed networking
• Measure the Digital Divide by means of the
  Internet performance
  – Its extent, how it is changing, its impact
                How we measure
                 Uses ubiquitous ping

Monitorin                      Internet Remote
g                                       Host
host                                    (typically
                                        a server)

Data Repository @ SLAC

            Measure Round Trip Time & Loss
     PingER Deployment
• PingER project originally (1995) for measuring
  network performance for US, Europe and
  Japanese HEP community - now mainly R&E
• Extended this century to measure Digital
• >150 countries (99% world’s connected
  – 40 in Africa
  – Monitor (40 in 14
  – Beacons ~ 90
  – Remote sites
                    World throughput
  Behind Europe      Derived throughput ~ 8 * 1460 /(RTT *
6 Yrs: Russia,
  Latin America                   sqrt(loss))
7 Yrs: Mid-East,                 Mathis et. al
  SE Asia
10 Yrs: South
11 Yrs: Cent.
12 Yrs: Africa

   South Asia,
Central Asia, and
  Africa are in
Danger of Falling
  Even Farther
systemic factors:                     Africa
Electricity, import duties,
skills, disease,            ~ 3x lower penetration than any other region
protectionist policies,     huge potential market Huge growth
915M people 14%
world population, 3.6%
of world internet users,
mainly in cities

          Costs compared to West
  • Sites in many countries have bandwidth< US residence
     – “10 Meg is Here”,
                                    • Africa:
                                       – W Africa
                                       – N Africa
                                    (IDRC study Jan 2005)
                    Bandwidth Initiative:
   Coalition of 11 African Universities (MZ, TZ, UG, GH,
     NG, KY) + four major US Foundations to provide
    satellite thru Intelsat at 1/3 cost ($7.3K/Mbps/m =>
1 yr of Internet access > average annual income of most
Africans, Survey by Paul Budde Communications
•   CERN and Charpak skiing
•   Mount Shasta climbing
•   2 daughters, 3 grandchildren
•   Still on first marriage
•   6 weeks in Borneo, 120 miles up river in
    boat, tropical disease of unknown origin

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