Document Sample
non-verbal-communication Powered By Docstoc

Non verbal
and use of
body language
Communication in general
is process of sending and
receiving messages that
enables humans to share
knowledge, attitudes, and
skills. Although we usually
identify communication with
speech, communication is
composed of two
dimensions - verbal and
Non-verbal communication includes facial
expressions, eye contact, tone of voice,
body posture and motions, and positioning
within groups. It may also include the way
we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.
 According to the social
  anthropologist, Edward
  T. Hall, in a normal
  conversation between
  two persons, less than
  35% of the social
  meanings is actually
  transmitted by words.
 So, at least 65% of it is
  conveyed through the
  body (non-verbal
  Have you ever heard
anyone say, "His actions
spoke so loudly I couldn't
  hear what he said?"
• Physical. This is
  the personal type
  of communication.
  It includes facial
  expressions, tone
  of voice, sense of
  touch, sense of
  smell, and body
• Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that
  takes place through creative expressions: playing
  instrumental music, dancing, painting and
Use of various signs in non verbal
• Symbolic. This is the type of communication that
  makes use of religious, status, or ego-building
    Physical Aspects of Non Verbal
• Kinesics (study of body language) Body motions such as shrugs,
  foot tapping, drumming fingers, eye movements such as winking,
  facial expressions, and gestures
• Proxemics (proximity) Use of space to signal privacy or attraction
• Haptics Touch
• Oculesics Eye contact
• Chronemics Use of time, waiting, pausing
• Olfactics Smell
• Vocalics Tone of voice, timbre, volume, speed
• Sound symbols Grunting, mmm, er, ah, uh-huh, mumbling
• Silence Pausing, waiting, secrecy
• Posture Position of the body, stance
• Adornment Clothing, jewellery, hairstyle
• Locomotion Walking, running, staggering, limping
           Facial Expressions
• Face is the index
  of Mind
• The eyes, the
  lips and the
  muscles express
  many feelings
• It can also be
  deceived by
   Let’s Examine How Body
Communicates, from head to toes
- Nodding the head
  - “Yes” in most societies
  - “No” in some parts of Greece, Yugoslavia,
           Bulgaria, and Turkey
- Tossing the head backward
  - “yes” in Thailand, the Philippines, India,
    Rocking head slowly, back and forth
  - “yes, I‟m listening” in most Asian cultures
* Facial expressions reflect emotion,
  feelings and attitudes, but…..
* The Asians are sometimes known as
   - emotionless
   - mixed-up emotion
                   The Eyes
• Stare or fixed gaze
  suggest involvement
  or wonder or eye
• Raised looks show
• Downcast looks
  suggest weakness and
• Direct eye contact
  honesty, transparency
  and neutral attitude.
* Eye contacts
   - Encouraged in America, Canada, Europe
   - Rude in most Asian countries and in Africa
* Raising eyebrows
   - “Yes” in Thailand and some Asian countries
   - “Hello” in the Philippines
* Winking eye
   - Sharing secret in America and Europe
   - flirtatious gesture in other countries
              EYES (Cont‟d)
* Closed eyes

  - bored or sleepy in America
  - “I‟m listening and concentrating.” in Japan,
    Thailand, China
* Ear grasp
  - “I‟m sorry.” in parts of India
* Cupping the ear
  - “I can‟t hear you.” in all societies
* Pulling ear
  - “You are in my heart” for Navajo Indians
* Holding the nose
  - “Something smells bad.” universal
* Nose tap
  - “It‟s confidential.” England
  - “Watch out!” or "Be careful.” Italy
* Pointing to nose
  - “It‟s me.” Japan
* Blowing nose
  - In most Asian countries, blowing the
    nose at social gathering is „disgusting.‟
* Cheek screw
  - gesture of praise - Italy
  - “That‟s crazy.” Germany
* Cheek stroke
  - “pretty, attractive, success” most Europe
* Lip pointing (a substitute for pointing with
  the hand or finger) is common among
  Filipinos, Native Americans, Ricans, and
  many Latin Americans.
* Open mouth. Any display of the open
  mouth is considered very rude in most
* Some cultures, like the Italians, use the
  arms freely. Others, like the Japanese,
  are more reserved; it is considered
  impolite to gesticulate with broad
  movements of the arms.
* Folding arms are interpreted by some
  social observers as a form of excluding
  self, “I am taking a defensive posture,” or
  “I disagree with what I am hearing.”
             ARMS (Cont‟d)
* Arms akimbo. In many cultures, this
  stance signals aggression, resistance,
  impatience, or even anger.
* Arms behind back, hands grasped is a
  sign of ease and control.
* Arms in front, hands grasped, common
  practice in most Asian countries, is a sign
  of mutual respect for others.
* Of all the body parts, the hands are
  probably used most for communicating
* Hand waves are used for greetings,
  beckoning, or farewells.
* The Italian “good-bye” wave can be
  interpreted by Americans as the gesture of
  “come here.”
* The American “good-bye” wave can be
  interpreted in many parts of Europe and Latin
  America as the signal for “no.”
               HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Beckoning.
  * The American way of getting attention (raising
    a hand with the index finger raised above
    head) could be considered rude in Japan, and
    also means “two” in Germany.
  * The American “come here” gesture could be
    seen as an insult in most Asian countries.
  * In China, to beckon a waiter to refill your tea,
    simply turn your empty cup upside down.
             HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Handshaking is a form of greeting in most
  Western cultures.
  * In the Middle East, a gentle grip is
  * In most Asian cultures, a gentle grip and an
    avoidance of direct eye contact is appropriate.
            HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Right hand. The right hand has special
  significance in many societies. In certain
  countries in the Middle East and in Asia, it
  is best to present business cards or gifts,
  or to pass dishes of food, to get an
  attention, using only the right hand or both.
* Left hand is considered unclean in much
  of the Middle East and in parts of
             HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Hang loose. (thumb and little finger
* could convey different meanings:
  * in Hawaii, it‟s a way of saying, “Stay cool,” or
  * in Japan, it means six.
  * In Mexico (do vertically), it means, “Would you
    like a drink?”
           HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Clapping hands.
  * Russians and Chinese may use applause to
    greet someone.
  * In many central and eastern Europe,
    audience frequently clap in rhythm
* The “O.K.” signal. (the thumb and
  forefinger form a circle) means
  *    “fine,” or “O.K.” in most cultures,
  *   “zero” or “worthless” in some parts of Europe
  *   “money” in Japan
  *   an insult in Greece, Brazil, Italy, Turkey,
      Russia and some other countries
             FINGERS (Cont‟d)
* Thumb-up” means:
  * “O.K.” “good job” or “fine” in most cultures,
  * “Up yours!” in Australia
  * “Five” in Japan; “One” in Germany
* Avoid a thumb-up in these countries:
  Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Turkey,
  Iran, Russia, and most African countries.
                  FINGERS (Cont‟d)
* Pointing.
   * Pointing with the index
     finger is common in North
     America and Europe.
   * But it is considered impolite
     in Japan and China where
     they favor using the whole
     open hand.
   * Malaysians prefer pointing
     with the thumb.
          LEGS AND FEET
* In Asia, do not point with your toes.
* In Asia and some European countries,
  putting feet up on a desk or any other
  piece of furniture is very disrespectful.
* Sitting cross-legged, while common in
  North America and some European
  countries, is very impolite in other parts of
  the world.
      LEGS AND FEET (Cont‟d)
* In most Asian countries, a solid and
  balanced sitting posture is the prevailing
  custom. Sitting cross-legged shows the
  sign of
* In the Middle East and most parts of Asia,
  resting the ankle over the other knee risks
  pointing the sole of your shoe at another
  person, which is considered a rude
          Gestures and Postures

Positive Gestures
•   Open Palms
•   Eye-to-eye confrontation
•   Smile
•   Equal Handshake
• Standing position
• Walking style
• Hand Movements
Brisk, erect walk       Confidence
Standing with hands on Readiness, aggression
Sitting with legs       Boredom
crossed, foot kicking
Sitting, legs apart     Open, relaxed
Arms crossed on chest   Defensiveness
Walking with hands in   Dejection
pockets, shoulders
Hand to cheek           Evaluation, thinking
Touching, slightly      Rejection, doubt, lying
rubbing nose
Rubbing the eye         Doubt, disbelief
Hands clasped behind    Anger, frustration,
back                    apprehension
Locked ankles           Apprehension
Head resting in hand,   Boredom
eyes downcast
Rubbing hands           Anticipation
• Intimate            • Social
  – Touching            – Close 4-7 feet
  – 6-18”               – Far - 7-12 feet
• Personal            • Public
  – Close -1½ to 2½     – Close - 12-25 feet
    feet                – Far - 25 feet or
  – Far - 2½ to 4 ½       greater
A Small Class Exercise
So What Does This Mean?
            • Let me see!
            • Authoritative
            • Pondering
            • Thinking
            • Considering
So What Does This Mean?
            • Can I help!
            • Trust me!
            • You’re in
              good hands!
            • Helping Hand
So What Does This Mean?

            • Dejected
            • Disappointed
            • Lost it.
So What Does This Mean?
            • Now just stop
            • Get out of
            • Defensive
            • Oppositional
So What Does This Mean?
            • So tell me
            • Open
            • Accepting
            • Welcoming

• Importance
• confidence-building
• expressions and
• awareness of non-
  verbal cues
• avoiding
       FOR ALL OF US…

Becoming sensitive to the clues of
body language can help us
communicate more effectively
  ANY ?