Communication Non verbal Communication and use of body language Communication in general is process of sending and receiving messages that enables humans to share knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Although we usually identify communication with speech, communication is composed of two dimensions - verbal and nonverbal. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep. BODILY SPEAKING… According to the social anthropologist, Edward T. Hall, in a normal conversation between two persons, less than 35% of the social meanings is actually transmitted by words. So, at least 65% of it is conveyed through the body (non-verbal channel). Have you ever heard anyone say, "His actions spoke so loudly I couldn't hear what he said?" Categories • Physical. This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions. • Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing. Signs Use of various signs in non verbal communication • Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols. Physical Aspects of Non Verbal communication. • Kinesics (study of body language) Body motions such as shrugs, foot tapping, drumming fingers, eye movements such as winking, facial expressions, and gestures • Proxemics (proximity) Use of space to signal privacy or attraction • Haptics Touch • Oculesics Eye contact • Chronemics Use of time, waiting, pausing • Olfactics Smell • Vocalics Tone of voice, timbre, volume, speed • Sound symbols Grunting, mmm, er, ah, uh-huh, mumbling • Silence Pausing, waiting, secrecy • Posture Position of the body, stance • Adornment Clothing, jewellery, hairstyle • Locomotion Walking, running, staggering, limping Facial Expressions • Face is the index of Mind • The eyes, the lips and the muscles express many feelings • It can also be deceived by manipulation Let’s Examine How Body Communicates, from head to toes HEAD - Nodding the head - “Yes” in most societies - “No” in some parts of Greece, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey - Tossing the head backward - “yes” in Thailand, the Philippines, India, Rocking head slowly, back and forth - “yes, I‟m listening” in most Asian cultures FACE * Facial expressions reflect emotion, feelings and attitudes, but….. * The Asians are sometimes known as - emotionless - mixed-up emotion The Eyes • Stare or fixed gaze suggest involvement or wonder or eye disapproval. • Raised looks show dominance. • Downcast looks suggest weakness and submission • Direct eye contact communicates honesty, transparency and neutral attitude. EYES * Eye contacts - Encouraged in America, Canada, Europe - Rude in most Asian countries and in Africa * Raising eyebrows - “Yes” in Thailand and some Asian countries - “Hello” in the Philippines * Winking eye - Sharing secret in America and Europe - flirtatious gesture in other countries EYES (Cont‟d) * Closed eyes - bored or sleepy in America - “I‟m listening and concentrating.” in Japan, Thailand, China EARS * Ear grasp - “I‟m sorry.” in parts of India * Cupping the ear - “I can‟t hear you.” in all societies * Pulling ear - “You are in my heart” for Navajo Indians NOSE * Holding the nose - “Something smells bad.” universal * Nose tap - “It‟s confidential.” England - “Watch out!” or "Be careful.” Italy NOSE * Pointing to nose - “It‟s me.” Japan * Blowing nose - In most Asian countries, blowing the nose at social gathering is „disgusting.‟ CHEEKS * Cheek screw - gesture of praise - Italy - “That‟s crazy.” Germany * Cheek stroke - “pretty, attractive, success” most Europe THE LIP POINTING * Lip pointing (a substitute for pointing with the hand or finger) is common among Filipinos, Native Americans, Ricans, and many Latin Americans. * Open mouth. Any display of the open mouth is considered very rude in most countries. ARMS * Some cultures, like the Italians, use the arms freely. Others, like the Japanese, are more reserved; it is considered impolite to gesticulate with broad movements of the arms. * Folding arms are interpreted by some social observers as a form of excluding self, “I am taking a defensive posture,” or “I disagree with what I am hearing.” ARMS (Cont‟d) * Arms akimbo. In many cultures, this stance signals aggression, resistance, impatience, or even anger. * Arms behind back, hands grasped is a sign of ease and control. * Arms in front, hands grasped, common practice in most Asian countries, is a sign of mutual respect for others. HANDS * Of all the body parts, the hands are probably used most for communicating non-verbally. * Hand waves are used for greetings, beckoning, or farewells. HANDS * The Italian “good-bye” wave can be interpreted by Americans as the gesture of “come here.” * The American “good-bye” wave can be interpreted in many parts of Europe and Latin America as the signal for “no.” HANDS (Cont‟d) * Beckoning. * The American way of getting attention (raising a hand with the index finger raised above head) could be considered rude in Japan, and also means “two” in Germany. * The American “come here” gesture could be seen as an insult in most Asian countries. * In China, to beckon a waiter to refill your tea, simply turn your empty cup upside down. HANDS (Cont‟d) * Handshaking is a form of greeting in most Western cultures. * In the Middle East, a gentle grip is appropriate. * In most Asian cultures, a gentle grip and an avoidance of direct eye contact is appropriate. HANDS (Cont‟d) * Right hand. The right hand has special significance in many societies. In certain countries in the Middle East and in Asia, it is best to present business cards or gifts, or to pass dishes of food, to get an attention, using only the right hand or both. * Left hand is considered unclean in much of the Middle East and in parts of Indonesia. HANDS (Cont‟d) * Hang loose. (thumb and little finger extended) * could convey different meanings: * in Hawaii, it‟s a way of saying, “Stay cool,” or “Relax.” * in Japan, it means six. * In Mexico (do vertically), it means, “Would you like a drink?” HANDS (Cont‟d) * Clapping hands. * Russians and Chinese may use applause to greet someone. * In many central and eastern Europe, audience frequently clap in rhythm FINGERS * The “O.K.” signal. (the thumb and forefinger form a circle) means * “fine,” or “O.K.” in most cultures, * “zero” or “worthless” in some parts of Europe * “money” in Japan * an insult in Greece, Brazil, Italy, Turkey, Russia and some other countries FINGERS (Cont‟d) * Thumb-up” means: * “O.K.” “good job” or “fine” in most cultures, * “Up yours!” in Australia * “Five” in Japan; “One” in Germany * Avoid a thumb-up in these countries: Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Russia, and most African countries. FINGERS (Cont‟d) * Pointing. * Pointing with the index finger is common in North America and Europe. * But it is considered impolite in Japan and China where they favor using the whole open hand. * Malaysians prefer pointing with the thumb. LEGS AND FEET * In Asia, do not point with your toes. * In Asia and some European countries, putting feet up on a desk or any other piece of furniture is very disrespectful. * Sitting cross-legged, while common in North America and some European countries, is very impolite in other parts of the world. LEGS AND FEET (Cont‟d) * In most Asian countries, a solid and balanced sitting posture is the prevailing custom. Sitting cross-legged shows the sign of * In the Middle East and most parts of Asia, resting the ankle over the other knee risks pointing the sole of your shoe at another person, which is considered a rude gesture. Gestures and Postures Positive Gestures • Open Palms • Eye-to-eye confrontation • Smile • Equal Handshake Postures • Standing position • Walking style • Hand Movements NONVERBAL INTERPRETATION BEHAVIOR Brisk, erect walk Confidence Standing with hands on Readiness, aggression hips Sitting with legs Boredom crossed, foot kicking slightly Sitting, legs apart Open, relaxed Arms crossed on chest Defensiveness Walking with hands in Dejection pockets, shoulders hunched NONVERBAL INTERPRETATION BEHAVIOR Hand to cheek Evaluation, thinking Touching, slightly Rejection, doubt, lying rubbing nose Rubbing the eye Doubt, disbelief Hands clasped behind Anger, frustration, back apprehension Locked ankles Apprehension Head resting in hand, Boredom eyes downcast Rubbing hands Anticipation Territory • Intimate • Social – Touching – Close 4-7 feet – 6-18” – Far - 7-12 feet • Personal • Public – Close -1½ to 2½ – Close - 12-25 feet feet – Far - 25 feet or – Far - 2½ to 4 ½ greater feet A Small Class Exercise So What Does This Mean? • Let me see! • Authoritative • Pondering • Thinking • Considering So What Does This Mean? • Can I help! • Trust me! • You’re in good hands! • Helping Hand So What Does This Mean? • Dejected • Disappointed • Lost it. So What Does This Mean? • Now just stop that! • Get out of here! • Defensive • Oppositional So What Does This Mean? • So tell me more! • Open • Accepting • Welcoming Conclusion • Importance • confidence-building • expressions and gestures • awareness of non- verbal cues • avoiding misunderstandings FOR ALL OF US… Becoming sensitive to the clues of body language can help us communicate more effectively Q&A QUESTIONS IF ANY ?