non-verbal-communication

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					           Communication

Non verbal
Communication
and use of
body language
Communication in general
is process of sending and
receiving messages that
enables humans to share
knowledge, attitudes, and
skills. Although we usually
identify communication with
speech, communication is
composed of two
dimensions - verbal and
nonverbal.
Non-verbal communication includes facial
expressions, eye contact, tone of voice,
body posture and motions, and positioning
within groups. It may also include the way
we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.
          BODILY SPEAKING…
 According to the social
  anthropologist, Edward
  T. Hall, in a normal
  conversation between
  two persons, less than
  35% of the social
  meanings is actually
  transmitted by words.
 So, at least 65% of it is
  conveyed through the
  body (non-verbal
  channel).
  Have you ever heard
anyone say, "His actions
spoke so loudly I couldn't
  hear what he said?"
Categories
• Physical. This is
  the personal type
  of communication.
  It includes facial
  expressions, tone
  of voice, sense of
  touch, sense of
  smell, and body
  motions.
• Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that
  takes place through creative expressions: playing
  instrumental music, dancing, painting and
  sculpturing.
              Signs
Use of various signs in non verbal
          communication
• Symbolic. This is the type of communication that
  makes use of religious, status, or ego-building
  symbols.
    Physical Aspects of Non Verbal
           communication.
• Kinesics (study of body language) Body motions such as shrugs,
  foot tapping, drumming fingers, eye movements such as winking,
  facial expressions, and gestures
• Proxemics (proximity) Use of space to signal privacy or attraction
• Haptics Touch
• Oculesics Eye contact
• Chronemics Use of time, waiting, pausing
• Olfactics Smell
• Vocalics Tone of voice, timbre, volume, speed
• Sound symbols Grunting, mmm, er, ah, uh-huh, mumbling
• Silence Pausing, waiting, secrecy
• Posture Position of the body, stance
• Adornment Clothing, jewellery, hairstyle
• Locomotion Walking, running, staggering, limping
           Facial Expressions
• Face is the index
  of Mind
• The eyes, the
  lips and the
  muscles express
  many feelings
• It can also be
  deceived by
  manipulation
   Let’s Examine How Body
Communicates, from head to toes
                    HEAD
- Nodding the head
  - “Yes” in most societies
  - “No” in some parts of Greece, Yugoslavia,
           Bulgaria, and Turkey
- Tossing the head backward
  - “yes” in Thailand, the Philippines, India,
    Rocking head slowly, back and forth
  - “yes, I‟m listening” in most Asian cultures
                 FACE
* Facial expressions reflect emotion,
  feelings and attitudes, but…..
* The Asians are sometimes known as
   - emotionless
   - mixed-up emotion
                   The Eyes
• Stare or fixed gaze
  suggest involvement
  or wonder or eye
  disapproval.
• Raised looks show
  dominance.
• Downcast looks
  suggest weakness and
  submission
• Direct eye contact
  communicates
  honesty, transparency
  and neutral attitude.
                     EYES
* Eye contacts
   - Encouraged in America, Canada, Europe
   - Rude in most Asian countries and in Africa
* Raising eyebrows
   - “Yes” in Thailand and some Asian countries
   - “Hello” in the Philippines
* Winking eye
   - Sharing secret in America and Europe
   - flirtatious gesture in other countries
              EYES (Cont‟d)
* Closed eyes



  - bored or sleepy in America
  - “I‟m listening and concentrating.” in Japan,
    Thailand, China
                     EARS
* Ear grasp
  - “I‟m sorry.” in parts of India
* Cupping the ear
  - “I can‟t hear you.” in all societies
* Pulling ear
  - “You are in my heart” for Navajo Indians
                  NOSE
* Holding the nose
  - “Something smells bad.” universal
* Nose tap
  - “It‟s confidential.” England
  - “Watch out!” or "Be careful.” Italy
                  NOSE
* Pointing to nose
  - “It‟s me.” Japan
* Blowing nose
  - In most Asian countries, blowing the
    nose at social gathering is „disgusting.‟
                 CHEEKS
* Cheek screw
  - gesture of praise - Italy
  - “That‟s crazy.” Germany
* Cheek stroke
  - “pretty, attractive, success” most Europe
         THE LIP POINTING
* Lip pointing (a substitute for pointing with
  the hand or finger) is common among
  Filipinos, Native Americans, Ricans, and
  many Latin Americans.
* Open mouth. Any display of the open
  mouth is considered very rude in most
  countries.
                  ARMS
* Some cultures, like the Italians, use the
  arms freely. Others, like the Japanese,
  are more reserved; it is considered
  impolite to gesticulate with broad
  movements of the arms.
* Folding arms are interpreted by some
  social observers as a form of excluding
  self, “I am taking a defensive posture,” or
  “I disagree with what I am hearing.”
             ARMS (Cont‟d)
* Arms akimbo. In many cultures, this
  stance signals aggression, resistance,
  impatience, or even anger.
* Arms behind back, hands grasped is a
  sign of ease and control.
* Arms in front, hands grasped, common
  practice in most Asian countries, is a sign
  of mutual respect for others.
               HANDS
* Of all the body parts, the hands are
  probably used most for communicating
  non-verbally.
* Hand waves are used for greetings,
  beckoning, or farewells.
                HANDS
* The Italian “good-bye” wave can be
  interpreted by Americans as the gesture of
  “come here.”
* The American “good-bye” wave can be
  interpreted in many parts of Europe and Latin
  America as the signal for “no.”
               HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Beckoning.
  * The American way of getting attention (raising
    a hand with the index finger raised above
    head) could be considered rude in Japan, and
    also means “two” in Germany.
  * The American “come here” gesture could be
    seen as an insult in most Asian countries.
  * In China, to beckon a waiter to refill your tea,
    simply turn your empty cup upside down.
             HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Handshaking is a form of greeting in most
  Western cultures.
  * In the Middle East, a gentle grip is
    appropriate.
  * In most Asian cultures, a gentle grip and an
    avoidance of direct eye contact is appropriate.
            HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Right hand. The right hand has special
  significance in many societies. In certain
  countries in the Middle East and in Asia, it
  is best to present business cards or gifts,
  or to pass dishes of food, to get an
  attention, using only the right hand or both.
* Left hand is considered unclean in much
  of the Middle East and in parts of
  Indonesia.
             HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Hang loose. (thumb and little finger
  extended)
* could convey different meanings:
  * in Hawaii, it‟s a way of saying, “Stay cool,” or
    “Relax.”
  * in Japan, it means six.
  * In Mexico (do vertically), it means, “Would you
    like a drink?”
           HANDS (Cont‟d)
* Clapping hands.
  * Russians and Chinese may use applause to
    greet someone.
  * In many central and eastern Europe,
    audience frequently clap in rhythm
                  FINGERS
* The “O.K.” signal. (the thumb and
  forefinger form a circle) means
  *    “fine,” or “O.K.” in most cultures,
  *   “zero” or “worthless” in some parts of Europe
  *   “money” in Japan
  *   an insult in Greece, Brazil, Italy, Turkey,
      Russia and some other countries
             FINGERS (Cont‟d)
* Thumb-up” means:
  * “O.K.” “good job” or “fine” in most cultures,
  * “Up yours!” in Australia
  * “Five” in Japan; “One” in Germany
* Avoid a thumb-up in these countries:
  Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Turkey,
  Iran, Russia, and most African countries.
                  FINGERS (Cont‟d)
* Pointing.
   * Pointing with the index
     finger is common in North
     America and Europe.
   * But it is considered impolite
     in Japan and China where
     they favor using the whole
     open hand.
   * Malaysians prefer pointing
     with the thumb.
          LEGS AND FEET
* In Asia, do not point with your toes.
* In Asia and some European countries,
  putting feet up on a desk or any other
  piece of furniture is very disrespectful.
* Sitting cross-legged, while common in
  North America and some European
  countries, is very impolite in other parts of
  the world.
      LEGS AND FEET (Cont‟d)
* In most Asian countries, a solid and
  balanced sitting posture is the prevailing
  custom. Sitting cross-legged shows the
  sign of
* In the Middle East and most parts of Asia,
  resting the ankle over the other knee risks
  pointing the sole of your shoe at another
  person, which is considered a rude
  gesture.
          Gestures and Postures

Positive Gestures
•   Open Palms
•   Eye-to-eye confrontation
•   Smile
•   Equal Handshake
Postures
• Standing position
• Walking style
• Hand Movements
     NONVERBAL            INTERPRETATION
      BEHAVIOR
Brisk, erect walk       Confidence
Standing with hands on Readiness, aggression
hips
Sitting with legs       Boredom
crossed, foot kicking
slightly
Sitting, legs apart     Open, relaxed
Arms crossed on chest   Defensiveness
Walking with hands in   Dejection
pockets, shoulders
hunched
     NONVERBAL            INTERPRETATION
      BEHAVIOR
Hand to cheek           Evaluation, thinking
Touching, slightly      Rejection, doubt, lying
rubbing nose
Rubbing the eye         Doubt, disbelief
Hands clasped behind    Anger, frustration,
back                    apprehension
Locked ankles           Apprehension
Head resting in hand,   Boredom
eyes downcast
Rubbing hands           Anticipation
               Territory
• Intimate            • Social
  – Touching            – Close 4-7 feet
  – 6-18”               – Far - 7-12 feet
• Personal            • Public
  – Close -1½ to 2½     – Close - 12-25 feet
    feet                – Far - 25 feet or
  – Far - 2½ to 4 ½       greater
    feet
A Small Class Exercise
So What Does This Mean?
            • Let me see!
            • Authoritative
            • Pondering
            • Thinking
            • Considering
So What Does This Mean?
            • Can I help!
            • Trust me!
            • You’re in
              good hands!
            • Helping Hand
So What Does This Mean?


            • Dejected
            • Disappointed
            • Lost it.
So What Does This Mean?
            • Now just stop
              that!
            • Get out of
              here!
            • Defensive
            • Oppositional
So What Does This Mean?
            • So tell me
              more!
            • Open
            • Accepting
            • Welcoming
 Conclusion

• Importance
• confidence-building
• expressions and
  gestures
• awareness of non-
  verbal cues
• avoiding
  misunderstandings
       FOR ALL OF US…




Becoming sensitive to the clues of
body language can help us
communicate more effectively
  Q&A
QUESTIONS
   IF
  ANY ?