Why were the goals of the Congress of Vienna significant? • Do Now: Read the Congress of Vienna Answer Questions 1-4 See next slide for Vocabulary HW #2= Read pgs. 574-580 Answer Questions: 1, 3, 4 on pg. 576 1, 3, 4 on pg. 580 Vocabulary: shambles-ruin, chaos alliance-a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes. reactionary-a person who wants to return to the good old days legitimacy-according to law; lawful, and established rules compensation-something given or received as an equivalent for services, debt, loss, injury, suffering, lack, etc. As we go through the Power Point please fill in your graphic organizer • As you interact with the presentation: – You are looking for the following: Members Goals Actions Taken Legacy= Short Term & Long Term GOALS #1: After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna established a balance of power in Europe. Members: Great Britain, France, Russia and Austria in 1815. GOALS #2: The Congress of Vienna wanted to go back to the status quo ante of 1789. It put the old “legitimate” ruling families back in charge of France, Spain, Naples and Sicily. Members • The conservative Prince Metternich of Austria wanted to stop the spread of Revolution and Nationalism in Europe. • Remember: • “When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold!” Actions Taken: The What do you think Congress of Vienna Metternich thought put the “legitimate” of Louis XVIII? Bourbon King, Louis XVIII, in charge of France. ************************* (Given the recent history of the French Revolution, he tried to please the French people by quickly issuing a constitution with separation of powers and an elected Parliament.) A wave of Nationalist Revolutions spread over Europe… What did the people want? What do you think the Congress of Vienna did about it? In 1830, the French nation revolted, demanding a “Citizen King” named Louis Philippe. By 1848, as the radicals grew stronger, the people overthrew even him and declared the Second French Republic. All adult men, rich or poor, were granted suffrage – the right to vote. France was sneezing again… What do you think Metternich thought about this? What do you think happened next? The French people The people used their universal elected him male suffrage to elect with over Napoleon’s nephew 90% of the president of the vote! Second French Republic. Just like his uncle, Napoleon III greatly expanded his power, turning the Republic into the Second French Empire. Why? Prince Metternich had to flee the Austrian Empire in disguise, as the Hungarians, Czechs and Venetians all cried out for independence and universal suffrage. SHORT TERM: But in almost every case, the countries of the Congress of Vienna worked together to maintain the balance of power and defeat the Revolutions of 1848. LONG TERM #1: But the nationalism and revolutionary ideas of France were impossible to contain… LONG TERM #2: But twenty years later, German and Italian nationalism would completely upset the balance of power established at the Congress of Vienna. Students Debriefing Activity • Students will answer the True/False Questions on the Congress of Vienna • If it is False you MUST CORRECT IT! Final Summary Answer the Aim Aim: How was Otto Van Bismarck able to unify Germany? • Please copy the following vocabulary words into your notebooks • Zollverein- German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage customs and economic policies within their territories. • Otto Van Bismarck- Prime Minister of Germany • Unification- to make or become a single unit • Nationalist- a person devoted to nationalism. Cartoon: See, Notice, and Think • What do you SEE in the cartoon? (LIST) • What do you NOTICE about the cartoon? • What you THINK about the cartoon? Events in German Unification 1. Common History and traditions among the German People 2. Zollverein 3. Growth of Prussia under Bismarck 4. Danish War 1864 5. Austro-Prussian War 1866 6. North German Confederation 1867 7. Franco Prussian War 1870-1871 8. German Empire 1871-1918 As we go through the slides • Write down 3 new things you learned about German unification The biggest German country was Prussia. The Congress of Vienna left the German parts of Europe divided into many tiny countries, surrounded by France, the Austrian Empire and the Russian Empire. The Prussian King was Wilhem I , an Bismarck ultraconservative Wilhelm I who believed in the Divine Right of Kings. King Wilhelm I’s prime minister was a good friend of his, a conservative noble named Otto Von Bismarck. What do you think Prince Metternich would have thought about Wilhelm I and Bismarck? Prussia was famous for its powerful military. Voltaire once said: “Prussia is not a country with an army, but an army with a country!” Bismarck wanted to use this army to unite the German people under Prussian leadership. What do you think Prince Metternich of Austria thought about all of this nationalism? What about Russia, France, or Great Britain? In 1866, Bismarck defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War. This united the countries of northern Germany under Prussian rule. In 1871, Bismarck crushed France in the Franco- Prussian War, marching all the way to Paris. He gained some French territory, and united the countries of southern Germany. From Louis XIV’s old Palace of Versailles, King Wilhelm I was crowned Emperor of Germany. Otto Von Bismarck had created a new German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck united the Germans, Student Activity • Think Pair Share • In pairs, complete reading and questions on German Unification Final Summary-Answer the Aim • QUIZ THURSDAY on: Nationalism, Latin American Revolutions, Congress of Vienna, Unification of Germany and Italy AIM: How did individual leaders help create a unified Italian nation? • Do Now: What do you feel is more powerful; the brain (the mind), the soul (the spirit) or the sword (physical strength)? Why? (SAT WORD of the day: convergence=coming together) Imagine just for a second… • That we were the:“ Individual States of America” *Each state had its own currency *Each state had its own leader or President. *Each state had its own army. *English was the most common language and Americans made up a majority of the population in each state. What issues and challenges would occur under such a scenario? What changes would occur in American life? Vocabulary • Unification- to make or become a single unit • Nationalist- a person devoted to nationalism. • Nationalism- pride or love for one’s nation. • Papal States- area around Rome which was controlled by the Pope The Congress of Vienna had left the Italian peninsula divided into many countries. Austria ruled in the north, Hapsburg Monarchs ruled in the center, and Bourbon Kings ruled in Naples and Sicily. The Pope even had his own country in the area around Rome. As we read for the main idea… • Use your graphic organizer to identify whether the statements made about MAZZINI, CAVOUR and GARIBALDI are either TRUE or FALSE. • If it is FALSE, please correct the statement to make it true. Giuseppe Garibaldi of Sardinia was working to Garibaldi Bismarck unite the Italians. Garibaldi was born in Nice, an Italian-speaking city conquered by Napoleon and later returned to Sardinia after the Congress of Vienna. In the 1830s he met Giuseppi Mazzini, who led an Italian nationalist group called Young Italy. Garibaldi’s men became known as the Red Shirts, because they wore shirts from the slaughterhouses of Buenos Aires, Argentina. He participated in the 1848 revolutions against the French Empire. Garibaldi now realized he would need the support of the Sardinian monarchy, teaming up with King Victor Emmanuel II and Prime Minister Camillo Cavour to fight the Austrians who controlled northern Italy. With the Sardinian army, Garibaldi swept through the Italian peninsula all the way to south to Naples and Sicily. This unification was called the Risorgimiento - Resurgence MAZZINI Was an Italian Nationalist. (True / False) Leader of a group called Elderly Italy. (True/False) CAVOUR Was Prime Minister under Queen Victoria Emmannuel II. (True/False) Teamed up with Garibaldi to fight the Austrians who controlled northern Italy. (T/F) GARIBALDI Was from Sardinia. (True/False) Main goal was to separate Italians. (T/F) His men became known as the Rainbow Shirts. (T/F) DIRECTIONS: Read the following account of the unification of Italy and using the map on the back answer the questions that follow. Use complete sentences. • Groups will answer #1-10 on their handout. • Everyone will take notes and answer the questions but hand ONE collective answer sheet for your group. Pivotal Questions • What are some advantages to unification? • Why was Nationalism growing in Europe at this time? • Why would nationalists like Cavour, Garibaldi and Mazzini want the Italian city- states to be ONE? Question Which played the most important role in the unification of Italy; the brain, the sword or the soul? Why? Final Summary • Answer the Aim on your index card: How did individual leaders help create a unified Italian nation?