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PowerPoint Presentation - Liz Krueger

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					Education CRE
Senate Democrats Continuing
Ranker Education
       State Education Department's
             Mission Statement
The State Education Department (SED) exists to serve the
 unique academic, physical, social, and emotional needs of New
 Yorkers who are in a special and critical period of their lives as
 they change from childhood to adolescence.
As the administrative agency of the Board of Regents, SED is
 responsible for creating and maintaining high learning standards
 at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education
 levels. Among its diverse functions, SED is responsible for the
 preparation, licensure, and practice of the professions and their
 educational and professional excellence; ensures that students
 with disabilities are protected under the law and assures
 appropriate continuity between child and adult service systems,
 and oversees and manages New York State's cultural resources
 and guarantees accessibility to these resources.
                                                              2
Comparison of Disbursements by
 Program Category, All Funds




                             3
State Education Department-All
Funds




                                 4
           New York State Board of
                  Regents
Established by the New York State Legislature on May 1, 1784,
 the Regents of The University of the State of New York form
 the oldest, continuous state education entity in America. The
 Regents are responsible for the general supervision of all
 educational activities within the State, presiding over The
 University and the New York State Education Department. The
 Regents are organized into standing committees and
 subcommittees whose members and chairs are appointed by the
 Chancellor.
The Board comprises 16 members elected by the State
 Legislature for 5 year terms: 1 from each of the State's 12
 judicial districts and 4 members who serve at large. Regents
 are unsalaried and are reimbursed only for travel and related
                                                             5
 expenses in connection with their official duties.
       New York State Board of
              Regents
                    (continued)
The University of the State of New York is the nation's
 most comprehensive and unified educational system. It
 consists of all elementary, secondary, and post secondary
 educational institutions, libraries, museums, public
 broadcasting, records and archives, professions,
 Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with
 Disabilities, and such other institutions, organizations, and
 agencies as may be admitted to The University.
The concept of The University of the State of New York is
 a broad term encompassing all the institutions, both public
and private, offering education in the State.
                                                           6
  Elementary, Secondary and
  Continuing Education
Under the direction of the Board of Regents, the State
 Education Department's Office of Elementary, Middle,
 Secondary and Continuing Education (EMSC) is responsible
 for improving the quality of education programs and services
 provided to more than 2.8 million public school students in
 4,200 schools, 704 school districts, and 38 BOCES (boards of
 cooperative educational services), more than 480,000 private
 school students in 2,175 schools; and more than 200,000 adult
 learners.
EMSC works to involve all of the school community in efforts
 to improve student achievement. All 704 public school
 districts and all 38 BOCES now have plans that require
 parents, teachers, administrators, and others in each school
 building to take part in decisions affecting the quality of
 education in each of their buildings.                       7
  (continued)
Under the direction of the Board of Regents, the State
 Education Department's Office of Elementary, Middle,
 Secondary and Continuing Education (EMSC) is responsible
 for improving the quality of education programs and services
 provided to more than 2.8 million public school students in
 4,200 schools, 704 school districts, and 38 BOCES (boards of
 cooperative educational services), more than 480,000 private
 school students in 2,175 schools; and more than 200,000
 adult learners.
EMSC works to involve all of the school community in efforts
 to improve student achievement. All 704 public school
 districts and all 38 BOCES now have plans that require
 parents, teachers, administrators, and others in each school
 building to take part in decisions affecting the quality of
 education in each of their buildings.
                                                          8
ESMC continued
The strategic goal and objectives are designed to cut
 across all EMSC offices with the intent of decreasing
 departmentalization and increasing collaboration and
 cooperation in support of low performing districts and
 schools in order to assist them in closing the performance
 gap. This strategic plan is designed to guide the various
 EMSC units in refining workplans, reviewing key products
 and services, determining key performance indicators at
 the operational level and identifying which critical tasks to
 continue and which tasks to discontinue.




                                                            9
ESMC 2007-2008,
   All Funds




                  10
      Office of Higher Education
The Office of Higher Education (OHE) is a critical part of
 the State Education Department whose purpose is to assure
 quality and maintain accessibility in higher education by
 carrying out the functions of its various units. OHE
 coordinates New York State's Higher Education system
 encompassing 263 colleges and universities and 246 non-
 degree proprietary schools. There are 83 public, 145
 independent and 35 proprietary degree-granting
 institutions. OHE primarily provides services to post
 secondary institutions; professional educators; students;
 federal, state and local educational agencies as well as
 elected officials.
The Office of Higher Education manages the licensing and
 certification of teachers, coordinates the State's efforts to
 ensure standards for academic excellence and performance
 in higher education.                                        11
 (continued)
OHE implements the statutory requirements that protect the
 educational and financial interest of students attending New
 York State institutions; and administers a variety of the State's
 grant programs that provide access to higher education for
 those individuals who are underrepresented and undeserved.
 OHE is organized into three primary functional areas: the
 Office of Teaching Initiatives; the Office of K-16 Initiatives
 and Access Programs; and the Office of Quality Assurance.
 The various units comprising these offices recommend and
 implement higher education policies, provide oversight,
 monitor the quality of the State's higher education system, and
 ensure access to higher education for all New York State
 citizens.
                                                             12
Office of Higher Education,
  2007-2008, All Funds




                              13
         Office of Vocational and
         Educational Services for
       Individuals with Disabilities
Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals
 with Disabilities promotes educational equity and excellence
 for students with disabilities while ensuring that they receive
 the rights and protection to which they are entitled; assure
 appropriate continuity between the child and adult services
 systems; and provide the highest quality vocational
 rehabilitation and independent living services to all eligible
 persons as quickly as those services are required to enable
 them to work and live independent, self-directed lives.
VESID does not provide services to people with disabilities
 alone neither are we the only office in the department to
 interact with employers.
                                                            14
   (continued)
VESID does not provide services to people with disabilities
 alone neither are we the only office in the department to
 interact with employers. VESID goals intended that:
   –Students receiving special education services will meet
    the educational standards established for all students.
   –Students receiving special education services will be
    integrated with their non disabled peers throughout their
    educational experience.
   –Individuals with disabilities will participate successfully in
    post secondary education (including colleges and
    universities, adult education, tech preparation and
    proprietary schools)
   –Individuals with disabilities will be employed in integrated
    work settings.
                                                               15
VESID, 2007-2008, All Funds




                              16
  Office of Cultural Education
The State Museum, State Library, the State Archives and the
 Public Broadcasting Program comprise the Office of Cultural
 Education (OCE). These institutions are responsible for
 increasing the knowledge and information resources of State
 and local government, businesses, and individuals. The Office
 supports research, operates programs, and develops
 collections that serve the long-term interests of the
 institutions and residents of New York.
The Office of Cultural Education provides services directly to
 individuals and government at the New York State Library, the
 State Archives and State Museum and OCE also distributes aid
 to libraries and library systems, local governments, and public
 broadcasting stations, and provides instructional television
 services through the Public Broadcasting Program.
                                                           17
Cultural Education Program,
2007-2008 All Funds




                              18
  State Education Department and
  its Workforce
The University of the State of New York (USNY) is the most
 complete, interconnected system of educational services in the
 United States. However, New York State funds very little of the
 State Education Department workforce.
In fact, only 12.2% of the SED workforce is funded through the
 General Fund. Most of the SED workforce is funded through
 Federal, Special Revenue-Other and Internal Service funds.
The federal government funds almost 1,400 Full Time
 Equivalent (FTE) positions or 46% of the total SED workforce
 including 100% of the VESID workforce, 67% of the ESMC
 workforce , 18% of Cultural Education Program and 4% the
 Office of Higher Education and the Professions workforce.

                                                          19
State Education Department and
its Workforce (continued)
Special Revenue-Other funds also maintain the SED
 workforce. This is very true in the case of the Office of
 Higher Education and the Professions. Of the 514 FTEs
 working in this unit almost 87% are funded through two
 different accounts including the Office of Professions
 Account and the Teacher Certification Program Account.




                                                         20
SED Workforce, 2007-2008




                           21
School Aid:
      Origins and
       Purpose
What is the purpose of State Aid to Schools?

Assist school districts in the funding of educational
 programs which offer an effective education to all pupils in
 grades kindergarten through 12.
Maintain a State and local partnership in public education.
Equalize school revenues by providing State Aid in inverse
 proportion to each school district's ability to raise local
 revenues for education.
Encourage the development of model programs to address
 the needs of the school community such as
 Prekindergarten education, community schools, and the
 use of technology in the classroom.
Provide support to districts to help educate all students to
 higher standards, including students with disabilities and
 those that require extra time and help.
                                                         23
   What is the Reality of State Aid to Schools?
Resources- despite New York's equalizing State aid
 system, there remains tremendous disparities between
 New York State school districts in the fiscal resources
 available to support education. In short, a student's access
 to educational resources depends in large part on where
 he or she lives.
Shares- it is often the case that politics more than need
 drives school aid funds to school districts throughout the
 State. Traditional school aid shares are often invisible
 forces that influence school aid formulas.
School Aid Formula- consists of 50+ formulas which are
 difficult to understand, lack clarity, are subject to annual
 manipulation. Making school finance simpler and easier to
 understand would allow the public to hold state officials
 more accountable for the choices they make in funding
 schools.                                                    24
Sources of Revenue for Education,
         1994 and 2004




                                    25
         School Finance in New York State

In New York State, estimated 2004-2005 public education
 funding comes from three sources: approximately 6% from
 federal sources, 44% from State formula aids and grants
 (including STAR), and 50% from revenues raised locally.
Local property taxes constitute close to 90% of local
 revenues. The State assumed a significant portion of this
 local tax burden through the implementation of the School
 Tax Relief (STAR) program in 1998.
For the 2004-2005 fiscal year, STAR is estimated to
 account for 17% of State revenues, other State aid for the
 public schools comes primarily from the General Fund
 (approximately 71%) wherein the major source of revenue
 is State taxes and the balance (approximately 12%) comes
 from s Special Revenue Fund account supported by lottery
 receipts.
                                                        26
   Major Sources of Local Revenue for Education
The major source of local revenue for education in all
 communities is the tax levied by Boards of Education (or
 municipal governments for the Big Five city school districts)
 on residential and commercial properties within the boundaries
 of each school district.
   –Only the Big Five cities have constitutional tax limits, which
    apply to the municipal budget.
   –Small city school districts (those with a population of less
    than 125,000 inhabitants) had their constitutional tax limit
    repealed in 1985. Small city residents were not permitted to
    vote on their school budgets until legislation allowing it was
    passed in 1997.
   –The State's sales tax laws reserve 4% for the State and
    permit localities to levy up to an additional 4% (usually 3%,
    but more in the case of New York City and certain
    municipalities. Eight counties share a portion of the sales
                                                              27
    tax with school districts, and are legally permitted to share
         Major Sources of Local Revenue

–Small city school districts can impose a utility tax; about
 one quarter of the 57 small city districts do so. In addition,
 recent legislation requires that payments in lieu of taxes
 (PILOTS) be distributed proportionally among taxing
 jurisdictions (including school districts) affected by tax
 exemptions granted by Industrial Development Agencies
 (IDAs).
–New York City imposes a modified local income tax on
 residents, a business and financial tax, and a tax on
 commercial rent, revenues for which are raised to support
 the City's budget including schools. The City of Yonkers
 also imposes an income tax on non-resident commuters.
–The Big Five city school district's fiscal dependency means
 that the school system does not levy taxes, but is
 dependent upon citywide taxes for support. State aid for
 education enters the city treasury, not the school district
                                                            28
 treasury.
Where the Education Dollar is Going?




                                       29
         Why are education costs rising?
 Fringe Benefits: Spending by New York school districts on
 the health benefits of its employees grew on average 7.6
 percent annually from school years 1994-95 to 2002-03;
 during this same period, inflation as measured by the
 Consumer Price Index grew just 2.6 percent on average. It is
 expected that in view of these trends, that during the 2005-
 06 school year schools statewide will spend roughly $3.185
 billion on employee health care costs, or more than double the
 amount spent ($1.495 billion) only ten years prior.
Energy Costs: Energy expenditures by school districts during
 the ten-year period from school year 1992-93 to 2002-03
 increased 4.4 percent annually and were $797 million in
 2002-03, the most recent year for which data are available.
 Estimates of spending on energy, based on average energy
 prices for school year 2005-06 are just over $900 ($906)
 million.
                                                        30
Expenditures Per Pupil by Need Resource
         Category, 2002-2003




                                          31
   The School Aid Formula Consists of Three
   Major Components:

                                    Categorical Aids:
Operating Aids:
Flex Aid & Additional Aids
Supplemental Extraordinary          Limited English
Needs Aid                           Proficiency
Enrollment Adjustment Aid           Hardware &
                                    Technology
Sound Basic Education Aid           Software Aid
Reorganization Incentive Aid        Library Materials
Growth Aid                          Aid
                                    Textbook Aid
                                                        School Aid
Tax Limitation Aid
                                    Universal Pre-K
                                    Class Size
Reimbursement Aids:                 Reduction
                                    Full Day K
Building Aid                        Conversion Aid
Reorganization Incentive Building   Teacher Support
Aid                                 Aid
Summer Transportation Aid
Public Excess Cost Aid
Private Excess Cost Aid
BOCES Aid
Non-BOCES Special Services Aid




                                                               32
                     Operating Aids

Operating Aid is the primary source of state aid to school
 districts. It was based on the concept that state aid should
 supplement the local contribution and compensate for
 disparities in local ability to pay for education expenses
 and for local differences in need.
Operating Aid is available to help each district meet its
 expenditures for general operation and maintenance of the
 school district. Included within operating expenditures are
 salaries of administrators, teachers and nonprofessionals,
 fringe benefits, utilities and maintenance of school
 facilities.
Operating Aid accounts for almost 54.8% of all school aid
 provided to school districts throughout New York State in
 School Year (SY) 2006-2007.
                                                          33
                 Reimbursement Aids
Reimbursement Aids have also been called expense-based
 aids. These aids account for 36.6% of the school aid
 allocation for SY 2006-2007.
 Among the categories covered by reimbursement aids are:
     construction and financing of approved school building
      construction projects;
     per pupil aid for student with disabilities in relation to
      service intensity, movement from a restricted into
      general education, high cost programs, and the placement
      of students in private school settings or State-operated
      schools for the deaf or blind;
     approved operating expenses for transportation of
      pupils;
     shared educational programs and services to school
      districts provided by Boards of Cooperative Educational
      Services (BOCES); and,
     special services associated with computer
                                                              34
      administration and career education.
                    Categorical Aids


Categorical aids are often created as a consequence of a
 particular problem or need.
Categorical Aids account for only 4.04% of the total school
 aid allocation for SY 2006-2007. However, 74% or $527
 million of the total $712.2 million associated with
 categorical aids that appear on the school aid run are
 programs initially enacted in 1997 as the Learning,
 Achieving, Developing by Directing Educational Resources
 (LADDER) initiative, such as:
     Universal Pre K Program and Class Size Reduction
Categorical aids are targeted aid per pupil as in the case
 of Universal Pre-K program and Class Size Reduction or
 unequalized reimbursement of expenses for Textbook Aid,
 Computer Software Aid and Library Materials Aid.
                                                         35
Chronology of the Campaign for Fiscal Equity
                Court Case
May 1993- CFE files lawsuit in State Supreme Court
 challenging constitutionality of New York State's education
 funding system.
Jun 13, 1995- In its landmark decision, the New York
 State Court of Appeals, New York State's highest court,
 gives CFE the green light to pursue a constitutional
 challenge to the New York's education finance system on
 the grounds that it denies thousands of students the
 opportunity to a "sound basic education."
Jan 10, 2001- The State Supreme Court rules in favor of
 CFE, declaring the state's school funding system
 unconstitutional. In his decision, Justice Leland DeGrasse
 orders the State to reform the school funding system to
 make it predictable, transparent, and aligned to student
 need.
                                                        36
  CFE Court Case Chronology
Jun 25, 2002- In a 4-1 vote, the Appellate Division, First
 Department, of the State Supreme Court rejects the trial
 court's ruling that the current school funding formula is
 "inequitable and unconstitutional." The intermediate appeals
 court holds that students in New York State are only entitled
 to an eighth-grade level of education and preparation for
 low-level jobs.
Jun 26, 2003- In a 4-1 vote, the Court of Appeals reverses
 the Appellate Division and rules in favor of CFE ordering the
 state to reform the funding system to ensure that schools
 have the resources to provide the opportunity for a "sound
 basic education," which they define as a "meaningful high
 school education." In their remedial order, the Court orders
 the State to "ascertain the actual cost of providing a sound
 basic education" and implement a system of accountability
 that will ensure the reforms actually provide the opportunity
 for a sound basic education. They give the state until July 30,
                                                            37
 2004 to implement the necessary measures.
CFE Court Case Chronology
Jul 30, 2004- State of New York fails to meet the Court of
 Appeals deadline.
Aug 3, 2004- Justice Leland DeGrasse appoints three
 referees to deal with State's non-compliance. They are
 given until November 30, 2004 to submit a compliance
 plan to the court.
Aug 5, 2004- Referees begin holding hearings with CFE
 and State attorneys to review proposals for complying
 with the Court of Appeals order.
Nov. 30, 2004- In their final report, the panel of referees
 recommended sweeping reforms to the education funding
 system, concluding that New York City schools need an
 additional $5.63 billion in operating aid and $9.2 billion for
 facilities to provide students their constitutional right to
 the opportunity for a sound basic education. CFE affirms
 its long-standing commitment to enact reforms on a
                                                              38
 statewide basis.
  CFE Court Case Chronology
Feb 14, 2005- Justice Leland DeGrasse affirms the November
 30 recommendations of the judicial referees and orders the
 State to provide New York City's schools $5.63 billion for
 operating expenses and $9.2 billion for facilities.
Aug 5, 2005-The State of New York submits its brief to the
 Appellate Division, 1st Department to appeal the State
 Supreme Court's March 2005 compliance order that ordered
 the governor and the legislature to provide New York City
 schools an additional $5.6 billion in operating expenses. The
 March ruling came after the State completely failed to meet
 any aspects of the Court of Appeals June 2003 ruling to
 remedy the state's unconstitutional school-funding system.
Oct 11, 2005- CFE and the State of New York present oral
 arguments before the Appellate Division,1st Department on
 the governor's appeal.

                                                          39
  CFE Court Case Chronology
March 23, 2006-The Appellate Division, First Department
 rules in favor of CFE ordering the legislature to provide New
 York City schools $4.7 to $5.63 billion in operating aid and $9.2
 billion in capital funding by April 1, 2006.
June 2006- The Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) filed a brief
 to the Court of Appeals that asks the court to issue a clear and
 enforceable order that would bring the long-running CFE
 school-funding case to a close. A powerful decision from the
 state's highest court could force the State to add billions in
 additional education dollars and major accountability reforms
 or face possible penalties. Governor Pataki. The brief filed by
 CFE today is part of the latest appeal in the CFE case and will
 set the stage for the Court of Appeals to evaluate the State's
 noncompliance.
July 2006 -The State is scheduled to submit its opening and
 reply briefs. Both CFE and the State will file follow-up briefs
 in August.                                                    40
CFE Court Case Chronology
November 2006- The New York State Court of Appeals
 reaffirmed the state's responsibility to increase funding for
 New York City's public schools in the long-running
 Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) case. The decision
 establishes a minimum funding figure of $1.93 billion as
 "reasonable" but deferred to the governor and the
 legislature to come up with the appropriate figure.




                                                           41
The School Aid Formula: 2007-
08
The Governor's Foundation Aid Proposal




                                      42
  The Foundation Aid School Aid
      Formula, 2007-2008
Local Cost of                 Expected Local
                    -          Contribution              =      Foundation Aid
 Education

      X


Regional Cost   Uses median salaries of 59 professional, non-
   Index                  education occupations.


      X



 Pupil Needs    Based on three areas: Poverty (Free Reduced
                Price Lunch), Limited English Proficiency and
   Index                   Sparsity (Rural Areas)



                                                                            43
   What is a Foundation Formula?

A Foundation Formula approach:
 –Is more transparent
 –Is based on a Successful Schools Model
 –Reflects differences in school district
  pupil needs and regional costs.




                                      44
What is the Structure of a
Foundation Aid Formula?

EXAMPLE: A district’s property value
 is $300,000 per pupil. If this district
 taxes itself at $16.00 per $1,000
 property value, it can generate $4,800
 per pupil (300 * 16.00). If the
 foundation level is $5,662 per pupil,
 and the cost index is 1.25, the State
 will pay the difference ($7,077-
 $4,800 = $2,277 per pupil).             45
Foundation Aid
Did the Governor's Foundation
Aid Proposal follow the
Traditional Regional Shares
Argument?
Foundation Aid Percentage Increases,
            2007-2008
Increase            Total     High % of High
                    School Needs Needs
                    Districts
19% and higher      9       5      56%

Between 15% and 18% 17      11     65%

Between 10% and 14% 99      49     49%

Between 4% and 9%   243     112    46%

3% Minimum          309     28     9%

Total               677     205    30%

                                               47
       Foundation Aid Increase, 2006-07 to
       2007-08 by Need/Resource Category




Source: The Council of School Superintendents, "Shifting Out of Neutral, 2007-2008 Executive Budget
Analysis." February 2007, p. 5.


                                                                                                 48
  Comparison of Consolidated Aids in
Foundation Aid by Region, 2006-07 and
               2007-08




                                    49
Comparison of Consolidation Aid
and Increases by Region




                              50
School Tax Relief Distribution by
  Region for Selected Counties




                               51
Combined STAR and School Aid
 Change for Selected Counties
         2007-2008




                            52
Other Changes in School Aid
Public Excess Cost Aid
Universal Pre-K Program
Charter School Transitional Aid




                                   53
Basic Excess Cost
Aid
Included within Foundation
 Aid                Aid Category        Amount            Increase
                                                          from 2006-
Uniform Weighting Public Excess        Consolidated in
                                                          07
                                                           N/A
Save Harmless      Cost Aid            Foundation Aid


Some concerns      Private Excess      $231.4 million    $17.2 million
                        Cost Aid

                        Public Excess   $375.9 million    $35.8 million
                        High Cost Aid




                                                               54
                         Increase of       Per Pupil        Save
                         $99 million:      Funding          Harmless

Universal Pre-K          $76 million to
                         school
                                           93 school
                                           districts will
                                                            No district
                                                            would
                         districts with    see per          receive
                         existing UPK      pupil            less aid
Streamlines funding     programs          increases in     than in
                                           their UPK        2006-07:
Uses a foundation aid                     funds from        165
                                           2006-07 and      districts fall
 formula                                   108 will see     into this
                                           declines         category
Per Pupil Funding
Increases               $23 million for
                         school
                         districts
                         without UPK
                         programs in
                         2006-07




                                                                55
Contracts for Excellence
Based on Foundation Aid Increases
Allowable Programs
 –Class Size Reduction
 –Time on Task
 –Teacher Quality Initiatives
 –Middle and High School Restructuring
 –Full-Day Prekindergarten
Experimental Programs
Public Input
                                         56
                                                  Glossary of Terms

Wealth Equalization: To distribute State Aid in inverse proportion to fiscal capacity in order to offset dramatic differences
 in the ability of school districts to raise local revenues. This is different from the equalization of local property
 assessments, which is done by the State to make property values comparable from district to district.
Determination of Fiscal Capacity: District income and actual value per pupil are compared to the State average (known
 as the Combined Wealth Ratio).
School District's State Sharing Ratio or Aid Ratio: The percent, based on the relative fiscal capacity of the district,
 which is multiplied by an amount of money to determine the district's State Aid.
Aid Distribution Systems: There are different ways of distributing State Aid, including:
   Flat Grant Per Pupil. This distributes the same amount of State aid per pupil to every district (e.g., Textbook Aid and
      Flat Grant Operating Aid). This aid is not equalized.
    Wealth-equalized Fixed Amount of State Aid Per Pupil. This distributes most aid in current law as an allowance
      amount per pupil equalized in relation to district fiscal capacity by multiplying the amount by the district's Sharing Ratio
      (e.g., Formula Operating Aid).
   Effort or Expense-based Aid. This aid equals the State Share, a wealth equalized percentage, of actual approved
      spending (e.g., Transportation, Building and BOCES Aids, and a portion of Formula Operating Aid).
Pupil Counts Used for State Aid: These are based on pupil attendance (i.e., average daily attendance, ADA), often with
 additional weightings for certain categories of students such as pupils with special educational needs, secondary school
 pupils and pupils in summer school.
Save Harmless: is a guarantee that a school district will not receive less aid than the previous year for a specific aid
 category.




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