90 Multiple Choice Questions You should be able to finish the test in 60 minutes, although you have up to 3 hours and 10 minutes if needed. Questions require a range of thinking skills. Identify, describe, explain, analyze, evaluate Some questions involve reading a short excerpt from a primary or secondary source. Some questions require interpretation of a graph, map or table. Many questions involve mental processes such as recognizing cause and effect; contrast/compare; classify information or give examples. American Government/Civics = 18% US History to 1865 = 26% US History since 1865 = 25% Geography = 13% World History = 18% Read everything carefully. Remember there are NO trick questions. Consider every choice. Guess intelligently. Spend your time wisely. Skip harder questions if necessary and go back later. The Renaissance – means “rebirth”; in Europe was the rebirth of ideas and culture connected with ancient Greece and Rome. Mainly in urban centers. Florence – where the Renaissance began; spread to other areas of Europe over 200 years. Politics – Medici family (wealthy merchants) ruled Florence Economy – based on shipping trade with Byzantine & Islamic Empires as well as England and the Netherlands. Socially– time of recovery from Black Plague & political instability. Importance of the individual. Material comforts, art emphasizing positive human qualities, and humanistic ideas. Renaissance Man describes a well educated person who excels in many fields and has many talents. Machiavelli – From Florence; Wrote The Prince, describing the skills required by a ruling prince to maintain power and order. Leonardo da Vinci – The original Renaissance Man; expert in painting, sculpting, engineering, physics, anatomy, and other subjects. He is most known for the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Michelangelo – Renaissance artist who is best known for idealized paintings and sculptures of the human body. Reflected the beauty of God. Humanists studied history, philosophy, and poetry of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Petrarch – argued that no conflict existed between secular achievements and a person’s relationship with God. He believed that God gave people intelligence and talents that they should use to the fullest. Dante – Took humanist ideas and incorporated them into literature written in the common language of his day; not in Latin. Erasmus – was a Dutch Christian Humanist who believed in reforming the Catholic Church from within. He believed in free will instead of predestination ideas found in the Protestant movement. A movement against certain practices of the Catholic Church which had dominated religious practice & politics in Europe for hundreds of years. Martin Luther – his ideas were considered a catalyst of the Protestant Reformation. He publicly protested and posted the 95 Theses attacking the selling of Indulgences for the release from the punishment of sin. He broke from the Catholic Church, and the Lutheran Church was formed as the first Protestant faith. John Calvin – Leader in the Protestant faith; believed in predestination (God is all powerful and has already decided who will receive salvation & who won’t) Henry VIII – established the Anglican Church in England (Protestant Church) so he could divorce his wife. He remained very Catholic in his beliefs. Elizabeth I – Henry VIII’s daughter turned the Anglican Church to moderate Protestantism during her reign. Johannes Gutenberg – printed the first Bible in Europe with moveable type. This allowed the ideas of the Protestant Reformation to spread rapidly. The printing industry encouraged people to learn to read, and gave them access to a variety of religious texts, literature, and scholarship. Jesuits – group of Catholics who believed in restoring Catholicism to newly Protestant areas of Europe. Were recognized as a new religious order within the Catholic Church. They turned many parts of Europe back to Catholicism through education. Council of Trent – body of Catholic Bishops who met for 18 years to work on reforming corrupt practices within the Catholic faith. Stopped the selling of indulgences. Vasco da Gama – sailed to Eastern Africa & Western India; helped Portugal establish strategic positions along Indian Ocean. Portuguese controlled trade routes in this area. Christopher Columbus – Italian sailing for Spain; looked for route from Spain to India; helped establish a permanent European settlement on Hispaniola; connected Europe with the Americas. Ferdinand Magellan – sailed for Spain; 1st explorer to successfully sail around the earth. Helped prove that the earth was round. Samuel de Champlain – sailed for France; established the first French colony in North America. His colony in New France was called Quebec City. Helped establish trade routes between France and New France. Mercantilism – idea that countries need a large supply of gold and silver to have prosperity. They earn the gold and silver by exporting goods. Colonies provided European nations the raw materials they needed to make finished goods. The colonies then were a market for these finished goods. Columbian Exchange – large scale exchange of plants, diseases, animals, and people between the eastern and western hemispheres following Columbus’ first voyage to the Americas Astrolabe – technology that allowed sailors to locate and predict the position of the moon, sun, stars making navigation more efficient. Copernicus – believed in heliocentric solar system (the earth revolved around the sun); this challenged the Catholic Church’s opposite belief. Galileo Galilei – proved Copernicus’ theory through use of the telescope. Johannes Kepler – astronomer who believed that the planets in the solar system moved in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Sir Isaac Newton – considered the father of calculus; famous for his laws of gravity and motion; proved Kepler’s theory of elliptical orbit through mathematics. European Settlement GPS: SSUSH 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d Founded by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture. First permanent English colony in North America. Settled on a swampy site on the James River in Virginia. Problems: Settled on a swamp Illness Lack of food & fresh water Fights with Native Americans Wanted to look for gold instead of work The colony almost did not survive. 1614 – Pocahontas married John Rolfe, an English tobacco grower. The marriage led to good will between the colonists & the Powhatans for a while. Conflict began again when colonists expanded onto Powhatan lands to grow tobacco. Virginia’s economy became dependent on tobacco for its existence. 1619 – VA Company let Jamestown establish its own government with the right to create colonial laws. Residents elected representatives, called burgesses to the House of Burgesses. The VA House of Burgesses was the first representative government in America. The governor was appointed by the VA Company. This elected body acted on behalf of the colonists. Poor English and slave colonists staged an uprising against the governor and his landowning supporters. The landless rebels wanted harsher action against the Native Americans so more land would be available to the colonists. The rebellion was put down, and the VA House of Burgesses passed laws to regulate slavery so poor white colonists would no longer side with slaves against rich white colonists. New England colonies Established by Puritans in present day Massachusetts. Strict religious beliefs. Not tolerant of differing religious beliefs. Rhode Island was founded by religious dissenters from Massachusetts who were more tolerant of different religious beliefs. Many New England communities were run through town meetings. In colonies run by the King, a royal governor was appointed Church membership was required for men to have voting rights. Church membership was tightly controlled by the minister and congregation. As more children were born in America, many grew up to be adults who lacked a personal covenant (relationship) with God. Mid-1600’s – the Puritan ideal was under pressure to change. 1662- church ministers agreed to the “Half - Way Covenant” Children of church members were admitted as “half way” members who could be baptized into the church, but did not have the right to vote or take communion. Hope was to increase church membership with these 2nd and 3rd generation Puritans. Late 1600’s – a fear of witchcraft was prevalent in New England. 1692- in Salem, MA – dozens of women, men & children were accused of witchcraft & jailed. During the 10 months of the Salem Witch Trials, nineteen people were found guilty of practicing witchcraft and were hanged. PENNSYLVANIA 1681 – William Penn got a large piece of land from King Charles II and founded Pennsylvania. Quakers settled Pennsylvania Practiced religious tolerance Were pacifists Religious equality for women No established church ministry Quakers were often persecuted for they way of life. 1683 – Pennsylvania established a legislative assembly. NEW YORK 1626 – Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was founded after buying Manhattan Island from the Manhattan people (Native Americans) for some beads and other goods. It became a major trading port. Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant turned the colony over to England in 1664. It was renamed New York after the Duke of York, who was the brother of King Charles II. Tolerant of different religions. Mercantilism – inspired Parliament to control the trans-Atlantic trade with its American colonies. All goods shipped to or from British North America had to travel in British ships, and goods exported to Europe were subject to British taxes. These restrictions were designed to keep the colonies from competing with Britain. Tobacco & other cash crops required a large labor force. African slaves were used for this work. In 1607, there were no African slaves in North America, but by 1700, there were thousands. Most of them were found in the Southeast, where the economy was agriculturally based. The Middle Passage was the part of the triangular trade through which the slaves came to North America. African American culture grew in America. Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket weaving, and pottery making. Slaves brought these skills with them from their various cultures. The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking that came about during the scientific revolution in Europe. It was based on reason. JohnLocke and others talked about the natural rights of individuals. Rousseau- argued in favor of the social contract, allowing governments to exist and rule only with the consent of the people. THERE WAS A GROWING BELIEF THAT COLONISTS’ RIGHTS AS ENGLISHMEN WERE BEING VIOLATED. French & Indian War – 1754 – 1763: Fought between Great Britain, the French & their Native American allies. It was fought over territory in the Ohio Valley. Native Americans supported the French because they built forts for trade instead of permanent settlements. Great Britain won the war, but would need money to help pay war debts. Was called the 7 Years War in Europe. Treaty of Paris: 1763 - Ended the French and Indian War. France lost Canada to Great Britain. France also gave up all land east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. The British kept control of all American colonies, which colonists resented. RESULT: Redrew the entire political map of North America & brought Great Britain into conflict with both France and the colonies. Proclamation of 1763: Parliament told the colonists they could not purchase land west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain sent 10,000 troops to the colonies. Western settlers were ordered to vacate Indian land, and only those British settlers with licenses could trade. Stamp Act (1765) – was passed to raise money for defending the colonies. Taxed legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, etc. It was the first direct tax ever placed on the colonies & a violation of the principle that only the colonies’ legislative assemblies could impose taxes. Colonists opposed taxation without representation & boycotted the stamps. No taxes were ever paid and the tax was finally repealed. Sons of Liberty – secret organization formed to show colonists’ dislike for British policies. They were led by Sam Adams. They damaged British property and promoted civil disobedience. Daughters of Liberty - protest group of females. Helped make homemade items so that colonists could continue to boycott British goods. • Committees of Correspondence – formed because American patriots could not communicate publicly. They would exchange written communication with each other. They were the first organization linking the colonies in their opposition to British rule. They played an important role in planning for the First Continental Congress. • Intolerable Acts – passed by Britain to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Closed Boston Harbor, and required colonists to house British soldiers in their homes. Reduce colonists’ rights to self government. Common Sense – Thomas Paine published this pamphlet encouraging Americans to support independence from Great Britain. • Declaration of Independence – 1776- written by Thomas Jefferson using the ideas of John Locke and Charles de Montesquieu. The language of it was very direct and simple for everyone to understand. It explained the reasons for the colonies seeking independence from Great Britain. It listed examples of how King George III had violated colonists’ rights. It discussed the colonists’ many unsuccessful attempts to get relief from Great Britain, and ended by stating that the only way for the colonists to restore their rights was to do it themselves by declaring independence. • Important People • Benjamin Franklin – American ambassador to France. The French began to secretly support the Americans in early 1776. • Marquis de Lafayette – French soldier who joined the war against the British. He helped train American forces and was a key strategist in the Yorktown campaign that led to the British surrender. • Lord Cornwallis – was the commander of the British forces during the American Revolution. He surrendered at Yorktown and returned to Britain. e had a good chance of being badly hurt or dying in battle. Named commander in Chief of the Continental Army. Extraordinary leadership abilities Reorganized the army Got additional equipment and supplies Started a training program for a professional military. Crossing the Delaware River – 1776- Christmas Eve – Was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. Washington & his men crossed the river during a snowstorm for a surprise attack on a fort held by Hessian mercenaries working for the British. The American victory there proved that American troops were a serious opponent. THIS VICTORY RAISED AMERICAN MORALE. Valley Forge -Washington’s troops spent a harsh winter in 1777-1778 there. Problems for the army were at their worst during that time. Disease spread through the camp. 4,000 men were too weak or ill to fight. Even though, Washington ordered an intense training program that made the Continental Army much more confident and capable. Important Events Yorktown , VA– British General Cornwallis planned to move the battles to the south in an attempt to separate the southern & northern states. He followed American troops into VA, where he was defeated by the American-French alliance. He surrendered, and the Revolutionary War ended. 1783 Treaty of Paris – Ended the Revolutionary war. America now had independence without qualification. France Haiti Latin America Other areas that experienced revolution French Revolution Moderate Phase – constitutional monarchy Radical Phase – Reign of Terror Final Moderate Phase – Republic Caused by a lack of central leadership. Extreme margin between rich and poor. Estates General met & promised to double the vote of the common people against the votes of the clergy and nobility. This failed, and the Third Estate (commoners) rebelled and took the “Tennis Court Oath” that they would be the national assembly & would not separate until a constitution was established. France got a constitution in 1791 Reign of Terror began when Louis XVI tried to flee. Tens of thousands were executed (mostly nobility and clergy) A new constitution was written in 1795. The government was unstable, and people wanted a strong political figure. Napoleon entered the scene and established the French Empire. Haitian Revolution (1791) was similar to US Revolution in its causes. Haiti was controlled by France Strict mercantilist policies Denied them a voice in government Slavery Division in Haiti over issues. Declaration of the Rights of man issued by the Estates General in 1789. Raised issue of slavery for France and her colonies. Slave rebellions started in 1791 1794 – all free people in colonies were considered equal Slavery did not end there Inspired slave rebellions around the world Loss of Haiti as a colony led to France giving up much territory in Western Hemisphere. Early 19th century was dominated by revolutions throughout Latin America. These revolutions led to the establishments of the independent territories of Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Bolivia. Many began after the success of the American and French Revolutions. The revolutions revolved around issues of mercantilism, slavery and self- government. Many were influenced or inspired by the efforts of Simon Bolivar, who believed in self government of the Spanish colonies. He established the Gran-Colombia, (a federal republic); it was his dream of a Latin-American state, and lasted until 1830,when it dissolved after his resignation. Written by the 2nd Continental Congress to establish a new central government for America. Was the first constitution (written plan for government) for our nation. Made sure that the central government was WEAK, and state governments were STRONG. No federal power to tax, regulate commerce, or establish a national currency. Led to conflicts among the states that threatened the existence of the nation. An attempt by a group of indebted farmers to secure weapons from a Federal Armory. Became the catalyst for the US to recognize the need for a new constitution. With no power to tax, the federal government could not repair the national economy. Federalists (pro Constitution) focused on weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and the benefits of a national government as formed by the Constitution. They believed a strong central government would foster the commercial growth of the new country. Anti-Federalists (against Constitution) feared too much power in the new central government. They worried that the rights of common people would be suppressed by those in power. Authors of the Federalist Papers These papers communicate the central ideas of the Federalists: The benefits of a union between the states The problems with the confederation as it stood at the time The importance of an effective federal government Defense of republicanism The need for a federal government to preserve order and secure liberty. • Settled dispute between large and small states. • Combined Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan • Established a national legislature with elected representatives based on a state’s population. • Two house legislature • House of Representatives: representation based on population • Senate – equal representation for all states. Slavery Issue 3/5 Compromise: 3/5 of a state’s slaves would count as part of the population Counting formula to be used for calculating taxation & representation Slave Trade: Congress would not interfere with the slave trade for 20 years. Congress could limit the slave trade after that time Return of runaway slaves by Northern states. Federalism (sharing power between federal and state governments) was the basis for the new government. Constitution would be the supreme law of the land. Limited government with divided powers. Powers divided between national and state government Power of national government was divided between the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Checks and balances – ensured that none of the 3 branches became too powerful (example- President can veto a bill passed by Congress) • The Bill of Rights (1st ten amendments to the Constitution) was added in 1791. • Guarantees personal freedoms such as freedom of speech and religion; right to bear arms, etc. ▪ The Constitution took effect in 1789 • George Washington became America’s first president • He set important precedents for other presidents to follow. • Was a period of booming trade with Great Britain. • The US did not get involved in foreign conflicts. (neutrality) • He warned against political parties and foreign entanglements. • Tax policies were a major issue; taxes were passed on liquor; this hit the small whiskey makers in western settlements hard. Farmers in western Pennsylvania rose up to protest the government over taxation. They attacked federal tax collectors. Washington showed the power of the federal government when he sent troops in to stop the protest. He said if Americans did not like a law, they should petition Congress peacefully. 1796 – two political parties had emerged Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists Believed the Constitution granted the federal government implied powers (not specifically mentioned in the Constitution) Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were Republicans Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. No powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. 1796 Election – John Adams (Federalist) was elected President, and Thomas Jefferson (Republican) was elected Vice President. Political parties had begun to play an important role in the government process. 1796 Election – John Adams (Federalist) was elected President Plagued by conflicts with France and Great Britain that crippled the nation’s economy. Received harsh criticism from supporters of Vice President Thomas Jefferson. Congress passed a law that increased citizenship requirements so that Jefferson would lose support from the immigrant community. Congress also tried to stop the criticism with limits on speech and press rights of Jefferson’s followers. Positive changes in France Higher education Civil law (Napoleonic Code) Declared himself Emperor and established a hereditary monarchy. Established a modern secular state Development of modern warfare His military strength motivated other European nations to form alliances & lay the foundation for many of today’s international systems. 1800 – Thomas Jefferson was elected 3rd president of the US He was very curious about undiscovered “treasures” of the western lands. Jefferson sent ambassadors James Monroe & Robert Livingston to France to purchase New Orleans & West Florida for $10 million. Napoleon Bonaparte sold the Louisiana Territory to the US for 3 cents an acre ($15 million). The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the US (1803) Meriwether Lewis & William Clark were chosen by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase and lands west. They led 50 other explorers in the Corps of Discovery. Started at St. Louis and traveled up the Missouri River 28 months 8,000 miles Went to the Pacific Ocean and back. RESULT of the expedition – Opened the door to western expansion and brought a huge change to the lifestyle of Native Americans on both sides of the Mississippi River. Control of Atlantic Trade continued to create conflict between France and England. American merchant ships were caught in the middle of the conflict. 1807 – Congress imposed an embargo (halt) of foreign trade directed against France and Great Britain. The embargo stopped trade for American merchants and farmers, causing a severe economic depression in the United States. American merchant ships were seized at sea by both France and Great Britain. The British forced thousands of American sailors into service in the British Royal Navy (impressment) Members of Congress believed that the British were arming Native Americans & causing their aggression toward the US. June 18, 1812 – Congress declared war on Great Britain. Two years later, the Treaty of Ghent was signed to end the war. Military stalemate White House was burned Brought a new spirit of nationalism that expanded trade & westward movement 1823 – President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine. Put Europe on notice that the US would not tolerate any additional European colonies in North America. Became the basis for US foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere American domestic policy focused mainly on movement west 1807- steamboat changed river travel By 1830, the steam locomotive would lead to a railroad network stretching from the East Coast to the MS River. 1825 - Erie Canal opened and connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River Canals and railroads allowed goods to move from east to west New York was a central point for America’s trade and banking NY had a population of over 200,000 by 1830. As the infrastructure developed, America’s inner cities began to grow. Economic Growth & Reform GPS: SSUSH 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e Began in England in 1700s & eventually spread to the United States. Advances in science & technology Had far reaching socioeconomic effects Industrialization involved a transition from manual to power driven factory labor. Factories began producing goods such as cloth & furniture previously made by hand in small shops or at home. As industries grew, people began to leave rural farms & villages to move to the cities for factory work. 1794 – Eli Whitney makes cotton production easier with the invention of the cotton gin, which separated seeds from cotton. This invention resulted in increased cotton production, which led to more fields being planted with cotton, and an increased need for slaves to pick the cotton. By 1840, cotton represented 52% of goods exported from the United States. US industrialization began in 1800 in New England, where coal and iron were plentiful. • Parts that can be used for more than one product, instead of parts made one at a time for individual machines. • Eli Whitney used interchangeable musket parts, which resulted in a large musket contract for him. • These parts became a key component of industrialization in both the United States and Europe. • Most Americans desired to own their own land. • Gold and other valuable resources were discovered in the West. • Manifest Destiny – belief of Americans that it was our “obvious fate” to expand from coast to coast. 72 Term refers to the presidency of Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) He believed in Manifest Destiny Jackson expanded the power of the presidency Encouraged people from all social classes to be involved in government & vote He used the spoils system, where he gave friends and political supporters jobs in the government (even if they weren’t qualified) Responsible for Indian Relocation 73 Expanded during Jackson’s presidential campaigns. Accusations against each side Mud slinging These were publicized in songs, pamphlets, posters, lapel buttons and posters. Campaign rallies and barbecues. • As a people, Americans in Andrew Jackson’s day believed in Manifest Destiny. • They believed their nation was different than, and superior to, other nations because most Americans of that time shared the Protestant religion, English ancestry, and culture. • They believed it was their duty to expand the hold of their religion, language, ancestry and culture all the way to the Pacific Ocean. • Together, these beliefs comprise American nationalism. 75 Temperance Abolition Public School Women’s Suffrage • Temperance is the belief that people should limit or eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages. • Impact – increased the size of Protestant religious organizations & their influence in western & rural sections of the country. Also laid the foundation for the women’s movement because women played such an important role in this movement. 77 Issue – Slavery should be abolished and not allowed in new states. Impact – made slavery and its expansion an important political issue. Women played an important role, which laid the foundation for the women’s movement. 78 Abolition movement was an effort to end slavery. It took place mainly in the North. William Lloyd Garrison – writer and editor; white radical abolitionist; published anti-slavery newspaper. Frederick Douglass – former slave; worked for Garrison; traveled and made speeches against slavery; later published his own newspaper. Until 1920, most women in the US did not have suffrage (right to vote). Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a large assembly in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848. More than 2,000 people attended the Seneca Falls Convention. It was the first women’s rights convention in the US. They wrote & voted on the Declaration of Sentiments, which called for equal rights for women in education, property ownership, and voting. This convention kicked off the women’s suffrage movement, and conventions were held every year. Eventually (1920), 72 years of persistence would lead to the 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote. 80 Issue – all children should be required to attend free schools supported by taxpayers and staffed by trained teachers. Impact – Established education as a right for all children and as a state and local issue. Improved the quality of schools by requiring trained teachers. Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a state. Their constitution allowed slavery. One half of the states in the Union were free and one half allowed slaves. Missouri would upset the balance. So, the Missouri Compromise was enacted. Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state Maine entered the Union as a free state No slavery would be allowed in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase except Missouri. Vice President, John C. Calhoun disagreed with President Andrew Jackson over rights of states to nullify (cancel) federal laws that they opposed. Trouble started when southern states tried to nullify a high tax (tariff) placed on goods from Europe. The tax helped northern manufacturers, but hurt plantation owners. John C. Calhoun, who resigned from the VP, was from South Carolina, so that state led the fight for states’ rights against the federal government. RESULT (CONSEQUENCE) – SECTIONALISM GROWS STRONGER IN THE SOUTH. In 1845, Texas became part of the United States (it had formerly been part of Mexico). The US then wanted the Mexican territories of California and New Mexico. War broke out between the US and Mexico in 1846. The US occupied much of northern Mexico during the war. The US eventually won the war, and this region was ceded (given) to the US in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. During the Mexican – American War, Congress debated whether slavery would be allowed in New Mexico and California if these territories were gained from Mexico. The anti-slavery provision was outlined in a proposal called the Wilmot Proviso. The House of Representatives failed to approve it, and the question of slavery in those areas remained unanswered. Five laws written to deal with issue of slavery in new states. The state of New Mexico would be established by carving its borders from Texas. New Mexico voters would determine whether slavery would be permitted or prohibited. California would enter the Union as a free state All citizens would be required to catch runaway slaves & return them to their owners or face fines or imprisonment. The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there. 1854 – Congress had to deal with the question of slavery in the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska. The idea was suggested by Senator Stephen Douglas for two reasons: 1) He wanted Chicago to benefit from western development (railroads could be built on Kansas & Nebraska land & crops could be sent to Chicago) 2) He wanted support of Southern Democrats when he ran for President. Allowing the people to decide on slavery would make North & South happy. Kansas – Nebraska Act Established POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (rule by the people) in all new territories for people to decide if the state would be free or slave. Pro – slavery & anti-slavery groups rushed to Kansas to try to create a voting majority there. Pro – slavery voters elected a legislature. Abolitionists elected a rival Kansas government with an anti-slavery constitution, established a different capital city, and raised an army. Pro-slavery Kansans raised their own army. Violence broke out between the two factions – Kansas was called “Bleeding Kansas”. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY HAD FAILED !! Dred Scott Decision 1857 – US Supreme Court issued the Dred Scott decision. A slave named Dred Scott had sued his owner for his freedom when his owner moved him to a free state. The Supreme Court’s ruling stated that a slave could not be a citizen, so he could not sue. The Court also said that Congress could not prohibit slavery in federal territories. The Court found that popular sovereignty and the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional. SIGNIFICANCE – The US Constitution protected slavery.. John Brown was a famous abolitionist who decided to fight slavery with violence and killing. He thought he was chosen by God to end slavery. He led family members and other abolitionists in an attack on pro-slavery settlers in Kansas. In 1859, he led a group of black and white men in an attack on the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He planned to deliver the weapons to slaves to use in an uprising against slaveholders & federal officials. The raid failed and Brown was captured. He was convicted of treason against VA & executed. In the North he was a martyr; in the South he was a traitor. Lincoln was elected in 1860. South Carolina seceded from the Union (separated), followed by MS, FL, AL, GA, LA & TX. These states formed a new country called the Confederacy (Confederate States of America) They attacked the US Army base at Fort Sumter, SC in 1861 and the Civil War began. Lincoln believed that preserving the Union was his most important job. He saw the southern states as merely rebelling against the government. Lincoln called for a volunteer army to preserve the Union, and more states joined the Confederacy: VA, AR, NC, & TN. At first, Lincoln only wanted to restrict the spread of slavery, but later decided to end it in the US. Lincoln was re-elected in 1864. The Union had a certain victory. Lincoln expressed sorrow that the states had not been able to resolve their differences peacefully. He stated that slavery was evil. He urged Americans not to seek revenge on slaveholders and Confederate supporters. He urged Reconstruction of the South with “malice toward none”. Said the war was fought to preserve the Union and end slavery. The legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if they were being held in custody legally. Lincoln suspended this constitutional right in some states during the Civil War. He had the right to do this in times of national emergencies. This enabled over 13,000 Confederate sympathizers to be arrested and held in the North. Lincoln used his emergency powers to issue it. Freed (emancipated) all the slaves in the Confederate States. He hoped the news would reach the slaves in the South & they would flee to the North. He thought this would lessen the number of men able to join the Confederate Army. It did not free slaves living in the North. New goal for Union troops – abolishing slavery. Maryland – 1862 First major battle on Union soil. Bloodiest one day battle of the Civil War Robert E. Lee’s Confederate forces retreated, and the Union claimed victory. Significance of this battle - Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation afterwards. Pennsylvania – 1863 – Three day battle that was the turning point of the war More than 50,000 men killed or wounded. Lee failed to show Britain & France they should help the Confederacy. Devastating losses for the Confederates Lee withdrew his forces back to Virginia Lee gave up attempts to invade the Union. 1862 – Vicksburg was important to the Confederacy because it guarded the Mississippi River & access to New Orleans. In 1863, Union forces sneaked past the Confederates during the night, and set up south of Vicksburg, where they gained control of the Mississippi River. This basically cut the Confederacy in half. Vicksburg was lost on July 4, 1863. Sherman’s plan was to force the Confederate forces to stop his advance. If they refused to fight, he planned to seize Atlanta. Confederate General James Hood engaged Union forces, and lost thousands of soldiers. Sherman’s forces were able to capture Atlanta, a major rail and industrial center of the Confederacy. 1863 – Lincoln’s speech to dedicate a military cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield. Lincoln spoke for only two minutes, but his speech is considered to be one of the greatest in the English language. It shaped popular opinion in favor of preserving the Union. It helped raise the spirits of the northerners who had grown tired of the war. He was able to convince people that the US was one indivisible nation. President Johnson’s plan: Amnesty for Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union. Pardon high ranking Confederate soldiers. Voting rights for white men All southern states would ratify the 13th Amendment. Johnson would appoint new southern governors. Re-admit southern states to the Union as quickly as possible. Republicans in Congress were angry because new southern state governments were denying newly freed slaves their rights. Congress forced southern states to re-apply for admission to the Union. They had to ratify (accept) three new amendments to the Constitution. Ended slavery in the US. Freedmen’s Bureau – to meet the needs of former slaves; food, land, shelter & medical care. It also established schools & made labor contracts for freedmen. Black colleges (Morehouse in Atlanta) Granted full citizenship to all people born in the US. (14th) Gave all citizens the right to vote. (15th) Many children could attend school for the first time. African Americans started newspapers, served in public office, and attended new colleges and universities. Morehouse College was founded in Atlanta in 1867. Freedmen’s Bureau was created by Congress to help the newly freed slaves. Provided food, clothing, jobs, medicine and medical facilities. Congress did not grant them land or the absolute right to own land. Many worked as tenant farmers or sharecroppers. Johnson ignored laws passed by Congress to limit presidential powers. They passed these laws to stop Johnson from curbing Radical Republicans’ hostile treatment of former Confederate states and their leaders. Johnson missed conviction by one vote. He was impeached mainly because he had differing opinions than those who had the power to impeach him. Black Codes (1865 – 1866) – Series of laws passed by Southern legislatures to restrict the rights of newly freed blacks. Vagrancy laws; banned from owning farmland; minors could be “indentured” until 21 years old. Black Codes would later be overturned. Formed in 1866 in Tennessee as a social club. Then became a “white supremist group fighting to keep African Americans from receiving their rights. Terrorized African Americans as a way to maintain the segregation and disenfranchisement of blacks. Dressed in white robes & hoods depicting the “ghosts” of dead Nathan Bedford Forrest Confederate soldiers. Railroads Oil and Steel Industry Immigrant Labor Rise of Big Business Labor Unions Movement West Progressives Why were they important? 1. Could cross long distances 2. More reliable transportation 3. Increased westward expansion 4. Government gave land grants to RR’s Mostly Chinese immigrants The work was harsh and dangerous. The pay was poor. They worked long hours in all kinds of weather. Andrew Carnegie – Used vertical integration to make his company grow. He bought all the supplies & gained control of all parts of the steel production process. He created more product more cheaply. He also attracted talent to work in his company. Carnegie gave away 90% of his wealth!! •John D. Rockefeller used horizontal integration to make his company grow & create a monopoly. •He controlled 90% of all the oil refinery businesses in the US. •He paid low wages & kept his profits high. •Rockefeller also gave much of his wealth to charities. Immigrants from Europe arrived on the East Coast at Ellis Island It was called the Golden Door (New York City) They traveled 2 – 3 weeks to get here in terrible conditions; faced thieves and criminals who took advantage of them; settled together in communities; made low wages, and faced discrimination. Likely to be poor. Immigrants from Asia arrived on the West Coast at Angel Island. Chinese & Japanese were targets of suspicion, hostility & discrimination. They worked mostly for the railroads. American labor unions were against them. One of the leading labor unions in the US Was led by Samuel Gompers Used collective bargaining as a method to help workers – this was a negotiation tactic where each side makes compromises. Used strikes – all workers walked off the job until the company agreed to the Union’s requests. Harmful effect on Native Americans. Settlers & railroads took their land. Violence occurred between US troops & Native Americans. They were relocated to reservations. Their way of life was disrupted. Muckrakers were journalists who alerted the public to wrongdoing in politics and business. Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about the meatpacking industry. Ida Tarbell exposed unethical business practices of Standard Oil. Progress of business and industry inspired reformers to make improvements in the political and social environment. Strengthened American democracy in ways we carry forward into our own time. Supported new ideas and policies they believed would improve people’s lives. Supported increase government regulation of business and industry, efforts to protect consumers and workers, and policies to conserve natural resources. • There was corruption in the government; several reforms were made to end it. • Initiative – Citizens can put proposal on ballot by petition • Recall – Voters can remove public officials from office • Referendum – Process allowing citizens to approve or reject a law. • Direct election of Senators – 17th Amendment (1913) – Voters won the right to elect their US senators. Previously, each state’s legislature chose the senators. Asian immigrants face discrimination in the 1880’s. Chinese workers accepted low wages for jobs whites had held, employers lowered the wages for all workers. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882 and banned all future Chinese immigration. Pro – Imperialists Gain new frontier to keep our competitive edge A celebration of American traditions & spirit Practicality of gaining foreign markets Good Military strategy Anti – Imperialists Rejection of nation’s foundation of “liberty for all” Laws should follow the flag – areas controlled by the US should get the rights of its citizens. Threatened our democratic freedom Racism – fear that policies would encourage people of different racial backgrounds to move to the US. Economic reasons – too many costs Competition for US jobs Background & Causes: US vs. Spain in 1898 Fighting happened near Cuba & the Philippines. Spanish naval squadron was completely destroyed. Spain’s defeat marked the end of their colonial empire & established the US as a global military empire. Causes: ▪ Cuba was trying to gain independence from Spain; suffered brutality ▪ Yellow Journalism – American newspapers used sensationalism in reporting events & increased US sympathy for Cubans. ▪ US imperialism ▪ The US battleship Maine exploded mysteriously in Havanna, Cuba Philippine people wanted total independence from US War lasted 2 years Filipino troops used guerilla warfare Teddy Roosevelt declared an end to the war in 1902. US controlled the Philippines until after WWII. (July 4, 1946) Caribbean region and Latin America remained unstable. Teddy Roosevelt feared European countries would take advantage of the instability to gain power and influence in the region. Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine – US would maintain stability in Latin America even with force. Panama Canal – created a faster route between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Biggest engineering project of the era. Balkan nationalism- people of the Balkans believed that Bosnia should be part of a new Slavic state. European powers placed Bosnia under Austro- Hungarian control. Russia secretly helped finance the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which was a catalyst for WWI. Entangling Alliances – late 1800’s – early 1900’s; European nations began to ally with each other. This alliance system made some countries feel an obligation to aid their allies in the event of war. Militarism – late 1800’s and early 1900’s – countries like France, Germany, and Great Britain were engaged in an arms race. France and Germany doubled the size of their armies during this period. Great Britain and Germany fought for naval dominance by introducing battleships to the seas. Western front was characterized by trench warfare between German and French armies. They stayed in nearly the same positions for four years. (stalemate) On the eastern front, Germany was able to defeat Russian and Serbian forces decisively. This allowed the German army to focus more attention on the western front. Treaty of Versailles – peace treaty signed at the Palace of Versailles near Paris ended WWI. One of the most important aspects of the treaty was the reparations (payment of war debts) required of Germany. Reparations- Germany had to pay for the damages they had inflicted on the Allies. This would cause Germany much economic stress in the post war period. Many Germans felt that they were being punished personally for the actions of their government. Mandate System – To gain Arab support against the Ottoman Empire during the war, the Allies promised to recognize the independence of Arab states. Some western powers changed their minds and established the mandate system. France controlled Lebanon and Syria, while Great Britain controlled Palestine and Iraq. These nations did not officially “own” the territories. Fall of the Romanovs – Russian Czar Nicholas II was the last of the Romanov family to rule Russia. His downfall was his poor military leadership, his tendency to listen to his wife, and Rasputin. He was also unable to handle the economic crises facing Russia. He stepped down in 1917 and was assassinated in 1918. Fall of the Hapsburgs – the Hapsburgs had ruled the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time of WWI. Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the empire (he was assassinated). Their downfall was due to the inability to create an identity among the people of the empire and their apathy toward including the growing middle class in decision making. Neutrality at first Immigrants were sympathetic with their native countries Socialists thought it was a struggle between European capitalists over Asian markets Pacifists thought the US should stay neutral to set an example of peace US mobilized for war by 1917 Germany threatened the US with U-boat attacks The passenger ship, Lusitania, was sunk & Americans killed Zimmerman Note (Germany tried to get Mexico to attack the US) Russia withdrew from the war Great Migration – 1.5 million southern blacks moved to the cities Faced residential segregation ordinances & restrictive covenants, so access to housing was a problem. Created cities within cities during the 1920’s. ▪ Harlem was the largest Allies won the war – Wilson devised a 14 Point Plan for peace No secret treaties Free seas for all nations Free trade for all Lower arms for domestic safety only Change imperialistic policies # 6 – 13 dealt with boundary changes in Europe #14 – Create a League of Nations as a place to settle disputes and avoid wars. (Was rejected by other allied nations & US senators) US never joined. 1919 – the 18th Amendment was passed. Was the Prohibition Amendment that prohibited the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcohol. Was hard to enforce & led to bootlegging and organized crime. 1920 – The 19th Amendment was passed. Gave women the right to vote. Russian Revolution – Russia suffered military and economic failures during WWI. After Czar Nicholas II stepped down, a provisional government formed. The Bolsheviks were a party of soviets (councils of workers and soldiers) They were led by V.I. Lenin They took power away from the provisional government. Made promises to the Russian workers to gain their support. Promised to transfer ownership of factories from capitalists to the workers. Also promised to end Russia’s involvement in WWI. Leader of Soviet Union and Communist Party He took over after Lenin’s death Was a dictator and governed a period that saw over 25 million Soviet people die from his policies and execution orders. Five Year Plan- Stalin’s plan to transform the Soviet Union from an agricultural into an industrial economy in a brief period of time. The policies hurt the average citizen because of low wages and lack of housing. Farms were taken away from private hands and collectivized. Peasants were forced to work on the collective farms. Political philosophy that emphasizes the state over the individual. Propaganda is used to convince the people that a strong central government led by a dictator is the way to economic and military success. Opposition is suppressed by the threat of violence. Fascist dictators gained power in Europe during the Great Depression. Adolph Hitler - Germany Benito Mussolini - Italy Hirohito - Japan Benito Mussolini- Fascist leader of Italy; never achieved totalitarian control of Italy. Adolph Hitler – Fascist leader of the Nazi Party in Germany; wrote Mein Kampf, a book outlining his belief in Anti-Semitism (hatred for Jews), Anti-Communism, and the right of superior individuals to take control of the masses by force. Hirohito – Emperor of Japan from 1926 to 1989. Reign included internal conflicts, invasion of China, entry into WWII, surrender of Japan, and the growth of Japan into an industrial power. Between WWI and WWII he personally took control of the military. Totalitarianism – government controls every aspect of public and private life in the country. Use propaganda and surveillance to control people. Opposition is suppressed through violence. Police state – No “rule of law” controlling the actions of the government. The “law” is the same as the personal beliefs of the dictator. (usually accompanies totalitarianism) Authoritarian government – leader lacks real legitimacy; is usually more private than public; lacks charisma that gets loyalty from the people; relies on behind the scenes corruption to maintain control. Late 1800’s and early 1900’s – communism grew out of socialism. Communism – no private ownership; dictator rules a single party When the communists took control in Russia, and called for a worldwide revolution to destroy capitalism, people in the US began to fear communists. Red Scare – fear of international communism. Red was the color of the communist flag. This led to the government pursuing suspected communists and socialists. Red Scare was one factor that led to new restrictions on immigration. Another factor was that people born in America were superior to immigrants. A third factor was that America should keep its traditional culture intact. Anti-immigrant, anti-Jewish, and anti-Catholic sentiments contributed to the popularity of a revived Ku Klux Klan throughout the nation. This conservative reaction against immigrants resulted in the passage of legislation that set limits on the number of immigrants who could come to the US from each country. 1920’s -automobile emerged as a replacement for the horse. Mass production made this possible Henry Ford used mass production to make his Model T on the assembly line. Radio had a major impact by bringing the nation together. It blurred regional differences & created similar tastes and lifestyles. Created a national culture. Phonograph caused piano sales to decrease; created the “Jazz Age”. Made Duke Ellington & Louis Armstrong popular. Movie attendance increased; created a new popular culture with common speech, dress, and behaviors. Spectator Sports were popular because people needed heroes. Favorite sports were boxing, football, and baseball. Jazz combined themes and note patterns developed by enslaved African Americans with rhythms worked out by musicians in New Orleans and elsewhere in the South. Was very popular in the US in the 1920’s. Trumpet player Louis Armstrong was one of the biggest stars of jazz. Harlem Renaissance - 1920’s wave of creativity in Harlem celebrating African American culture through literature and song. Best known poet of the movement was Langston Hughes, who wrote about the lives of working class African Americans and sometimes set his words to jazz or blues. The Great Depression (1929 – 1941) began with the Stock Market Crash on October 28, 1929. Stock prices fell drastically, and people withdrew their money from banks in a panic. Characteristics of the Depression included: Economic depression High unemployment Decline in industrial production 98% decrease in US economic investment 1920’s economic problems: Gap between rich and poor grew wider Banks failed (people withdrew money) Industry was in trouble ▪ High tariffs to protect US trade led to decreased international trade ▪ Decline in business investments Too many crops = less profits for farmers ▪ Farmers stopped buying products ▪ Dust Bowl in Great Plains Stock Market gambles (speculation) Weaknesses in the Economy Competition with foreign markets New transportation competed with RR’s New methods of energy competed with coal Farm debts could not be repaid Federal Reserve Bank slowed the money supply instead of stimulating the economy. Consumer Problems High prices Low wages Too much buying on credit – people could not repay loans. False sense of prosperity in the 1920’s High unemployment = US had no system of unemployment insurance; no jobs meant that people couldn’t buy products. Unemployment – by 1932 one fourth of the nation’s families had no wage earner. Loss of homes – vagrancy & hoboes; people lived in shantytowns and “Hoovervilles” Soup kitchens and breadlines = people were hungry Families were separated (many men deserted their wives and children) 200,000 kid with no home. Increased racial violence over jobs Migration to California Hoboes on the RR’s More diet related illness (rickets) Shorter school year; some schools closed Increased suicide rate Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 21 dams were built to generate electricity was created in 1933 as a way to bring electricity to thousands of farms in seven southern states. Wagner Act – (National Labor Relations Act) Empowered labor unions Federal government guaranteed the right of employees to form unions and use collective bargaining. Set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) which had the power to prohibit unfair labor practices by employers. Social Security Act – Workers 65 and older would get monthly stipends based on previous earnings. Gave indigent elderly small relief payments Assistance to the blind and handicapped Assistance to children who did not have a wage earning parent. Established the nation’s first federally sponsored system of unemployment insurance. Pearl Harbor (American naval base in Hawaii) was attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941. “A day that will live in infamy”. surprise attack US Pacific fleet was almost entirely destroyed over 2,000 Americans died; 1178 wounded- only 55 Japanese deaths Japan awoke the “sleeping giant” – FDR asked Congress to declare war on Japan. Internment Camps – Japanese-American citizens were forced to leave their homes and sell their property at great losses. They were relocated in 10 internment camps in seven western states. They lived behind barbed wire in tiny wooden barracks. Nearly 18,000 of the men joined the US Army, and their unit was one of the most decorated in WWII. The camps were finally closed after protests. Hitler wanted to build a German empire in Europe & began to demand that Europe’s German populated areas be united with Germany. (Nazi Party ideology) Holocaust – Planned internment, enslavement, and murder of Jews and other religious and ethnic minorities perpetrated by Hitler’s Nazi Party. Lend – Lease Act: FDR entered his 3rd term as president He wanted to help Britain in the war effort. Act was signed in 1941 and allowed the US to aid any nation whose defense was vital to the US. How we mobilized for war federal government played important role auto industry converted from cars to tanks & planes women went to work in factories crop prices were set at high levels – more cash for farmers small farmers left farms to work in defense plants or armed services we rationed scarce items (sugar, meat, coffee, tires, gas, shoes) government levied a 5% withholding tax on anyone earning over $642 a year to reduce purchasing power. D –Day – June 6, 1944 Allied forces launched sea-born invasion of France called Operation Overlord Allied forces were led by Dwight D. Eisenhower they invaded from the English Channel France was liberated from Germany on August 25, 1944 Germany was militarily defeated by the spring of 1945. The Soviet Union crushed Berlin (Hitler’s stronghold) Hitler committed suicide Germany surrendered (May 7, 1945) The war in Europe was over, but the Japanese pressed on. $2 billion dollar secret project centered at Los Alamos, New Mexico goal was to develop the atomic bomb invasion of Japan would be deadly and costly President Harry Truman approved use of the bomb on Japan. August 6, 1945 – the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima August 9, 1945 – a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki The cities were annihilated and thousands died August 15, 1945- Japan surrendered Meetings of Allied leaders (Churchill, Stalin, FDR/Truman) where discussions occurred regarding plans for post war Europe. Soviet Union played a key role in defeating Germany, so the Allies couldn’t completely ignore Stalin’s demands for what became a “sphere of influence” in many Eastern European countries. European Recovery Plan – named for US Secretary of State George Marshall. Was America’s main program for rebuilding Western Europe and opposing communism after WWII. Plan was in place 4 years. US spent 13 billion dollars on economic and technical assistance for European nations that had been nearly destroyed in the war. Plan offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies if they would make political reforms. Soviets rejected the proposal. General Douglass MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan after WWII. To halt the spread of communism to Western Europe from the Soviet controlled nations of Eastern Europe, the US formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (NATO) Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of communist nations. US adopted a policy of containment – determination to stop the spread of communism. Basis of many US foreign policy decisions in the Cold War period. Truman Doctrine proposed military and economic aid to countries threatened by Communist takeover It committed the US to providing aid to countries resisting communism & provided the first step toward what would become the containment policy. Mao Zedong & Chinese Communists started the People’s Republic of China. The fall of China to Communists shocked Americans & there was some blame placed on US government officials for loss of the country to Communists. The US feared that country after country in Asia would fall to Communism. (domino theory) Communist forces from North Korea invaded South Korea & a 3 year war began. US air and sea forces helped Korean troops. 300,000 Chinese forces entered Korea US decided not to attack China Was the first of the Cold War conflicts to test the Truman Doctrine. The 38th parallel divided Korea into North (communist) and South (free) before the war. It also was the dividing line after the war. 1950 to 1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy led a hunt for Communist infiltrators in America. He accused people from artists to the top level of military of having Communist ties or being a sympathizer. 2nd Red Scare He was very careless and cruel in accusing people of being Communist. In November, 1954, he was censured (punished) by the US Senate. October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite into space. (Sputnik I) Americans were alarmed that the Soviets could spy on us from space. We wanted to stay ahead of the Soviet Union January, 1958, the US launched Explorer I The space race had officially begun. First man to orbit Earth was Yuri Gagarin (S.U. 1961) in the capsule Vostok I. 1962- John Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth in Friendship 7 Term describing the Cold War competition between the US and the Soviet Union for military superiority. Weapons became increasingly complex and destructive. Hydrogen Bomb – became the basis of “mutually assured destruction”. Knowing that if the US or Soviets used the bomb, the other nation would use theirs. Helped maintain a balance of power. Indian Independence – British government peacefully transferred power to India. Conflicts created the need for separate nations for Hindus and Muslims. Pakistan – primarily Muslim India –primarily Hindu Much violence inflicted on each other as millions of people left their homes to enter the state that reflected their religion. Gandhi – Primary leader of the Indian Independence movement. Known for his belief in non-violent change Used civil disobedience and unarmed demonstrations to shame British rulers into granting India’s independence. Established in the British mandate of Palestine by a United Nations resolution following WWII. Palestine was divided into an Arab state and a Jewish state. The West was sympathetic toward the Jewish people after the Holocaust. Many Palestinians had to flee their homes and live in refugee camps. Conflicts among Israel, the Palestinians, and neighboring Arab states continue to be a major foreign policy issue for countries around the world. Truman’s integration order – 1948; President Truman issued an executive order to integrate the US Armed Forces and end discrimination in the hiring of US government employees. This led to the civil rights laws enacted in the 1960s. 1954 Supreme Court case State laws establishing “separate but equal” public schools denied African American students the equal education promised in the 14th Amendment. Reversed “Plessy vs. Ferguson” ruling Governor of Arkansas tried to keep nine African Americans from enrolling in high school. President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to force the high school to integrate. 1963 – arrested in Birmingham, AL Wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” to address fears white religious leaders had that he was moving too fast toward desegregation. His writing explained why it was hard for African Americans to wait for discrimination and violence toward them to end. Later, he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech in Washington, DC to ask for peace and racial harmony. Signed by President Lyndon Johnson Prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender. Prompted by : Long struggle by African Americans for equal rights Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speech News reports of presidential actions that combated civil rights violations. Outlawed the requirement for would-be voters in the US to take literacy tests. Provided money for programs to register voters in areas with large numbers of unregistered minorities. Gave the Department of Justice the right to oversee the voting laws in certain districts known to use literacy tests and poll taxes. National Organization of Women: founded in 1966. Goal was to promote equal rights and opportunities for women. Origins in civil rights and anti-war movements of early 60’s. Goals included equality in employment, political and social equality, and passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. Silent Spring was a book written by Rachel Carson in 1962 exposing the dangers of pesticides. Led to the Water Quality Act of 1965 First Earth Day was celebrated in 1970. Communities organized to raise awareness about the environment President Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set limits on pollution, conduct environmental research, and assist state and local governments clean up polluted sites. Ethnic conflicts: In the mid to late 20th century and early 21st century, ethnic conflicts have arisen around the world. Many are tied to the artificial boundaries set by European imperialists in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. In some places, such as Cambodia, Bosnia, and Sudan, there have been ethnic conflicts resulting in genocide. New Nationalism: in places like India, South Africa, and Kenya, nationalism helped end colonial (European) rule. For example, the nationalist African National Congress worked against the system of Apartheid for years, eventually toppling the minority government and making a relatively peaceful transfer of power. Impact of Terrorism Terrorism is basically a synthesis of war and theater. It is a dramatization of the kind of violence that is perpetrated on innocent lives. It is played before an audience in the hope of creating a mood of fear for political purposes. Some most recognized groups in the 20th century are Shining Path, Red Brigade, Hamas, and Al Qaeda. Multinational corporations: 20th and 21st centuries have seen the growth of companies, often based in North America and Europe, with worldwide influence. Examples: Coca Cola and UPS have operations and sales all over the world. United Nations: many nations came together following WWII with the goals of promoting peaceful settlement of international issues/conflicts and working toward greater dignity for all humans. OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. US is not a member. OPEC tries to control the world petroleum market through changes in output. World Trade Organization: (WTO) was established following WWII to promote free trade between nations. Wants to reduce trade barriers such as tariffs, quotas, and subsidies.
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