US history by pengtt


									   90 Multiple Choice Questions
   You should be able to finish the test in 60 minutes, although
    you have up to 3 hours and 10 minutes if needed.
   Questions require a range of thinking skills.
   Identify, describe, explain, analyze, evaluate
   Some questions involve reading a short excerpt from a
    primary or secondary source.
   Some questions require interpretation of a graph, map or
   Many questions involve mental processes such as
    recognizing cause and effect; contrast/compare; classify
    information or give examples.
   American Government/Civics = 18%

   US History to 1865 = 26%

   US History since 1865 = 25%

   Geography = 13%

   World History = 18%
   Read everything carefully.
   Remember there are NO trick questions.
   Consider every choice.
   Guess intelligently.
   Spend your time wisely. Skip harder questions if
    necessary and go back later.
   The Renaissance – means “rebirth”; in Europe was the
    rebirth of ideas and culture connected with ancient Greece
    and Rome. Mainly in urban centers.
   Florence – where the Renaissance began; spread to other
    areas of Europe over 200 years.
   Politics – Medici family (wealthy merchants) ruled Florence
   Economy – based on shipping trade with Byzantine & Islamic
    Empires as well as England and the Netherlands.
   Socially– time of recovery from Black Plague & political
    instability. Importance of the individual. Material comforts,
    art emphasizing positive human qualities, and humanistic
   Renaissance Man describes a well educated person who
    excels in many fields and has many talents.
     Machiavelli – From Florence; Wrote The Prince, describing
      the skills required by a ruling prince to maintain power
      and order.
     Leonardo da Vinci – The original Renaissance Man; expert
      in painting, sculpting, engineering, physics, anatomy, and
      other subjects. He is most known for the Mona Lisa and
      The Last Supper.
     Michelangelo – Renaissance artist who is best known for
      idealized paintings and sculptures of the human body.
      Reflected the beauty of God.
   Humanists studied history, philosophy, and poetry of the ancient
    Greeks and Romans.
     Petrarch – argued that no conflict existed between secular
      achievements and a person’s relationship with God. He
      believed that God gave people intelligence and talents that they
      should use to the fullest.
     Dante – Took humanist ideas and incorporated them into
      literature written in the common language of his day; not in
     Erasmus – was a Dutch Christian Humanist who believed in
      reforming the Catholic Church from within. He believed in free
      will instead of predestination ideas found in the Protestant
   A movement against certain practices of the Catholic Church
    which had dominated religious practice & politics in Europe
    for hundreds of years.
   Martin Luther – his ideas were considered a catalyst of the
    Protestant Reformation. He publicly protested and posted
    the 95 Theses attacking the selling of Indulgences for the
    release from the punishment of sin. He broke from the
    Catholic Church, and the Lutheran Church was formed as the
    first Protestant faith.
   John Calvin – Leader in the Protestant faith; believed in
    predestination (God is all powerful and has already decided
    who will receive salvation & who won’t)
   Henry VIII – established the Anglican Church in England
    (Protestant Church) so he could divorce his wife. He
    remained very Catholic in his beliefs.
   Elizabeth I – Henry VIII’s daughter turned the Anglican
    Church to moderate Protestantism during her reign.
   Johannes Gutenberg – printed the first Bible in Europe with
    moveable type. This allowed the ideas of the Protestant
    Reformation to spread rapidly. The printing industry
    encouraged people to learn to read, and gave them access to
    a variety of religious texts, literature, and scholarship.
 Jesuits – group of Catholics who believed in
  restoring Catholicism to newly Protestant areas of
  Europe. Were recognized as a new religious order
  within the Catholic Church. They turned many parts
  of Europe back to Catholicism through education.
 Council of Trent – body of Catholic Bishops who met
  for 18 years to work on reforming corrupt practices
  within the Catholic faith. Stopped the selling of
   Vasco da Gama – sailed to Eastern Africa & Western India;
    helped Portugal establish strategic positions along Indian
    Ocean. Portuguese controlled trade routes in this area.

   Christopher Columbus – Italian sailing for Spain; looked for
    route from Spain to India; helped establish a permanent
    European settlement on Hispaniola; connected Europe with
    the Americas.

   Ferdinand Magellan – sailed for Spain; 1st explorer to
    successfully sail around the earth. Helped prove that the
    earth was round.
   Samuel de Champlain – sailed for France; established the
    first French colony in North America. His colony in New
    France was called Quebec City. Helped establish trade
    routes between France and New France.

   Mercantilism – idea that countries need a large supply of
    gold and silver to have prosperity. They earn the gold and
    silver by exporting goods. Colonies provided European
    nations the raw materials they needed to make finished
    goods. The colonies then were a market for these finished
   Columbian Exchange – large scale exchange
    of plants, diseases, animals, and people
    between the eastern and western
    hemispheres following Columbus’ first
    voyage to the Americas

   Astrolabe – technology that allowed sailors
    to locate and predict the position of the
    moon, sun, stars making navigation more
   Copernicus – believed in heliocentric solar system (the earth
    revolved around the sun); this challenged the Catholic Church’s
    opposite belief.

   Galileo Galilei – proved Copernicus’ theory through use of the

   Johannes Kepler – astronomer who believed that the planets in the
    solar system moved in an elliptical orbit around the sun.

   Sir Isaac Newton – considered the father of calculus; famous for
    his laws of gravity and motion; proved Kepler’s theory of elliptical
    orbit through mathematics.
  European Settlement
GPS: SSUSH 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d
   Founded by the Virginia Company of London as a business
   First permanent English colony in North America.
   Settled on a swampy site on the James River in Virginia.
   Problems:
     Settled on a swamp
     Illness
     Lack of food & fresh water
     Fights with Native Americans
     Wanted to look for gold instead of work
     The colony almost did not survive.
 1614  – Pocahontas married John Rolfe,
  an English tobacco grower.
 The marriage led to good will between the
  colonists & the Powhatans for a while.
 Conflict began again when colonists
  expanded onto Powhatan lands to grow
 Virginia’s economy became dependent on
  tobacco for its existence.
 1619  – VA Company let Jamestown establish
  its own government with the right to create
  colonial laws.
 Residents elected representatives, called
  burgesses to the House of Burgesses.
 The VA House of Burgesses was the first
  representative government in America.
 The governor was appointed by the VA
 This elected body acted on behalf of the
 Poor English and slave colonists staged an
 uprising against the governor and his
 landowning supporters. The landless rebels
 wanted harsher action against the Native
 Americans so more land would be available to
 the colonists. The rebellion was put down, and
 the VA House of Burgesses passed laws to
 regulate slavery so poor white colonists would
 no longer side with slaves against rich white
   New England colonies

   Established by Puritans in present
    day Massachusetts.

   Strict religious beliefs.

   Not tolerant of differing religious
   Rhode Island was founded by religious dissenters from
    Massachusetts who were more tolerant of different religious

  Many New England communities were run through town
 In colonies run by the King, a royal governor was appointed
 Church membership was required for men to have voting

   Church membership was tightly controlled by the minister and
    congregation. As more children were born in America, many
    grew up to be adults who lacked a personal covenant
    (relationship) with God.
   Mid-1600’s – the Puritan ideal was under pressure to change.

   1662- church ministers agreed to the “Half - Way Covenant”

   Children of church members were admitted as “half way” members
    who could be baptized into the church, but did not have the right to
    vote or take communion. Hope was to increase church
    membership with these 2nd and 3rd generation Puritans.

   Late 1600’s – a fear of witchcraft was prevalent in New England.

   1692- in Salem, MA – dozens of women, men & children were
    accused of witchcraft & jailed.

   During the 10 months of the Salem Witch Trials, nineteen people
    were found guilty of practicing witchcraft and were hanged.
   1681 – William Penn got a large piece of land from King
    Charles II and founded Pennsylvania.
   Quakers settled Pennsylvania
     Practiced religious tolerance
     Were pacifists
     Religious equality for women
     No established church ministry
   Quakers were often persecuted for they way of life.
   1683 – Pennsylvania established a legislative assembly.
                      NEW      YORK
   1626 – Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was founded
    after buying Manhattan Island from the Manhattan people
    (Native Americans) for some beads and other goods.
   It became a major trading port.
   Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant turned the colony over to
    England in 1664.
   It was renamed New York after the Duke of York, who was
    the brother of King Charles II.
   Tolerant of different religions.
   Mercantilism – inspired Parliament to control
    the trans-Atlantic trade with its American
     All goods shipped to or from British North
      America had to travel in British ships, and goods
      exported to Europe were subject to British taxes.
     These restrictions were designed to keep the
      colonies from competing with Britain.
   Tobacco & other cash crops
    required a large labor force.
   African slaves were used for this
   In 1607, there were no African
    slaves in North America, but by
    1700, there were thousands.
   Most of them were found in the
    Southeast, where the economy
    was agriculturally based.
   The Middle Passage was the part
    of the triangular trade through
    which the slaves came to North
 African American culture grew in
 Slave communities were rich with music,
  dance, basket weaving, and pottery
 Slaves brought these skills with them
  from their various cultures.
 The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking
 that came about during the scientific revolution
 in Europe. It was based on reason.

 JohnLocke and others talked about the
 natural rights of individuals.

 Rousseau-    argued in favor of the social
 contract, allowing governments to exist and
 rule only with the consent of the people.

    French & Indian War – 1754 – 1763: Fought between Great Britain, the
    French & their Native American allies. It was fought over territory in the Ohio
    Valley. Native Americans supported the French because they built forts for
    trade instead of permanent settlements. Great Britain won the war, but would
    need money to help pay war debts. Was called the 7 Years War in Europe.
Treaty of Paris: 1763 - Ended the French
and Indian War. France lost Canada to
Great Britain. France also gave up all land
east of the Mississippi River except New
Orleans. The British kept control of all
American colonies, which colonists resented.

RESULT: Redrew the entire political map of
North America & brought Great Britain into
conflict with both France and the colonies.
   Proclamation of 1763: Parliament told
    the colonists they could not purchase land
    west of the Appalachian Mountains.
    Britain sent 10,000 troops to the colonies.
    Western settlers were ordered to vacate
    Indian land, and only those British settlers
    with licenses could trade.
Stamp Act (1765) – was passed to raise money for
defending the colonies. Taxed legal documents,
newspapers, pamphlets, etc. It was the first direct
tax ever placed on the colonies & a violation of the
principle that only the colonies’ legislative
assemblies could impose taxes.

Colonists opposed taxation without
  representation & boycotted the stamps. No
  taxes were ever paid and the tax was finally
   Sons of Liberty – secret organization formed
    to show colonists’ dislike for British policies.
    They were led by Sam Adams. They
    damaged British property and promoted civil

   Daughters of Liberty - protest group of
    females. Helped make homemade items so
    that colonists could continue to boycott
    British goods.
•   Committees of Correspondence – formed because
    American patriots could not communicate publicly.
    They would exchange written communication with
    each other. They were the first organization linking
    the colonies in their opposition to British rule. They
    played an important role in planning for the First
    Continental Congress.

•   Intolerable Acts – passed by Britain to punish
    Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Closed
    Boston Harbor, and required colonists to house
    British soldiers in their homes. Reduce colonists’
    rights to self government.
 Common  Sense – Thomas
Paine published this pamphlet
encouraging Americans to
support independence from
Great Britain.
•   Declaration of Independence – 1776- written by
    Thomas Jefferson using the ideas of John Locke
    and Charles de Montesquieu. The language of it
    was very direct and simple for everyone to
    understand. It explained the reasons for the
    colonies seeking independence from Great Britain.
    It listed examples of how King George III had
    violated colonists’ rights. It discussed the colonists’
    many unsuccessful attempts to get relief from Great
    Britain, and ended by stating that the only way for
    the colonists to restore their rights was to do it
    themselves by declaring independence.
•   Important People

•   Benjamin Franklin – American ambassador to France.
    The French began to secretly support the Americans in
    early 1776.
•   Marquis de Lafayette – French soldier who joined the war
    against the British. He helped train American forces and
    was a key strategist in the Yorktown campaign that led to
    the British surrender.
•   Lord Cornwallis – was the commander of the British
    forces during the American Revolution. He surrendered
    at Yorktown and returned to Britain.
e had a good chance of being badly hurt or dying in battle.
   Named commander in Chief of the
    Continental Army.
   Extraordinary leadership abilities
   Reorganized the army
   Got additional equipment and supplies
   Started a training program for a professional
   Crossing the Delaware River – 1776- Christmas Eve – Was the
    turning point of the Revolutionary War. Washington & his men
    crossed the river during a snowstorm for a surprise attack on a
    fort held by Hessian mercenaries working for the British. The
    American victory there proved that American troops were a
    serious opponent. THIS VICTORY RAISED AMERICAN

   Valley Forge -Washington’s troops spent a harsh winter in
    1777-1778 there. Problems for the army were at their worst
    during that time. Disease spread through the camp. 4,000
    men were too weak or ill to fight. Even though, Washington
    ordered an intense training program that made the
    Continental Army much more confident and capable.
   Important Events
   Yorktown , VA– British General Cornwallis planned
    to move the battles to the south in an attempt to
    separate the southern & northern states. He
    followed American troops into VA, where he was
    defeated by the American-French alliance. He
    surrendered, and the Revolutionary War ended.

   1783 Treaty of Paris – Ended the Revolutionary war.
   America now had independence without
   France
   Haiti
   Latin America

   Other areas that experienced revolution
   French Revolution
     Moderate Phase – constitutional monarchy
     Radical Phase – Reign of Terror
     Final Moderate Phase – Republic
   Caused by a lack of central leadership.
   Extreme margin between rich and poor.
   Estates General met & promised to double the vote of the
    common people against the votes of the clergy and nobility.
   This failed, and the Third Estate (commoners) rebelled and
    took the “Tennis Court Oath” that they would be the national
    assembly & would not separate until a constitution was
   France got a constitution in 1791
   Reign of Terror began when Louis XVI tried to
    flee. Tens of thousands were executed
    (mostly nobility and clergy)
   A new constitution was written in 1795.
   The government was unstable, and people
    wanted a strong political figure.
   Napoleon entered the scene and established
    the French Empire.
   Haitian Revolution (1791) was similar to US Revolution in its causes.
       Haiti was controlled by France
       Strict mercantilist policies
       Denied them a voice in government
       Slavery
       Division in Haiti over issues.

   Declaration of the Rights of man issued by the Estates General in 1789.
       Raised issue of slavery for France and her colonies.
       Slave rebellions started in 1791
       1794 – all free people in colonies were considered equal
       Slavery did not end there
       Inspired slave rebellions around the world
       Loss of Haiti as a colony led to France giving up much territory in Western
   Early 19th century was dominated by revolutions throughout Latin
   These revolutions led to the establishments of the independent
    territories of Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina,
    Chile, Brazil and Bolivia.
   Many began after the success of the American and French Revolutions.
   The revolutions revolved around issues of mercantilism, slavery and self-
   Many were influenced or inspired by the efforts of Simon Bolivar, who
    believed in self government of the Spanish colonies.
   He established the Gran-Colombia, (a federal republic); it was his dream
    of a Latin-American state, and lasted until 1830,when it dissolved after
    his resignation.
   Written by the 2nd Continental Congress to establish a
    new central government for America.

   Was the first constitution (written plan for government)
    for our nation.

   Made sure that the central government was WEAK, and
    state governments were STRONG.

   No federal power to tax, regulate commerce, or
    establish a national currency.

   Led to conflicts among the states that threatened the
    existence of the nation.
   An attempt by a group of indebted farmers
    to secure weapons from a Federal Armory.

   Became the catalyst for the US to
    recognize the need for a new constitution.

   With no power to tax, the federal
    government could not repair the national
   Federalists (pro Constitution) focused on weaknesses of the
    Articles of Confederation, and the benefits of a national
    government as formed by the Constitution.
   They believed a strong central government would foster the
    commercial growth of the new country.

   Anti-Federalists (against Constitution) feared too much
    power in the new central government.
   They worried that the rights of common people would be
    suppressed by those in power.
   Authors of the Federalist Papers
   These papers communicate the central ideas of the
     The benefits of a union between the states
     The problems with the confederation as it stood at the
     The importance of an effective federal government
     Defense of republicanism
     The need for a federal government to preserve order and
      secure liberty.
•   Settled dispute between large and small states.
•   Combined Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan
    • Established a national legislature with elected
      representatives based on a state’s population.
    • Two house legislature
      • House of Representatives: representation
        based on population
      • Senate – equal representation for all states.
   Slavery Issue

   3/5 Compromise:
     3/5 of a state’s slaves would count as part of the
     Counting formula to be used for calculating
      taxation & representation

   Slave Trade:
     Congress would not interfere with the slave trade
      for 20 years.
     Congress could limit the slave trade after that
     Return of runaway slaves by Northern states.
   Federalism (sharing power between federal and state governments)
    was the basis for the new government.

   Constitution would be the supreme law of the land.

   Limited government with divided powers.

   Powers divided between national and state government

   Power of national government was divided between the executive,
    legislative and judicial branches.

   Checks and balances – ensured that none of the 3 branches
    became too powerful (example- President can veto a bill passed by
•    The Bill of Rights (1st ten amendments to the
     Constitution) was added in 1791.

•    Guarantees personal freedoms such as
     freedom of speech and religion; right to bear
     arms, etc.

    ▪ The Constitution took effect in 1789
•   George Washington became America’s first president
•   He set important precedents for other presidents to
•   Was a period of booming trade with Great Britain.

•   The US did not get involved in foreign conflicts.
•   He warned against political parties and foreign

•   Tax policies were a major issue; taxes were passed on
    liquor; this hit the small whiskey makers in western
    settlements hard.
   Farmers in western Pennsylvania rose up
    to protest the government over taxation.
   They attacked federal tax collectors.
    Washington showed the power of the
    federal government when he sent troops
    in to stop the protest.
   He said if Americans did not like a law,
    they should petition Congress peacefully.
   1796 – two political parties had emerged

   Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists
     Believed the Constitution granted the federal government implied
      powers (not specifically mentioned in the Constitution)

   Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were Republicans
     Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. No powers
      not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.

   1796 Election – John Adams (Federalist) was elected President,
    and Thomas Jefferson (Republican) was elected Vice President.
    Political parties had begun to play an important role in the
    government process.
   1796 Election – John Adams (Federalist) was elected
   Plagued by conflicts with France and Great Britain that
    crippled the nation’s economy.
   Received harsh criticism from supporters of Vice
    President Thomas Jefferson.
   Congress passed a law that increased citizenship
    requirements so that Jefferson would lose support from
    the immigrant community.
   Congress also tried to stop the criticism with limits on
    speech and press rights of Jefferson’s followers.
   Positive changes in France
     Higher education
     Civil law (Napoleonic Code)
     Declared himself Emperor and established a
      hereditary monarchy.
     Established a modern secular state
     Development of modern warfare
     His military strength motivated other European
      nations to form alliances & lay the foundation for
      many of today’s international systems.
   1800 – Thomas Jefferson was elected 3rd president
    of the US
   He was very curious about undiscovered “treasures”
    of the western lands.
   Jefferson sent ambassadors James Monroe &
    Robert Livingston to France to purchase New
    Orleans & West Florida for $10 million.
   Napoleon Bonaparte sold the Louisiana Territory
    to the US for 3 cents an acre ($15 million).
   The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the
    size of the US (1803)
 Meriwether Lewis & William Clark were chosen by Jefferson
  to explore the Louisiana Purchase and lands west.
 They led 50 other explorers in the Corps of Discovery.
 Started at St. Louis and traveled up the Missouri River
 28 months
 8,000 miles
 Went to the Pacific Ocean and back.
 RESULT of the expedition – Opened the door to western
  expansion and brought a huge change to the lifestyle of
  Native Americans on both sides of the Mississippi River.
   Control of Atlantic Trade continued to create conflict between France and
   American merchant ships were caught in the middle of the conflict.
   1807 – Congress imposed an embargo (halt) of foreign trade directed
    against France and Great Britain.
   The embargo stopped trade for American merchants and farmers, causing
    a severe economic depression in the United States.
   American merchant ships were seized at sea by both France and Great
   The British forced thousands of American sailors into service in the British
    Royal Navy (impressment)
   Members of Congress believed that the British were arming Native
    Americans & causing their aggression toward the US.
   June 18, 1812 – Congress declared war on
    Great Britain.
   Two years later, the Treaty of Ghent was
    signed to end the war.
   Military stalemate
   White House was burned
   Brought a new spirit of nationalism that
    expanded trade & westward movement
   1823 – President James Monroe issued the
    Monroe Doctrine.
     Put Europe on notice that the US would
      not tolerate any additional European
      colonies in North America.
     Became the basis for US foreign policy in
      the Western Hemisphere
   American domestic policy focused mainly on movement west
   1807- steamboat changed river travel
   By 1830, the steam locomotive would lead to a railroad network
    stretching from the East Coast to the MS River.
   1825 - Erie Canal opened and connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River
   Canals and railroads allowed goods to move from east to west
   New York was a central point for America’s trade and banking
   NY had a population of over 200,000 by 1830.
   As the infrastructure developed, America’s inner cities began to grow.
Economic Growth & Reform

GPS: SSUSH 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e
   Began in England in 1700s & eventually spread to the
    United States.
     Advances in science & technology
     Had far reaching socioeconomic effects
   Industrialization involved a transition from manual to
    power driven factory labor.
   Factories began producing goods such as cloth &
    furniture previously made by hand in small shops or
    at home.
   As industries grew, people began to leave rural farms
    & villages to move to the cities for factory work.
   1794 – Eli Whitney makes cotton production easier
    with the invention of the cotton gin, which separated
    seeds from cotton.

   This invention resulted in increased cotton
    production, which led to more fields being planted
    with cotton, and an increased need for slaves to pick
    the cotton.

   By 1840, cotton represented 52% of goods exported
    from the United States.

   US industrialization began in 1800 in New England,
    where coal and iron were plentiful.
•   Parts that can be used for more than one product, instead
    of parts made one at a time for individual machines.

•   Eli Whitney used interchangeable musket parts, which
    resulted in a large musket contract for him.

•   These parts became a key component of industrialization
    in both the United States and Europe.
•   Most Americans desired to own their own land.

•   Gold and other valuable resources were
    discovered in the West.

• Manifest Destiny – belief of
Americans that it was our
“obvious fate” to expand from
coast to coast.

   Term refers to the presidency of Andrew Jackson
     He believed in Manifest Destiny
     Jackson expanded the power of the presidency
     Encouraged people from all social classes to be
      involved in government & vote
     He used the spoils system, where he gave friends
      and political supporters jobs in the government
      (even if they weren’t qualified)
     Responsible for Indian Relocation

   Expanded during Jackson’s presidential
   Accusations against each side
   Mud slinging
   These were publicized in songs, pamphlets,
    posters, lapel buttons and posters.
   Campaign rallies and barbecues.
• As a people, Americans in Andrew Jackson’s day
  believed in Manifest Destiny.
• They believed their nation was different than, and
  superior to, other nations because most Americans of
  that time shared the Protestant religion, English
  ancestry, and culture.
• They believed it was their duty to expand the hold of
  their religion, language, ancestry and culture all the
  way to the Pacific Ocean.
• Together, these beliefs comprise American

 Temperance
 Abolition
 Public School
 Women’s Suffrage
•   Temperance is the belief that people
    should limit or eliminate the use of
    alcoholic beverages.

•   Impact – increased the size of
    Protestant religious organizations &
    their influence in western & rural
    sections of the country. Also laid the
    foundation for the women’s movement
    because women played such an important
    role in this movement.

   Issue – Slavery should be abolished
    and not allowed in new states.

   Impact – made slavery and its
    expansion an important political
    issue. Women played an important
    role, which laid the foundation for
    the women’s movement.
   Abolition movement was an effort to end slavery. It
    took place mainly in the North.

   William Lloyd Garrison – writer and editor; white
    radical abolitionist; published anti-slavery

   Frederick Douglass – former slave; worked for
    Garrison; traveled and made speeches against
    slavery; later published his own newspaper.
   Until 1920, most women in the US did not have suffrage
    (right to vote).
   Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a large assembly in Seneca
    Falls, NY in 1848.
   More than 2,000 people attended the Seneca Falls Convention.
   It was the first women’s rights convention in the US.
   They wrote & voted on the Declaration of Sentiments, which
    called for equal rights for women in education, property
    ownership, and voting.
   This convention kicked off the women’s suffrage movement, and
    conventions were held every year.
   Eventually (1920), 72 years of persistence would lead to the
    19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote.

   Issue – all children should be required to attend
    free schools supported by taxpayers and staffed
    by trained teachers.

   Impact – Established education as a right for all
    children and as a state and local issue. Improved
    the quality of schools by requiring trained teachers.
       Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a state.
Their constitution allowed slavery. One half of the states in
       the Union were free and one half allowed slaves.
              Missouri would upset the balance.
        So, the Missouri Compromise was enacted.

       Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state
          Maine entered the Union as a free state
   No slavery would be allowed in the northern part of the
             Louisiana Purchase except Missouri.
 Vice President, John C. Calhoun disagreed with President
    Andrew Jackson over rights of states to nullify (cancel)
                federal laws that they opposed.
Trouble started when southern states tried to nullify a high
           tax (tariff) placed on goods from Europe.
The tax helped northern manufacturers, but hurt plantation
John C. Calhoun, who resigned from the VP, was from South
     Carolina, so that state led the fight for states’ rights
                against the federal government.

              STRONGER IN THE SOUTH.
       In 1845, Texas became part of the United States
            (it had formerly been part of Mexico).

        The US then wanted the Mexican territories
              of California and New Mexico.

     War broke out between the US and Mexico in 1846.

The US occupied much of northern Mexico during the war. The
     US eventually won the war, and this region was ceded
     (given) to the US in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
   During the Mexican – American War, Congress
    debated whether slavery would be allowed in New
    Mexico and California if these territories were
    gained from Mexico.

   The anti-slavery provision was outlined in a
    proposal called the Wilmot Proviso.

   The House of Representatives failed to approve it,
    and the question of slavery in those areas
    remained unanswered.
   Five laws written to deal with issue of slavery in new states.
   The state of New Mexico would be established by carving
    its borders from Texas.
   New Mexico voters would determine whether slavery
    would be permitted or prohibited.
   California would enter the Union as a free state
   All citizens would be required to catch runaway slaves &
    return them to their owners or face fines or imprisonment.
   The slave trade would be abolished in the District of
    Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to
    continue there.
   1854 – Congress had to deal with the question of
    slavery in the new territories of Kansas and

   The idea was suggested by Senator Stephen Douglas for
    two reasons:
     1) He wanted Chicago to benefit from western
      development (railroads could be built on Kansas &
      Nebraska land & crops could be sent to Chicago)
     2) He wanted support of Southern Democrats when he
      ran for President. Allowing the people to decide on
      slavery would make North & South happy.
   Kansas – Nebraska Act

     Established POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (rule by the people) in all new
        territories for people to decide if the state would be free or slave.
       Pro – slavery & anti-slavery groups rushed to Kansas to try to create a
        voting majority there.
       Pro – slavery voters elected a legislature.
       Abolitionists elected a rival Kansas government with an anti-slavery
        constitution, established a different capital city, and raised an army.
       Pro-slavery Kansans raised their own army.
       Violence broke out between the two factions – Kansas was called
        “Bleeding Kansas”.
               Dred Scott Decision

1857 – US Supreme Court issued the Dred Scott decision. A
  slave named Dred Scott had sued his owner for his freedom
  when his owner moved him to a free state. The Supreme
  Court’s ruling stated that a slave could not be a citizen, so
  he could not sue.

The Court also said that Congress could not prohibit slavery in
  federal territories.
The Court found that popular sovereignty and the Missouri
  Compromise were unconstitutional.

SIGNIFICANCE – The US Constitution
protected slavery..
 John Brown was a famous abolitionist who decided to fight
  slavery with violence and killing.
 He thought he was chosen by God to end slavery.
 He led family members and other abolitionists in an attack on
  pro-slavery settlers in Kansas.
 In 1859, he led a group of black and white men in an attack on
  the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.
 He planned to deliver the weapons to slaves to use in an
  uprising against slaveholders & federal officials.
 The raid failed and Brown was captured.
 He was convicted of treason against VA & executed.
 In the North he was a martyr; in the South he was a traitor.
   Lincoln was elected in 1860.

 South Carolina seceded from the Union (separated),
  followed by MS, FL, AL, GA, LA & TX.
 These states formed a new country called the
  Confederacy (Confederate States of America)
 They attacked the US Army base
  at Fort Sumter, SC in 1861 and
  the Civil War began.
 Lincoln believed that preserving the Union was his
  most important job.
 He saw the southern states as merely rebelling
  against the government.
 Lincoln called for a volunteer army to preserve the
  Union, and more states joined the Confederacy: VA,
  AR, NC, & TN.
 At first, Lincoln only wanted to restrict the spread of
  slavery, but later decided to end it in the US.
 Lincoln was re-elected in 1864.
 The Union had a certain victory.
 Lincoln expressed sorrow that the states had not been able to
  resolve their differences peacefully.
 He stated that slavery was evil.
 He urged Americans not to seek revenge on slaveholders and
  Confederate supporters.
 He urged Reconstruction of the South with “malice toward
 Said the war was fought to preserve the Union and end slavery.
 The legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken
  before a judge to determine if they were being held in
  custody legally.
 Lincoln suspended this constitutional right in some
  states during the Civil War.
 He had the right to do this in times of national
 This enabled over 13,000 Confederate sympathizers to
  be arrested and held in the North.
   Lincoln used his emergency powers to issue it.
   Freed (emancipated) all the slaves in the Confederate
   He hoped the news would reach the slaves in the
    South & they would flee to the North.
   He thought this would lessen the number of men
    able to join the Confederate Army.
   It did not free slaves living in the North.
   New goal for Union troops – abolishing slavery.
                  Maryland – 1862
         First major battle on Union soil.
     Bloodiest one day battle of the Civil War
 Robert E. Lee’s Confederate forces retreated, and
              the Union claimed victory.
   Significance of this battle - Lincoln issued the
       Emancipation Proclamation afterwards.
     Pennsylvania – 1863 – Three day battle
      that was the turning point of the war
    More than 50,000 men killed or wounded.
 Lee failed to show Britain & France they should
               help the Confederacy.
     Devastating losses for the Confederates
     Lee withdrew his forces back to Virginia
   Lee gave up attempts to invade the Union.
 1862 – Vicksburg was important to the
  Confederacy because it guarded the Mississippi
  River & access to New Orleans.
 In 1863, Union forces sneaked past the
  Confederates during the night, and set up south
  of Vicksburg, where they gained control of the
  Mississippi River.
 This basically cut the Confederacy in half.
 Vicksburg was lost on July 4, 1863.
   Sherman’s plan was to force
    the Confederate forces to stop
    his advance. If they refused to
    fight, he planned to seize
   Confederate General James
    Hood engaged Union forces,
    and lost thousands of soldiers.
   Sherman’s forces were able to
    capture Atlanta, a major rail
    and industrial center of the
   1863 – Lincoln’s speech to dedicate a military
    cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield.
   Lincoln spoke for only two minutes, but his speech is
    considered to be one of the greatest in the English
   It shaped popular opinion in favor of preserving the
   It helped raise the spirits of the northerners who had
    grown tired of the war.
   He was able to convince people that the US was one
    indivisible nation.
   President Johnson’s plan:
   Amnesty for Southerners who swore allegiance to
    the Union.
   Pardon high ranking Confederate soldiers.
   Voting rights for white men
   All southern states would ratify the 13th Amendment.
   Johnson would appoint new southern governors.
   Re-admit southern states to the Union as quickly as
   Republicans in Congress were angry because
    new southern state governments were denying
    newly freed slaves their rights.
   Congress forced southern states to re-apply for
    admission to the Union.
   They had to ratify (accept) three new
    amendments to the Constitution.
   Ended slavery in the US.
   Freedmen’s Bureau – to meet the needs of
    former slaves; food, land, shelter & medical
   It also established schools & made labor
    contracts for freedmen.
   Black colleges (Morehouse in Atlanta)
   Granted full
    citizenship to all
    people born in
    the US. (14th)

   Gave all citizens
    the right to vote.
   Many children could attend school for the first time.
   African Americans started newspapers, served in public
    office, and attended new colleges and universities.
   Morehouse College was founded in Atlanta in 1867.
   Freedmen’s Bureau was created by Congress to help the
    newly freed slaves.
   Provided food, clothing, jobs, medicine and medical
   Congress did not grant them land or the absolute right
    to own land. Many worked as tenant farmers or
   Johnson ignored laws passed by Congress to
    limit presidential powers.
   They passed these laws to stop Johnson from
    curbing Radical Republicans’ hostile
    treatment of former Confederate states and
    their leaders.
   Johnson missed conviction by one vote.
   He was impeached mainly because he had
    differing opinions than those who had the
    power to impeach him.
   Black Codes (1865 – 1866) – Series of laws
    passed by Southern legislatures to restrict the
    rights of newly freed blacks.
   Vagrancy laws; banned from owning
    farmland; minors could be “indentured” until
    21 years old.
   Black Codes would later be overturned.
                          Formed in 1866 in Tennessee as a
                           social club. Then became a
                           “white supremist group fighting
                           to keep African Americans from
                           receiving their rights.
                          Terrorized African Americans as a
                           way to maintain the segregation
                           and disenfranchisement of
                          Dressed in white robes & hoods
                           depicting the “ghosts” of dead
Nathan Bedford Forrest     Confederate soldiers.
   Railroads
   Oil and Steel Industry
   Immigrant Labor
   Rise of Big Business
   Labor Unions
   Movement West
   Progressives
    Why were they important?
1.   Could cross long distances
2.   More reliable transportation
3.   Increased westward expansion
4.   Government gave land grants to RR’s
   Mostly Chinese immigrants
   The work was harsh and
   The pay was poor.
   They worked long hours in all
    kinds of weather.
   Andrew Carnegie – Used vertical
    integration to make his company
   He bought all the supplies & gained
    control of all parts of the steel
    production process.
   He created more product more
   He also attracted talent to work in his
   Carnegie gave away 90% of his
•John D. Rockefeller used horizontal
integration to make his company grow &
create a monopoly.

•He controlled 90% of all the oil refinery
businesses in the US.
•He paid low wages & kept his
profits high.

•Rockefeller also gave much of his wealth
to charities.
   Immigrants from Europe arrived on the East Coast at Ellis
   It was called the Golden Door (New York City)
   They traveled 2 – 3 weeks to get here in terrible conditions;
    faced thieves and criminals who took advantage of them;
    settled together in communities; made low wages, and faced
    discrimination. Likely to be poor.
   Immigrants from Asia arrived on the West Coast at Angel
   Chinese & Japanese were targets of suspicion, hostility &
   They worked mostly for the railroads.
   American labor unions were against them.
   One of the leading labor unions in the US
   Was led by Samuel Gompers
   Used collective bargaining as a method to
    help workers – this was a negotiation tactic
    where each side makes compromises.
   Used strikes – all workers walked off the job
    until the company agreed to the Union’s
 Harmful effect on Native Americans.
 Settlers & railroads took their land.
 Violence occurred between US
  troops & Native Americans.
 They were relocated to reservations.
 Their way of life was disrupted.
   Muckrakers were journalists who alerted
    the public to wrongdoing in politics and
   Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about the
    meatpacking industry.
   Ida Tarbell exposed unethical business
    practices of Standard Oil.
 Progress of business and industry inspired
  reformers to make improvements in the political
  and social environment.
 Strengthened American democracy in ways we
  carry forward into our own time.
 Supported new ideas and policies they believed
  would improve people’s lives.
 Supported increase government regulation of
  business and industry, efforts to protect consumers
  and workers, and policies to conserve natural
•   There was corruption in the government; several
    reforms were made to end it.

•   Initiative – Citizens can put proposal on ballot by
•   Recall – Voters can remove public officials from
•   Referendum – Process allowing citizens to approve
    or reject a law.
•   Direct election of Senators – 17th Amendment
    (1913) – Voters won the right to elect their US
    senators. Previously, each state’s legislature chose
    the senators.
   Asian immigrants face discrimination in the
   Chinese workers accepted low wages for jobs
    whites had held, employers lowered the
    wages for all workers.
   The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882
    and banned all future Chinese immigration.
   Pro – Imperialists
     Gain new frontier to keep our
      competitive edge
     A celebration of American traditions &
     Practicality of gaining foreign markets
     Good Military strategy
   Anti – Imperialists
     Rejection of nation’s foundation of “liberty for all”
     Laws should follow the flag – areas controlled by the US
        should get the rights of its citizens.
       Threatened our democratic freedom
       Racism – fear that policies would encourage people of
        different racial backgrounds to move to the US.
       Economic reasons – too many costs
       Competition for US jobs
   Background & Causes:
     US vs. Spain in 1898
     Fighting happened near Cuba & the Philippines.
     Spanish naval squadron was completely destroyed.
     Spain’s defeat marked the end of their colonial empire & established
      the US as a global military empire.
     Causes:
      ▪ Cuba was trying to gain independence from Spain; suffered brutality
      ▪ Yellow Journalism – American newspapers used sensationalism in reporting
        events & increased US sympathy for Cubans.
      ▪ US imperialism
      ▪ The US battleship Maine exploded mysteriously in Havanna, Cuba
 Philippine people wanted total independence from US
 War lasted 2 years
 Filipino troops used guerilla warfare
 Teddy Roosevelt declared an end to the war in 1902.
 US controlled the Philippines until after WWII. (July 4, 1946)
 Caribbean region and Latin America remained
 Teddy Roosevelt feared European countries
  would take advantage of the instability to gain
  power and influence in the region.
 Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine – US
  would maintain stability in Latin America even
  with force.
 Panama Canal – created a faster route between
  the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
 Biggest engineering project of the era.
   Balkan nationalism- people of the Balkans believed that Bosnia should be
    part of a new Slavic state. European powers placed Bosnia under Austro-
    Hungarian control. Russia secretly helped finance the assassination of
    Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which was a catalyst for WWI.

   Entangling Alliances – late 1800’s – early 1900’s; European nations began
    to ally with each other. This alliance system made some countries feel an
    obligation to aid their allies in the event of war.

   Militarism – late 1800’s and early 1900’s – countries like France, Germany,
    and Great Britain were engaged in an arms race. France and Germany
    doubled the size of their armies during this period. Great Britain and
    Germany fought for naval dominance by introducing battleships to the
   Western front was characterized by trench
    warfare between German and French armies.
    They stayed in nearly the same positions for
    four years. (stalemate)
   On the eastern front, Germany was able to
    defeat Russian and Serbian forces decisively.
   This allowed the German army to focus more
    attention on the western front.
 Treaty of Versailles – peace treaty signed at the
  Palace of Versailles near Paris ended WWI.
 One of the most important aspects of the treaty
  was the reparations (payment of war debts)
  required of Germany.
 Reparations- Germany had to pay for the
  damages they had inflicted on the Allies. This
  would cause Germany much economic stress in
  the post war period. Many Germans felt that
  they were being punished personally for the
  actions of their government.
   Mandate System – To gain Arab support
    against the Ottoman Empire during the war,
    the Allies promised to recognize the
    independence of Arab states. Some western
    powers changed their minds and established
    the mandate system.
   France controlled Lebanon and Syria, while
    Great Britain controlled Palestine and Iraq.
   These nations did not officially “own” the
   Fall of the Romanovs – Russian Czar Nicholas II
    was the last of the Romanov family to rule
    Russia. His downfall was his poor military
    leadership, his tendency to listen to his wife,
    and Rasputin. He was also unable to handle the
    economic crises facing Russia.
   He stepped down in 1917 and was assassinated
    in 1918.
   Fall of the Hapsburgs – the Hapsburgs had
    ruled the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the
    time of WWI. Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    was the heir to the empire (he was
   Their downfall was due to the inability to
    create an identity among the people of the
    empire and their apathy toward including the
    growing middle class in decision making.
   Neutrality at first
     Immigrants were sympathetic with their native countries
     Socialists thought it was a struggle between European capitalists over
      Asian markets
     Pacifists thought the US should stay neutral to set an example of peace

   US mobilized for war by 1917
     Germany threatened the US with U-boat attacks
     The passenger ship, Lusitania, was sunk & Americans killed
     Zimmerman Note (Germany tried to get Mexico to
      attack the US)
     Russia withdrew from the war
   Great Migration – 1.5 million southern blacks
    moved to the cities
     Faced residential segregation ordinances &
      restrictive covenants, so access to housing was
      a problem.
     Created cities within cities during the 1920’s.
      ▪ Harlem was the largest
   Allies won the war – Wilson devised a
    14 Point Plan for peace
     No secret treaties
     Free seas for all nations
     Free trade for all
     Lower arms for domestic safety only
     Change imperialistic policies
     # 6 – 13 dealt with boundary changes in
     #14 – Create a League of Nations as a
      place to settle disputes and avoid wars.
     (Was rejected by other allied nations &
      US senators) US never joined.
   1919 – the 18th Amendment was passed.
     Was the Prohibition Amendment that prohibited
     the manufacture, sale or transportation of
     alcohol. Was hard to enforce & led to bootlegging
     and organized crime.

   1920 – The 19th Amendment was passed.
     Gave women the right to vote.
   Russian Revolution – Russia suffered military
    and economic failures during WWI. After Czar
    Nicholas II stepped down, a provisional
    government formed.
   The Bolsheviks were a party of soviets
    (councils of workers and soldiers)
   They were led by V.I. Lenin
   They took power away from the provisional
 Made promises to the Russian workers
  to gain their support.
 Promised to transfer ownership of
  factories from capitalists to the workers.
 Also promised to end Russia’s
  involvement in WWI.
 Leader of Soviet Union and Communist Party
 He took over after Lenin’s death
 Was a dictator and governed a period that saw over 25
  million Soviet people die from his policies and execution

   Five Year Plan- Stalin’s plan to transform the Soviet Union
    from an agricultural into an industrial economy in a brief
    period of time. The policies hurt the average citizen because
    of low wages and lack of housing. Farms were taken away
    from private hands and collectivized. Peasants were forced
    to work on the collective farms.
   Political philosophy that emphasizes the
    state over the individual.
   Propaganda is used to convince the people
    that a strong central government led by a
    dictator is the way to economic and military
   Opposition is suppressed by the threat of
   Fascist dictators gained power in Europe
    during the Great Depression.

Adolph Hitler - Germany   Benito Mussolini - Italy   Hirohito - Japan
   Benito Mussolini- Fascist leader of Italy; never achieved
    totalitarian control of Italy.
   Adolph Hitler – Fascist leader of the Nazi Party in
    Germany; wrote Mein Kampf, a book outlining his belief
    in Anti-Semitism (hatred for Jews), Anti-Communism,
    and the right of superior individuals to take control of
    the masses by force.
   Hirohito – Emperor of Japan from 1926 to 1989. Reign
    included internal conflicts, invasion of China, entry into
    WWII, surrender of Japan, and the growth of Japan into
    an industrial power. Between WWI and WWII he
    personally took control of the military.
   Totalitarianism – government controls every aspect of public
    and private life in the country. Use propaganda and
    surveillance to control people. Opposition is suppressed
    through violence.
   Police state – No “rule of law” controlling the actions of the
    government. The “law” is the same as the personal beliefs of
    the dictator. (usually accompanies totalitarianism)
   Authoritarian government – leader lacks real legitimacy; is
    usually more private than public; lacks charisma that gets
    loyalty from the people; relies on behind the scenes
    corruption to maintain control.
   Late 1800’s and early 1900’s – communism grew out of
   Communism – no private ownership; dictator rules a single
   When the communists took control in Russia, and called for a
    worldwide revolution to destroy capitalism, people in the US
    began to fear communists.
   Red Scare – fear of international communism. Red was the
    color of the communist flag. This led to the government
    pursuing suspected communists and socialists.
   Red Scare was one factor that led to new restrictions on
   Another factor was that people born in America were
    superior to immigrants.
   A third factor was that America should keep its traditional
    culture intact.
   Anti-immigrant, anti-Jewish, and anti-Catholic sentiments
    contributed to the popularity of a revived Ku Klux Klan
    throughout the nation.
   This conservative reaction against immigrants resulted in the
    passage of legislation that set limits on the number of
    immigrants who could come to the US from each country.
 1920’s -automobile emerged as a
  replacement for the horse.
 Mass production made this possible
 Henry Ford used mass production to
  make his Model T on the assembly
 Radio had a major impact by bringing the nation together.
 It blurred regional differences & created similar tastes and
  lifestyles. Created a national culture.

   Phonograph caused piano sales to decrease; created the
    “Jazz Age”. Made Duke Ellington & Louis Armstrong popular.

   Movie attendance increased; created a new popular culture
    with common speech, dress, and behaviors.

   Spectator Sports were popular because people needed
    heroes. Favorite sports were boxing, football, and baseball.
   Jazz combined themes and note patterns
    developed by enslaved African Americans
    with rhythms worked out by musicians in
    New Orleans and elsewhere in the South.
   Was very popular in the US in the 1920’s.
   Trumpet player Louis Armstrong was one of
    the biggest stars of jazz.
   Harlem Renaissance - 1920’s wave of
    creativity in Harlem celebrating African
    American culture through literature and

   Best known poet of the movement was
    Langston Hughes, who wrote about the lives
    of working class African Americans and
    sometimes set his words to jazz or blues.
The Great Depression (1929 – 1941) began with the Stock Market
Crash on October 28, 1929. Stock prices fell drastically, and
people withdrew their money from banks in a panic.

    Characteristics of the Depression included:
      Economic depression
      High unemployment
      Decline in industrial production
      98% decrease in US economic
   1920’s economic problems:
     Gap between rich and poor grew wider
     Banks failed (people withdrew money)
     Industry was in trouble
      ▪ High tariffs to protect US trade led to
      decreased international trade
      ▪ Decline in business investments
     Too many crops = less profits for farmers
      ▪ Farmers stopped buying products
      ▪ Dust Bowl in Great Plains
     Stock Market gambles (speculation)
   Weaknesses in the Economy
     Competition with foreign
       New transportation competed
        with RR’s
       New methods of energy
        competed with coal
       Farm debts could not be repaid
       Federal Reserve Bank slowed the
        money supply instead of
        stimulating the economy.
   Consumer Problems
     High prices
     Low wages
     Too much buying on credit –
    people could not repay loans.
     False sense of prosperity in the 1920’s
     High unemployment = US had no system of
      unemployment insurance; no jobs meant that
      people couldn’t buy products.
   Unemployment – by 1932 one
    fourth of the nation’s families had
    no wage earner.
   Loss of homes – vagrancy &
    hoboes; people lived in
    shantytowns and “Hoovervilles”
   Soup kitchens and breadlines =
    people were hungry
   Families were separated (many
    men deserted their wives and
    children) 200,000 kid with no
   Increased racial
    violence over jobs
   Migration to
   Hoboes on the RR’s
   More diet related
    illness (rickets)
   Shorter school
    year; some schools
   Increased suicide
 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
 21 dams were built to generate
 was created in 1933 as a way to
  bring electricity to thousands of
  farms in seven southern states.
   Wagner Act – (National Labor Relations Act)
     Empowered labor unions
     Federal government guaranteed the right of
      employees to form unions and use collective
     Set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
      which had the power to prohibit unfair labor
      practices by employers.
   Social Security Act –
     Workers 65 and older would get monthly stipends
      based on previous earnings.
     Gave indigent elderly small relief payments
     Assistance to the blind and handicapped
     Assistance to children who did not have a wage
      earning parent.
           Established the nation’s first federally
            sponsored system of unemployment
 Pearl Harbor (American naval base in Hawaii) was
  attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941.
 “A day that will live in infamy”.
     surprise attack
     US Pacific fleet was almost entirely destroyed
     over 2,000 Americans died; 1178 wounded- only 55
      Japanese deaths
   Japan awoke the “sleeping giant” – FDR asked
    Congress to declare war on Japan.
 Internment Camps – Japanese-American citizens
  were forced to leave their homes and sell their
  property at great losses.
 They were relocated in 10 internment camps in
  seven western states. They lived behind barbed
  wire in tiny wooden barracks.
 Nearly 18,000 of the men joined the US Army, and
  their unit was one of the most decorated in WWII.
 The camps were finally closed after protests.
   Hitler wanted to build a German empire in
    Europe & began to demand that Europe’s
    German populated areas be united with
    Germany. (Nazi Party ideology)

   Holocaust – Planned internment,
    enslavement, and murder of Jews and other
    religious and ethnic minorities perpetrated
    by Hitler’s Nazi Party.
   Lend – Lease Act:
     FDR entered his 3rd term as president
     He wanted to help Britain in the war effort.
     Act was signed in 1941 and allowed the US to aid
     any nation whose defense was vital to the US.
   How we mobilized for war
     federal government played important role
     auto industry converted from cars to tanks & planes
     women went to work in factories
     crop prices were set at high levels – more cash for farmers
     small farmers left farms to work in defense plants or
      armed services
     we rationed scarce items (sugar, meat, coffee, tires, gas,
     government levied a 5% withholding tax on anyone
      earning over $642 a year to reduce purchasing power.
   D –Day – June 6, 1944
     Allied forces launched sea-born invasion of France called Operation
     Allied forces were led by Dwight D. Eisenhower
     they invaded from the English Channel
     France was liberated from Germany on August 25, 1944
     Germany was militarily defeated by the spring of 1945.
     The Soviet Union crushed Berlin (Hitler’s stronghold)
     Hitler committed suicide
     Germany surrendered (May 7, 1945)
     The war in Europe was over, but the Japanese pressed on.
 $2 billion dollar secret project
 centered at Los Alamos, New Mexico
 goal was to develop the atomic bomb
 invasion of Japan would be deadly and costly
 President Harry Truman approved use of the bomb on Japan.
   August 6, 1945 – the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima
   August 9, 1945 – a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki
   The cities were annihilated and thousands died
   August 15, 1945- Japan surrendered
   Meetings of Allied leaders (Churchill, Stalin,
    FDR/Truman) where discussions occurred
    regarding plans for post war Europe.
   Soviet Union played a key role in defeating
    Germany, so the Allies couldn’t completely
    ignore Stalin’s demands for what became a
    “sphere of influence” in many Eastern
    European countries.
   European Recovery Plan – named for US Secretary of
    State George Marshall.
   Was America’s main program for rebuilding Western
    Europe and opposing communism after WWII.
   Plan was in place 4 years.
   US spent 13 billion dollars on economic and technical
    assistance for European nations that had been nearly
    destroyed in the war.
   Plan offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its
    allies if they would make political reforms.
   Soviets rejected the proposal.
 General Douglass MacArthur was
 appointed Supreme Commander
 of the Allied Powers in Japan
 after WWII.
   To halt the spread of communism to Western
    Europe from the Soviet controlled nations of
    Eastern Europe, the US formed the North
    Atlantic Treaty Organization. (NATO)
   Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, an
    alliance of communist nations.
   US adopted a policy of containment –
    determination to stop the spread of
    communism. Basis of many US foreign policy
    decisions in the Cold War period.
   Truman Doctrine proposed military and
    economic aid to countries threatened by
    Communist takeover
   It committed the US to providing aid to
    countries resisting communism & provided
    the first step toward what would become the
    containment policy.
   Mao Zedong & Chinese Communists started
    the People’s Republic of China.
   The fall of China to Communists shocked
    Americans & there was some blame placed
    on US government officials for loss of the
    country to Communists.
   The US feared that country after country in
    Asia would fall to Communism. (domino
   Communist forces from North Korea invaded South
    Korea & a 3 year war began.
   US air and sea forces helped Korean troops.
   300,000 Chinese forces entered Korea
   US decided not to attack China
   Was the first of the Cold War conflicts to test the
    Truman Doctrine.
   The 38th parallel divided Korea into North
    (communist) and South (free) before the war.
   It also was the dividing line after the war.
   1950 to 1954 – Senator Joseph
    McCarthy led a hunt for Communist
    infiltrators in America.
   He accused people from artists to
    the top level of military of having
    Communist ties or being a
   2nd Red Scare
   He was very careless and cruel in
    accusing people of being
   In November, 1954, he was
    censured (punished) by the US
   October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union
    launched the world’s first artificial
    satellite into space. (Sputnik I)
   Americans were alarmed that the Soviets
    could spy on us from space.
   We wanted to stay ahead of the Soviet
   January, 1958, the US launched Explorer I
   The space race had officially begun.
   First man to orbit Earth was Yuri Gagarin
    (S.U. 1961) in the capsule Vostok I.
   1962- John Glenn was the first American
    to orbit Earth in Friendship 7
   Term describing the Cold War competition
    between the US and the Soviet Union for
    military superiority. Weapons became
    increasingly complex and destructive.
   Hydrogen Bomb – became the basis of
    “mutually assured destruction”. Knowing
    that if the US or Soviets used the bomb, the
    other nation would use theirs.
   Helped maintain a balance of power.
   Indian Independence – British government
    peacefully transferred power to India.
   Conflicts created the need for separate
    nations for Hindus and Muslims.
   Pakistan – primarily Muslim
   India –primarily Hindu
   Much violence inflicted on each other as
    millions of people left their homes to enter
    the state that reflected their religion.
   Gandhi – Primary leader of the Indian
    Independence movement.
   Known for his belief in non-violent change
   Used civil disobedience and unarmed
    demonstrations to shame British rulers into
    granting India’s independence.
   Established in the British mandate of Palestine
    by a United Nations resolution following WWII.
   Palestine was divided into an Arab state and a
    Jewish state.
   The West was sympathetic toward the Jewish
    people after the Holocaust.
   Many Palestinians had to flee their homes and
    live in refugee camps.
   Conflicts among Israel, the Palestinians, and
    neighboring Arab states continue to be a major
    foreign policy issue for countries around the
   Truman’s integration order – 1948; President
    Truman issued an executive order to
    integrate the US Armed Forces and end
    discrimination in the hiring of US government
   This led to the civil rights laws enacted in the
 1954 Supreme Court case
 State laws establishing “separate but equal”
  public schools denied African American students
  the equal education promised in the 14th
 Reversed “Plessy vs. Ferguson” ruling
 Governor of Arkansas tried to keep nine African
  Americans from enrolling in high school.
 President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to
  force the high school to integrate.
   1963 – arrested in Birmingham, AL
   Wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” to address
    fears white religious leaders had that he was
    moving too fast toward desegregation.
   His writing explained why it was hard for African
    Americans to wait for discrimination and
    violence toward them to end.
   Later, he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech
    in Washington, DC to ask for peace and racial
   Signed by President Lyndon Johnson
   Prohibited discrimination based on race,
    religion, national origin, and gender.
   Prompted by :
     Long struggle by African Americans for equal
     Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speech
     News reports of presidential actions that
      combated civil rights violations.
   Outlawed the requirement for would-be
    voters in the US to take literacy tests.
   Provided money for programs to register
    voters in areas with large numbers of
    unregistered minorities.
   Gave the Department of Justice the right to
    oversee the voting laws in certain districts
    known to use literacy tests and poll taxes.
   National Organization of Women: founded in
   Goal was to promote equal rights and
    opportunities for women.
   Origins in civil rights and anti-war
    movements of early 60’s.
   Goals included equality in employment,
    political and social equality, and passage of
    the Equal Rights Amendment.
 Silent Spring was a book written by Rachel Carson in
  1962 exposing the dangers of pesticides.
 Led to the Water Quality Act of 1965
 First Earth Day was celebrated in 1970.
   Communities organized to raise awareness about
    the environment
 President Nixon created the Environmental
  Protection Agency (EPA) to set limits on pollution,
  conduct environmental research, and assist state
  and local governments clean up polluted sites.
   Ethnic conflicts: In the mid to late 20th
    century and early 21st century, ethnic conflicts
    have arisen around the world.
   Many are tied to the artificial boundaries set
    by European imperialists in Asia, Africa, and
    the Middle East.
   In some places, such as Cambodia, Bosnia,
    and Sudan, there have been ethnic conflicts
    resulting in genocide.
   New Nationalism: in places like India, South
    Africa, and Kenya, nationalism helped end
    colonial (European) rule.
   For example, the nationalist African National
    Congress worked against the system of
    Apartheid for years, eventually toppling the
    minority government and making a relatively
    peaceful transfer of power.
   Impact of Terrorism
   Terrorism is basically a synthesis of war and
    theater. It is a dramatization of the kind of
    violence that is perpetrated on innocent lives.
   It is played before an audience in the hope of
    creating a mood of fear for political purposes.
   Some most recognized groups in the 20th
    century are Shining Path, Red Brigade,
    Hamas, and Al Qaeda.
   Multinational corporations: 20th and 21st
    centuries have seen the growth of
    companies, often based in North America and
    Europe, with worldwide influence.
   Examples: Coca Cola and UPS have
    operations and sales all over the world.
   United Nations: many nations came together following
    WWII with the goals of promoting peaceful settlement
    of international issues/conflicts and working toward
    greater dignity for all humans.
   OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
    US is not a member. OPEC tries to control the world
    petroleum market through changes in output.
   World Trade Organization: (WTO) was established
    following WWII to promote free trade between nations.
    Wants to reduce trade barriers such as tariffs, quotas,
    and subsidies.

To top