Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins TABLE OF CONTENT Sr No TOPIC

					                                          Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

                    TABLE OF CONTENT

                            TOPIC                                     Page
Sr.No.                                                                No.
1                    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                1

2                          HISTORY                                    2

3                 WHAT IS A MENSTRUAL CYCLE?                          5

4            TYPES OF PADS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET                    11

5         BLEEDING - A NEW THEORY AND OTHER THEORIES                  13

6                     MENSTRUAL MYTHS                                 16

7                       FACTS & FIGURES                               18

8                     MENSTRUAL HYGIENE                               22

9             MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AS A ‗BIG‘ TABOO                      24

10                   DEMAND FORECASTING                               27

11                 PROCTOR & GAMBLE REPORT                            30


13            VARIOUS PRODUCT OFFERINGS BY P& G                       35

14             DEMAND FORECAST (CALCULATIONS)                         44

15                       BIBLIOGRAPHY                                 39

16                       ANNEXURE A                                   40

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


Today, the global market for absorbent hygiene products is over US$ 50 bn (including wipes).
The evolution of hygiene products in Europe and the North America has taken 4 to 5
generations. Feminine care was introduced over 100 years ago. Baby diapers were invented 60
years ago. Adult incontinence products appeared 30 years ago.

Feminine hygiene (lady napkins) is hygiene absorbent products engineered to absorb and retain
body fluid without causing any leakage. The user should always feel dry and comfortable. It
consists of an absorbent pad sandwiched between two sheets of nonwoven fabric. As regards
consumption of total hygiene, absorbent products in India, total units consumed in 2007 in India
were 2,829 million pieces.

As per the analysis made the Companies that are trying to tap the Indian market have a great
potential to earn huge revenue as Industry Analysts have submitted a report saying just 3% of the
women population of India uses sanitary napkins and others still prefer to use the old
conventional methods for protections.

As education is increasing, the number of educated women who are going to colleges and others
who earn their livelihood by working in corporate offices are also increasingly creating demand
for these branded napkins that are available in the market.

The Indian market is quite huge and as per reports available only 35% of India's requirement is
manufactured in India, as of now. A huge market, great potential and excellent profit margin is
envisaged in manufacturing of sanitary napkins in India.

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Through the ages women have used different forms of menstrual protection. Menstrual pads have
been mentioned as early as the 10th century, in the Suda, where Hypatia, who lived in the 4th
century AD, was said to have thrown one of her used menstrual rags at an admirer in an attempt
to turn him off. The Museum of Menstruation has articles and photos of some early forms of
menstrual protection, including among other things knitted pads and menstrual aprons. Women
often used strips of folded old cloth (rags) to catch their menstrual flow, which is why the term
"on the rag" is used to refer to menstruation.

Disposable menstrual pads grew from a Ben Franklin invention designed to save soldiers with
buckshot wounds, but appear to have been first commercially available from around 1888 with
the Southall's pad. Disposable pads had their start with nurses using their wood pulp bandages to
catch their menstrual flow, creating a pad that was made from easily obtainable materials and
inexpensive enough to throw away after use.

Kotex's first advertisement for products made with this wood pulp appeared in 1921. Several of
the first disposable pad manufacturers were also manufacturers of bandages, which could give an
indication of what these products were like.

Until disposable sanitary pads were created, cloth or reusable pads were widely used to collect
menstrual blood. Women often used a variety of home-made menstrual pads which they crafted
from various fabrics, leftover scraps, grass, or other absorbent materials, to collect menstrual
blood. Many probably used nothing at all. Even after disposable pads were commercially
available, for several years they were too expensive for many women to afford. When they could
be afforded, women were allowed to place money in a box so that they would not have to speak
to the clerk and take a box of Kotex pads from the counter themselves.

It took several years for disposable menstrual pads to become commonplace. However, they are
now used nearly exclusively in most of the industrialized world.

The first of the disposable pads were generally in the form of a cotton wool or similar fibrous
rectangle covered with an absorbent liner. The liner ends were extended front and back so as to

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fit through loops in a special girdle or belt worn beneath undergarments. This design was
notorious for slipping either forward or back of the intended position.

Later an adhesive strip was placed on the bottom of the pad for attachment to the saddle of the
panties, and this became a favoured method with women. The belted sanitary napkin quickly
became unavailable after the mid-eighties.

The ergonomic design and materials used to make pads also changed through the 1980s to today.
With earlier materials not being as absorbent and effective, and early pads being up to two
centimetres thick, leaks were a major problem. Some variations introduced were quilting of the
lining, adding "wings" and reducing the thickness of the pad by utilising products such as
sphagnum and polyacrylate superabsorbent gels derived from petroleum.

The materials used to manufacture most pads are derived from the petroleum industry and
forestry. The absorbent core, made from chlorine bleached wood pulp, could be reduced to make
slimmer products with the addition of polyacrylate gels which sucks up the liquid quickly and
holds it in a suspension under pressure. The remaining materials are mostly derived from the
petroleum industry, the cover stock used is polypropylene non woven, with the leak proof barrier
made from polyethylene film. The problems with these materials are that they are neither
biodegradable nor recyclable, so disposal issue are created worldwide, often with disposed
products ending in the oceans of the world.

Cloth menstrual pads made a comeback around the 1970s, with their popularity increasing in the
late 80s and early 90s. Some popular reasons why women choose to switch to cloth menstrual
pads include the following: comfort, savings over time, environmental impact, and health

There are many styles of cloth menstrual pads available today. Popular styles of cloth menstrual
pads include all-in-one, or AIO pads, in which the absorbent layer is sewn inside the pad, 'inserts
on top' style pads, which have absorbent layers that can be secured on top of the pad as needed,
envelope or pocket style pads, which have absorbent layers that can be inserted inside the pad as
needed, and a foldable style, in which the pad folds around the absorbent layers.

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Cloth menstrual pads can have waterproof lining, which provides more leak protection but may
also be less breathable. In underdeveloped countries, reusable or makeshift pads are still used to
collect menstrual blood. Rags, soil, and mud are also reportedly used for collecting menstrual

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The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a
pregnancy. About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a
fertilized egg. When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining.
This is the monthly menstrual bleeding (also called menstrual period) that women have from
their early teen years until menopause, around age 50.

The menstrual cycle is from Day 1 of bleeding to Day 1 of the next time of bleeding. Although
the average cycle is 28 days, it is perfectly normal to have a cycle that is as short as 21 days or as
long as 35 days.1 For a teen, a normal cycle can last up to 45 days.2

Girls usually start having menstrual periods between the ages of 11 and 14. Women usually start
to have fewer periods between ages 39 and 51. Women in their 40s and teens may have cycles
that are longer or change a lot. If you are a teen, your cycles should even out with time. If you
are nearing menopause, your cycles will probably get longer and then will stop.

Talk to your doctor if you notice any big change in your cycle. It‘s especially important to check
with your doctor if you have three or more cycles that last longer than 7 days or are very heavy.
Also call if you have bleeding between your periods or pelvic pain that is not from your period.

What controls the menstrual cycle?

Your hormones control your menstrual cycle. During each cycle, your brain's hypothalamus and
pituitary gland send hormone signals back and forth with your ovaries. These signals get the
ovaries and uterus ready for a pregnancy.

The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during
each cycle.

      Estrogen builds up the lining of the uterus.
      Progesterone increases after an ovary releases an egg (ovulation) at the middle of the
       cycle. This helps the estrogen keep the lining thick and ready for a fertilized egg.

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A drop in progesterone (along with estrogen) causes the lining to break down. This is when your
period starts.

A change in hormone levels can affect your cycle or fertility. For example, teens tend to have
low or changing progesterone levels. This is also true for women close to menopause. That is
why teens and women in their 40s may have heavy menstrual bleeding and cycles that change in

Other things can change your cycle. They include birth control pills, low body fat, losing a lot of
weight, or being overweight. Stress or very hard exercise also can change your cycle. Pregnancy
is the most common cause of a missed period.

What common symptoms are linked to the menstrual cycle?

Some women have no pain or other problems. But other women have symptoms before and
during their period.

For about a week before a period, many women have some premenstrual symptoms. You may
feel more tense or angry. You may gain water weight and feel bloated. Your breasts may feel
tender. You may get acne. You also may have less energy than usual. A day or two before your
period, you may start having pain (cramps) in your belly, back, or legs. These symptoms go
away during the first days of a period.

When your ovary releases an egg in the middle of your cycle, you may have pain in your lower
belly. You also might have red spotting for less than a day. Both are normal.

How can women take care of bleeding and symptoms?

You can use pads or tampons to manage bleeding. Whichever you use, be sure to change the pad
or tampon at least every 4 to 6 hours during the day. Pads may be best at night.

Many women can improve their symptoms by getting regular exercise and eating a healthy diet.
It also may help to limit alcohol and caffeine. Try to reduce stress.

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A heating pad, hot water bottle, or warm bath also can help with cramps. You can take an over-
the-counter medicine such as ibuprofen or naproxen before and during your period to reduce pain
and bleeding.

What Really Happens in those 28 Days?!

Have you ever wondered about the connection between your body's 28 day cycle and the cycle of
the moon? Here's the theory. In the days before electricity, women's bodies were influenced by
the amount of moonlight we saw. Just as sunlight and moonlight affect plants and animals, our
hormones were triggered by levels of moonlight. And, all women cycled together. Today, with
artificial light everywhere, day and night, our cycles no longer correspond to the moon. This
article is dedicated to exploring menses: fact and fiction, then and now.

The philosophic foundation of the Feminist Women's Health Center is "Knowledge is Power."
We believe when women have complete, unbiased information, they are empowered to make
their own decisions leading to healthy whole lives. An important role of the FWHC is to provide
information, resources for additional information, and give an analysis of the information we
present. Here we describe a typical 28 day menstrual cycle and we begin to challenge the
dominant American cultural assumptions about menses.

Consider for a moment all you've heard about menstruation. Who first told you? What did they
call it? How is menstruation viewed by your culture? What taboos have influenced you? How
does your partner feel about your period? What impact has advertising had on your knowledge
and attitude? What is the motivation of the advertiser? Is your experience different now
compared to earlier in your life?

First we'll discuss the basic biology of menstruation, then we'll look at ancient traditions.

Basic Biology: the cycle begins

Did you know that when a baby girl is born, she has all the eggs her body will ever use, and
many more, perhaps as many as 450,000? They are stored in her ovaries, each inside its own sac
called a follicle. As she matures into puberty, her body begins producing various hormones that
cause the eggs to mature. This is the beginning of her first cycle; it's a cycle that will repeat
throughout her life until the end of menopause.

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Let's start with the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a gland in the brain responsible for
regulating the body's thirst, hunger, sleep patterns, libido and endocrine functions. It releases the
chemical messenger Follicle Stimulating Hormone Releasing Factor (FSH-RF) to tell the
pituitary, another gland in the brain, to do its job. The pituitary then secretes Follicle Stimulating
Hormone (FSH) and a little Leutenizing Hormone (LH) into the bloodstream which cause the
follicles to begin to mature.

The maturing follicles then release another hormone, estrogen. As the follicles ripen over a
period of about seven days, they secrete more and more estrogen into the bloodstream. Estrogen
causes the lining of the uterus to thicken. It causes the cervical mucous to change. When the
estrogen level reaches a certain point it causes the hypothalmus to release Leutenizing Hormone
Releasing Factor (LH-RF) causing the pituitary to release a large amount of Leutenizing
Hormone (LH). This surge of LH triggers the one most mature follicle to burst open and release
an egg. This is called ovulation. [Many birth control pills work by blocking this LH surge, thus
inhibiting the release of an egg.]


As ovulation approaches, the blood supply to the ovary increases and the ligaments contract,
pulling the ovary closer to the Fallopian tube, allowing the egg, once released, to find its way
into the tube. Just before ovulation, a woman's cervix secretes an abundance of clear "fertile
mucous" which is characteristically stretchy. Fertile mucous helps facilitate the sperm's
movement toward the egg. Some women use daily mucous monitoring to determine when they
are most likely to become pregnant. Mid cycle, some women also experience cramping or other
sensations. Basal body temperature rises right after ovulation and stays higher by about .4
degrees F until a few days before the next period.

Inside the Fallopian tube, the egg is carried along by tiny, hairlike projections, called "cilia"
toward the uterus. Fertilization occurs if sperm are present as the live egg reaches the uterus. [A
tubal pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy) is the rare situation where the egg is fertilized inside the
tube. It is a dangerous life-threatening situation. If an fertilized egg begins to develop into an
embryo inside the tube it will rupture the tube causing internal bleeding. Surgery is required if

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the tube ruptures. If the pregnancy is discovered before the tube ruptures, medication
(Methotrexate) can be used to stop the development of the embryo.]

A woman can use a speculum to monitor her own ovulation and use this information to avoid or
encourage a pregnancy. This is the all-natural fertility awareness method (FAM) of family

Uterine Changes

Between midcycle and menstruation, the follicle from which the egg burst becomes the corpus
luteum (yellow body). As it heals, it produces the hormones estrogen and, in larger amounts,
progesterone which is necessary for the maintenance of a pregnancy. [RU-486 works by
blocking progesterone production.] In the later stages of healing, if the uterus is not pregnant, the
follicle turns white and is called the corpus albicans.

Estrogen and progesterone are sometimes called "female" hormones, but both men and women
have them, just in different concentrations.

Progesterone causes the surface of the uterine lining, the endometrium, to become covered with
mucous, secreted from glands within the lining itself. If fertilization and implantation do not
occur, the spiral arteries of the lining close off, stopping blood flow to the surface of the lining.
The blood pools into "venous lakes" which, once full, burst and, with the endometrial lining,
form the menstrual flow. Most periods last 4 to 8 days but this length varies over the course of a

Physical experience

In many women, various intense sensations brought about by the involved hormones and by
cramping of the uterus can precede or accompany menstruation. Stronger sensations may include
significant menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea), abdominal pain, migraine headaches, depression,
emotional sensitivity, feeling bloated, changes in sex drive and nausea. Breast discomfort caused
by premenstrual water retention or hormone fluctuation is very common. Binge eating occurs in

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a large minority of menstruating women.           This may be due to fluctuation in beta-endorphin
levels.The sensations experienced vary from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle.

Emotional reactions

Women may experience emotional disturbances associated with menstruation. These range from
the irritability popularly associated with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), to tiredness, or
"weepiness" (i.e. tears of emotional closeness). A similar range of emotional effects and mood
swings is associated with pregnancy.[11]


The normal menstrual flow follows a "crescendo-decrescendo" pattern; that is, it starts at a
moderate level, increases somewhat and then slowly taper. Sudden heavy flows or amounts in
excess of 80 ml (hypermenorrhea or menorrhagia) may stem from hormonal disturbance, uterine
abnormalities, including uterine leiomyoma or cancer, and other causes. Doctors call the
opposite phenomenon, of bleeding very little, hypomenorrhea.


The typical woman bleeds for two to seven days at the beginning of each menstrual cycle.
Prolonged bleeding (metrorrhagia, also meno-metrorrhagia) no longer shows a clear interval
pattern. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is hormonally caused bleeding abnormalities, typically
anovulation. All these bleeding abnormalities need medical attention; they may indicate hormone
imbalances, uterine fibroids, or other problems. As pregnant patients may bleed, a pregnancy test
forms part of the evaluation of abnormal bleeding.

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Disposable menstrual pads

There are several different types of disposable menstrual pads:

      Panty Liner - Designed to absorb daily vaginal discharge, light menstrual flow,
       "spotting", slight urinary incontinence, or as a backup for tampon use.
      Ultra-thin - A very compact (thin) pad, which may be as absorbent as a Regular or
       Maxi/Super pad but with less bulk.
      Regular - A middle range absorbency pad.
      Maxi / Super - A larger absorbency pad, useful for the start of the menstrual cycle when
       menstruation is often heaviest.
      Night - A longer pad to allow for more protection while the wearer is lying down, with an
       absorbency suitable for overnight use.
      Maternity - These are usually slightly longer than a maxi/Super pad and are designed to
       be worn to absorb lochia (bleeding that occurs after childbirth).

The shape, absorbency and lengths may vary depending on manufacturer, but usually range from
the short slender panty liner to the larger and longer overnight. Long pads are offered for extra
protection or for larger women whose woman's undergarments might not be completely
protected by regular length pads, and also for overnight use.

Other options are often offered in a manufacturer's line of pads, such as wings or tabs that wrap
around the sides of the woman's underwear to add additional leak protection and help secure the
pad in place. Deodorant is also added to some pads, which is designed to cover menstrual odor
with a light fragrance. There are even pantiliners specifically designed to fit into thong/G-string
type underwear.

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Reusable menstrual pads

Alternatively, women can use a washable or reusable cloth menstrual pad. These are made from
a number of types of fabric — most often cotton flannel, or hemp (which is highly absorbent and
not as bulky as cotton). Most styles have wings that secure around the underpants, but some are
just held in place (without wings) between the body and the underpants. Some (particularly the
older styles) are available in belted styles. Washable menstrual pads do not need to be disposed
of after use and therefore offer a more environmentally friendly and economical alternative for
women. Many women report that washable products are as comfortable or more comfortable
than disposable ones and are just as effective a form of protection. They are considered
especially comfortable during the post-partum period, when the woman may have a very
sensitive vulva. Also called "mama cloth", reusable menstrual pads can be found on a number of
websites, or can be easily made at home (instructions are available online).

Washable pads are often advertised in feminist publications such as Bitch magazine, as well as
environmental and natural health magazines. They have become a popular alternative among
some groups of women, (e.g. feminists, environmentalists and mothers who use cloth
nappies/diapers), because they are more environmentally friendly, but they are also gaining in
popularity among more mainstream women, because they are allergen-, chemical- and perfume-
free, and can be more comfortable for women who suffer from irritations from using disposable

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Some researchers view menses as the natural monthly cleansing of the uterus and vagina of
sperm and bacteria they carried.

Cramps and Other Sensations

Women can experience a variety of sensations before, during or after their menses. Common
complaints include backache, pain in the inner thighs, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, constipation,
headaches, breast tenderness, irritability, and other mood changes. Women also experience
positive sensations such as relief, release, euphoria, new beginning, invigoration, connection
with nature, creative energy, exhilaration, increased sex drive and more intense orgasms.

Uterine cramping is one of the most common uncomfortable sensations women may have during
menstruation. There are two kinds of cramping. Spasmodic cramping is probably caused by
prostaglandins, chemicals that affect muscle tension. Some prostaglandins cause relaxation, and
some cause constriction. A diet high in linoleic and liblenic acids, found in vegetables and fish,
increases the prostaglandins for aiding muscle relaxation.

Congestive cramping causes the body to retain fluids and salt. To counter congestive cramping,
avoid wheat and dairy products, alcohol, caffeine, and refined sugar.

Natural options to alleviate cramping:

Increase exercise. This will improve blood and oxygen circulation throughout the body,
including the pelvis.

Try not using tampons. Many women find tampons increase cramping. Don't select an IUD
(intrauterine device) as your birth control method.

Avoid red meat, refined sugars, milk, and fatty foods.

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Eat lots of fresh vegetables, whole grains (especially if you experience constipation or
indigestion), nuts, seeds and fruit.

Avoid caffeine. It constricts blood vessels and increases tension.

Meditate, get a massage.

Have an orgasm (alone or with a partner).

Drink ginger root tea (especially if you experience fatigue).

Put cayenne pepper on food. It is a vasodilator and improves circulation.

Breathe deeply, relax, notice where you hold tension in your body and let it go.

Ovarian Kung Fu alleviates or even eliminates menstrual cramps and PMS, it also ensures
smooth transition through menopause

Take time for yourself!

Anecdotal information suggests eliminating Nutra-Sweet from the diet will significantly relieve
menstrual cramps. If you drink sugar-free sodas or other forms of Nutra-Sweet, try eliminating
them completely for two months and see what happens.


The hormones in our bodies are especially sensitive to diet and nutrition. PMS and menstrual
cramping are not diseases, but rather, symptoms of poor nutrition.

Premenstrual Syndrome or PMS

PMS has been known by women for many many years. However, within the past 30 or so years,
pharmaceutical companies have targeted and created a market to treat this normal part of a
woman's cycle as a disease. These companies then benefit from the sale of drugs and treatments.

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Premenstrual syndrome refers to the collection of symptoms or sensations women experience as
a result of high hormone levels before, and sometimes during, their periods.

One type of PMS is characterized by anxiety, irritability and mood swings. These feelings are
usually relieved with the onset of bleeding. Most likely, this type relates to the balance between
estrogen and progesterone. If estrogen predominates, anxiety occurs. If there's more
progesterone, depression may be a complaint.

Sugar craving, fatigue and headaches signify a different type of PMS. In addition to sugar,
women may crave chocolate, white bread, white rice, pastries, and noodles. These food cravings
may be caused by the increased responsiveness to insulin related to increased hormone levels
before menstruation. In this circumstance, women may experience symptoms of low blood sugar;
their brains are signaling a need for fuel. A consistent diet that includes complex carbohydrates
will provide a steady flow of energy to the brain and counter the ups and downs of blood sugar

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Every woman's cycle is or should be 28 days long.

Every woman will or should bleed every month.

Every woman will or should ovulate every cycle.

If a woman bleeds, she is not pregnant.

A woman cannot ovulate or get pregnant while she is menstruating.

The above statements are myths. Every woman is different.

It's true that most women will have cycles that are around 28 days. But, a woman can be healthy
and normal and have just 3 or 4 cycles a year. [However, while variations might be healthy and
normal, they could also be a sign of a serious underlying problem. For example, a recent news
article suggested that irregular menstrual cycles may predict Type 2 Diabetes.]

Ovulation occurs about 14-16 days before women have their period (not 14 days after the start of
their period). The second half of the cycle, ovulation to menstruation, is fairly consistently the
same length, but the first part changes from person to person and from cycle to cycle. In rare
cases, a women may ovulate twice in a month, once from each ovary.

Conception/Fertilization of an egg, can only occur after ovulation. The egg stays alive for about
24 hours once released from the ovary. Sperm can stay alive inside a woman's body for 3-4 days,
but possibly as long as 6-7 days. If a couple has intercourse before or after ovulation occurs, they
can get pregnant, since the live sperm are already inside the woman's body when ovulation
occurs. Thus a woman can become pregnant from intercourse for about 7-10 days in the middle
of her cycle. (See Fertility Awareness for a complete description of visible signs of ovulation.)

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Fertility Awareness is a birth control method where women monitor their cycles daily to identify
ovulation. They are learning to predict ovulation to prevent or encourage pregnancy. It requires
training and diligent record keeping.

From our work providing abortion services, we know that some women can be pregnant and
continue to have periods at the same time. We also know of cases where women have gotten
pregnant during their menstrual period.


Technically menopause is the last menstrual flow of a woman's life and the climacteric is period
of time preceding and following this event. In general usage, menopause refers to the whole
process. For most women, menopause occurs between the ages of forty and sixty and takes place
over a period from 6 months to three years.

The menstrual cycle usually goes through many changes, some slow and some sudden, before
stopping altogether. A woman's periods may become erratic, closer together, or further apart. She
may skip a period or two, or have spotting at other times in her cycle.

A common experience is loss of large amounts of blood with a period and passage of large clots.
When a woman nears the cessation of her periods, she may not ovulate for one cycle or several
cycles. In this case, the endometrium doesn't receive the chemical message to stop thickening. It
grows and grows until its heavy bulk causes a heavy flow.

Signals of menopause include hot flashes or flushes, changes in sleep patterns, headaches or
migraines, high energy, high creativity, and/or mood changes. As with PMS, some of these
symptoms are hormone imbalances caused by poor nutrition.

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Women lose between 20 and 80 cc's (1-2 ounces) of blood during a normal period.

One in six fertilized eggs naturally results in miscarriage, some of which are reabsorbed by the
body and the woman is not aware she's been pregnant.

The length of a woman's menstrual cycle (the number of days from the first day of one period to
the first day of the next) is determined by the number of days it takes her ovary to release an egg.
Once an egg is released, it is about 14 days until menstruation, for nearly all women.

Alternatives for Handling Menstrual Flow

Chlorine-free biodegradable 100% cotton tampons recently hit the market in response to
environmentally conscious feminists. Studies have shown that organochlorines can be linked to
cancer. Women using chlorine-free tampons are not putting chlorine into their bodies, nor are
they supporting an industry which produces enormous volumes of industrial waste containing
chlorine. If your regular pad or tampon isn't chlorine-free, write and urge them to make 100%
cotton pads and tampons without chlorine.

Natural sponges from the ocean (not cellulose) are used by some women. They are dampened
then inserted directly into the vagina. When full, they are removed, washed with water, and
reused. Washable reusable cloth pads are also available.

The menstrual cap is another reusable alternative. It is similar to the cervical cap, but worn near
the vaginal opening in the same place as a tampon. When full, it is simply removed, washed and
reinserted. A cervical cap has also been used successfully in this manner.

The Keeper - a specially made reusable device for catching monthly flow.

Cloth (washable) pads - this is what most women around the word have always used.

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Women are reclaiming the products we use to deal with menstruation. Check out these
wonderful new small woman-owned companies and their products.

To learn more about YOUR OWN cycle, keep a journal or calendar and make note of how you
feel, emotionally and physically, thoughts about yourself, your body, your relationships with
other cycling women.

Moon Time

Throughout all cultures, the magic of creation resides in the blood women gave forth in apparent
harmony with the moon, and which sometimes stayed inside to create a baby. This blood was
regarded with reverence: it had mysterious magical powers, was inexplicably shed without pain,
and was wholly foreign to male experience. Early menstrual rites were perhaps the first
expression of human culture.

Native American (Lakota):

"Follow your Grandmother Moon. Her illuminating cycles will transform your spirit." Begin
with the Grandmother Moon at her brightest and most open. This is a time of outward activity
and high energy. Sleep where the moonlight touches you. Walk outside where there are no
artificial lights. Feel joy and creativity. As the Grandmother begins to cover her face, begin to
withdraw into a quieter, less social place. Move to that inward place that is more about "being"
than "doing." In the dark of the moon, when bleeding, the veil between you and the Great
Mystery is the thinnest. Be receptive to visions, insights, intuitions. Go to a quiet separate place
such as a Moon Lodge. Later, come out of the dark, a woman with a cleansed body. As the moon
returns, come back out into the world, carrying your vision.

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Customs and Traditions

Indians of South American said all humans were made of "moon blood" in the beginning.

In Mesopotamia, the Great Goddess created people out of clay and infused them with her blood
of life. She taught women to form clay dolls and smear them with menstrual blood. Adam
translates as bloody clay.

In Hindu theory, as the Great Mother created the earth, solid matter coalesced into a clot with a
crust. Women use this same method to produce new life.

The Greeks believed the wisdom of man or god was centered in his blood which came from his

Egyptian pharaohs became divine by ingesting the blood of Isis called sa. Its hieroglyphic sign
was the same as the sign of the vulva, a yonic loop like the one on the ankh.

From the 8th to the 11th centuries, Christian churches refused communion to menstruating

In ancient societies, menstrual blood carried authority, transmitting lineage of the clan or tribe.

Among the Ashanti, girl children are more prized than boys because a girl is the carrier of the

Chinese sages called menstrual blood the essence of Mother Earth, the yin principle giving life to
all things.

Some African tribes believed that menstrual blood kept in a covered pot for nine months had the
power to turn itself into a baby.

Easter eggs, classic womb-symbols, were dyed red and laid on graves to strengthen the dead.

A born-again ceremony from Australia showed the Aborigines linked rebirth with blood of the

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Post-menopausal women were often the wisest because they retained their "wise blood." In the
17th century these old women were constantly persecuted for witch craft because their menstrual
blood remained in their veins.


The Roman Goddess of measurement, numbers, calendars, and record-keeping; derived from the
Moon-goddess as the inventor of numerical systems; measurer of time.

It has been shown that calendar consciousness developed first in women because their natural
body rhythms corresponded to observations of the moon. Chinese women established a lunar
calendar 3000 years ago. Mayan women understood the great Maya calendar was based on
menstrual cycles. Romans called the calculation of time menstruation, meaning knowledge of the
menses. In Gaelic, menstruation and calendar are the same word.

The lunar calendar's thirteen 28-day months had four 7-day weeks, marking the new, waxing,
full, and waning moons. Thirteen months is 364 days. Pagan traditions describe an annual cycle
as a 13 months and a day. Even today, Easter is the first Sunday after the first full moon after the
spring equinox. The 13 month calendar also led to pagan reverence for the number 13 and the
Christian attempts to demolish it. Generally, the ancient symbols of matriarchy were the night,
moon and 13. Patriarchy (under Christianity) honored the day, the sun and 12.

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


A Neglected Condition for the Achievement of Several Millennium Development Goals


Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently
acknowledged problem. In several cultures there are (cultural and or religious) taboos concerning
blood, menstruating girls and women and menstrual hygiene. Worldwide there is also structural
gender inequality2, which continues to exist through the widespread preservation of (sex–tied)
preconceptions, stereotypes and cultural patriarchal attitudes, because of which the position of
women as independent actors is being undermined daily.

The lack of attention to this issue is striking. Approximately 50% of the world‘s population

knows from their own experience how important good menstrual hygiene is to be able to
function optimally during the menstruation period. Yet this is hardly realised by in particular
politicians, programmers and policy makers. This is also surprising in view of the explicit
relation of this issue to water and sanitation and the distribution of all kinds of diseases, which
can be reduced considerably by good hygiene.

I draw attention to the relation between menstrual hygiene6 and school drop–out of girls from
the higher forms of primary (grade 4 & 5)7 and secondary education, as several Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) will not be achieved if several state and non–state actors do not
undertake immediate action.

The best place to translate the plans concerning menstrual hygiene is in the context of
educational institutions.

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

The MDGs, which the member states of the UN agreed on during the Millennium Summit in
2000, are important guiding principles for the policy on development co–operation. They are

                                                               Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

quantitative goals, which must be achieved by the efforts of governments of both developing and
developed countries within a period of 25 years (1990–2015).

Education and menstrual hygiene
In spite of the fact that great progress has been made and MDG 2 has been achieved in the lower
forms of primary education in many developing countries, the participation of girls, in particular
in Africa and Asia, lags far behind the participation of boys in the higher forms of primary (grade
4 & 5) and secondary education. Besides the fact that girls are married off at an early age (child
marriages13) in some cultures, many girls are kept at home when they start menstruating, either
permanently (drop–out) or temporarily (UNICEF, 2005; GAPS & FAWE Uganda, 1999) during
the days that they menstruate. Because of this, girls get left behind, especially in complex and
abstract subjects where there is a continued building on previous knowledge. This can eventually
also lead to school drop–out. Research confirms that the onset of puberty leads to significant
changes in school participation among girls.

The monthly menstruation period also creates obstacles for female teachers. They either report
themselves sick, or go home after lessons as fast as possible and do not have enough time to give
extra attention to children who need it.

The most important conclusion to be drawn is that there is a lack of courage and (political) will
to acknowledge menstrual hygiene as a problem. The gender–unfriendly school culture and
infrastructure, and the lack of adequate menstrual protection alternatives and/or clean, safe and
private sanitation facilities for female teachers and girls, undermine the right of privacy, which
results in a fundamental infringement of the human rights of female teachers and girls.

Through the combination of the lack of good quality education, the lack of sufficiently well–
trained teachers and because of this overcrowded classrooms18, the high school drop–out rate in
several developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, the curriculum content and the quality of the
learning material, children cannot enjoy their internationally recognised right to education
sufficiently. The consequence of this is that girls get left behind and there is no equal
opportunity. Due to this obstacle, MDG 3 cannot be achieved either.

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Although there are differences by country, culture, ethnic group, social class or family, the
oppression of women has its effect on issues concerning reproductive health and other issues
related to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. Most striking is the restricted
control, which many women and girls have over their own mobility and behaviour during
menstruation due to their ‗impurity‘ during menstruation, including the myths, misconceptions,
superstitions and (cultural and/or religious) taboos concerning menstrual blood and menstrual
hygiene. Remarkable is also that the education by parents concerning reproductive health,
sexuality and all related issues is considered almost everywhere as a ―no–go‖ area.

In the Bible, there is an explicit reference to the impurity of women during their menstruation.
In the Jewish tradition, menstruating women and everything that they touch is considered to be
impure. Among Hindus, menstruation is considered ‗polluting‘. During the menstruation period,
women and girls are not allowed to visit a temple, pray, or cook. They are not allowed to touch
anybody and have to stay away from their family, because they are seen as impure. Among
Muslims, menstruating women are prohibited from touching the Koran and praying during a
minimum of three and a maximum of seven days; they are also not allowed to enter the mosque,
to fast, or to have sex. In ancient Greece Pliny the Elder also wrote about this in Naturalis

These ideas still play a role in several cultures, as a result of which women and girls get various
restrictions imposed on them during their menstruation period. Examples from a few countries
demonstrate this.

In Bangladesh, menstrual blood is seen as ‗the greatest of all pollution‘ (Blanchet, 1987).
Menstruating women must stay inside as much as possible; they are not allowed to prepare food
or to work in the rice fields. Sex (and sharing a bed with their partner) and praying or reading the
Koran are prohibited during this period. On the other hand, the first menstruation of a girl is
celebrated. Family, friends and acquaintances are invited for this occasion, special rituals are
carried out, and particular dishes are served (Bosch & Hutter, 2002).

                                                               Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

In Nepal, the Kumari, girls who have the status of living goddesses (incarnations of the goddess
Kali), are believed to lose their divine strengths when they start menstruating; they loses their
status of living goddess immediately.

In western Uganda where people keep cows, menstruating girls and women were not allowed to
drink milk. It was believed that menstruation would affect the production of milk from the cows
to get bloody milk. In the eastern Uganda, menstruating girls and women were not allowed to
plant groundnuts uring the planting season, because this would affect the yield. In central
Uganda menstruation was supposed to be a top secret only known to yourself.

In Sierra Leone, it is believed that used sanitary napkins can be used to make someone sterile. In
southern Africa, ―menstrual blood of women is dangerous to men and also to the fertility of
cattle and of crops‖.

Among the Maya and in ancient Japan menstruating women had to isolate themselves in
―women‘s huts‖ to carry out rituals and exchange experiences and wisdom. In that period, the
men took over the daily chores of the women. This custom still exists in some Asian, African
and South American cultures. In Ethiopia and among certain tribes in Nigeria menstruating
women must isolate themselves in menstruation huts, because it is believed that menstrual blood
pollutes the home.

For different indigenous people, such as, Indians, menstruating women or girls are treated with
respect. When Indians are hiking, pauses are planned for menstruating women or girls, so that
they can rest and carry out their rituals.

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


The problem concerning menstruation and participation in the higher forms of primary (grade 4
& 5) and secondary education has several aspects. Sanitary facilities and waste management at
schools, including the hygienic disposal of sanitary napkins and other protection alternatives, are
so poor and unsafe that girls and female teachers prefer not to use these during their menstruation
period. Moreover, safe and effective protection alternatives, such as sanitary napkins, tampons,
etc., are not available, and/or not affordable41, because they have to be imported or because of
the high taxes being levied on these products (they are classed as luxury goods instead of
necessary items). These problems are reinforced by local customs and cultural and/ or religious
traditions and taboos concerning menstruation, especially in rural areas.

                                                               Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


Demographics of India

In this part of the project we would discuss the demographic features of the population of India,
including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status,
religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The demographics of India is remarkably diverse. India's population of approximately 1.15
billion people (estimate for July, 2008) comprises approximately one-sixth of the world's
population. India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is
represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic
and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as a language isolate (the Nihali language spoken in parts
of Maharashtra).
Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social
parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic,
genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.

                                                              Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Population:        1,147,995,904 (2008 estimated by CIA World Factbook)

Growth rate:       1.578% (2008 estimated)

Birth rate:        22.22 births/1,000 population (2008 estimated)

Death rate:        6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2008 estimated)

Life expectancy:   69.25 years (2008 estimated)

–male:             66.87 years (2008 estimated)

–female:           71.9 years (2008 estimated)

Fertility rate:    2.76 children born/woman (NFHS-3, 2008)

Age structure:

0-14 years:        31.5% (male 189,238,487/female 172,168,306)(2008 estimated)

15-64 years:       63.3% (male 374,157,581/female 352,868,003) (2008 estimated)

65-over:           5.2% (male 28,285,796/female 31,277,725) (2008 estimated)

Sex ratio:

At birth:          1.12 male(s)/female (2008)

Under 15:          1.10 male(s)/female (2008)

15-64 years:       1.06 male(s)/female (2008)

                                                            Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

2025 Estimates

Population projections in Millions

Year               Under 15          15-64             65+                   Total

2000               361               604               45                    1010

2005               368               673               51                    1093

2010               370               747               58                    1175

2015               372               819               65                    1256

2020               373               882               76                    1331

Source: Based on P.N. Mari Bhat, "Indian Demographic Scenario 2025", Institute of Economic
Growth, New Delhi, Discussion Paper No. 27/2001.

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


To study various products that are available in the market lets study the market leader and the
various product offerings to cater all the requirements of each segment.

A basket of popular products, access to superior technology and good understanding of consumer
needs are factors that have helped Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care (P&G) report
robust growth rates in the past. The company, however, has not been resting on its laurels. In
fact, P&G has been proactive in building near-term as well as long-term growth drivers, which
will not only help maintain leadership in its businesses, but also in sustaining growth rates going
ahead. In this light as well as given the current uncertain market conditions, this stock is a good
investment, offering a combination of growth as well as safety at reasonable valuations.

Procter & Gamble first launched Whisper sanitary napkins in India in 1989.

The feminine care business, which sells sanitary napkins under the ‗Whisper‘ brand, has reported
an average annual growth rate of 20 per cent in the last five years. It clocked sales of Rs 340
crore in FY08, representing a year-on-year growth of 21 per cent. The growth rate was higher at
almost 30 per cent in the first quarter ended September 2008, driven by 50 per cent growth in
‗Whisper Choice‘ and 34 per cent in ‗Whisper Ultra‘. Says Pritee Panchal, analyst, SBICAP
Securities, ―50 per cent growth in the mass segment product (Whisper Choice) in Q1FY09
signifies growing acceptance, affordability and usage of these products among the middle-class
urban women.‖

Analysts expect this business to clock growth rates of over 22 per cent (average), which should
help Whisper, a leader in urban India with a market share of 50 per cent (value terms), become a
$100 million brand in two years.

                                                              Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Favourable prospects

While the slowing economic growth may have a marginal influence on demand, the fact that the
company‘s products are driven more by necessity rather than luxury (discretionary) provides
comfort. Notably, the overall growth dynamics for the businesses continue to be very favourable.

Consider this. In case of sanitary napkins, statistics (source: company) indicate that there are
26.6 crore menstruating women in India, of which, only three per cent use branded sanitary
napkins. Even if the economically weaker population is excluded, the penetration levels would
be far lower than 32-60 per cent in other developing economies like Thailand, Philippines and
China (in developed countries like USA and Japan, it is over 85 per cent). The other evidence of
long-term growth opportunity is the fact that by 2050, more than half of India‘s population will
be under the age of 25 years.

That apart, the growing population of working women, increasing literacy levels, higher
disposable incomes and the expanding middle- and upper-middle class are some key factors that
clearly indicate the huge potential for companies like P&G and hence, will help drive growth
rates in the future.

Right moves

Among various initiatives, the introduction of low value packs (Rs 5 pack of Vicks Vaporub) and
mass segment products (Whisper Choice) has helped the businesses grow at a fast clip on the
back of increased volumes. On the other hand, the company‘s emphasis on delivering new
solutions based on customer needs has helped it stay ahead of competition. For instance, in
FY08, P&G upgraded its ‗Whisper Maxi‘ product in line with customer needs.

In the long-run, P&G‘s initiative through the ‗Whisper School Program‘ will help raise
awareness among consumers and build the path for future growth. The programme involves
educating adolescent girls and mothers about hygiene care, and so far has reached 6 million girls
(1.6 million in FY08). The impact of this programme has been encouraging. According to the
studies undertaken, while two-thirds of the school girls were using cloth (instead of sanitary
napkin) before the programme, only six per cent continued to use cloth after the programme.

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Robust Margins

Rs crore                 FY08                      FY09E                     FY10E

Net sales                646                       775                       910

Net profit               131                       170                       200

OPM (%)                  28                        28                        28

EPS (Rs)                 40.5                      52                        62

PE (x)                   18.2                      14                        11.9

Source: CapitaLine Plus, analysts reports

In a recent move, the company tied up with National Rural Health Mission, Rajasthan, to educate
the rural women about hygiene issues. Such measures should help improve education levels
among women and thus, increase penetration of sanitary napkins in the rural areas, which so far
has been negligible. In short, it should prove helpful for P&G in the long run.

Growth blocks in place

During FY06-08, the company invested nearly Rs 60 crore towards capacity creation (Rs 10
crore was invested in its Goa plant for hygiene products and Rs 26.7 crore in Baddi plants for
healthcare products, in FY08 alone), thereby almost doubling the fixed assets to Rs 123.10 crore
in 2007-08. While the two Baddi plants enjoy tax incentives and help the company lower its tax
expenses, these investments are sufficient to take care of the company‘s capacity requirements
for the next few years. Nonetheless, the low capital-intensive nature of the businesses and high
cash-flows suggest that internal accruals are more than enough to take care of future capex,
whenever the need arises.

More importantly, the company enjoys the backing of its US-based parent, The Procter and
Gamble Company, which offers the necessary technology and products, helping it to sustain
growth rates. In return, the company pays royalty to its parent, which works out to about five per
cent of sales. Even thereafter, P&G ends up with a hefty net profit margin of 20 per cent (partly
helped by tax incentives), which is enviable.

                                                              Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Investment rationale

There is no doubt that the company has in place the key growth ingredients like strong brands,
access to latest technology, healthy balance-sheet and an insight into consumer behaviour. The
under penetrated markets, rising population of working women, low per capita consumption and,
improving income and literacy levels are also conducive for long-term growth.

All these should help P&G achieve topline growth of 16-18 per cent for many years and become
a Rs 1,000 crore company in the next three years. Notably, profits should grow faster at over 18
per cent, to some extent helped by lower taxes. At Rs 735, quoting at a PE of 14 times (not
adjusting for the cash, worth Rs 51 per share, held as on June 2008), the stock can deliver 18-20
per cent annual returns for next two-three years.

                                                                  Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

The Government of Haryana has decided to provide rural women of the state with sanitary
napkins at a price of Re one each

In order to spread health and hygiene among the rural women of the state, the Government of
Haryana has decided to provide them with sanitary napkins at a price of Re one each.

Manufactured under the brand name Mukti by the Haryana Women Development Corporation,
each sanitary napkin would cost Rs 2 but the state's Health Department will subsidise half the
cost, reports IANS.

Haryana's Women and Child Development and Health Minister Kartar Devi said on Wednesday
that the focus of the campaign was to make sanitary napkins available easily to rural women
throughout the state.

"At Re one, these napkins will be priced much cheaper than those available in the market," the
Minister said.

She said that the corporation aimed at getting the sanitary napkins made by self help groups of
rural women in villages for use by women in those areas itself.

"On one hand, the scheme would help rural women in maintaining good health and will also
enhance their income," Devi said.

She added that the sanitary napkins would be marketed appropriately in rural areas through
various agencies.

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


Whisper has consistently led innovation in feminine protection with: The unique Dri-Weave top
sheet that prevents the feeling of wetness, thus providing women with cleaner, drier protection
Wings that help the napkin stay in place and not shift despite physical activity and India‘s first
and revolutionary Ultra-thin sanitary napkin Thus improving the lives of millions of Indian
women along the way.

Today, Whisper is available in the following variants to meet the needs of different consumers.

     1. Whisper Maxi Regular (For regular flow)
     2. Whisper Maxi XL Wings (For heavy and overnight use)
     3. Whisper Ultra with Wings (For Regular to heavy flow)
     4. Whisper Ultra XL Wings (For heavy to extra heavy flow)
     5. Whisper Choice (Provides superior staining protection than ordinary pads at an
        affordable price)

It is P&G‘s stated purpose that it will provide superior quality products, like Whisper, and value,
that improves the lives of the consumers and communities in which they live and work.

Let‘s have a look what each product have to offer:

1.    Whisper Maxi Regular (For regular flow)

     Whisper Maxi Regular offers you superior and faster absorbency than ordinary sanitary
     napkins. Available in a convenient ‗Fold n Wrap‘ wrapper, which helps you to carry and
     dispose the pad easily and with discretion. Recommended for regular flow.

2.    Whisper Maxi XL Wings (For heavy and overnight use)

     Whisper Maxi XL Wings is the only thick sanitary napkin available in the market with
     ‗Wings‘ to offer you both, superior and faster absorbency. It‘s extra-long length offers you
     better and complete day-long protection. Recommended for heavy and overnight use.

                                                                  Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

 3.   Whisper Ultra with Wings (For Regular to heavy flow)

      Whisper Ultra is the result of path-breaking research done by Procter & Gamble worldwide.
      Whisper Ultra's special Lock-Away core is made of tiny AGM (Absorbent Gel Material)
      granules that have the capacity to absorb several times their own weight in liquid. Once
      absorbed the liquid turns into gel and hence these granules retain and lock wetness within
      and do not allow wetness to return back to the surface. Whisper Ultra is 5 times thinner than
      ordinary napkins, thus providing the Indian woman the benefit of comfort, a sense of
      freedom and a feeling of not having their periods. Recommended for regular to heavy flow.

4.    Whisper Ultra XL Wings (For heavy to extra heavy flow)

      Whisper Ultra XL Wings is the longest sanitary napkin available in the Indian market. It‘s
      special Lock-Away Absorbency technology has the capacity to absorb several times their
      own weight, giving you a complete dry feeling through out the day. Recommended for
      heavy to extra heavy flow.

 5.   Whisper Choice (Provides superior staining protection than ordinary pads at an
      affordable price)

      Brand like Whisper is being made accessible to all consumers via affordable pricing.
      Getting great protection like Whisper Choice at an affordable price breaks this cycle of
      frustration, embarrassment and compromise, because it provides three unique benefits:

      *First, superior staining protection vs. other ordinary pads;

      *Second, ten times less wetness than non-woven pads with its unique dri-weave top sheet;

      *And third, its double adhesive coverage ensures that it stays in place better than ordinary

      Whisper Choice has been launched in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka,
      and is available in all General and Medical stores in an attractive orange and blue pack, at a
      very affordable price.

                                                       Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Similarly there are other players like Johnson and Johnson and other non-branded
manufacturers who operate in the unorganized market. Also there is increase in import of
sanitary napkins from low cost manufacturing companies in China and other less developed
countries. There is a report submitted as Annexure ‗A‘ in the end to through some more
light upon it.

                                                              Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Demand Forecast - Calculation

There are 365 days in a year. And in this period a healthy woman goes from 14 to 15 menstrual
cycles on an average. Therefore there are 60 (15x4) average period days annually. In this period
a woman can have 3 to 5 times of flow heavy or normal flow. So as for my calculation purpose I
have taken 3 pads usage per day. That gives Annual usage of sanitary napkins by a single
menstruating woman 180 pads.

As per the article of Pritee Panchal, analyst, SBICAP Securities, appeared in Business
Standard, she had estimated that the women menstruating population would grow to 26.6 crores.
So the annual potential demand would be 4788 crores of sanitary pads.

Also as per the article P&G have faced a growth of 22% in last consecutive five years, and for
the first quarter of Financial Year 08-09 the company has registered 30% growth.

But for my calculation purpose I have taken 22% and estimated the growth of the market for the
next 7 years that is as follows and other market conditions remaining same for the next coming

                          Estimated Demand in the Revenue Generated if per
No. of     Financial           coming Years       pack of 4 cost Avg Rs 50.
Years        Years
                            (All Figures in Crores)           (All Figures in Crores)
1             FY 09                    5841                              73017

2             FY 10                    7126                              89081

3             FY 11                    8694                             108679

4             FY 12                   10607                             132588

5             FY 13                   12941                             161757

6             FY 14                   15787                             197344

7             FY 15                   19261                             240759

                                            Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins





  1. C.K. Kothari (Research Methodology)
  2. Philip Kotler (Marketing Management)

  3. Indian Journal of Marketing

                                                               Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins


Manufacturing & Market Potential of Sanitary Napkins

By : B. S. Pancholi, Dr. Sandeep R. Naik

Today, the global market for absorbent hygiene products is over US$ 50 bn (including wipes).
The evolution of hygiene products in Europe and the North America has taken 4 to 5
generations. Feminine care was introduced over 100 years ago. Baby diapers were invented 60
years ago. Adult incontinence products appeared 30 years ago.
Feminine hygiene (lady napkins) is hygiene absorbent products engineered to absorb and retain
body fluid without causing any leakage. The user should always feel dry and comfortable. It
consists of an absorbent pad sandwiched between two sheets of nonwoven fabric.
There are 3 major types of products, viz, (a) Thick sanitary napkins. (b) Ultra thin sanitary
napkins. (c) Panty liners being used in the market. The size of each and their content vary from
market to market.
Global market status & potential
The menstrual cycle starts for young women between the ages 11 - 17, frequently around 12-1 3
years. On average a woman experiences a period every 28th day, 12 - 13 times in a year. A
menstrual period normally lasts 3 - 7 days. The loss of fluid in a period is on average half a cup
or 65 - 80 ml. The menstrual pattern is influenced by giving birth and contraceptive methods.
Menstruation lasts until menopause at the age 45 - 55. The feminine hygiene products market has
evolved over more than 100 years to a more than US$ 17 bn in the following category worldwide
as referred in Table 1.

Per capital consumption of feminine hygiene products is illustrated in Table 2.
Some of the established and potential manufacturers of sanitary napkins are listed in Table 3.

Market status & potential in India
As regards consumption of total hygiene, absorbent products in India, total units consumed in
2007 in India were 2,829 million pieces. Baby diapers comprised 5% whereas adult incontinence
1% and feminine care share is 94%. Past projections and future projections of women population
in category of 15- 54 years age is tabulated in Table 4.
If we see the above projections of women in the category of 15 - 54 years in India and the details
of sales of absorbent hygiene products in India, then the total sales were US$ 213 million in
2007, out of which adult incontinence share was 9%, baby diapers share was 18% whereas
feminine care contributed 73%. Thus, in India, the evolution is expected to go quicker.

                                                               Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Structure and composition
As regards consumption of total hygiene, absorbent products in India, total units consumed in
2007 in India were 2,829 million pieces. Baby diapers comprised 5% whereas adult incontinence
1% and feminine care share is 94%. Past projections and future projections of women population
in category of 15- 54 years age is tabulated in Table 4.
If we see the above projections of women in the category of 15 - 54 years in India and the details
of sales of absorbent hygiene products in India, then the total sales were US$ 213 million in
2007, out of which adult incontinence share was 9%, baby diapers share was 18% whereas
feminine care contributed 73%. Thus, in India, the evolution is expected to go quicker.

Structure and composition
Product designs, full size pads:
     1. Topsheet: nonwoven or apertured film.
     2. Absorbent core: pulp (Thick core either fluff core with SAP or Air laid core with SAP.
     3. Backsheet: film.
Product designs, Ultra thin pad:
     1. Topsheet - nonwoven or apertured film.
     2. Transfer layer
     3. Absorbent Layer
     4. Absorbent Core
     5. Backsheet film
Product shape can be either flat or curved with/without wings to secure the pad in place and add
additional leak protection. It is available in various pattern designs with perfume (deodorant)
added to cover or absorb odour. Packaging is done either folded and single wrapped or packed
flat and unwrapped.
Raw material
Materials used in absorbent hygiene products:
      Nonwoven
      Pulp
      Super absorbent
      Plastic film
      Elastic materials
      Fastening devices
      Packaging
One typical example is as given below in Table 6.
The raw material content can slightly vary for different products and for different market.
A few suppliers of raw materials
      Nonwoven fabric: The permeable top layer of 12 to 18 GSM is normally a spunbond
        fabric made of polypropylene while the impermeable polyethylene/nonwoven film is the

                                                               Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

        bottom layer for preventing the fluid to pass through. Sometimes a nonwoven fabric
        glued to polyfilm to give feel. Source of nonwoven fabrics in India by Ginni Filaments or
        Supreme Nonwoven or Pantex, Fiber Web, Union Industries, PVD plastic, Gujarat, etc.
        Cost of spunbond fabric is approximately Rs.140/kg.
     Cellulose Pulp - Wayerhaesder - Switzerland, Rayonier- UK, Tembee Tartas - France,
        Stora Enso-Italy.
     Super Absorbent Polymer BASF-India, Degassa-Italy. 1 gram SAP generally absorbs 30
        ml water or up to 20 ml urine in 3 seconds.
     Polyethylene Back Sheet Exten-Switzerland, Plastik-Italy, Huhtamaki-Germany.
     Silicon Paper MCS-Switzerland, ICA-Italy, Rossella-Italy.
     Hot Melt seal and positioners - Savare, National Henket-Italy.
     Packaging - It can be from India or abroad.
Manufacturing method
The absorbent pad is the most important component of napkin. Absorbent pad is made of wood
pulp mixed with SAP. Absorbent pad is prepared first. The absorbent pad is first created by using
shredded wood pulp and vacuum laid to required shape and size, the weight is automatically
controlled. By pressing it is formed to required thickness. Before forming the pad the pulp is
mixed with super absorbent polymers (SAP) for enhancing fluid holding capacity.
The super absorbent polymer is basically acrylic based polymer that forms gel after absorbing
liquid. By this it can hold water up to 30 times its weight. Sodium acrylate, potassium acrylate,
alkyl acrylate. This absorbent pad is attached to permeable top sheet made of nonwoven, mainly
spunlace fabric. Then the same is attached to non-permeable bottom sheet made of polyethylene.
The three layers/ components are glued and sealed to prevent leakage by using heat or ultrasonic
vibrations. The content of absorbing pad composite will vary for different types napkins.
The application of accessories like tapes, sealing, etc for comfort of fit to the undergarments is
required in some cases. This multi-step manufacturing and folding and packaging is carried out
automatically. Precise control on SAP mixing with pulp, pulp weight, size and thickness, quality
of seal to ensure leakage prevention, wastage control, etc is an important step in the
manufacturing. However, the counting and packaging can be made non-automatic to reduce
machine cost. But it may increase recurring cost and wastage.

Project cost
Product: Lady Napkin
Assuming machine cost Rs. 0.90 crore (Make: China)
    Semi-automated machine (packaging manually)
    Production - 350 pcs/ minutes (at 100% capacity and efficiency).
    Efficiency - 80%.
    Waste - 3%.
    Shift/day - 3 shifts of 8 hours.
    Working days - 300 (80% utilization of machine out of 300 working days).

                                                                Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

   1. Project profile is calculated based on approximately eight weight/gram of regular sanitary
      napkin and also based on China make machine.
   2. Land & building cost is considered in the project. However, in many cases, if project is
      implemented in existing infrastructure, the same may not be applicable.
   3. Capital subsidy schemes are not considered while calculating the profit.
   4. Conversion cost is Rs. 0.19 per piece.

At present the production of about 900 mn pieces are manufactured in India and rest are
imported. Total women in the age group of 15 - 54 years in India are about 300 mn. Total
menstrual periods/year is 13 that last for 4 - 8 days and an average of 3pieces/day is used. Then
consumption would be 58, 500 mn pieces/year. Present consumption is 2,659 mn pcs, i.e., 4.5%
penetration while in Europe and USA it is well above 73 to 92%. Hence a growth rate well above
18 to 20% is expected in India. The Indian market is quite huge and as per reports available only
35% of India's requirement is manufactured in India, as of now. A huge market, great potential
and excellent profit margin is envisaged in manufacturing of sanitary napkins in India.
The authors acknowledge with thanks the Director and Management of MANTRA for giving
permission to publish the paper.
About the Authors
The authors are with the Man Made Textiles Research Association (MANTRA) Surat, Gujarat.

List of Tables

         Table 1

         Thick Pads      Panty Liners         Ultra thin pads

         Absorbent       Daily Use            Wings

         Dry Surface     Tampon back-up       Thin

         Self sit        Odour control        Comfort


                                                           Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Table 2 Consumption per capita for year 2005

Country       Population GDP/Capita       Consumption hygiene products/Capita, US$


Brazil        186.4          4,289        10.5

China         1,293          1,533        3

Germany       82.7           33,800       24.2

India         1,03           726          0.13

Japan         128.1          35593        39

Russia        143.2          5,349        8.3

USA           298.2          41,768       35

Total         6,645          6,879        N/A


         Table 3: Some of the manufacturers of sanitary napkins

         Johnson & Johnson

         Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Healthcare Ltd.

         Kimberly Clark Lever Ltd.

         Gufic Bioscience

         Dima Products, Vapi

                                                      Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Table 4: Women 15-34 years in India

Year   Women Million

1995   200

2000   About 250

2005   About 275

2010   300

2015   Above 300

2020   Above 300

2025   Above 300

Table 5: Key criteria for success

Hygiene        Feels clean, no skin irritation

Performance    Absorbent, dry surface, no leakage

Comfort        Body shape, stays in place, waistband, elastic gathers

Convenience    Easy to use and dispose

Aesthetics     Design, Color, Print

                                                  Demand Analysis of Sanitary Napkins

Table 6: Lady napkin- 142 x 240 mm size

S.    Raw material                   % composition w/w (approximately)


1     Nonwoven Fabric                14%

2     Cellulose pulp                 45%

3     Super absorbent polymer        5.7%

4     Polyethylene back sheet        12%

5     Silicon paper of 25 micron 45 16%


6     Hot melt seal                  6%

7     Hot melt positioning seal      1.5%


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