Nineteenth-Century American Education

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American Education
      Chapter 21
Nineteenth-Century American
• Education during the 19th century set the ground
    work for the educational systems currently in
    place across the country today. There was a
        shift from religious control to state &
  government control of American education. The
      emphasis on universal public education,
  inclusion of immigrants, compulsory schooling,
   and tax supported education all influenced the
   establishment of common schools and higher
                 education institutions.
    Universal Education
• Goal of universal education was to create
    literate citizens who were responsible
     individuals that would engage in civil
 service. This goal included the integration
 of diverse religious and ethnic groups as a
  means of establishing national unity and
    Universal Education Issues
• Belief that education was a means of social
•   Belief in the social control theory- dominant
    groups would impose their beliefs and values on
    the lower socioeconomic class
•   Dominant groups shaped curriculum
•   Property owners opposed paying taxes
•   Culturally diverse populations were afraid of
    losing their traditions and customs by
    conforming to common schools
     Common Schools
• Community institutions of elementary
• Advocates: Mann, Barnard, Carter,
  Edwards, Owens, & Stevens
• American Lyceum Movement
• Framework influenced by Prussian
  elementary school systems &
American Lyceum Movement
• Lyceum- origin word Lyceus (location Greece)
    where Aristotle would lecture and teach his
•   Lyceum Movement- organized adult education
    forum: lectures, speeches, debates, instruction,
    dramatic performances
•   National American Lyceum organization-
    Contributed significantly to adult education (new
    form of popular education); Ralph Waldo
    Emerson, Henry D. Thoreau, Abraham Lincoln,
    Susan B. Anthony, Mark Twain, Emma Hart
    Willard (supporter of Women’s Education)
American Lyceum Movement
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
            • Father of American
                common school
            •   Educated as a lawyer
            •   Secretary of
                Massachusetts Board
                of Education
            •   Congressman
            •   President of Antioch
Mann’s Educational Philosophy
• Individuals could achieve excellence through reasonable
    actions & respect for community and laws
•   Encouraged upper class to contribute and support
    common schools
•   Influenced by Transcendentalist philosophy- educating
    the masses for purposes of instilling morals and values
    and deemphasizing material objects; Supporter of
    Prussian educational systems
•   Assimilation of immigrants into common schools
•   Common schools should be governed by school boards
    and the public and should be supported by the state
      Prussian Education System
•   Compulsory attendance
•   National testing
•   National curriculum
•   National teacher training
•   Mandatory Kindergarten
•   Skills for industrialized world & ethics and
    discipline education
Henry Barnard (1811-1900)
             • Secretary of the State
               Board of Commissioners
               of Common Schools in
             • Conservative
               philosophically and
             • Supporter of economic
             • Supporter of improving
               teacher education
    Common School Legislation
• Tenth Amendment Constitution- education was
    decentralized and states were granted authority
    over educational systems
•   Allow school districts to function administratively
    and implement taxes
•   Development of school districts & funding
•   Compulsory and tax supported education
      Secondary Education
• Latin Grammar Schools-
  upper preparatory
  classical curriculum
• Academy Schools-
  College prep courses,
  English courses, Teacher
  education courses
  (Military, Scientific,
  Commercial Academies);
  concerns with curriculum
  design & lack of universal
  accreditation system
• Academies were replaced
  by public high schools
      Women in the          19th   Century
• Early 19th century- role of wife, mother, house
•   Childbearing (health concern) & high infant
    mortality rates concerns for women
•   Late 19th century- wife, mother, worked outside
    of home (labor/skilled workers), & consumers
•   Reform: Woman’s Christian Temperance
    Movement & Women’s Suffrage
•   Mary Wollstonecraft, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, &
    Susan B. Anthony
    Women and Education in the               19th

• Public support of education for boys & girls
• Belief- Women should be educated because
    they raise children & moral companions of men
    (opposition of college education for women)
•   College educated women often did not marry;
    Women treated unequally in Colleges
•   Mind set-”The proper education of a man
    decides the welfare of an individual; but educate
    a woman, and the interests of a whole family
    are secured” Catherine Beecher
Initiatives for women

• The first coeducational college
  established, Oberlin College, 1833.
• First all women colleges, (first enduring)
  Vassar, 1861 and Bryn Mawr, 1880—first
  graduate school for women.
• Yet in 1850 Antoinette Brown completed
  theology, but refused degree. (Oberlin)
Women continued
• Significant women—a few more renowned:
• 1840s Elizabeth Blackwell first American woman
    to receive a medical degree.
•   South Carolina, Limestone Springs Female High
    School founded, 1845 “pioneering occurrence in
    the South.”
•   Elizabeth Palmer Peabody first English speaking
    kindergarten, Boston 1860s.
•   Maria Mitchell, Vassar, first woman admitted
    American to Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Women continued
• Emma Hart Willard created beginnings of
    advanced ed for women with Middleburg
    Seminar for Women, Vermont. Her subsequent
    essay “A Plan for Female Education” influential
    in promoting cause of learning for women.
•   1875 six women elected to school committee by
    men and are allowed to vote on committee.
•   By 1900 women represent 75 % of teachers
High Schools

• High schools emerged as urbanization
 continued and their curriculum became
 much more focused on the industrial
 requirements rather than on the classics.
 State supported taxation for high schools
 came under attack in Michigan in 1874.

• Colleges were still following much of the
 familiar European structure calling for the
 classics and being primarily for religious
 purposes through the early portion of the
 century, but began to change to meet the
 changing economic, social and industrial
 requirement, especially with the Morrill
Morrill Acts
• Provided land the           • 1890 provided same
  sale/rental of which
  provided funds for the       opportunity to create
  states to create             colleges for African
  universities.                Americans.
• Morrill Acts-federal
  government required land
  grant colleges to provide
  military training,
  agricultural, and
  mechanical training
  Teacher Education & Normal
• During the 1830s and 40s normal school,
 originally two year institutions, were
 created for educating teachers. They were
 later expanded to three years and finally
 emerged as full four year degree granting
African American Ed Milestones
• 1840s still illegal to teach slaves to read
• 1849 Mass refuses Sarah Brown entrance to
    public school & sets basis for Plessy v
•   1850 Cooper Union, NY first to ban admission
    based on race, religion, or color
•   1855 Massachusetts passes anti school
    segregation law 6 yrs too late for Brown
•   1860s AA schools still segregated even in
    North—rundown buildings etc.
African American continued
• 1860s; Several black institutions emerge:
    Howard University, Morehouse College, Fisk
    University, and Hampton Institute
•   1877 500,000 black children in school in spite of
    southern efforts.
•   1881 Spelman College first Black Female Liberal
    Arts College founded
•   1883 Booker T. Washington founded Tuskeegee
More African American
• Fanny Jackson Coppin becomes Head of
    Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia and
    trains teachers to work in inferior schools
    provided for African American students.
•   1890 Second Morrill Land Grant Act passed
    established several Black land grant colleges
•   1896 Plessy v Ferguson Supreme Court rules for
    separate but equal, applied to schools, which
    remains until Brown v. Board of Education in
  Review of events of the 19th
• Public elementary schools and high
  schools established
• First time in 300 years ABC method not
  only method for teaching reading
• McGuffey reader introduced and is center
  of reading into 20th century
•   http://kclibrary,