Docstoc

NGOs and Organizational Structure

Document Sample
NGOs and Organizational Structure Powered By Docstoc
					NGOs and Organizational
      Structure
 Challenges and Opportunities
5 Classifications of Global NGO Structures
• Separate independent
  organizations
• Independent orgs with weak
  umbrella coordination
• Confederations
• Federations
• Unitary, corporate
  organizations
Separate Independent Organizations
• May share a common name and brand
• Independent locus of decision making
• Separate board and fundraising programs
• No central enforcement mechanisms
• No formal central coordinating
  mechanisms
• Ad hoc cooperation
• No common system of operations
• SCF before 1990s
        Weak Umbrella Organizations
• Maintain virtual autonomy
• Competitive, independent organizations
• Establish a weak-coordinating mechanism to
  share information and facilitate cooperation
• Forum of discussion, joint committee to share
  expertise and knowledge
• Weak application of pressure by authority to
  make members adhere to policy (moral suasion)
• Weak enforcement mechanisms
               Confederations
Governance: Board of Director selected by
Internal affairs: affiliates each with autonomous
  national boards who make key decisions and still
  have strong identity and authority
Administration: International secretariat reports to
  board, regional field staff serves/monitor affiliates,
  affiliates have own staffs
Finance: affiliate dues and contribution
Regional substructure: semi-autonomous affiliates with
  exclusive use of logo and name
Oxfam, SCF, MSF
                      Federation
Governance: Affiliates elects governing board
- Strong central authority over system-wide decision
   making
Administration:
• strong powers for standard setting and resource
   acquisition
• Affiliates have separate boards and implementation
   capacity
• stronger sanctions like withholding of funds
• HQ makes key decisions
• Global delivery network
• Plan international
      Unitary Corporate Organizations
• one global organization with a single board
  and central headquarter
• No affiliate members, just branch offices
• HQ makes resource acquisition, allocation,
  and program decisions
• Standardized and centralized programs and
  policies
• Central allocation system of resources
  Strengths/Weaknesses of Dominant Models

1. A weak umbrella-type coordinating
  structure
- MSF
2. International federation
- Plan International
3. Confederations
-CARE, OXFAM, SCF
        Weak Umbrella Organizations
Strengths
• Rapid action from national board
• unique national image
• Strong connection with public and private community
Weaknesses
• Duplication of services
• Waste of resources
• Confuse public and donor
• Different levels of quality of services
                   Federation

Strengths
• strong global identity and scale of services
• respond rapidly to emergencies
• central support services such as finance,
  procurement, and human resources management
• strong global quality control
Weaknesses
• Stifle creativity and innovation
• Block adaptation to country contexts
                   Confederation
Strengths
• eliminates the problems of duplication of support
• Reduces competitiveness
• blends members’ ability to project their national
  identity within their own countries
Weaknesses
• Weak moral suasion
• Political infighting
• the need for the confederation to project one image
• slower in emergency response.
• Guilt by association
                 Barriers to Global Structures
•   lack of sustainable resources or lack of strong local
    community support
•   Conflicts over differences in perceptions of standards
    and enforcement between old and new members
•   Reluctance of northern boards and affiliates about
    power sharing
•   cooptation
•   how to maintain commitment
•   deriving common principles
•   engaging in fundraising in another member’s home
    country
•   deciding when members can approach media and
    common advocacy strategies
     Loose Alliances beyond the family

• Ad hoc single-issue collaboration
• Participation in existing global
  coordinating committees
• Creation of new coordinating
  committees and working groups
• New issue-based advocacy,
  operations, or learning networks
• Participation in longer-term,
  broader-based global movement
 Emerging Global Structure between NNGOs
               and SNGOs

• Loose networks
• Confederated NNGOs and Southern
  Affiliates
• Federated NNGOs and SNGOs
• Global bumble bee

				
DOCUMENT INFO