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            for New
            of Adult

This pre-reading handbook has been developed to provide the new adult
education teacher with an overview of adult education in Michigan and an
introduction to strategies, processes, and methods for providing effective
instruction. This handbook is not designed to be comprehensive – rather, it is
designed to be an initial orientation and a basis for further discussion and

Completion of the Pre-Reading/Activities Packet for New Adult Education
Teachers, which accompanies this handbook, will give the new ABE teacher an
opportunity to learn and reflect about relevant instructional issues that he/she
may be facing in the classroom. Additional support, training, and technical
assistance will be provided through the local adult education program as well as
the state adult education staff of the Department of Labor and Economic
Growth’s Adult Education Office.

                     No one can be the best at everything
                     But when all of us combine our talent
                    We can be the best at virtually anything!
                                                                 --Don Ward


                         Credit and gratitude go to the:

                    Indiana State Adult Education Program
                  West Virginia State Adult Education Program

    for their willingness to share excerpts from their teacher handbooks and
                            materials for this publication.

                                      Table of Contents

Knowing…Adult Learners
  Introduction to Adults as Learners ................................................................... 4
  Needs of Adult Learners .................................................................................. 6
  Diversity of Adult Learners .............................................................................. 8
  Learning Styles and Adults Learners ............................................................... 9
  Special Learning Needs ................................................................................ 13

Preparing…Adult Learners
  Intake and Orientation ................................................................................... 15
  Standardized Assessment ............................................................................. 16
  Other Assessment Options ............................................................................ 17
  Informal Assessment ..................................................................................... 19
  Goal Setting ................................................................................................... 21

  Selection of Materials .................................................................................... 23
  Lesson Planning ............................................................................................ 24
  Methods of Instruction ................................................................................... 26

Identifying Essential Components
  GED Testing .................................................................................................. 33
  Performance Measures and the National Reporting System ......................... 36

  Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 38
  Andragogy versus Pedagogy......................................................................... 39

                               Introduction to Adult Learners

There are several aspects of adult learning that set it apart from traditional K-12 education that
warrant discussion. Malcolm Knowles, considered a pioneer in the field of adult education,
popularized the term “androgogical” (learner centered) as it made sense to have a term that
would enable discussion of the growing body of knowledge about adult learners parallel with the
“pedagogical” (teacher centered) methods of childhood learning.

According to the American Council on Education (2003), each year more than 860,000 adults
take the General Educational Development (GED) Test worldwide, and adult education has
become an established field of practice and study. Defining the adult learner provides some
challenges because a “one-size fits all” definition is not only unavailable but also impractical as
the term is culturally and historically relevant (Wlodowski, 1999). Ambiguity exists in our society
as to when an individual is officially an adult. According to Malcolm Knowles (1989), one criterion
to determine adulthood is the extent to which an individual perceives himself or herself to be
essentially responsible for his or her own behavior. At that point, individuals develop a deep
psychological need for others to perceive them as being capable for taking responsibility for
themselves. They resent and resist situations in which they feel others are imposing their
will on them (Knowles, 1999).

Adults are highly pragmatic learners and need to see the practicality of what they learn and be
able to apply that learning to their own lives (Wonacott, 2001). More specifically, adult education
students often need to understand the reason for acquiring knowledge and skills they see as
academic as they attempt to assess themselves and their own skills realistically. Steven Lieb
(1991) lends further support to these findings as he states four principles of adult learning:
• Adults are autonomous and self-directed.
• Adults have a foundation of life experiences.
• Adults are relevancy-oriented.
• Adults are practical.

The National Center for Research in Vocational Education at Ohio State University offers further
descriptors. Their findings indicate that not only are adults more often intrinsically motivated, their
readiness to learn is linked to needs related to their roles as workers, parents, and coping with life
changes. Additionally, they found that adults learn best when they see the outcome of the
learning process as valuable (Cave & LaMaster, 1998).

There exists some incompatibility between theories of adult learning and expectations of students
who return to the classroom as adults. Adult education researchers have noted that attitudes
toward learning in formal institutions may be formed early in development, and there may very
well be some direct connection between these early years and non-participation (in formal
education) in adult years (Quigley, 1992).

It should come as no surprise that adult students, as products of an educational system that has
traditionally placed responsibility for the learning process on the instructor, who do venture back
into the classroom are initially likely to expect to be passive recipients of knowledge. Since
research has shown that this is not the most effective environment for adult learning, students will
need to adopt different methods (Wlodkowski, 1999). Moving from a dependent student role
towards a role as an independent and engaged learner is the adult student’s first step in taking
responsibility for his or her education (Howell, 2001). It follows, then, that the teaching of adults
should be approached as different from teaching children and adolescents (Imel, 1989). Most of
the literature on adult education seems to agree.

There are several important aspects of learner-oriented education that merit note. First of all,
effective approaches to helping adults learn include contributions from the student and their
involvement in what is being taught and how it is being taught (Howell, 2001). Knowles (in Howell)
suggests establishing a classroom climate to help adult students to feel accepted, respected, and
supported so that “a spirit of mutuality between the teacher and student as joint enquirers can take
place.” There are several approaches through which instructors can facilitate learner-centered
•   Create a physical and social climate of respect.
•   Encourage collaborative modes of learning.
•   Include and build on the student’s experiences in the learning process.
•   Foster critically reflective thinking.
•   Include learning, which involves examination of issues and concerns, transforms content into
    problem situations, and necessitates analysis and development of solutions.
•   Value learning for action.
•   Generate a participative environment.
•   Empower the student through learning.
•   Encourage self-directed learning. (Lawler, 1991)

There is consensus among researchers about the role of intrinsic motivation in adult learning. One
study found that while adults are responsive to some extrinsic motivators (such as better jobs or
salary increases), the more potent motivators are intrinsic motivators (increased self-confidence,
self-efficacy, job satisfaction) (Knowles, 1989). The adult learner’s intrinsic goals for success
motivate them to engage in certain activities and move them in particular directions toward the
attainment of those goals. In yet another study, researchers identified a similar set of concerns and
concluded that among the most important factors that motivate adult literacy learners are the quest
for self-esteem, competency, and the enhancement of general knowledge (Demetrion, 1997).

(This information was researched and compiled by Peg Bouterse, South Bend Community Schools Adult Education)

                                  Needs of Adult Learners

All human beings have the same basic needs, and these needs have a hierarchy. Psychologist
A.H. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be visualized as a pyramid.

At the top is the need for “self-actualization” or achieving one’s full potential given individual
strengths and weaknesses. At the base are “physiological” or survival needs such as food and
shelter. One level of need must be satisfied before full attention can be given to the next. In other
words, a person cannot satisfy any of the higher levels unless the needs below are reasonably
satisfied. Adults entering the classroom may have unmet basic needs. They may, therefore, be
unable to focus on their studies. Before they can effectively learn, they may need assistance from
community service agencies. In addition, educators can foster success by incorporating the
suggestions outlined in the table below.

What strengths do adult English language learners bring to educational programs?
Whatever their educational background, all adult learners bring to the classroom a great deal of
life experience and background knowledge. They are generally highly motivated to learn,
and they usually enroll voluntarily in programs. They often have attended school in their country
of origin and have learned to read and write a language before learning English.
Many have positive memories of school and are eager to continue their education (Burt,
Peyton, & Adams, 2003; Fitzgerald, 1995; Skilton-Sylvester & Carlo, 1998). If they have had
formal schooling in their native languages, they may have knowledge in subject matter
areas like math, science, and social studies. Many adult learners also have strong and
supportive families, who often help with child care. They may also have support networks
within their language and culture groups that help them adjust to life in the United States
and gain access to services.

What challenges do adults learning English face?
ESL learners are not only trying to acquire a new language and a new culture; they also are
working, managing their households, and raising their children. These challenges often present
significant obstacles to learning. The National Center for Education Statistics (1995) listed the
following barriers to program participation: limited time, money, child care, and transportation, and
lack of knowledge about appropriate programs in the local area. The National Center for Family
Literacy (NCFL, 2004) surveyed community leaders and educators in communities with recent
rapid growth in numbers of immigrant families, and respondents identified similar challenges.

                               Diversity of Adult Learners

Adult learners come to the adult education classroom with varied backgrounds. These include:

•   The adult who left school due to personal or family issues.
•   The adult with disabilities whose needs were not addressed in his/her school experiences.
•   The adult student for whom English is not the first language, who wants to improve his/her
    English literacy skills.
•   The student under 18 who was asked to leave school because of drug or alcohol abuse or
    other issues.
•   Youth who incorrectly see adult education as a faster path to high school certification.
•   The incarcerated student.

Their ages range from 16 and over. Fear, intimidation, and being overwhelmed are feelings some
adult education students experience when they first enter the classroom. Some have even
expressed that walking through the door the first time was the most difficult part of continuing
their education. Many students have had experiences in a school setting that were less than
positive. Lack of success in school fosters self-esteem issues that can negatively impact a
student’s progress. Many have challenges they feel take priority over their schooling. Jobs,
concerns about families, financial problems, and health issues are some of the problems that can
interfere with a student’s attendance and progress.

Adult education students enter the classroom because they have a need to be involved again in
an educational program. It may be they lack the basic skills to fulfill the daily needs of reading,
writing, and math. It may be the student wants to get a GED, having left school before acquiring a
high school diploma. Or, it may be the student has a diploma but wants to brush up on the skills
needed to improve job performance or enroll in higher education. Teachers in the adult education
classroom are in a unique position to impact students who have a desire to improve their skills
and the quality of their lives.

                           Learning Styles and Adult Learners

Just as we have style preferences for the way we dress, handle stress, and choose to live, we
also have preferences for the way we learn and take in new information. Therefore, if new
information is presented in a style that is compatible with our preferences, we can assimilate it
more quickly. This is also true of adult students. Because these students learn in different ways,
effective teachers will endeavor to identify their learning styles and, in turn, present classroom
content in a variety ways, thus accommodating the different ways students learn and increasing
opportunity for success.

Once the initial intake and testing procedures for a new student are complete, obtaining a
learning styles inventory is a good next step. It can provide important information on how to help
the student. The teacher can then streamline the student’s learning plan by incorporating
strategies that address learning styles.

(A sample learning styles inventory is included in this section.)

                                    Learning Style Categories

Physical Learners
Individual students will use a variety of physical senses in their learning. One sense may
dominate the others.

The auditory learner is able to remember information that is discussed. This type of learning style
needs the lecture method and time to discuss ideas in a large or a small group setting.

The visual learner retains what is seen or read. Pictures, graphs, and charts can be helpful.
These learners like mind mapping or taking notes.

The tactile or kinesthetic learner needs the stimulation of physical experiences. Hands-on
experiences are helpful for a learner with this style. (Writing is not a kinesthetic activity.
The movement needs to extend over six inches.)

Environmental Learners
One’s surroundings must be conducive to the learning process. Noise levels and interruptions
should be appropriate.

Emotional Learners
Instruction should be organized and structured into increments that are easily mastered. Students
differ in the amount of direction they need. One may need constant direction and supervision,
while another may be self-motivated and simply need guidance.

Social Learners
Some students derive more benefit from small group or peer tutoring while others need large
group or one-on-one settings. Computer-assisted instruction lends itself to one-on-one
instructional needs, as well as other formats.

Psychological Learners
How a student tackles the task of learning is important. The analytical thinker prefers a step-
bystep approach, while others may prefer a holistic approach.

Note: Instructors should vary approaches to accommodate diversity while challenging learners to
cultivate other styles/preferences.

                                     Special Learning Needs


Adult education practitioners need to be aware of adults with special needs (learning disabilities
and attention disorders, physical and psychological disabilities, and mental impairments) and to
provide effective instruction to these individuals. These practitioners need to understand the
nature of disabilities, screening instruments, referral systems, and teaching strategies and
accommodations that can assist these learners.

                          Learning Styles versus Learning Disabilities

All of us learn through our senses. We obtain information from a variety of modalities (visual-
print, visual-non-print, auditory receptive, auditory expressive, tactile, etc.). Our preferred
modalities are our learning styles. Some adults have impairments in one or more of their learning
modalities caused by learning disabilities (LD). Adults with LD can ONLY receive information
from their intact learning modalities. Thus, for an adult with LD, his or her learning style is not
simply a preference; it is mandatory. Adults with LD MUST receive information in particular ways
or they cannot process the information and therefore cannot learn it.

Learning Disabilities (LD) can impact academic performance in listening, speaking, reading,
writing, mathematics, etc. Specific LD (such as Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia), is a
permanent lifelong condition which interferes with learning and academic performance. Although
individuals with LD have average or even above average intelligence, without reasonable
accommodations (extra time, spell-checking devices, calculators, readers or scribes, etc.) to level
the playing field, these individuals are presented with innumerable barriers.

Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADD/ADHD) are
also lifelong conditions that can cause problems in academic performance due to the individual's
inattentiveness, restlessness, lack of organization and inability to concentrate and complete
assignments. Adults with ADD/ADHD may require frequent breaks and private settings.

Physical Disabilities may also hinder some adult learners in reaching their fullest potential.
While some individuals were born with impaired vision, hearing, or mobility, many other adults
have acquired physical disabilities as a result of accidents, injuries, or the effects of aging. These
disabilities may include systemic conditions such as AIDS, asthma, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy,
etc; brain impairments due to head injuries, drug abuse, strokes, etc.; or orthopedic problems
affecting the bones and joints. Adults with physical disabilities may be dealing with mobility
problems, pain, discomfort, fatigue, and effects of medication such as drowsiness, nausea, and
memory loss. They may require special attention or equipment in order to succeed.

Psychological or Emotional Disabilities are DSM-IV defined conditions such as schizophrenia,
bipolar disorder, major depression, etc. The condition itself or the medication used to treat the
condition may create learning problems for the individual involving concentration, restlessness,
anxiety, memory loss, frustration, etc.

Mental Impairments or Developmental Disabilities, such as mental retardation, may limit the
ability of other individuals to achieve higher academic levels. While these individuals may be
unable to attain high school equivalency, many are able to achieve a sufficient level of basic skills
to enable them to enter the workforce or go on for specific vocational training. These learners
may not qualify for testing accommodations but require classroom and learning modifications
such as constant reinforcement and concrete application of their learning in order to progress.

                      Classroom and Testing Accommodations for Students
                                 with Documented Disabilities

Students who present documentation of their disabilities have a right under the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) to request reasonable accommodations. Depending on the type of
disability, the accommodations may include (but are not limited to):

   extended time for learning and testing
   private settings free of interruptions and distractions for learning and testing
   frequent breaks or change of activity
   calculators
   spell checkers
   word processors
   audiotapes of presentations, texts, and tests
   enlarged print
   Braille texts
   readers
   note-takers or scribes for learning and testing
   sign language interpreters
   assistive listening devices (ALD)
   furniture or room modifications to accommodate wheelchairs, etc.

                   GED Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

Many adult learners state that getting a General Education Development (GED) is their primary
reason for entering adult education programs. However, some adults who seem intelligent and
study diligently may still fail in test-taking situations. Some individuals simply cannot perform
under standard test-taking conditions (hours of sitting still to take a series of tests, a room full of
people, a clock ticking off the time, a test which must be read silently). These adults may know
the information perfectly well and yet be unable to demonstrate what they know because learning
disabilities or attention disorders interfere with their performance under certain conditions.

The GED Testing Service (GEDTS) has made it possible for individuals with learning disabilities
and ADHD, as well as physical or psychological disabilities to take the GED test with specific
accommodations at no additional charge.

If you are working with a learner that you believe may have a learning disability, it is important to
access as much information about the individual as possible, while maintaining strict
confidentiality. If the student has a record of special education, he or she may have been
diagnosed as a child. Another individual may have been through psychological testing for some
other reason. These records may be accessed and used to document the condition.

In addition, it is important that teachers who work with the student provide information about the
types of classroom accommodations that have been used successfully with the individual (extra
time, frequent breaks, a quiet area for study, successful use of A/V materials in teaching,
dramatic differences when using a calculator versus none, etc.)

Some students with physical disabilities (vision, hearing, physical, or emotional impairments) may
also be able to access certain accommodations. Additional information on the process for
obtaining GED testing accommodations can be obtained from the State GED Office. Contact Ben
Williams at (517) 373-1692.

                                    Intake and Orientation

Intake includes gathering background information from participants about their educational and
work histories, their current skills, and their educational goals. This information will drive the
student’s program plan and is collected when a person first enters an ABE program. A
registration form is filled out at initial registration, which often occurs before the student comes to
the classroom.

Orientation is the introduction to an adult education program. While some programs have a formal
orientation, classroom teachers often find it helpful to conduct their own. Because instructional
time with adult students is limited and their educational and personal needs are great, a well-
organized, thorough intake and orientation is a key element in helping the teacher target
instruction to learner need.

Warmth, friendliness, and concern for the student, along with seriousness of purpose, are some
of the messages that need to be communicated to the adult learner at orientation. By spending
more time “up-front” in the intake/orientation process, instructors can gain more information about
the students that can be helpful in planning student programs. In turn, students should come
away from the intake/orientation process with enough information about the program to make the
commitment of time and energy needed to reach their goals.

Tips for a Successful Orientation
• Help students feel welcome and comfortable with the program. Provide a program overview:
    purpose, goals, and philosophy.
• Involve students quickly with their colleagues. Use icebreakers and peer mentors.
• Make special arrangements for students who arrive late. Use a pre-packaged information
    packet and students or volunteers to serve as hosts.

                                 Standardized Assessment
Standardized Testing
The standardized testing instruments that are used in the adult education classroom are:
    Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE)
    Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS)
    WorkKeys (for students with employment-related goals)

These instruments give the instructor information that serves several purposes:

•   The student is “leveled” using the initial test results and the guidelines issued by the Division
    of Adult Education.
•   The student’s strengths and weaknesses are identified from the resulting diagnostic
•   The instructor uses the test profiles along with other information provided by the student to
    develop an Adult Learning Plan (ALP). A standardized ALP is currently being piloted in the
    state of Michigan. The form should be ready for statewide use in 2005 – 2006.
•   Initial test results serve as a baseline for determining the student’s progress in the program.

The student is post-tested, using another form of the initial testing instrument after 90 classroom
hours and then periodically when the instructor feels that testing would be beneficial, in order to
determine outcomes.

Check with your local director to see which assessment instrument (TABE or CASAS) is being
used in your program. Training on the use of the assessment instruments is offered periodically
throughout the year.

Note: Standardized testing materials must be kept in a secure location!

                                 Other Assessment Options

Official GED Practice Tests
These instruments are usually administered when the instructor wants to evaluate how successful
the student might be on the actual GED Tests or wants to give the student practice in taking this
type of test. While most students are given these tests after some time in the adult education
classroom, a student might take the practice GED after scoring highly in one or more sections of
the initial assessment. Some programs offer these tests to all students who wish to take them at
certain times of the year.

Screening Instruments
It should be noted that there is a difference between assessment and screening instruments.
When a student is screened, the instructor may simply want to determine if assessment is
necessary. In general, screening is done for a variety of reasons. For example, applicants for a
driver’s license must pass a vision screening test to determine whether their vision meets the
requirements for being able to drive safely. More specific information about the person’s vision,
and how to correct impairments, would require testing by an optometrist or ophthalmologist.

Other screening instruments, such as academic screening tests, contain only a small sample of
items from a variety of subjects (e.g., reading, math, or spelling). Because the number of items is
small, it does not take a lot of time to do this kind of screening. However, the results of this kind of
screening are inconclusive: they do not diagnose the learner’s academic strengths and
weaknesses in each skill area, but only give a rough estimate of the learner’s overall skill levels.
Screening instruments, including those for learning disabilities, have most or all of the following
characteristics. They are:

•   Helpful in determining the need for further testing.
•   Inexpensive.
•   Quick to administer, score, and interpret.
•   Appropriate for large numbers of persons, and may sometimes be administered in a group
•   Narrow in purpose.
•   Able to provide a superficial assessment of several areas, such a language, motor, or social
•   Usable without extensive training of staff.

(This information comes from the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center
“Bridges to Practice”.)

Assessment Methods
Learner assessment, the process of collecting and analyzing data provided by learners in order to
make judgments about the literacy accomplishments of individuals or groups, is a key feature of
adult literacy programs. Learner assessment occurs in different forms throughout an adult’s
participation in a literacy program. It frequently reflects different views of literacy and learning and
yields distinct types of information to different stakeholders. It provides information to teachers for
use in instructional planning, to learners for determining their progress toward particular goals, to
program managers and staff for evaluating the impact of instruction, and to funders for
establishing some degree of program accountability and success (Lytle and Wolfe 1989).

Four major types of approaches to learner assessment have been identified: standardized
testing, materials based, competency based, and participatory.

Standardized Testing
Because standardized tests (TABE and CASAS) are relatively easy to administer, standardized
testing is the most widely used approach in adult literacy assessment in the United States. Large

groups of adults can take a test under the supervision of a comparatively small number of
administrators. In addition, the training requirements to administer the test are minimal.

Materials-Based Testing
Materials-based assessment refers to the practice of evaluating learners on the basis of tests
following the completion of a particular set of curriculum materials. It shares some features with
standardized tests such as availability through commercial publishers, ease of administration, and
a view of literacy as reading skills.

Competency-Based Testing
Closely related to criterion-referenced standardized testing, competency-based adult literacy
assessment measures an individual’s performance against a predetermined standard of
acceptable performance. Progress is based on actual performance rather than on how well
learners perform in comparison to others (Lytle and Wolfe, 1989; Sticht, 1990).

(This information comes from “Adult Literacy Learner Assessment, ERIC Digest,” No. 103.)

Participatory Testing
Participatory assessment is a process that views assessment as much more than testing.
Features of participatory assessment include a view of literacy as practices and critical reflection,
the use of a broad range of strategies in assessment, and an active role for learners in the
assessment process (BCEL, 1990; Lytle and Wolfe, 1989). Those advocating a participatory
approach do so because of a belief that “learners, their characteristics, aspirations, backgrounds,
and needs should be at the center of literacy instruction.” (Fingeret and Jurmo, 1989, p.5)

(This information comes from “Adult Literacy Learner Assessment, ERIC Digest,” No. 103.)

                                   Informal Assessment

As a complement to the standardized testing that is required, informal assessment can provide
valuable information for planning a student’s program of study. The following are approaches that
can be used to gain pertinent information:

•   Have student complete a writing sample on a specified topic.
    (This can offer information on the student’s understanding of sentence structure, grammar,
    usage, and essay organization.)

•   Have student complete a simple computer assignment.
    (Knowledge of the student’s level of comfort with the computer can be valuable.)

•   Have student share previous school experiences.
    (Use a format similar to Building Blocks to Success found on the following page.)

•   Have student complete a learning styles inventory.

•   Have student identify which of the eight Multiple Intelligences best describes his/her

                                         Goal Setting

After a student completes registration and testing, it is time to set realistic goals that are
achievable within the program year. Using the test and registration information, the teacher and
student should work together to set and record these goals. Goal setting is important for the
student and program for several reasons:

•   It is a life skill. Many students do not know how to set a goal and plan achievable steps to
    reach that goal. The teacher will model this procedure and coach the student as goals are
    reached and new goals are set.
•   Goals help structure the student’s learning program. The student will understand the skills
    that need to be mastered before going on to the next goal area.
•   The successful achievement of goals helps motivate students to continue in the program.
    Success breeds success.
•   The student will realize that the adult education class is different from previous learning
    experiences because it is personalized.
•   Setting and meeting goals are necessary to demonstrate the adult education program’s
    effectiveness and can lead to performance funding for the program.

The goals that are set with the student are recorded on the Adult Learning Plan (ALP) and on the
registration form.

                                     Goal Setting Procedure

In the ESL class, the student is initially assessed using the Comprehensive Adult Student
Assessment System (CASAS). The results from these instruments along with the results of
informal assessments help the instructor guide the student to setting goals that are achievable
during the program year. These student goals are then recorded on the student’s Adult Learning
Plan (ALP), which should be reviewed quarterly by the instructor and learner. As the student
progresses, only goals that are recorded on the ALP and subsequently achieved by the student
are counted as the successful performance measures for the program. For example, if a student
gets a job but did not indicate that this was a goal on the ALP, or does not exit the program,
achieving that goal cannot be counted as a positive performance.

The conscientious setting of achievable goals for the student during the program year and
the monitoring and resetting of these goals is very important, not only to the student’s
progress, but to the success of the program as well.

The following frequently asked questions (FAQs) about goal setting may be used as a guide to
help students understand the process.

                                         Goal Setting
                              Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Goal setting definition
Goal setting is the term commonly given to the process of identifying a desired outcome,
determining the steps needed to do it, and working toward specific objectives to achieve that

The purpose of goal setting
Goals can become the road map to education and employment skills. Learning to set goals, and
developing successful habits to meet them, is a process that can be done repeatedly.

How goals are determined

Consider the following when thinking about goal setting:
• Identify wants, needs, and necessary skills.
• Set short-term goals that lead to long-term goals.
• Think about who can help. Ask for support.

How goal setting works in the adult education program
• The adult education staff guides the goal setting process when students enter the program.
• The adult education staff develops an instructional plan to help students achieve their goal(s).
• The goals are reviewed with the student on a regular basis.
• New goals are set when old ones have been achieved.

The most difficult part of goal setting
• Being realistic and setting short-term goals can be a challenge.
• Realizing that it takes time to reach goals is sometimes difficult.

The best part of goal setting
• A big first step is taken.
• A guide is developed that will lead to a desired destination.
• The guide can be modified during the journey.
• The adult education staff helps drive the plan.

The benefits of goal setting
• It increases adult learner commitment.
• It defines what success looks like.
• It helps adult learners stay focused.
• It makes learning relevant.
• It gives direction to instruction.

                                    Selection of Materials
Perhaps one of the most difficult and confusing tasks for ABE instructors is the task of applying
assessment results to the instructional needs of the student. Once the assessment results are
used to identify the competencies the learner needs to master for goal attainment, the process of
planning instruction begins. Choosing appropriate instructional strategies that are relevant,
challenging and student-centered is an important step to student success. The instructional
possibilities available to ensure mastery of competencies are numerous. In some instances,
written materials, audiovisuals, and computer software are a necessary part of the instructional
approach that is chosen.

Upon entry into a program level, the appropriate assessment is used to measure a learner’s initial
level of functioning and knowledge of specified skill areas. Choosing materials to aid in the
instructional process for skill mastery should be based upon the assessment results and the skills
the student needs to reach his/her goals.

Regardless of the instructional approach taken to assist the learner in mastering skills, it is
important to keep in mind the student’s learning style. If a learning activity requires the selection
of materials, the format is important to consider. Sometimes the format of the materials or the
manner in which information is presented is more appropriate for one type of learning style versus
another. For example, one individual may be quite successful in reading and answering questions
independently. Another individual may require interaction with a group or instructor, an
audiovisual presentation of the material or computer-assisted instruction in order to have optimum
success in learning. As much as possible, an instructor should offer alternatives whenever they
are available.

We are fortunate that there are now so many excellent materials: printed texts, audio cassettes,
video, and computer programs for the varied ability levels and interests of adults in ABE, but
choosing from this wide array can be confusing for new instructors.

The CASAS Curriculum Materials Guide (available for purchase from the CASAS catalog) offers
a list of competency-based materials which are available for adult programs. The materials listed
in The Curriculum Materials Guide are reviewed and evaluated by a committee of evaluators
(ABE practitioners) before inclusion. The computer version, The Instructional Materials Quick
Search, provides the instructor with easy access to materials.

                                    Lesson Planning
                         SAMPLE LESSON PLANNING FORMATS
                        Instructional Sequence for Adult Learning

When preparing lessons in the adult education class, a good model comes from D. Hemphill,
"Making Sense to Teachers about Teaching," Adult Learning, May, 1990. The lesson planning
worksheet that follows can help you to think through your lesson planning process.

         Review         • Opener
                        • Focus learners
                        • Connect to past learning
                        • Connect to past experience

                        • New knowledge presented
                        • Many options in strategy or method

                        • Structured activities
                        • "Basic skills" or "pieces" of more complex skills, may be practiced
                        • Skills are clustered into increasingly larger "chunks"

                        • Application task approximates real-life performance demands
                        • Maximize possibility of life transfer of skills learned

                                  Lesson Planning Worksheet

Life Skill Competency:
Basic Skills Needed:
Materials Needed:
Specialized Vocabulary:
                                                              LESSON PLAN

• Identify competency/ IGO.
• Tie in to prior and future learning.
• Connect to current interests of the learner.

• Select method of presentation.
• Select materials, equipment, and technology.

Guided Practice
• Select method for guided practice.
• Select materials, equipment, and technology.

• Select method for evaluation.
• Select materials, equipment, and technology.

                                  Methods of Instruction

A balanced mix of instructional methods is important in managing the ABE classroom. Each
learner has preferences regarding how he or she learns best (working with a large group, small
group, alone, with a tutor, etc.). Learning style inventories and questionnaires may help to
determine these preferences that should be taken into consideration when organizing activities in
your classroom.

The physical environment of the classroom may be better suited to some instructional methods
than to others. For example, a small room with individual desks may lend itself better to large
group or individualized instruction (although sometimes desks may be arranged to accommodate
small group work). On the other hand, a large room with tables and chairs may offer the
opportunity for large group, small group, or individual instruction all to happen at one time or

In addition, the intake structure of a program may establish what instructional methods are used.
For example, in a short term, special topic class, it is probably not appropriate to have everyone
doing individualized instruction. Also, in classes where only one instructor is available, one-to-
one/tutorial instruction may not be an option unless a volunteer helps out.

Regardless of which methods of delivery or classroom management are chosen, instruction
should always be centered on specific objectives and competencies selected by the individual or
group. Assessment of learners’ progress is also vital. At the completion of any type of learning
activity, individual learners must demonstrate and document their skills and accomplishments.

Some of the methods of instruction commonly used in ABE include the following:
• Large Group Instruction
• Small Group Instruction
• Cooperative Learning
• Project-based Instruction
• Computer-assisted Instruction
• One-on-One Tutorial Instruction
• Individualized Instruction
• Field Trips
• Guest Speakers
• Experiments

These methods are explained on the following pages.

Large Group Instruction
The instructor plans and directs activities to meet the needs of a large group or sometimes the
whole class. A majority of learners participate but some may choose individualized study instead.
Appropriate when:                               Key Steps:
�� They foster a sense of community in           �� Establish group rapport.
   the classroom by starting everyone off       �� Provide a multi-sensory presentation of
   together.                                         information.
�� They provide instruction or assistance        �� Provide guided practice.
   in a particular subject area required by     �� Provide independent practice.
   the majority of learners.                    �� Offer a variety of multi-sensory assignments.
�� The physical environment is conducive �� Set evaluation criteria.
   to participation by the entire group.        �� Assess learner progress and demonstrate
�� Lesson content is at an appropriate                learner gains that are a result of large group
   level for all the learners included in the        activities.
   group.                                       �� Provide follow-up activities as needed.
�� The instructor varies the delivery of
   content and the assignments to include
   visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic
   input and output alternatives.
�� Small group and personalized
   instruction are available alternatives for
   some learners.
Content Areas that are addressed well:          How Technology is used:
�� Anything appropriate to all levels            �� Technology can be worked into any lesson or
�� Job Readiness                                      can be the basis for any lesson.
�� Health Topics                                 �� Video or audiotapes can be used to deliver
�� Parenting Skills                                   information.
�� Topics in affective and cognitive             �� In a computer lab situation, all learners in the
   domains                                           group may be using the same software
�� Life Skills                                        program and the instructor may use an LCD
�� Work Process Skills                                panel to demonstrate how to use the program.
                                                �� Educational software programs on computers
                                                     may be used to drill and practice new skills in
                                                     the large group setting.

Small Group Instruction
Material is presented to a small number of learners (probably no more than 10) that are either on
a similar learning level or are participating with a specific purpose in mind.
Appropriate when:                                          Key Steps:
�� The instructor needs to teach specific skills to         �� Set purposes and expectations in
    part of the larger group.                                  establishing the group.
�� Several learners are interested in the same              �� Limit the amount of time the group will
    subject but others are not.                                work together (4, 6, 8 weeks).
�� Certain learners need more opportunities to              �� Provide a multi-sensory presentation
    participate in a group but are intimidated by a            of information.
    large group setting.                                   �� Provide guided practice.
�� Certain learners prefer to work in a group               �� Provide independent practice.
    versus individually.                                   �� Offer a variety of multi-sensory
�� The instructor wants to build peer relationships             assignments.
    among the learners.                                    �� Set evaluation criteria.
�� Successful learners are given opportunities to           �� Assess learner progress and
    model strong skills or good study habits to                demonstrate learner gains that are a
    learners who have weaker skills/habits.                    result of small group learning
The classroom has a limited number of instructional
materials on a particular subject.
Content Areas that are addressed:                          How Technology is used:
��Science                                                   �� The Internet can be used as a
��Reasoning                                                      resource
��Team-building                                             �� Videos can be shown
��Study Skills and Test-taking Skills
��Social Studies
��Chart, Graph, and Map-reading Skills
��Math Facts
��Low-level Reading/Phonics
��Pre-vocational preparation

Cooperative Learning
Learners of all abilities and backgrounds work together towards a common goal. Each group or
team member is responsible for a part of the learning process and offers feedback, support, and
reinforcement to others. Often group members are assigned specific roles (i.e. worrier,
encourager, time keeper, recorder, reporter, facilitator, etc.). A variety of grouping strategies and
techniques are employed (i.e. round table, corners, color-coded co-op cards, simulation, jigsaw,
co-op/co-op, pairs check, cubing, numbered heads together, etc.).
Appropriate when:                                             Key Steps:
�� Group work/teamwork skills are perceived as                 �� Teach skills for group/team
     important job skills for the work place.                       learning.
�� Cooperative behavior is promoted in the classroom. �� Describe a clear and specific
�� Classroom activities and lesson content are                       learning task.
     structured so learners see each other as resources; �� Choose a grouping strategy and
     students are willing to learn from peers as well as            group size.
     from the instructor.                                     �� Select group members so that
�� Group members are active in sharing ideas and                     learner abilities are mixed, which
     practicing skills.                                             will allow them to help each other.
�� Learners feel comfortable with one another.                 �� Discuss and practice roles.
�� Independent learners are allowed to work alone at           �� Engineer groups; assign team
     times.                                                         roles.
�� Learners are functioning at different academic              �� Set time limits and goals.
     levels                                                   �� Facilitate the teams by providing
                                                                    materials and assistance as
                                                              �� Monitor the teams.
                                                              �� Have teams report back and
                                                                    analyze their process.
                                                              �� Transfer these cooperative skills
                                                                    into life-skills/problem solving.
                                                              �� Establish evaluation criteria.
                                                              �� Assess learner progress and
                                                                    demonstrate learner gains that
                                                                    are a result of cooperative
                                                                    learning activities.

Content Areas:
��Current events
��Research Skills
��Life Skills
��Work Process Skills

Project-based Instruction
Learners explore a chosen theme as part of a mini-class, longer unit or year-long class emphasis.
Researching the theme and preparing to present the information involves a range of skills across
the curriculum.
Appropriate when:                                 Key Steps:
�� The entire group focuses on a theme that        �� Select a theme as a group.
    is later developed at various levels with     �� Narrow the theme to a manageable length.
    varying tasks depending on the learners'      �� Design a project as a group.
    abilities.                                    �� Clarify objectives and desired outcomes of
�� Everyone is included in the completion of          the project.
    a finished product but each learner is        �� Research the theme as a group.
    allowed to select a task based on his or      �� Decide within the group who will do what to
    her ability and interest.                        gather information and present the results.
�� Learners are allowed to contribute to           �� Create a product or program to share
    projects using their strengths and            �� Reflect on the process and evaluate the
    improving on their weaker areas.                 project.
�� Learners actively initiate, facilitate,         �� Set evaluation criteria.
    evaluate, and produce a project that has      �� Assess learner progress and demonstrate
    meaning to them.                                 learner gains that are a result of project-
�� A context for new learning and cross-              based instruction.
    curricular integration is provided.
�� The instructor facilitates and coaches
    rather than creating and directing the
�� The classroom environment is
    comfortable, risk-free, and promotes
    learner discussion without fear of criticism.

Content Areas:                                  How Technology is used:
��Everything–cross-curricular.                   �� Educational videos, computerized
                                                  encyclopedia, and Internet are constant
                                                �� Technology can offer a method of collecting
                                                  information (video or audiotape live
                                                  interviews and speakers or broadcast radio
                                                  or television programs.
                                                �� Technology can offer a method of
                                                  presentation (PowerPoint, video production,
                                                �� Technology can assist in creation of a final
                                                  product (word processing).

Computer-assisted Instruction
The learner receives instruction and practice by means of the computer that is used as a tool in
teaching basic skills or knowledge. Educational software programs are either the major source of
instruction or are used to reinforce materials presented using a more traditional method.
Appropriate when:                          Key Steps:
�� The learner sees computer literacy �� Introduce basics about the computer (turning
     as necessary to function in today’s         on/off, going to programs, putting in/taking out
     world.                                      disks and CDs, etc.).
�� The learner likes privacy and            �� Introduce the specific software program(s) a
     prefers to control the content and          learner will use (getting in/exiting the program,
     pace of learning.                           saving material/place, moving around within the
�� The learner needs feedback that                program, etc.).
     demonstrates success and boosts       �� Introduce basic computer keyboarding (enter,
     self-esteem.                                backspace, delete, arrow keys, mouse, etc.).
�� A significant amount of drill and        �� Present new skills in a non-threatening manner:
     practice on a particular skill is           explain, show, have the learner do it, have the
     needed to reinforce what has been           instructor keep hands off.
     taught.                               �� Establish the objectives of educational activities
�� Flexibility in the length and                  using the computer.
     scheduling of study time is           �� Assess learner progress and demonstrate learner
     necessary                                   gains that are a result of computer-assisted
�� Learners require multi-media input             Instruction.
     and practice in order to learn.
�� Computers are not utilized as the
     sole means of instruction.
�� An instructor is readily available
     when things go wrong.

Content areas:                            How Technology is used:
�� All academic areas – if you have         �� Educational videos and software programs can
   the appropriate software, you can         introduce basics of computers/Internet.
   do anything.                            �� In a lab situation, computer/Internet basics or a
�� The Internet as an information             software program can be demonstrated using an
   source, research tool, and                LCD panel to project onto a large screen.
   teaching tool (many sites allow         �� Multi-medial presentations can be created by
   interactive learning).                    learners to demonstrate their knowledge
�� Writing Skills – process writing.        �� Headphones should be utilized for software
                                             programs with sound (to avoid distractions).
                                           �� Spell checker, grammar checker, and
                                             encyclopedia as resource tools for other programs.

One-on-One/Tutorial Instruction
The instructor or a tutor works with one learner at a time, usually in a subject area in which a
particular learner needs intensive individual instruction.
Appropriate when:                                          Key Steps:
�� Individual’s skill levels are too low for the learner       ��        Evaluate the learner’s skill
    to work without assistance                                         level and learning style.
�� Individual’s strong personal preference for this            ��        Schedule appropriate times.
    type of instruction is shown in the learning style        ��        Limit the amount of one-on-
    inventory                                                          one time so that it does not
�� Only one individual needs to study a particular                      dominate total time available
    subject and requires substantial assistance                        for instruction.
�� It does not impede the progress of the rest of the          ��        Plan for instruction.
    class or interfere with the overall function of a         ��        Identify the specific subject
    learning center                                                    matter/ objectives to be
�� There is a least one instructor available to the                     covered in that session.
    rest of the group (a volunteer or speaker may             ��        Set evaluation criteria.
    work with the rest of the group or a tutor may do         ��        Assess learner progress and
    the one-on-one instruction)                                        demonstrate learner gains
�� An individual learner is not singled out in a                        that are a result of learning
    negative way.                                                      activities.
�� Math and Language Arts skills are at higher

Content area:                                            How Technology is used:
           ��Literacy, Math, ESL, and Grammar             �� Reinforce concepts when more drill
           ��Almost all academic areas at a low              and practice is necessary for mastery.

                                        The GED Test

The GED Test, developed by the American Council on Education, is a standardized test designed
to measure the major and lasting outcomes of a traditional high school education. Examinees
must demonstrate skill in five core subject areas: language arts, reading and writing, social
studies, science, and mathematics.

The GED Test is a 7½-hour exam. The passing standards for the test are set so that only about
60 percent of seniors graduating each year would be able to pass it. Few GED candidates are
ready to take and pass the test without study. Testing questions are presented in multiple choice,
essay, and math grid formats. Ninety-seven percent of colleges and universities accept the GED
diploma as equivalent to a traditional high school credential. More than 1 in 20 first-year college
students in the U.S. are GED graduates, according to the National Center for Education

How long it takes to get a GED
Factors affecting the length of preparation time include:
• Length of time the individual may have been out of school
• Level of reading ability
• Level of academic skills
• Level of I.Q.
• Presence of learning disabilities

It may take some individuals months, others, years to be ready to test. The testing site usually
returns the results to candidates by mail within six to eight weeks after testing.

The information below lists some of Michigan’s testing requirements.

1.      Title of State Credential: High School Equivalency Certificate

2.       Requirements for Issuance of Certificate:

        A.    Minimum Test Scores: For the English edition of the GED test, a standard score
              of 410 on each of the five tests and an average standard score of 450 for all five
              tests is required. The Spanish and French edition of the GED test in 2002 did not
              change and the minimum test scores remain a standard score of 40 on each of the
              five tests and an average standard score of 45 for all five tests.

        B.    Minimum Age: 18 years of age and class of which applicant would have been a
              member must have graduated. Individuals who are graduates of the Michigan
              Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, National Guard Michigan Youth
              Challenge Program qualify for a Michigan GED certificate if they are at least 16
              years of age, and successfully complete all GED tests in accordance with Michigan
              jurisdictional score requirements.

        C.    High Schools are authorized to issue high school diplomas or certificates on the
              basis of the GED test to adult residents provided applicants meet the following

              1)    Minimum Test Scores: A standard score of 410 on each of the five tests
                    and an average standard score of 450 on all five tests.

         2)    Minimum Age: None, but diplomas or certificates will not be granted ahead
               of the time applicants would have received the credentials had they remained
               in school, except for Michigan Youth Challenge Program graduates.

         3)    Residence: Must be a former student or present resident of the school
               district from which the diploma or certificate of equivalency is sought;
               residents in a non-high school district may apply to the high school serving
               the particular district.

         4)    Previous High School Enrollment: The local high school may require a
               year or more of previous high school enrollment in addition to attaining the
               minimum test scores on the GED test.

Minimum Age for Testing: Individuals who are at least 16 years of age and have been out
of a regular school program for one calendar year may be tested. The calendar year waiting
requirement may be waived if it is in the best interest of the individual as determined by a
school district official, parent/guardian, and a GED chief examiner, and is in accordance with
State approved GED testing center guidelines. Michigan National Guard Youth Challenge
Program graduates who are at least 16 years of age and no longer enrolled in high school
are eligible for testing upon completion of the program.

       Applicants for induction into the U.S. Armed Forces who are age 17 may be admitted
       to testing, provided a written request is made by the recruiting office of any branch of
       the Armed Forces stating that the applicant has met all military requirements for
       induction except for GED test scores, and provided request is accompanied by letter
       or written statement signed by the local school official stating that the individual has
       left school and that it would probably be in the best interest of the person to be
       admitted to testing and, also, a letter of permission for induction from the applicant’s
       parent or guardian is furnished.

3.     Requirements for Retesting: Retesting is at discretion of the chief examiners,
       however, applicants are counseled to enroll in preparatory programs and it is
       recommended that six months should have elapsed before retesting.

4.     Method of Applying: No State application is required. Testing scores and applicant
       information is obtained directly from GED Testing Centers and GED High School
       Equivalency certificates are mailed when applicants meet all requirements.

5.     Official Transcripts: Test scores are accepted as official only when reported
       directly by: 1) Official GED Testing Centers, 2) Transcript Service of the Defense
       Activity for Non-Traditional Education Support (DANTES), and 3) the GED Testing

6.     Fees:

       a. Testing fees at Official GED Testing centers varies and there is no fee for a
       b. An official report of GED test scores may be obtained from the GED testing
          centers. Transcript cost information is available from each test center
       c. Duplicate certificates are not issued

7.     Testing Center Locations: Information on the location of Michigan GED testing
       centers is available on the internet at www.michigan.gov/adulteducation by following
       the links to Career Preparation and Adult Education, and Program/Enrollment.

   For questions regarding GED Testing, contact

   Benjamin C. Williams, State GED Administrator
Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth
             Office of Adult Education
201 N. Washington Sq. Victor Office Center. 3 Floor
            Lansing, Michigan 48913

       Telephone Number: (517) 373-1692
          Fax Number: (517) 335-3461

           Performance Measures and the National Reporting System

Adult education teachers often wonder why they are required to keep records and report
assessments, student goals and achievements, student attendance hours, etc. The answer is
simple: accountability.

It is required for funding.

Adult education programs use tax dollars to pay staff, buy equipment and materials, and provide
professional development in order to offer quality services to students. To monitor and evaluate
the utilization of federal funds, local programs are required to gather data and report it to the state
of Michigan, which in turn reports this information to the U.S. Department of Education. The Adult
Education and Family Literacy Act, Title II of the Workforce Investment Act, require states to
report student outcomes.

• States must meet performance standards in order to continue to receive federal funds for adult

The information gathered is used to show state and federal legislators the important work
of adult educators. The data gathered helps teachers, local programs, and the state make
decisions about curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development

In short, it helps us all do an even better job of serving students. The data gathered and reported
impact federal, state, and local funding and proves to others that adult education is important and
effective. More immediately, it helps improve the quality of teaching. Next to serving students,
gathering and reporting data is the most important thing an adult education instructor does.

                              The National Reporting System

The National Reporting System (NRS) for adult education is an outcome-based reporting system
for the state-administered, federally and/or state funded adult education programs. The U.S.
Department of Education uses information from the NRS to meet accountability requirements and
to justify federal investment in adult education programs.

The goals of the NRS are to establish a national accountability system for adult education
programs by identifying measures for national reporting and their definitions, establishing
methods for data collection, developing software standards for reporting to the U.S. Department
of Education, and developing training materials and activities on NRS requirements and

The NRS will improve the public accountability of the adult education program by documenting its
ability to meet federal policy and programmatic goals. The collection of state outcome data will
enable states to correlate effective practices and programs with successful outcomes and will
also assist states in assessing progress in meeting their adult education goals. For local
providers, the NRS will help instructors and administrators plan instructional activities and
services to enhance student outcomes and to correlate effective practices and programs with
successful outcomes.

The information collected through the NRS assists in assessing program effectiveness to help
improve adult education programs. Using a common set of outcome measures and a uniform
data collection system, the states measure and document learner outcomes resulting from adult
education instruction through the NRS.

The chart below illustrates the performance measures that Michigan has been held accountable
for since 2001.

                            Performance Measures Program Years 2001-2005

             Performance                  01-02   01-02     02-03    02-03     03-04    04-05
                Measure                   Goal    Actual    Goal     Actual    Goal     Goal
Core Indicator #1:
(based on % of students completing
each functioning level)
Beginning Literacy ABE                    19%     13.91%     20%    16.95%     21%      22%
Beginning Basic Education ABE             20%     21.26%     21%    19.49%     22%      23%
Low Intermediate ABE                      21%     29.12%     22%    24.23%     23%      30%
High Intermediate ABE                     22%     32.45%     23%    24.19%     24%      33%
Low Adult Secondary ABE                   29%     31.12%     30%     8.78%     31%      32%
ESL Beginning Literacy                    19%     39.04%     27%    44.70%     28%      46%
ESL Beginning                             20%     32.95%     23%    35.86%     24%      37%
ESL Intermediate Low                      23%     45.42%     34%    44.58%     35%      45%
ESL Intermediate High                     24%     35.58%     30%    39.20%     31%      40%
Low Advanced ESL                          22%     18.48%     23%    19.41%     24%      25%
High Advanced ESL                         22%     30.29%     23%    30.82%     24%      32%

Core Indicator #2:
(based on % of students with
employment or postsecondary
education as a “goal” who achieved
that goal)

Placement in Postsecondary Education      30%     35.45%     31%    50.95%     32%      40%
or Job Training
Placement in Unsubsidized Employment      32%     53.58%     34%    56.91%     36%      40%
Retention in Unsubsidized Employment      50%     48.53%     53%    46.69%     56%      40%

Core Indicator #3
(based on % of students with High
School Completion as a “goal” who
achieved that goal)

High School Completion                    25%     37.74%     26%    31.84%     27%      39%
(HS diploma & GED)


ABE     Adult Basic Education
ADA     Americans with Disabilities Act
AEFLA   Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (federal)
ALRC    Adult Learning Resource Center
BEST    Basic English Skills Test
CASAS   Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System
CBO     Community Based Organization
CELSA   Combined English Language Skills Assessment
CEO     Chief Executive Officer or Chief Elected Official
CFDA    Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CFO     Chief Financial Officer
DLEG    Department of Labor and Economic Growth
DOE     Department of Education
EDGAR   Education Department General Administrative Regulations
EFL     Educational Functioning Level
EL      English Literacy
ESL     English as a Second Language
ESOL    English Speakers of Other Languages
ETS     Educational Testing Service
FIA     Family Independence Agency
GED     General Educational Development
GRF     General Revenue Fund
K-12    Kindergarten through twelfth grade
LEA     Local Educational Agency
LDA     Learning Disabilities Association of Michigan
LWIB    Local Workforce Investment Board
MACAE   Michigan Association of Community and Adult Education
MAERS   Michigan Adult Education Reporting System
MDC     Michigan Department of Corrections
MIS     Management Information System
MRS     Michigan Rehabilitation Service
MWA     Michigan Works Agency
NRS     National Reporting System
OERI    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (federal)
OMB     Office of Management and Budget (federal)
OVAE    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (federal)
PAL     Partnership for Adult Learning
WIA     Workforce Investment Act

                 A Comparison of Assumptions and Processes
                          Pedagogy and Andragogy
                 Malcolm S. Knowles        Boston University

                                  Pedagogy                    Andragogy
Self-Concept              Dependency                 Increasing Self-Directedness
Experience                Of little worth            Learners are a Rich Resource
                                                     for Learning
Readiness                 Biological Development     Developmental Tasks of Social
                          Social Pressure            Roles
Time Perspective          Postponed Application      Immediacy of Application
Orientation to Learning   Subject Centered           Problem Centered

                                  Process Elements
                                    Pedagogy                   Andragogy
Climate                    Authority-oriented         Mutuality
                           Formal                     Respectful
                           Competitive                Collaborative
Planning                   By Teacher                 Mechanisms for Mutual
Diagnosis of Needs         By Teacher                 Mutual Self-Diagnosis
Formulation of             By Teacher                 Mutual Negotiation
Design                     Logic of the Subject       Sequenced in Terms of
                           Matter                     Readiness
                           Content Units              Problem Units
Activities                 Transmittal Techniques     Experiential Techniques
Evaluation                 By Teacher                 Mutual Re-diagnosis of Needs
                                                      Mutual measurement of