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01._Sculpture_In_Our_Backyard

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					      Packet 1. Sculpture in Our Backyard
                       1. Pioneer Mother Memorial by Avard T. Fairbanks

                       2. ILLCHEE: Moon Girl by Eric Jensen

                       3. Boat of Discovery

                       4. Horses by Deborah Butterfield

                       5. Poster—At Home on the River

                       6. Poster—Traders of the Columbia
         All four of these sculptures are CAST SCULPTURES. This means that the sculptor created the
original sculpture from a different material and then created a MOLD, usually from plaster, clay and/or
ceramic. Molten metal was then poured into the mold at a FOUNDRY. The metal was allowed to cool and
harden. Then, the mold was removed from around the sculpture and the metal was either welded, or smoothed
and buffed, to create a finished sculpture.

         Most cast sculptures are created with Bronze, a mixture of copper and tin. Bronze can be bright and
shiny, like a new penny, or very dark. It can also develop a natural “PATINA”, over the years, or the artist can
create a PATINA by painting the metal with a chemical. A PATINA is a coating that can change the color of
the metal. It can be a light green color, like the Statue of Liberty, or the chemical can be heated to create
shades of oranges and pinks. The Pioneer Mother Memorial is developing its own natural PATINA. Pioneer
Mother, ILCHEE, and the Horses were all cast in bronze. The bronze of ILCHEE and the Horses have a
darker coloring. Two horses are brown and one is black. The Boat of Discovery is painted red, so we aren’t
sure if it is cast from bronze, but it’s very likely.

        FORM is the Basic Element represented in Sculpture. TEXTURE is different in each of these
sculptures. The definition of ABSTRACT should be discussed when viewing The Boat of Discovery sculpture.
Discuss and define FULL ROUND sculpture (Ilchee: Moon Girl, Boat of Discovery, Horses, Pioneer Mother) and
HIGH RELIEF sculpture (The covered wagon sculpture on the back of the Pioneer Mother Memorial).

       What types of words might describe the MOOD for each of these sculptures? COLOR is different in
each sculpture. Consider and discuss whether or not the MOOD of a particular sculpture would change if the
COLOR were different. Did the sculptors choose the right color? What about a blue Pioneer Mother or a
green Boat of Discovery?




        Be sure ALL 6 pictures are returned to the Packet Carrier after your Presentation is finished.
                  Pioneer Mother Memorial Statue
                                    By Avard (AY-vard) T. Fairbanks
                        Located in Esther Short Park—Downtown Vancouver, WA
About the Artist
        Avard Tennyson Fairbanks was born in Provo, Utah, on March 2, 1897. He was the tenth son in a
family of eleven children. His father was an artist, who taught art at the Brigham Young Academy (now
Brigham Young University) along with operating a photography studio, assisted by his oldest son. Avard’s
mother, Lilly, wanted all of her children to be well educated but an accident, when Avard was barely a year
old, prevented Lilly from seeing her hopes fulfilled. Lilly fell and injured her back in August of 1897 and
remained bedfast until she died eight months later. Avard’s father, older brothers and sisters raised him,
along with his younger infant brother.
        Avard first showed interest in sculpture at age twelve, when his oldest brother (who was also an
accomplished artist) taught him to sculpt. Avard chose his pet rabbit as his first model. The clay rabbit
sculpture was entered in the State Fair and won first prize! When the judge, a university professor, found
out the sculpture was the work of a boy, he refused to award Avard the medal. This thoughtless act
caused more than a disappointment. It made the young boy resentful and determined to do even better
work. He resolved to become an accomplished artist so that in time the professor would have to
recognize him as a true sculptor!
       When his father went to New York City, to paint copies of masterpieces at the Metropolitan
Museum, Avard went along with him. He also obtained a permit to copy sculpture at the museum but it
was reluctantly granted because he was so young. However, the Museum Curator apologized for his
reluctance after he saw how well Avard could sculpt! A reporter for the New York Herald, who had
observed him sculpting at the museum, wrote an article titled “Young Michelangelo of this Modern Day
in Knickerbockers (the short pants younger boys used to wear) working at the Metropolitan Museum.”
The newspaper article led Avard to other great opportunities.
       In 1910 and 1911, Avard was awarded scholarships to study at the Art Students League in New
York. During this time he became personally acquainted with several notable sculptors, often receiving
advice and instruction from them. One of these sculptors was Gutzon Borglum, the designer of Mount
Rushmore. Young Avard’s sculpture was displayed in the National Academy of Design while he was
studying in New York and he was just 14 years old! This was a quite an honor. After a year and a half in
New York City, his father ran out of work and money so they returned home to Salt Lake City, Utah.
        Avard’s father recognized that his son had great artistic ability. He planned to make it possible for
Avard to study art in Paris. During the next 2 years Avard and his father worked to obtain sculpture
commissions that might finance the trip to Paris. All these efforts ended in disappointment, until Avard
offered to sculpt a lion in butter for a creamery exhibit at the Utah State Fair. Avard’s sculpture attracted a
large crowd and made the manager very happy. It also attracted other sculpture contracts, which finally
earned enough money for Paris.
        In 1913, Avard left for Paris to study Art. Some of his work was displayed in the Grand Salon of
Paris but Avard’s Paris studies were cut short by the outbreak of World War I. He and his father had to
return to Salt Lake City, where Avard continued his high school education. During this time (1915) young
Avard modeled sculpture that was exhibited at the Panama Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.
        Avard and his oldest brother received a commission to erect four sculptured friezes (sculpture
panel in high relief) in Hawaii. Other sculpture he did there included a bas-relief honoring Hawaiian
motherhood. While he was in Hawaii, Avard sent for his sweetheart, Maude Fox. They were married in
Honolulu.
       After World War I, Avard and his wife toured the Northwest. He met Dean Lawrence of the School
of Architecture at the University of Oregon. The Dean was impressed with Avard’s work and his training.
An appointment as Assistant Professor of Art was made, in 1920, to teach sculpture at the University of
Oregon, in Eugene. Besides organizing sculpture courses on that campus, he also taught courses on the
campus in Portland, Oregon.
       Avard’s creative works, while in Oregon, included “The Awakening of Aphrodite”, which is placed in
the Washburn Gardens of Eugene. World War I Memorials in bas-relief were erected at Jefferson High
School in Portland and at Oregon State University in Corvallis. “Guidance of Youth” stands in Bush
Park in Salem, Oregon.
        During 1924, Fairbanks took a leave of absence to study at Yale University. He returned to
Oregon and continued as an assistant professor until he was awarded a fellowship that sent him to Europe
to study and do creative sculpture. Most of Avard’s study was done in Florence, Italy. “Pioneer Mother
Memorial”, for Vancouver’s Esther Short park, was completed and cast in bronze at a Foundry in Florence,
Italy, while Avard was there on fellowship. Avard Tennyson Fairbanks died January 1, 1987.
Suggested Dialogue
        “. . . [Sculpture] should be understandable to children, the untutored, as well as the most highly learned and
technically trained. When our work is erected in public places for all to behold, we build an atmosphere and an
environment. For this reason, masterpieces of sculpture, because of their very nature of attracting attention, evoke
admiration. Our products therefore become great factors in large-scale education and community uplift and pride.”
                                                                                                       Avard T. Fairbanks
This is a quote from the artist who created The Pioneer Mother Statue. How does this statue fulfill
what the artist wanted his work to accomplish—“to educate us and give us pride in our
community”? It could inspire us to find out more about Vancouver’s pioneer heritage. Visiting Fort
Vancouver and Vancouver’s Museum, downtown on Main Street, could help us educate ourselves on the
pioneer history of this area.
What type of sculpture is The Pioneer Mother? High Relief, it is attached to a background, although
MOST of the sculpture seems to be free standing and full round. The sculpture is made of cast bronze.
What type of sculpture is the Covered Wagon, which is found on the wall behind the Pioneer
Mother? Bas (pronounced Bah) Relief or Low Relief Sculpture, also made of cast bronze
Did you ever wonder what it would have been a child during pioneer times?
Why do you think that only the mother is shown with the children? Many families lost members of
their family on the trail from accident or disease. Maybe this father traveled ahead of the family, to build a
home for them, so the mother had to bring the family across the Oregon Trail alone.
Do you think it was hard for this mother and her children to travel west? Most of the trip was taken
on foot. The wagon held supplies and belongings for their new home. There wasn’t really room for
passengers and it wasn’t comfortable. There were no paved roads, only dusty trails that were often
muddy and hard to travel on when it rained. Covered wagons had no shock absorbers, so the ride was
very bumpy. The dust from the wagons in front made children choke and cough. There were no
comfortable beds or motels to sleep in on the trail. There were no fast food restaurants to eat at. Camp
had to be made, fuel for a fire had to be gathered and the fire started before dinner could be cooked.
Do you think that you would have enjoyed these conditions if you were traveling along the Oregon
Trail as a pioneer child? Do you think the trip would have been more fun back then or today?
Why?
What type of MOOD does the sculpture have? How does it make you feel?
Project Idea
 Draw or paint pictures of pioneers and covered wagons on the trail.
   Create covered wagons with small boxes and white construction paper. Cut wheels from cardboard
    and attach to the box with brads. Small milk cartons will work well.
                                                       ILCHEE
                                       Chinook for “Moon Girl”
                                                        By Eric Jensen
                                                            1994

     * “History says she was born along the Columbia River about 1800, daughter of
Chinook Chief Comcomly and later wife of Chief Casino, leader of the Vancouver area.
      Lore tells us she had the power of a Shaman [a medicine man or magician] and that
she paddled her own canoe, which was the sign of a chief. By both accounts, she was
remarkable.”
*Information from plaque attached to the sculpture. There is a rock behind this plaque, which has Native American
Petroglyph carvings. If you get the chance to visit the sculpture, see if you can find this Petroglyph rock.
Local Native American History Associated with the Sculpture
         The bronze statue of princess ILCHEE is situated on the shore of the Columbia River, off Columbia drive, on
Vancouver’s Waterfront. She is near the Columbia Shores Condominiums at ILLCHEE Plaza. ILCHEE was a real person in
history. Her statue was placed here, in recognition of the people who had inhabited this region for thousands of years—The
Chinook Indians.
         There were several tribes in this area, with different Indian tribal names, but they could all be called Chinook. Local
tribes were located by Lacamas Lake, where the Washougal River meets the Columbia River, and in the area where Ellsworth
Road would meet the Columbia River.
           The Chinook hunted and fished for food. They were not farmers but they used the plants that naturally grew here. They
stayed here year round and wore animal skins to keep warm in the winter. Like many Northwest Native Americans, the Chinook
lived in large cedar houses and many families lived together. Part of the house was underground. They cooked inside their huge
houses. One of these homes has been discovered in the area and has been excavated and studied by archaeologists.
        Each little tribe had its own language so they needed a common trade language. This language probably originated with
the Chinook Astoria Indians, with a mixture of French and American English. Each tribe had things they would trade such as furs,
salmon, shells and berries. This was sometimes done at the Potlatch.
        Preparations for the potlatch would begin when a lookout from the tribe would spot the first Salmon coming up the
Columbia River. The three-day celebration would include a feast, business, dances, engagements, trading, etc.
          The Chinook were extremely prosperous merchant lords of the Columbia River. Yet, by the 1830s, they were a
devastated people. Overhunting (loss of food sources due to the fur trapping for trade), alcoholism, and finally disease (which
killed nine out of ten Chinook) were the result of the coming of “civilization” to the home of the Chinook.
About the Artist
           Sculptor Eric Jensen lives in Scappoose, Oregon. In the late 1980’s, on his way to finding his niche as an artist, Jensen
decided to create a line of sculptured fantasy figures. Jensen designed a swordsman, a sorcerer, a dragon and a few other small
sculptures of these make believe characters. He had originally intended to raise the standards of hobbyist sculpture by creating
his own graceful and realistic works of authentic art for hobbyist modelers to purchase. Jensen soon gave up on the idea, though,
due to the lack of copyright protection for this type of art and because the commercialism of this type of product seemed to
cheapen the value of the art. Yet, before Eric Jensen was finished with his artistic experiment (hobbyist modeling), he molded a
little Asian Geisha statuette. The girl was pretty, with a very serious expression, with one hand gripping a short sword hidden
beneath a slit in her kimono.
          A couple of years later, Jensen altered that small Geisha sculpture into a Chinook Indian Princess, as part of a contest
the city of Vancouver was presenting to celebrate the arrival of the British Sea Captain who became the city’s namesake. Jensen
didn’t win the Captain Vancouver contest with his Chinook Princess sculpture, but a couple of years later, city leaders asked the
sculptor to build his monumental statue in a plaza in the center of a redevelopment project for Vancouver’s Columbia River
waterfront. This area is now called ILCHEE Plaza.
          The bronze statue of ILCHEE (Chinook for “moon girl”) is situated on the shore of the Columbia River. ILCHEE looks
like she is relaxed and gazing out towards the sailboats traveling along the river on sunny days or at the lighted Christmas ships
that travel there in winter. The seven-foot-tall, 700-pound bronze sculpture has become one of the city’s icons since it has been
erected. Artist Eric Jensen still cleans and polishes the statue himself, at least once a year. He won the Governor’s Arts and
Heritage Award, from the Washington State Arts Commission, for creating the sculpture.
About the Art and Suggested Dialogue
          ILCHEE wears a nose-ornament, which originally would have been carved from a shell. Because she was an important
woman, it is elaborately carved. Her nose ring looks like a long, thin fish. The fish’s head and tail seem to meet, forming the ring.
Shell nose-ornaments were common to many of the Northwest Indians tribes but they struck the British newcomers as extremely
different from the costumes of any other Native Americans they had ever seen.
         The large square earrings ILCHEE wears would have been created with abalone shell. This shell was considered
valuable to the Indians. Abalone is not found in this area and could have only been obtained from trade, which is one reason that
it was so valuable.
Do you think those large earrings would have been heavy? If you have access to a piece of abalone shell, let kids see and
feel how thick and heavy it is.
         ILCHEE’s cape would have been woven from cedar bark. The cedar bark repelled the rain that is common in our area
and a woven cape like this was used as an ancient raincoat. Northwest Native Americans used the soft yellowish fiber, just
underneath the hard outside cedar bark, to make a type of rough yarn (similar to Raffia). Only a small part of the bark would be
removed from a cedar tree at one time, so it would not kill the tree. The fiber was dried, shredded and twisted into a type of yarn
that could be woven. ILCHEE’s basketry cape would also have been lined with animal fur and fastened with a fish bone. The
Portland Art Museum owns a real cedar bark cape like this.
         ILCHEE’S skirt (which we can only see a little of) would have been made of cattail reeds. This type of skirt is similar to
the idea of a Hula skirt. The skirt has a very different TEXTURE than the cape; although woven cedar bark skirts were also very
common among the Northwest Coast Indian tribes.
          Notice the shape of ILLCHEE’S forehead. Does it seem differently shaped than yours? It is! Her forehead is very
flat which makes the top of her head seem a little pointed. Chinook Indians admired a flat, smooth forehead and to achieve this
they practiced head shaping. This painless process was done in the first year of a child’s life when the skull can be easily
molded. It was accomplished by putting the infant in a special cradleboard (papoose), bound tightly against the baby’s forehead.
(See Poster At Home on the River for explanatory illustration) ILCHEE’s hair, like the hair of other Chinook women of her
time, would have been slickened with salmon oil to keep it shiny.
Project Ideas
 Write a paper about what ILCHEE is thinking as she gazes out at the boats and people who walk past her at the edge of the
    water. Is she comparing the way people dress today with the way her people dressed about 200 years ago? What does she
    think of the bike riders, skateboarders and people on roller blades moving past her? What about the music the teenagers
    play on their CD players as they pass? Does this seem strange to her? Does she like the music? What does she think of
    the colorful sailboats, water-skiers, and large barges, pushed by tugboats that often pass? Is she sad things have changed
    or is she excited by these modern new things? What does she think were the best and worst things about these two times of
    history? What does she think of our culture compared to her own?
   Challenge 4th and 5th graders to do research on ILCHEE and find out who her first husband was and what he did. (Chief
    Casino was her SECOND husband.) Offer a small reward for those who research this and write their correct answer
    (including name) on a piece of paper to hand in to you when you return next month. (Refer to “Glimpse into History through
    Sculpture” on next page for this information. Read sections of the article aloud to the class if nobody correctly answers this
    challenge on your next visit.)
   ILCHEE’S cape was made from woven cedar bark. Older kids could do a weaving project using Raffia, easily found in craft
    stores, to weave a small mat on a cardboard loom. Woven Raffia would resemble woven cedar bark.
   Younger kids could weave a mat using an 18”x24” piece of construction paper. Fold the paper in half to a 9”x12” size. Cut
    lines starting at the fold to about ½” from the outside edge. Unfold the paper and lay flat. Weave 1”x12” colored strips
    through the cut lines. Glue the ends of the strips to the ½” edge of the cut paper.
                   Glimpse into History through Sculpture
Although ILCHEE is mentioned relatively briefly in the 1805 journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition, her
life fascinated local sculptor Eric Jensen enough to create a monumental bronze on the Columbia River in
her likeness. In celebration of the sculpture’s 10th anniversary, in December 2004, Jensen looked back at
his research on the Chinook Indians and ILCHEE and shared some of the highlights [featured below]:
   The Chinooks were a dominant regional tribe in the early 1800’s, composed of a loosely allied chain of
people strung along the shores of the lower Columbia River. They belonged to the Athabascan language
group, meaning they migrated to this area from what is now British Columbia, many centuries before the
Europeans arrived.
    …The Chinook were slavers and traders whose territory extended from the Lower Columbia to San
Francisco Bay. Mostly, they traded slaves from the south and Dentalium shells from the Vancouver Island
area [to the north]. Dentalium shells were used to make wampum (a form of money) and wearable wealth,
prized widely among all North American Indian tribes. The Chinook traded with tribes as far east as the
Sioux and became wealthy in the process. They were most powerful near the mouths of the Willamette
and the Columbia Rivers. ILCHEE’s father, Chief Comcomly, was the most influential of the Chinook
leaders, and her mother, Princess Sunday, was his most favored wife.
   ILCHEE was a girl when Lewis and Clark came through this area, and since she was the favored
daughter of the most important wife, she was taken to meet the explorers, as recorded in their journals. A
few years after the Lewis and Clark Expedition was when ILCHEE’s life became better documented and
historians could form a better picture of her.
    After the Astor Colony was created, in what is now modern day Astoria, ILCHEE was arranged to marry
the colony’s Chief Factor, Dunchan McDougall. It was a troubled union from the beginning, and ILCHEE
reportedly compared her husband publicly to a pig. McDougall eventually abandoned ILCHEE and their
child to settle in Canada. Control of the young woman was returned to her father, Chief Comcomly. A
pioneer family at Fort Vancouver, meanwhile, adopted the couple’s child.
   Comcomly then arranged for ILCHEE to marry his rival, Chief Cassino, who controlled the Vancouver
area, a strategically vital junction of trade and trailheads. This marriage did not last long either. It ended
when Cassino’s baby from another wife died while under ILCHEE’s care (apparently from the flu). The
death of a chief’s child, according to Chinook culture, must be avenged, so Cassino had assassins kill
ILCHEE, according to the autobiography of explorer and educator Ranald McDonald, who was ILCHEE’s
nephew.
  “ILCHEE’s name translates to “moon girl,” and various historical accounts characterize her as
beautiful, smart and sharp-tongued”, said Sculptor Eric Jensen.
   The artist added that many of the comments he gets about the piece relate to its precise ethnological
detailing, particularly in regard to the basketry cape that she is wearing. “Usually, Indians are depicted
with the Plains’ fashions (feathered headdresses and the like),” he said. “But buckskins would
have mildewed around here. Basketry was much more suited to this climate. I was trying to get
[maximum] authenticity, so it really resonates with me when people talk about those kinds of
details.”
   He added, “I think of [ILCHEE] as a proud figure, looking out over the river, with her head up, her
chin up. She’s a little exotic. But that’s what makes her special. That’s what makes her unique. I
think that’s what resonates with people.”
    A former mayor of Vancouver, Bruce Hagensen, oversaw the push in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s
to create more interest in the Columbia River waterfront and provide more public access. “We were
hoping to stimulate exactly what has happened,” Hagensen said. “I think [ILCHEE] showed to the
community what lovely additions public art could be to our public places. It also symbolized that we were
making a strong investment in our waterfront, in providing public access and in telling our history… We
wanted to reach out to the Native Americans. We wanted to give them their long-overdue recognition. We
wanted to say that we not only had an English fort here, but we also have a Native American history that
goes back thousands of years.”
                                              Boat of Discovery
                                               Captain George Vancouver Monument
                           “October 31, 1792 Lieutenant William Broughton named this area for his Captain.”
                                                    Dedicated October 31, 1992
        Captain George Vancouver, from King’s Lynn, England, at age 35 and with orders from the British
admiralty to explore and chart the West Coast of America, charted hundreds of miles of coast line from
California to Alaska. His maps were so accurate that they were later used in establishing boundaries
between the Spanish, the English, the Russians and the Americans.
      During the return voyage of his expedition, Captain Vancouver commissioned Lt. William
Broughton to enter the Columbia River in long boats to explore inland. It was during this venture that the
area was proclaimed in the name of England and was charted in honor of Captain George Vancouver.
         Some 32 years later, in 1824, Dr. John McLoughlin and Sir George Simpson, of the Hudson Bay
Company, using the accurate journal and map published by Captain George Vancouver, established the
first permanent settlement in the Pacific Northwest and named it Fort Vancouver.
       Lt. William Broughton explored and charted the Columbia River from a 24-foot long boat. The
exploration some 100 miles inland commenced from the H.M.S. Chatham on October 23, 1792. The
exploration party returned past this point [sight where plaque is located today near Vancouver “Quay”
restaurant] October 31st enroute to the mouth of this great river. During his journey, Lt. Broughton named
many of the natural features he saw including Mt. Hood and Mt. St. Helens. He named this area
[Vancouver] for his Captain, George Vancouver.
*A replica of the map that Lt. Broughton created is etched on a plaque near the “Boat of Discovery” sculpture. The map of the river
route is an example of “Sunken Relief”; the map is cut into the stone of the plaque. The above information is printed on this plaque.
The following information is printed beneath the sculpture:
       . . . “The real story of George Vancouver and other explorers of the Pacific Northwest is not in one
great voyage. It is in the hundreds of lesser voyages made by the small boats, thoroughness and unfailing
courage with which these tasks were carried out through the long years of exploration of the Great River of
the West, the Columbia River.”
Suggested Dialogue
Does this sculpture look like a boat Lt. William Broughton traveled in to explore this area in 1792?
This boat is an abstract representation of a Long boat. That means it isn’t realistic. It appears as just the
skeleton, or framework, a representation of a boat. It is not a scale representation of the size of a real
long boat either. A ship of Lieutenant Broughton’s time would have been much bigger, with large masts
and sails. The Long boat was a smaller boat than a ship—24 feet long. Probably no one knows for sure
exactly what Broughton’s boat looked like, since cameras were not around then.
How can you tell this is a boat if you don’t look at the name of the sculpture? The sculpture’s lines
are the general shape of a ship outline or the skeleton of a ship. There just isn’t a “skin” on it.
The title of this sculpture is “Boat of Discovery”. It is a monument to Captain George Vancouver.
Did Captain Vancouver take the longboat down the Columbia River? No, Lt. Broughton did but he
was following the orders of his Captain and he named Vancouver in honor of his Captain.
Project Ideas
 Create an abstract *stabile sculpture from cardboard that resembles the FORM of this abstract boat
   sculpture.
 Create a clay sculpture of a boat.
 Create a poster board sculpture of a boat.
*See Evergreen School District Elementary Art Resource Guide (“Form” chapter) for instructions to build a stabile sculpture. Each school
has a copy of this notebook. Tell your school’s Art Discovery Coordinator you are interested in checking out the instructions for this project in
the resource guide. This is an excellent resource for any projects teaching the Basic Art Elements (color, line, texture, pattern, shape or form).
                                               Horses
                                           By Deborah Butterfield

       You can see these horses every time you leave the Portland Airport parking area, headed towards
I-205. After you leave the tollbooth, the road curves to the left and you can observe these three life size
horses as they stand grazing in the grass, on both sides of the road.
About the Artist
         Deborah Butterfield was born in San Diego, California in 1949. She has devoted her career to
exploring the image of the horse. Deborah has been fascinated by horses since childhood and created
her first sculpture of a mare (female horse) in 1973, using plaster over a steel armature. Over the years,
Butterfield has created horse sculptures using many different types of materials. While her sculptures
seem more Expressionistic, these horses have a remarkable sense of realism. Deborah is an
experienced horse trainer, which helps her sculpture seem more animated, since she has an intimate of
knowledge of the natural posture and movement of horses.
About the Art
     The horses are bronze sculptures. A bronze sculpture is created using a mold with hot metal poured
into it. The mold is usually made from ceramic. A sculptor creates a sculpture using clay or other material
first. Then the sculpture is covered with thick layers of plaster. The plaster is then cut in half and the
original sculpture is taken out of the mold. The two sides are used to create a ceramic mold, with both
sides joined together so it is hollow and enclosed. Metal is then melted into a liquid and poured into the
mold. After the metal cools the mold is removed and the metal statue is left.
     Butterfield first created an “assemblage” sculpture. This means that she assembled pieces of wood to
create the original sculpture. Each individual piece of these sculptures (the pieces of wood) was cast
separately and then welded to create the statue. This is what makes the wood pieces appear so realistic,
if you look closely at the statue.
   The Portland Art Museum owns a Deborah Butterfield Horse also. It was created differently, using
bent tree limbs with the bark removed. Challenge kids to visit the museum with their parents and ask to
see the Deborah Butterfield Horse sculpture!
Suggested Dialogue
Do these horses look realistic? When you first looked at them could you tell they were horses?
What do you think they are made of? They look as if they are made of driftwood, bark and one horse
looks like a 2x4 piece of lumber supports one of his rear legs. If you walk up and look at them closely they
seem as if they are made from different pieces of wood but if you knock on the wood you will realize that
the statues are really made of metal cast and painted to LOOK like wood.
Has anyone seen these horses before?
Be sure to point out how Deborah’s horse FORMS have areas you can see through. Discuss the
difference between FORM and SHAPE.
Project Ideas
 Gather small pieces of driftwood, twigs and large chunks of bark. Using tacky glue and fine pieces of
   florist wire, to connect the wooden pieces, let kids sculpt an animal. The pieces of wood can be
   stacked and glued with a small dot of tacky glue and then wired with small pieces of florist wire until
   they dry. Elmer’s Glue is too thin for this project. Have kids set their sculptures on paper plates to dry.
 Give kids pipe cleaners or pieces of heavier florist wire to create a wire sculpture of a horse.
 Create a horse sculpture using small and large marshmallows with toothpicks. (Great for K-1)
 Create a sculpture using a metal armature. A simple armature could be created using a drilled 2”x4”
   square with threaded spool wire. This type of project requires much more preparation time. The
   armature could be covered with clay or paper mâché.
                              At Home on the River
This large poster has written information about the Chinook and Clatsop Indians who were native to the
Northwest area. The chook and Clatsop lived near the Columbia River where it flows into the Pacific
Ocean. Here they had plentiful food and other natural resources. During the winter they lived in villages
on the banks of the river. When summer came they traveled to trade with other Indians.

This poster features illustrations that include:
        A painting of the interior of a Native American Lodge. Men of the village build lodges by tying
           poles together with rope made of cedar bark. Then they tied planks to the poles to make walls
           and a roof. They left a hole in the roof so smoke from their fires could escape.

          Native American fishermen using a weir—a fence made of sharpened poles stuck in the
           stream bottom—to guide salmon toward traps. When the fish were trapped the Indians could
           catch them with spears or nets.

          Painted profile of a NW Native American woman holding her child in a cradle. Chinook and
           Clatsop people flattened their children’s heads with a special cradle. The cradle did not hurt
           the child but it gave all Chinooks a distinguishing feature which they felt was highly attractive.
           The slanted forehead of the Chinook woman pictured here was the result of the gentle pressure
           of the top of the cradleboard against a baby’s soft skull. This silhouette helped Chinook to
           recognize slaves and outsiders—or “roundheads.” (The sculpture of ILchee has a head that
           resembles this portrait.)

          A painting showing a Native American woven mat lodge can be seen. Chinook and Clatsop
           people often traveled along the coast or up the river to trade. These journeys might last
           several weeks. While they were away from their permanent villages they lived in temporary
           lodges made of woven mats and poles.

          Drawing of a grave memorial is also pictured. When a Chinook or Clatsop person died, the
           body was placed in a canoe and surrounded by some of the person’s possessions. The canoe
           was then put on a platform raised above the ground.

          Drawing of a small gathering of NW Native Americans. Each village included several lodges.
           Some lodges were up to fifty feet long and housed several families. They were made to with
           stand the rain and stormy weather of the coast.
                           Traders of the Columbia
Living where the river runs into the ocean, the Chinook and Clatsop people were in a good position to
trade with other native groups. These expert traders exchanged their own surplus for things they needed
or wanted. They also acted as middlemen, getting something from one group and then trading it to
another.

This poster features illustrations that include:
        The Chinook and Clatsop people traveled to trade centers along the river and the coast. The
           map on this poster shows the direction of trade and is numbered:
                   1. Indians throughout the Pacific Northwest brought their goods to a major trade
                        center at The Dalles, Oregon.
                   2. Nootkan and other northern Indians brought canoes, hats, and other goods to trade
                        at Makah villages in Washington.
                   3. Villages near Coos bay attracted traders from coastal areas in Oregon and
                        California.

          Each native group made its own style of baskets and hats from bark, roots, and grasses.
           They traded these for goods woven out of other materials by additional groups.

          Chinookan traders got tanned elk hides from their neighbors on the Columbia River. Then they
           traded them to groups farther north. The hides were made into clamons—armor vests that
           protected warriors from spears and arrows.

          All the natives of the Northwest Coast used canoes to travel in rivers and on the ocean.
           Different groups sometimes traded canoes with one another.

          Indians along the coast used a rare kind of sea shell called dentalium as money and
           decoration. Dentalium shells came from the western shores of Vancouver Island.

          A plant called Wapato grows in marshes along the Columbia River and its tributaries. Wapato
           roots were an important food that the Chook people got by trading.

          Northern tribes used abalone—a shellfish that lives in the ocean—to make jewelry and other
           decorations. The best abalone shells came from the shores of California.

          Fish from the waters of the Columbia River were a favorite trade item. Indians dried some fish
           and stored them by hanging them from the roofs of their lodges. They boiled or pressed others
           to make oil that was used with food.

          Obsidian—a black, glass-like rock—came from areas near volcanoes. Indians used obsidian
           to make knives, spears, and arrows.


At the bottom of the poster is a painting showing Native Americans trading along the river with a boat, their
horses and many trade goods. By projecting this small picture on the large classroom screen the kids
may be able to better see it.

				
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