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					Forty lives in the bebop business: mental health in a group of
eminent jazz musicians
GEOFFREY I. WILLS

The British Journal of Psychiatry 2003 183: 255-259
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Forty lives in the bebop business: mental health                                                                                                   on the verge of becoming absorbed into official
                                                                                                                                                   academic culture.’

in a group of eminent jazz musicians{                                                                                                          And Shipton (2001) states, quite simply,
                                                                                                                                               that ‘Of all the musical forms to emerge
GEOFFREY I. WILLS                                                                                                                              in the twentieth century, jazz was by far
                                                                                                                                               the most significant’. In order to increase
                                                                                                                                               the comprehensiveness of the study of artis-
                                                                                                                                               tic creative persons, therefore, it seems
                                                                                                                                               timely to focus on jazz musicians.

                                                                                                                                               Present study
Background Above-average levels of                                             There is now a comprehensive literature                         In the present study I have not been as
psychopathology have been                                                      that convincingly demonstrates a link be-                       ambitious as Jamison, Post and Ludwig in
                                                                               tween psychopathology and creativity in                         terms of the size of the sample. I have tar-
demonstrated convincingly in groups of
                                                                               the arts. Specifically, the work of Andrea-                     geted a particular period of jazz, which it
outstanding individuals working in the                                         son (1987), Jamison (1993), Post (1994)                         is possible to refer to as the classic era of
arts.Currently, jazz musicians have not                                        and Ludwig (1995) points to a connection                        American modern jazz, that lasted from
been studied in this regard.                                                   between creativity and affective disorders,                     about 1945 to about 1960. Bebop, the first
                                                                               but there is also evidence of other psycho-                     manifestation of modern jazz, ‘Lies at the
Aims To investigate any evidence of                                            pathology. As just one example of this, Post                    midpoint of what has become known as
psychopathology in a group of eminent                                          (1994) found that 40.4% of his sample of                        the jazz tradition . . . bebop is the point at
                                                                               eminent composers exhibited DSM cluster                         which our contemporary ideas of jazz come
jazz musicians.
                                                                               C (anxious type) personality disorder traits.                   into focus’ (DeVeaux, 1997). By the early
Method Biographical material relating                                              Jamison, Post and Ludwig studied                            1960s, the music was changing again, lar-
                                                                               biographies of eminent creative persons in                      gely as a result of what was known as
to 40 eminent American modern jazz
                                                                               order to carry out their assessments. In                        The New Thing, The New Wave, or Free
musicians was reviewed and an attempt                                          the largest of these studies, Ludwig (1995)                     Jazz. In targeting a particular era of jazz,
was made to formulate diagnoses using                                          gathered biographical data on 1004 famous                       I am nevertheless mindful of the words of
DSM ^ IV.                                                                      men and women and concluded:                                    Harrison et al (2000) when they say that
                                                                                       ‘My findings show consistently that members of          ‘In reality, the parameters according to
Results Evidence was provided of                                                       the artistic professions or creative arts as a          which periods are demarcated are so mani-
                                                                                       whole . . . suffer from more types of mental diffi-     fold and overlapping that valid periodiza-
levels of psychopathology in the sample of
                                                                                       culties and do so overlonger periods oftheirlives       tion may be almost impossible to achieve’.
jazz musicians similar to those found in                                               than members of the other professions.’
                                                                                                                                               Still, the period 1945–1960 gave promi-
other previously investigated creative                                             Eysenck (1995), in his overview of                          nence to a large group of innovative and
groups, with the exception of substance-                                       creativity, felt that a number of studies                       virtuosic jazz musicians who form a conve-
related problems. An interesting                                               supported the theory that:                                      nient and compelling group for study. Jazz
                                                                                       ‘. . . there is a common genetic basis for great        musicians from other eras will form com-
connection between creativity and
                                                                                       potential in creativity and for psychopathological      parison groups who may or may not reveal
sensation-seeking was highlighted.                                                     deviation . . . it appears to be psychopathology
                                                                                                                                               similar personal characteristics.
                                                                                       in the absence of psychosis that is the vital
Conclusions The link between                                                                        creativity
                                                                                       element in creativity.’.’
psychopathology and creativity in the arts                                         A recent book by Nettle (2001)                              METHOD
was given further weight.Future studies of                                     explores these themes further.                                  Sampling
                                                                                   Between them, the workers mentioned
jazz musicians using larger samples and                                                                                                        Forty jazz musicians who are regarded
                                                                               above have studied psychopathology in fine
making comparison with groups from                                                                                                             generally as having emerged as innovators
                                                                               artists, architects, classical musicians (com-
different eras of music would give greater                                                                                                     on their instrument and often regarded in
                                                                               posers and performers), entertainers, ac-
                                                                                                                                               other ways, for instance as composers or
clarification to this area.                                                    tors, playwrights and writers of fiction
                                                                                                                                               arrangers, in the period 1945–1960 were
                                                                               and poetry. One area of creative endeavour
                                                                                                                                               selected using the standard jazz texts The
Declaration of interest                           None.                        that has been given scant attention is jazz,
                                                                                                                                               Encyclopaedia of Jazz (Giants of Jazz
                                                                               even though Jamison (1993) mentioned
                                                                                                                                               section) (Feather, 1960), Jazz Masters of
                                                                               three jazz musicians in her study and Lud-
                                                                                                                                               the Forties (Gitler, 1966) and Jazz Masters
                                                                               wig (1995) included seven in his. This is un-
                                                                                                                                               of the Fifties (Goldberg, 1965). Twenty-six
                                                                               fortunate because, as DeVeaux (1997) says:
                                                                                                                                               (65%) of the musicians were African
                                                                                       ‘. . . there is little doubt that in recent years it
                                                                                                                                               American and 14 (35%) were Caucasian
                                                                                       (jazz) has made substantive leaps toward be-
                                                                                       coming ‘‘America’s classical music’’. . . it may well   American. All were born in the period
                                                                                       be . . . that jazz is in the same position as another   1912–1936 and all were deceased. The
{
 See editorial, pp.193^194, this issue.                                                vernacular art form, film, was a generation ago:        sample (Table 1) consisted of six




                                                                                                                                                                                             255
WILLS




trumpeters, three trombonists, four alto               the category of cannabis-related disorder      Heroin-related disorder
saxophonists, one alto doubling tenor saxo-            was omitted owing to a lack of information     Twenty-one subjects (52.5% of the sample)
phonist, five tenor saxophonists, three                in the biographical material.                  were addicted to heroin at some time dur-
baritone saxophonists, five pianists, five                                                            ing their lives. It must be noted that heroin
bassists, four drummers, one guitarist, one                                                           use was widespread among modern jazz
vibraphonist and two arrangers.                                                                       musicians in the period after the Second
    Following the approach of previous                 RESULTS                                        World War and there were a number of
researchers, biographical material was                                                                reasons for this. After the war there was a
reviewed. Twenty-two musicians had bio-                Family background                              dramatic increase in the availability of
graphies devoted to them, in some cases                Information on family psychiatric history      heroin because supply routes from the Far
more than one. Where biographies per se                was rather patchy. It was ascertained that     East and Turkey were re-opened by the
did not exist, whole chapters devoted to in-           four subjects (i.e. 10% of the sample) had     Mafia. Heroin travelled via Marseilles
dividual musicians in jazz histories and               problems in this regard: Art Pepper’s par-     directly to New York and was made easily
reference works were referred to, supple-              ents, Stan Getz’s maternal uncles and Bill     accessible (Shapiro, 1988). It ‘flooded
mented by jazz magazine interviews and                 Evans’s father had alcohol-related disor-      urban black neighbourhoods to plague the
articles, providing extensive information              ders, whereas Stan Getz’s mother had           lives of average working-class African-
on personality, health and other details.              depression and Bill Evans’s brother died       Americans’ (DeVeaux, 1997). Modern jazz
                                                       by suicide. Erroll Garner’s twin brother       was a revolutionary music that was rejected
                                                       had severe learning difficulties. Seven sub-   by the general public, and heroin, like the
Ratings                                                jects (17.5%) experienced an unhappy           music, was defiantly anti-establishment
Where possible, I attempted to transform               or unstable early life: for instance, Dizzy    (Hentoff, 1978). It thus tended to be
the biographical data into psychiatric diag-           Gillespie and Charles Mingus remembered        adopted by disaffected musicians.
noses by using classifications and criteria            being beaten by their father, and Charlie          Heroin addiction was felt to be a
from DSM–IV (American Psychiatric Asso-                Parker’s father deserted the family when       contributing factor to early death in five
ciation, 1994). The categories used were:              Parker was 10 years old. Miles Davis had       of the subjects. A further subject, Chet
                 disorder,
heroin-related disorder, alcohol-related               an acrimonious relationship with his           Baker, lived until the age of 58 years but
           cocaine-related
disorder, cocaine-related disorder, schizo-            mother, who whipped him when he was            remained a lifelong addict. Fourteen sub-
phrenia and other psychotic disorders,                 young. On the other hand, he was one of        jects overcame their addiction but five re-
mood disorders and anxiety disorders.                  five subjects (12.5%) who came from            lied on other substances, such as alcohol,
The categories of family background, sen-              well-to-do or middle-class backgrounds.        cocaine and methadone, to sustain them.
sation-seeking, late-life deteriorations and           Davis’s father was a wealthy dentist and
suicides also were added. Although the                 ranch owner. Serge Chaloff’s father was a
use of cannabis by jazz musicians has been             symphony orchestra pianist and his mother
                                                                                                      Alcohol-related disorder
a topic for discussion (e.g. Shapiro, 1988),           was a music conservatory teacher.
                                                                                                      Eleven subjects (27.5%) were dependent on
T
Table 1 Forty eminent modern jazz musicians and their instruments
 able
                                                                                                      alcohol and six (15%) abused alcohol at
                                                                                                      some stage during their lives. Eleven
                                                                                                      subjects (27.5%) were comorbid for other
Trumpet                                Trombone                               Alto saxophone          disorders, such as heroin and/or cocaine
Dizzy Gillespie                        J. J. Johnson                          Charlie Parker          dependence at certain times in their lives.
Fats Navarro                           Frank Rosolino                         Art Pepper              Five of the alcohol-dependent subjects
Clifford Brown                         Bill Harris                            Paul Desmond            eventually overcame their dependence.
Chet Baker                                                                    Eric Dolphy
Miles Davis                                                                   Alto/tenor saxophone
Howard McGhee                                                                 Sonny Stitt             Cocaine-related disorder
Tenor saxophone                        Baritone saxophone                     Piano                   Three musicians (Miles Davis, Art Pepper
Wardell Gray                           Serge Chaloff                          Bud Powell              and Bill Evans) developed a dependence
Dexter Gordon                          Gerry Mulligan                         Thelonious Monk         on cocaine. In each case it followed the ces-
Stan Getz                              Pepper Adams                           Erroll Garner           sation of heroin use. In the case of Bill
Hank Mobley                                                                   Lennie Tristano         Evans, there was a 10-year abstinence
John Coltrane                                                                 Bill Evans              before the commencement of cocaine use.
Bass                                   Drums                                  Guitar                  Other musicians known to use cocaine
                                                                                                      were Thelonious Monk and Chet Baker.
Ray Brown                              Kenny Clarke                           Charlie Christian
Oscar Pettiford                        Art Blakey                             Vibraphone
Charles Mingus                         Philly Joe Jones                       Milt Jackson
Paul Chambers                          Shelly Manne                           Arranger                Schizophrenia and other psychotic
                                                                                                      disorders
Scott La Faro                                                                 John Lewis
                                                                              Gil Evans               Three subjects     (7.5%)   had    psychotic
                                                                                                      disorders.




256
                                                                                                                   M E N TA L H E A LT H OF J A Z Z MU S I C I A N S




Schizophrenia                                    Rosolino, although not diagnosed as having                   hospital operations and answering the tele-
Bud Powell had numerous admissions to            depression, died by suicide after attempting                 phone. John Coltrane exhibited obsessive–
psychiatric hospitals and was diagnosed as       (successfully, in one case) to kill his two                  compulsive features related to excessive
having schizophrenia. Many musician              sons.                                                        practising, consumption of sweet foods,
colleagues believed that his illness was                                                                      dieting, searching for the perfect mouth-
triggered after he was beaten over the head      Mood disorder due to a general medical                       piece and constantly exploring various
by police when he was 21 years old.              condition                                                    religions. In relation to Coltrane, it is inter-
Although he exhibited schizophrenia-like                                                                      esting to note that obsessionality can have
                                                 Two subjects fell into this category: Miles
symptoms such as possible paranoid delu-                                                                      an adaptive function in creativity, and Storr
                                                 Davis had depression as a result of pain
sions (fear of being attacked and murdered),                                                                  (1972) discusses the use of ritual to induce a
                                                 caused by sickle-cell anaemia, whereas
possible auditory hallucinations (laughing                                                                    suitable state of mind.
                                                 Gerry Mulligan experienced mood swings
inappropriately to himself) and inappropri-      caused by hypoglycaemia.
ate affect (fatuous smile, grimace, fixed                                                                     Sensation-seeking
stare), throughout a 10-month hospital           Dysthymic disorder                                           Zuckerman (1994) has described sensation-
admission in 1945 it was reported that ‘he                                                                    seeking as ‘the tendency to seek novel,
                                                 Two subjects, Paul Desmond and Bill
talked garrulously to all who would                                                                           varied, complex, and intense sensations
                                                 Evans, appeared to have dysthymic disor-
listen and was generally over-active . . . his                                                                and experiences and the willingness to take
                                                 der. Both experienced low self-esteem,
thoughts were flying away with him’                                                                           risks for the sake of such experience’. It
                                                 guilty ruminations and a pessimistic out-
(Gitler, 1966) and, therefore, a more accu-                                                                   ‘seems to be a necessary but not sufficient
                                                 look. In the case of Desmond, dysthymia
rate diagnosis may be one of schizoaffective                                                                  ingredient of an antisocial personality’
                                                 was related to alcohol dependence, whereas
disorder, because schizophrenia was grossly                                                                   (Zuckerman, 1994) and has been linked
                                                 with Evans it was related to heroin
overdiagnosed and mania was under-                                                                            to borderline personality disorder (Reist
                                                 dependence.
diagnosed around the middle of the 20th                                                                          al,
                                                                                                              et al, 1990). It seems possible, therefore,
century. To complicate the picture further,                                                                   that sensation-seeking is a characteristic
one medical researcher suggested that            Cyclothymic disorder                                         of all DSM cluster B (dramatic type)
Powell might have developed epilepsy as a        Charles Mingus displayed symptoms of a                       personality disorders. Sensation-seeking
result of his beating. These issues will not     cyclothymic mood disorder, being mainly                      also has been linked to creativity, in the
be resolved fully until the Powell estate        hypomanic with irascible, paranoid and                       form of divergent thinking (McCrae,
releases the medical records.                    grandiose features. Oscar Pettiford pre-                     1987), and to a preference for complexity
                                                 sented a similar picture, being irascible,                   and abstraction in art (Furnham &
Substance intoxication delirium                  grandiose and unrealistic in his business                    Bunyan, 1988).
                                                 dealings. When alcohol-free, he was                              In terms of the sample as a whole being
Thelonious Monk experimented freely
                                                 reported as appearing depressed.                             rated as exceptionally creative, I felt that it
with a variety of drugs and appeared to
                                                                                                              would be interesting to look at the docu-
experience a particularly adverse reaction
                                                 Anxiety disorders                                            mentation of sensation-seeking tendencies
to amphetamines. There were regular epi-
                                                                                                              in biographical material.
sodes when he went without sleep for sev-        Two subjects (5%), Art Pepper and John
eral days, pacing up and down and not            Coltrane, appeared to have anxiety dis-
appearing to recognise anyone. After tak-        orders. Art Pepper carried out obsessive–                    Disinhibition
ing to his bed for a few days he would           compulsive washing rituals and had phobic                    One of the sensation-seeking factors identi-
then return to normal. This presentation         anxiety regarding the sight of blood,                        fied by Zuckerman (1994) is disinhibition.
conforms to a diagnosis of substance
intoxication delirium, as described in
                                                 Table 2      Mood disorders
DSM–IV.


Substance-induced psychotic disorder             Musicians                     Diagnosis

Miles Davis developed sickle-cell anaemia        Miles Davis                   Mood disorder due to sickle-cell anaemia, with depressive features
and used excessive amounts of cocaine            Paul Desmond                  Dysthymic disorder
and barbiturates to control the arthritic
                                                 Bill Evans                    Dysthymic disorder
pain. As a result, he developed paranoid de-
                                                 Gil Evans                     Major depressive episode
lusions and auditory hallucinations, search-
                                                 Stan Getz                     Major depressive disorder, recurrent1
ing in his house for imaginary people whose
                                                 Charles Mingus                Major depressive disorder, recurrent, superimposed on cyclothymic disorder1
voices he thought he heard.
                                                 Gerry Mulligan                Mood disorder due to hypoglycaemia with mixed features
                                                 Charlie Parker                Major depressive episode1
Mood disorders
                                                 Art Pepper                    Substance-induced mood disorder with depressive features1
Eleven subjects (28.5%) definitely or prob-
                                                 Oscar Pettiford               Cyclothymic disorder (?)
ably fell into this category (Table 2). Four
                                                 Frank Rosolino                Major depressive episode (?)
subjects received in-patient treatment for a
depressive disorder and one subject, Frank       1. In-patient hospital treatment.




                                                                                                                                                               2 57
WILLS




This is typified by a liking for parties, social   wounding the other) and then killed him-        did not determine the presence of specific
drinking, sex with many partners, new and          self. J. J. Johnson, having been ill for a      mental disorders, stating only that 23%
often illegal experiences and experimenta-         number of months, died by suicide at the        of the sample population had significant
tion with drugs. Five of the subjects              age of 77 years.                                psychiatric impairment. The Epidemiolo-
(12.5%) shared a remarkably similar pro-                                                           gic Catchment Area Study (Robins & Re-
file regarding disinhibition. These were           DISCUSSION                                      gier, 1991) found incidences of 6.8% for
Chet Baker, Charlie Parker, Art Pepper,                                                            mood disorders, 1.5% for schizophrenia,
                                                   Shortcomings of the study
Stan Getz and Serge Chaloff. Chet Baker’s                                                          14% for alcohol dependence and misuse
favourite drug experience was ‘the kind of         Ludwig (1995) and Post (1994) discuss           and 6% for drug dependence and misuse.
high that scares other people to death – a         the shortcomings in their studies and the
speedball. It’s a mixture of cocaine and           same criticisms can be levelled at the pre-     Drug-related problems
heroin’. Charlie Parker consumed enor-             sent one. Information was taken from soft
                                                                                                   There was a much higher rate of drug-
mous quantities of food, used heroin in            biographical data and interpreted as facts.
                                                                                                   related problems in the present sample than
increasing amounts, was known to drink             A single investigator attempting to trans-
                                                                                                   in those of Ludwig and Post, with 52.5% of
16 double whiskies in a 2-hour period and          late descriptions of subjects in biographies
                                                                                                   jazz musicians having heroin addiction at
entered into hundreds of affairs with              into specific DSM diagnoses cannot
                                                                                                   some time during their lives. As has been
women. Art Pepper described his appetites          achieve high levels of validity and reliabil-
                                                                                                   noted previously, heroin use was wide-
thus: ‘I always prided myself on being able        ity. Biographers may be biased in the way
                                                                                                   spread for a number of reasons among
to stay up longer than anybody else, drink         that they select and interpret facts, and
                                                                                                   modern jazz musicians after the Second
more than anybody else, take more pills,           information is retrospective. Ideally, the
                                                                                                   World War, but as modern jazz gradually
shoot more stuff, or whatever’. Stan Getz          subjects should have been selected from
                                                                                                   became more accepted, and as younger mu-
was dependent on heroin and alcohol and            a list provided by a group of experts.
                                                                                                   sicians saw the harm caused to their older
was a prolific womaniser. Serge Chaloff            The present sample of 40 subjects is small
                                                                                                   colleagues, usage began to fall off (Hentoff,
was described by a colleague as being like         and rose to prominence in a very specific
                                                                                                   1978), so a more recent sample of jazz
Charlie Parker: ‘He had such an amazing            era that had a strong influence on them as
                                                                                                   musicians undoubtedly would not show
tolerance for doing whatever he did to him-        individuals. Nevertheless, objective data
                                                                                                   the same rate of addiction.
self that he hardly ever knew it was a prob-       were available in the form of documented
lem . . . never got enough of anything’.           behaviours, such as medical or psychiatric
                                                   illnesses. Often there were several biogra-     Consideration of occupational
     Miles Davis appeared to exhibit ex-
                                                   phies of one subject, each written from a       stress
treme disinhibition. He misused a variety
of substances, including heroin, alcohol,          different standpoint and providing cross-       In a previous large-scale study (Wills &
barbiturates and cocaine. He had many              corroboration of data.                          Cooper, 1988), the effects of occupational
sexual relationships, sometimes simulta-                                                           stress on mental health and substance
neously, and he had a liking for orgies            Statistical comparisons with other              misuse in popular musicians were ex-
and voyeurism. Other subjects, including           studies                                         plored. Arguably, the fullest picture is
Dexter Gordon, Paul Chambers and Philly            It was interesting to compare and contrast      provided by using the diathesis–stress
Joe Jones, demonstrated voracious multiple         rates and types of mental health problems       model (Meehl, 1962). One may ask why
appetites.                                         in the sample of jazz musicians with those      Dizzy Gillespie survived to become an
                                                   of previously documented creative groups.       elder statesman but his fellow innovator
                                                       Overall, the statistics for jazz musi-      Charlie Parker died aged 34 years. Re-
Thrill- and adventure-seeking
                                                   cians were comparable with those of com-        search (see Ludwig, 1995) shows that,
Thrill- and adventure-seeking is another                                                           with regard to psychopathology in the
                                                   posers and musical performers provided
sensation-seeking factor identified by                                                             arts, for substantial numbers the predispo-
                                                   by Post (1994) and Ludwig (1995). For
Zuckerman (1994). In the present sample,                                                           sition for mental disorder is established
                                                   instance, 28.5% of jazz musicians had
Chet Baker and Miles Davis had a love                                                              long before they launch their careers.
                                                   mood disorders compared with 41% of
of fast sports cars, and Scott La Faro, a                                                          There is also a greater tendency in their
                                                   musical performers (Ludwig) and 34.6%
notoriously reckless driver, died in a car                                                         families for mental illness and they show
                                                   of composers (Post); and 10% of Lud-
accident at the age of 25 years. On one                                                            more problems during childhood and ado-
                                                   wig’s and 1% of Post’s composers had a
occasion after a drinking session, Stan Getz                                                       lescence than members of non-artistic
                                                   psychotic illness compared with 7.5% of
successfully swam across London’s River                                                            professions.
                                                   jazz musicians. Figures for alcohol prob-
Thames.
                                                   lems were similar, with 40% of Ludwig’s
                                                   musical performers, 21.2% of Post’s com-        Wider implications of sensation-
Late-life deteriorations                           posers and 27.5% of jazz musicians.             seeking
and suicides                                       Thus, the present study tended to confirm       Despite the social reasons for drug usage, it
It was felt that from the age of 54 years          previous findings regarding mood dis-           is interesting to look at it in relation to the
Thelonious Monk had a dementing process            orders and alcohol problems in creative         topic of sensation-seeking.
caused by excessive drug usage. He died            persons. Comparable statistics for the               Sensation-seeking, mainly in the form
from a cerebral aneurysm, aged 64 years.           general population during the time period       of disinhibition and thrill- and adventure-
    At the age of 52 years Frank Rosolino          studied are not easily available. The Mid-      seeking, was described in biographical
shot his two sons (killing one and seriously                                         al,
                                                   town Manhattan Study (Srole et al, 1962)        material relating to many of the current




258
                                                                                                                     M E N TA L H E A LT H OF J A Z Z MU S I C I A N S




sample, suggesting that their substance-
related problems were part of the wider
                                                      CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
spectrum of their appetites and not simply
the result of the influence of their working          &  Evidence of a link between psychopathology and creativity in the arts is given
environment.
                                                      further support.
    The connection between sensation-
seeking and creativity is a topic worthy of           &   Further illumination of the creative process might be gained by an intensified study
further investigation. One may speculate              of its link with sensation-seeking.
that those high in creativity and sensation-
seeking may represent a subset of persons
                                                      &   Psychopathology is neither necessary nor sufficient for creativity.
who are attracted to becoming performers
                                                      LIMITATIONS
in the field of popular music as a whole,
when one also considers the biographies               &   Information was taken from soft biographical data and interpreted as fact.
of a number of eminent deceased rock
musicians. One can carry this speculation             &  A single investigator attempting to translate descriptions in biographies into
further, for instance when looking at the             specific DSM diagnoses cannot achieve high levels of validity and reliability.
                                 fin-de-siecle
bohemian artistic world of fin-de-sie     `cle
                                                      &  The present sample of 40 subjects is small and rose to prominence in a very specific
Paris. Januszczak (2002) refers to the ether
addiction of the poet Max Jacob, the ab-              era that had a strong influence on them as individuals.
sinthe addiction of the playwright Alfred
Jarry, the opium smoking of Picasso and
the alcoholism of Utrillo, Toulouse-Lautrec
and Modigliani. The latter also used hash-
ish and cocaine.                                 GEOFFREY I.WILLS, PhD, 13 Mile End Lane, Davenport, Stockport, Cheshire SK2 6BN, UK. E-mail:
                                                 gwils@
                                                 gwils@btopenworld.com
    At the present time, of course, the con-
nection is pure conjecture. Solely with re-      (First received 30 October 2002, final revision 26 February 2003, accepted 17 March 2003)
gard to jazz musicians, there is a need to
study larger samples and to make compari-
sons with groups from different eras of the      despite this. Connections with sensation-                     Ludwig, A. M. (1995) The Price of Greatness: Resolving
                                                                                                                                          Controversy.     York:
                                                                                                               the Creativity and Madness Controversy. New York:
music.                                           seeking are highlighted, suggesting an
                                                                                                               Guilford Press.
                                                 avenue for further exploration.
                                                                                                               McCrae, R. R. (1987) Creativity, divergent thinking and
Non-pathological sample                                                                                        openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social
characteristics                                  REFERENCES                                                              ,
                                                                                                               Psychology 52,
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                                                 American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic                                    Psychologist, 17,
                                                                                                               schizophrenia. American Psychologist, 17, 827^838.
present study, it needs to be stated that        and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn)
many of the sample were exemplary,               (DSM ^ IV).Washington, DC: APA.                               Nettle, D. (2001) Strong Imagination: Madness, Creativity
                                                                                                                         Nature.
                                                                                                               and Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
well-balanced human beings. For instance,        Andreason, N. C. (1987) Creativity and mental illness:
Clifford Brown was regarded universally          prevalence rates in writers and their first-degree            Post, F. (1994) Creativity and psychopathology: a study
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