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					Leveraging the Capacity of the Personal
Digital Assistant in the Emerging Age of
Ambient Intelligence: The Rent a Mobile
               Guide Case


     P.B.M. Loonstra, G. van Wijk, F.M. Go
                  fgo@fbk.eur.nl
    Centre for Tourism Management Rotterdam
    School of Management Erasmus University
Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 1
                                OVERVIEW


•   Introduction
•   Goal & Problem Statement
•   Theoretical Framework
•   Methodology
•   Results
•   Conclusions & Recommendations




Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 2
                      INTRODUCTION - 1 -


• In emerging era of Ambient Intelligence Support
  of tourists requires more than offering a PDA,
  including maps, localization, routing
  functionalities
• mCommerce
• Emotion driven needs & Critical consumer
• Three foundations: personal, location, time




Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 3
               INTRODUCTION - 2 -

• Ambient Intelligence
   – Integration many networked devices into environment
   – Moving of electronics into the background
   – And consumers into the foreground
• Rent a Mobile Guide
   – Based on PDA technology, including software
   – Assistance before, during and after trip
   – Leverages PDA capacity for personalized travel
• Relevance
   – Identified lifestyle profiles insight into personal
     expectations
   – Causality between lifestyle profiles and specific needs
     (values) of individual clients
             -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track      Slide Number 4
Leveraging Distributed Capacity on the
     basis of Lifestyle Research

Lifestyle Research
   – Studies activities, interests and opinions of individual
     (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard 1995)
   – Provides insight into consumer behavior (Go en Govers;
     Plummer) and marketing decision-making
     (Malhotra en Birks)
   – Limitations: Are psychographic profiles predictive of of
     puchase behaviors? To what extent are lifestyle
     studies stable over time? (Arnould et al 2004: 468)




             -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track       Slide Number 5
       CENTRAL RESEARCH ISSUE


• Goal


      “To apply the case study and laddering

  technique to examine the Rent-A-Mobile Guide’ and
  identify why specific lifestyle groups engage in

  certain types of travel experience.”




            -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track    Slide Number 6
           CENTRAL RESEARCH ISSUE


• Problem Statement

   “Which lifestyles of American tourists can be
   distinguished within the target group of the Rent-A-
   Mobile Guide?”

   “How can the information and knowledge about such
   lifestyles be activated in a structural manner, so as to
   contribute to the generation of user loyalty to the
   Rent-A-Mobile Guide?”

Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 7
           THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


• Reverse network engineering framework (Kamann,
   Strijker en Sijtsma)

• Lifestyle Research
    – AIO factors (Hustad en Pessemier; Wells en Tigert; Bruner en
        Hensel)

• Value Research
    – RVS, LOV en VALS (Rokeach; Kahle en Timmer; Mitchell)
    – Laddering / Means-End Theory (Reynolds en Gutma)




Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track     Slide Number 8
REVERSE NETWORK ENGINEERING
        FRAMEWORK



                          Consumer profile / lifestyle



     Concept          Concept                   Concept         Concept



 Product        Product           Product             Product      Product
   Product                           Product                         Product
     Product



                                   Activities




           -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track                           Slide Number 9
                       METHODOLOGY


• System

• Casestudy & Laddering Technique
   – Explorative: 30 in depth -interviews
   – Primary Quantitative data: 117 surveys
• Measures
   – By measuring activities, interests, opinions and values
     researchers were able to make transparent behavior
     of three lifestyle groups, starting point for personalizing
     travel


 Cairo 26/28-01-04
                 -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 10
                                  RESULTS


• Segmentation

    – cluster analysis of respondents
    – Discrimination analysis lifestyle factors
    – Chi-square test of different variables resulting in
      detecting significant cluster techniques




Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 11
                                  RESULTS


       Segment 1:                      Segment 2:                 Segment 3:
   MYSTERY SUSTAINERS            TRADITIONAL EXCITERS        INNOVATIVE ACHIEVERS



Low level of                  Emphasis on               High level of
innovativeness and             combination of active      innovativeness and
opinion leadership             and passive leisure        opinion leadership
                               activities                 Social-cultural character
Business travel
frequency < 1 per year         Work relatively           Workaholic
                               unimportant
Values relatively                                         Business travel
unimportant                    Business travel           frequence > 4 keer per
Adopter classification:       frequency < 2 per year     year
Laggards                                                  Important values: Self-
                               Important values:         esteem, Socialize en
                               Family & Friends,          Accomplishment
                               Excitement en Security     Adopter classification:
                               Adopter classification:   Innovators and Early
                               Early late majority        adopters

Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track                  Slide Number 12
                                  RESULTS

- RAMG should focus on innovative achievers due to their
characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility,
complexity, divisibility, communicability

                             Early majority
                                                       Late majority




          Early adopters
                                                                       Laggards
   Innovators

                    Innovative           Traditional             Mystery
                     achievers            exciters              sustainers
                      36,1 %               41,7 %                 22,2 %


                                 Time of adoption of innovations



Cairo 26/28-01-04
                -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track                               Slide Number 13
                       CONCLUSIONS - 1 -


• This exploratory study argues that
     – Research focuses primarily on exploitation of
       technology including PDAs.
     – It needs to be complemented by exploration,
       marketing research into user activity in relation to user
       motive.
• Relevant because
     – M-Commerce likely to become most prominent
       electronic tourism distribution channel
     – If cognition and action are linked it is apparent that
       both are integrated in Ambient Intelligence


Cairo 26-28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 14
                       LIMITATIONS


•   Limitations of exploratory study
    – As result of hard-to-reach target audience non-
      probability sampling technique has been used,
      invloving researcher judgement that sample is, in fact
      representative, and ,hence, has less face validity.
    – However by employing quota sampling some of this
      researcher subjectivity has been removed from
      sampling technique.
    – The current cybernetic system of RAMG contains
      error-controlled system (feedback mechanism), i.e.
      disconfirmation is measured after it has taken place.
    – Impacts on and developments in user profile in
      between service encounters are currently not
      integrated into RAMG-offered services.
             -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track      Slide Number 15
                     RECOMMENDATIONS



• Recommendations

    – PDA-based tourism marketing as exemplified by
      RAMG offers potential maens to adapt through
      Ambient Intelligence to fluidity of changing lifestyle
      segments
    – Drawing attention to latter opportunity would be of
      interest to many companies.




Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 16
                                      END




               Thank you for your attention!




Cairo 26/28-01-04
                    -1-ENTER 2004 Research Track   Slide Number 17

				
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