Kirklees Libraries by liuhongmei


									Kirklees Libraries
Information Service

1)   Introduction. 3

2)   The Philosophy of the Kirklees Library Service. 5

3)   Libraries and Censorship. 7

4)   Stock Policy Aim, Objectives and Principles. 8

5)   Training. 10

6)   Stock Selection Policies. 11

7)   Funding. 23

8)   Purchasing Procedures. 23

9)   Gifts and donations. 23

10) Library Grading. 24

11) Stock Editing. 26

12) Stock Withdrawal and Disposal. 28

13) Stock Rotation. 29

14) Stock Security and Recovery. 31

15) Literature Development and Stock Promotion. 32

16) Measuring Performance. 35

17) Contacts and Feedback. 36

18) Weblinks. 36

19) Background reading and sources. 37

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004            2
1) Introduction.

This stock policy explains:

   How we choose the books, videos, DVD‟s and other materials that you find
    in your libraries.

   How we maintain and promote those materials.

   How we circulate stock between libraries to ensure that even the smallest
    libraries provide the widest choice of reading.

   Why we decide to keep some items and throw others away.

   Our position on censorship.

   How we measure the performance of stock at all libraries.

A huge number of books, compact discs, videos and DVD‟s are published and
released every year. The space available in libraries to house and display
these materials is limited. So is the amount of money we have available to
spend. We must therefore choose what to buy very carefully and what we buy
is based very firmly on our sense of purpose.

Our aim is to provide the widest possible range and choice of stock within our
resources, to entertain and educate, to inform and challenge. We value these
qualities more than hype or short-term popularity and this means that we will
not simply buy more copies of the best sellers many want to read on

You will find those best sellers and a good range of other popular books in
your library but you will also find the new, the different and, occasionally, the
controversial. Newspapers, magazines and television highlight and promote a
very narrow range of authors and titles each month, a fraction of those
published. The library service offers and promotes much more.

At its core the public library service offers all communities the opportunity to
access a wide range of human thought and creativity, to choose books to take
home and to do this free of charge. One of our unique strengths lies in being
able to supply books and other materials that are no longer in print and that,
together with free access and borrowing makes us very different from

We believe in a service that appeals to and includes all members of our
communities and we will, wherever possible, provide our stocks in a range of
appropriate languages and formats.

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Our policy is not static and will be reviewed regularly to reflect and take
account of changing needs and circumstances. This is your library service
and we welcome your comments, questions and suggestions.

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2) The Philosophy of the Kirklees Library Service.
 The public library service promotes informed and cultured citizenship.
It is fundamental to the success of any democratic society. The library is an
inclusive service; it allows all members of the community equal opportunity to
engage in a wide range of social and cultural activities outside the pressures
of the commercial environment.

  The library service accepts a broad definition of „culture‟. We live in a
multicultural society. Culture evolves; it does not remain static. The public
library is not a museum. Library stock reflects cultural change and nurtures
cultural variety.

 Range and breadth are key factors in stock provision. We provide stock to
meet the widest range of human enquiry and interest without prejudice. We
value knowledge for its own sake, rather than as a commodity. The free
provision of book lending and information allows the library to encourage
interest and enquiry from all customers, regardless of their ability to pay. In a
predominantly commercial environment this service is particularly valuable.

Kirklees Libraries offer access to print and other media (for example recorded
sound and DVD) for leisure, information and education. Our services are open
to all regardless of age, background or ethnicity.

Within the constraints of budget and space the library service seeks to:

1. Provide materials to enhance and extend the intellectual and cultural
   development of the community.

2. Meet the information needs of the community for work and leisure.

3. Support formal and informal education for customers of all ages and

4. Promote and extend the use of books and other media for recreation.

5. Provide a free forum for the discussion and dissemination of facts and

We are committed to increasing use of our services. We will strive to develop
methodologies for identifying and addressing the needs of those who do not
currently use library services as well as meeting the needs of existing

As space and resources are finite library collections need constant
management to ensure that they remain a useful community resource.

 Library stock deteriorates over time and with customer use. The body of
knowledge also changes. Information is revised, superseded or becomes
obsolete. The library service ensures that the information we supply is as
current as possible. This document is a working tool; it ensures that the
management of our primary resource is accurate and consistent.

A huge volume of material is published in all formats, both print and electronic
each year. Constraints of space and resources mean that it is impossible for
the library service to buy everything. Library staff must choose a selective and
representative range of stock. This document shows why we select our stock
and defines the principles that underpin this process.

Stock policy needs to remain responsive to the needs of the community. This
document will be reviewed on a regular basis to ensure that it remains

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3) Libraries and Censorship.

Our role as a free forum for ideas precludes censorship. The library service
does not endorse or promote any particular political, social or religious
ideology. We provide access to the widest range of knowledge and
experience to encourage and inform public debate.

 The Library Association policy statement on censorship (1963, revised in
1997) states that: “If publicly available material has not incurred penalties
under the law it should not be excluded on moral, political, religious, racial or
gender grounds, to satisfy the demands of sectional interest. Users of library
and information services are entitled to rely upon these services for access to
information and enlightenment upon every field of human experience and
activity”. In line with this statement the library service may purchase any
publication which has not incurred any penalties under law.

In addition, the International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions (IFLA) Statement on Libraries and Intellectual Freedom (approved
in 1999) states that: “Libraries shall ensure that the selection and availability
of library materials and services is governed by professional considerations
and not by political, moral and religious views”.

 Kirklees Council has adopted both the Library Association and IFLA

Religious and political material that informs rather than attempts to convert is
preferred. Kirklees maintains a specific policy on the provision and display of
religious and political materials in public libraries (Appendix A)

 The library service welcomes suggestions for stock and feedback on stock
policy. This information is used, wherever possible to inform the selection
process. The library service will not, however, add or remove any item
from its shelves solely at the request of any individual or group. Library
staff are solely responsible for the selection, deployment and disposal
of stock following the principles laid down in this stock policy and
acting within current legal requirements.

  Responsibility for the use of library materials from the adult lending
collections by children rests with their parents or legal guardians, not with
library staff. Procedures are in place, in line with legal requirements, to ensure
that classified items such as videos or DVDs are not issued to borrowers of
inappropriate age.

The library only restricts access to material in order to protect it from damage
or theft, not as a form of censorship. Library staff do not label items to warn
customers of “offensive” or “harmful” content.

For more information on Public Libraries and censorship consult the IFLA
(International Federation of Library Associations) and CILIP (Chartered
Institute of Library and Information Professions) websites.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                   7
4) Stock Policy Aim, Objectives and Principles.

To provide a clear and consistent approach to stock management throughout
Kirklees Libraries.

1. To supply the widest possible range of material to library users within
   current resources.

2. To maintain currency and physical condition of the stock.

3. To encourage new authors and the flow of new ideas in both fiction and
   non-fiction writing.

4. To improve stock security and minimise stock loss.

5. To measure stock performance and use this data in the management and
   development of our services.

6. To seek feedback from all sectors of the community on stock matters and
   use this data in the management and development of our services.

7. To maximise use of stock through display, promotion and reader advisory

General Principles.
1. Stock is a system-wide resource rather than the property of a single
   service point. The system aims to balance breadth of stock with the need
   for more specialist material. The wider the range of material available, the
   wider the library service‟s appeal to all sectors of the community including
   those who do not currently use the library service.

2. Library staff are solely responsible for the selection, deployment and
   disposal of stock following the principles laid down in this stock policy and
   acting within current legal requirements.

3. Larger Libraries (Grade A and B) provide a strategic non-fiction stock role
   in supporting smaller community libraries. Stock levels and book fund
   allocations reflect this principle.

4. Stock holdings and performance data from the library circulation and
   housekeeping software are a fundamental element of stock management.

5. Stock management is central to library culture and procedures. Stock is
   managed and maintained by staff at all levels as part of day-to-day

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6. There are consistent stock management procedures and standards within
   Kirklees libraries.

Adult Stock: Principles
1. Adult factual stock (non-fiction) is defined as either core or leisure stock:

    Examples of core non-fiction:          Pure and social sciences, Maths,
                                           History, Arts, Technology

    Examples of leisure non-fiction:       Travel, Cookery,      Craft,   Popular

2. Duplication of adult non-fiction material is encouraged in core subject
   areas but will be reduced in fiction and leisure non-fiction to allow a wider
   range of titles to be purchased and avoid overstock.

3. Adult genre fiction and popular, adult leisure non-fiction (e.g. cookery,
   crafts) is rotated between libraries to ensure maximum stock use and
   refreshment of shelf stocks at branch level. The aim at all libraries is to
   provide a consistent stock size for these areas with regular automated
   exchanges to ensure a fresh stock.

4. Adult fiction and adult leisure non-fiction stock at C and D grade libraries is
   maintained with greater reliance on paperbacks and stock rotation.

5. Core adult non-fiction areas are maintained at all libraries, regardless of
   grade. There is a greater reliance on paperback stock at C and D grade
   libraries to achieve this.

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5) Training.

All library staff are involved in stock management and maintenance. A series
of procedural standards will be adopted and maintained to define best
practice and ensure consistency. These standards will be the basis of ongoing
staff development and part of staff induction.

Training will begin with the Stock Management team and then cascade
downward to all staff. Procedural stock standards will be incorporated in staff

Training will be focussed in the following areas:

1. Obtaining and interpreting stock performance data from the library
   circulation system. Use of standard issue reports for branches and
   different stock types.

2. Use and design of spreadsheets to analyse and present data consistently.
   A stock management workbook of spreadsheet templates will be
   developed and maintained to reduce duplication of effort.

3. Basic training in the processes of stock management including binding,
   weeding, selection and catalogue maintenance.

4. Stock promotion and reader development.

5. Reader Advisory Work.

6. Stock Selection.

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6) Stock Selection Policies.

Stock selection is the first stage in the stock management process. It takes
place within the framework of this stock policy but selection should also be
responsive to local needs and conditions.

Individual selection policies exist for each type of library stock as follows.

Adult Book Stock Selection: Objective
Libraries in Kirklees aim to supply the widest possible range of material to
library users within current resources.

Adult Fiction Stock Selection: Principles
1. The current policy of minimal duplication in hardback fiction continues.
   Increased use of automated stock rotation to supply smaller branches
   keeps stock fresh and avoids overstock. This allows a wider range of
   fiction to be purchased. The stock manager and the stock selection teams
   monitor waiting lists. They may, in certain circumstances choose to buy
   additional copies. Area libraries or branches may choose to purchase
   additional copies of popular fiction titles from their stock editing funds, but
   this should be kept to a minimum. The stock librarian and the selection
   teams monitor levels of duplication in fiction.

2. Additional copies of popular fiction titles are bought in paperback. All
   libraries receive regular updates of Top Ten paperbacks through standing
   order from the current library supplier.

3. The selection team purchases first novels and works of minority interest to
   broaden the stock range and address the needs of the wider reading
   community. Staff training in stock selection will be a priority.

4. Genre fiction (Romance, Westerns, Science Fiction, Fantasy, Sagas, War
   and Thriller/Adventure) is purchased primarily for rotation. The aim of this
   policy is to maintain fresh stock at all service points and minimise
   duplication. Use of these areas of stock is monitored closely. Stock levels
   and rotation patterns are adjusted to take account of this data.

5. Existing holdings and past performance are considered when selecting
   fiction titles. Every effort is made to keep fiction series together.
6. A and B grade libraries aim to provide a range of titles from the top 60
   most borrowed authors from UK public libraries as defined by the
   administrators of the Public Lending Right .
7. Major fiction prize (for example: Booker, Orange, Whitbread) long-listed
   titles are represented in Kirklees stock. For example The Man Booker
   Prize; The Orange Prize and the Whitbread Prize.

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8. The library service recognises a duty to provide fiction of continuing
   historical or literary significance (defined as „Classic Fiction‟). Stocks of
   these items are maintained at Kirklees or area level. Worn out copies are
   replaced in paperback or hardback depending on anticipated use. The
   Penguin Classics list is used as a source listing for these titles. The
   definition of „Classic‟ fiction does not remain static. Contemporary works
   may become classics in time. Library staff will identify significant new and
   modern authors for replacement or retention within Kirklees stock.

Adult Non-Fiction Stock Selection: Principles
1. In order to build stocks in core subject areas a level of duplication is
   encouraged in non-fiction purchase. Duplication may be in hardback or
   paperback, depending on price and potential levels of use. The stock
   librarian and the non-fiction selection team monitor levels of duplication
   and waiting lists.

2. Content, currency and authority are the primary criteria when selecting
   non-fiction stock. Price and Format are secondary considerations.

3. Community needs, current holdings and subject coverage will be taken
   into consideration when purchasing non-fiction. Previous performance of
   similar items or related subject stock may also be taken into considered
   but these factors are less important in non-fiction selection.

4. Non-fiction selection aims to cover the broadest possible subject coverage
   to reflect current and potential use by all members of the community.

5. Stock selection is not a censoring or filtering process. The personal tastes
   and opinions of library staff should not influence stock choices.
   Membership of stock selection teams changes regularly to facilitate this.

6. Leisure-oriented non-fiction such as cookery, travel and handicrafts is
   purchased primarily for rotation. The aim is to provide fresh collections at
   all service points. Performance of these areas is monitored to help tune
   stock sizes and rotation patterns. Some static copies of significant titles
   are purchased in these areas to maintain coverage.
Major non-fiction prize (Guardian, Aventis, Samuel Johnson) long-listed titles
for example The Guardian Prize; The Aventis Prize and the The Samuel
Johnson Prize are represented in Kirklees stock. Duplication of short-listed
titles is encouraged in non-fiction.

Adult Book Stock Selection: Procedure.
Who buys the books?
The responsibility for the selection of material for adult lending stock is divided
between local library-based staff and central selection teams. This allows

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local stock prerogatives to be met whilst acknowledging the need for central
co-ordination and strategic spending.

The stock selection teams spend central funds for adult non-fiction and adult
fiction. These teams consist of four or five members of staff each and meet
every month. Membership of the selection teams changes regularly and each
team has one or two permanent or long-term members to ensure consistency
and smooth management.

The central teams ensure that duplication is kept within acceptable levels.
Stock is allocated to the library or rotation path best suited to its potential use.
Both fiction and non-fiction are ordered in advance from supplier lists and
other advanced sources such as the Bookseller. Stock is allocated in line with
grade standards and current selection guidelines. The primary responsibilities
of the selection teams are to ensure that stock is maintained in core subject
areas and to identify popular or significant titles for purchase in advance.

Preparation and current awareness are vital to the selection process. Team
members will be given time within weekly work routines to prepare selection
lists and study a range of selection sources.

Sources for Adult Book Selection.
Bookseller and Quarterly and monthly previews are used for advanced
selection for adult fiction and non-fiction. Supplier lists (CD-ROM or online)
and on-line sources are used wherever possible.

Customer requests supplement conventional sources. These are logged and
the data fed into the selection process.

Items not normally purchased for adult library stock.
The decision not to purchase a particular item for library stock may be
influenced by any of these factors.

1. Unsuitable format. Loose leaf or workbook format items are not normally
   purchased for adult lending stock.

2. Excessive duplication. Heavy short-term demand for particular subjects or
   titles can distort library stock priorities. Levels of duplication in subject
   matter and of individual titles will be monitored to avoid overstocking.

3. Budgetary constraints. When considering expensive items selection
   teams may consider a cheaper alternative title, should one be available.
   Alternatively the team may decide to defer purchase until the paperback
   version becomes available.

4. Low demand. This factor is always used with caution. There may be no
   demonstrated demand for new subject areas or for new authors but this
   does not preclude their purchase. Demand can grow with time and
   promotion. Certain titles or types of information may, however, be supplied

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                    13
   more quickly and economically by referral to other information services or
   by interlibrary loan.

5. Poor content or presentation. Stock is often selected from lists or reviews
   so this factor is not always easy to assess. Such material is not purchased
   knowingly or on demand. This may be the case with heavily reviewed
   items or gift books.

6. Dated Information. Regularly updated or periodical titles in non-fiction are
   not normally purchased. This includes:

                 Travel guide series such as Fodor.

                 Annual or regular wine guides.

                 Annual or regular hotel/accommodation guides.

                 Annual tax and benefits guides.

                 Annual product guides and catalogues.

    Much of this information is out of date almost as soon as an item is
    published. The need for this type of material is better served by reference
    sources in print or electronic form.

Measuring Adult Stock Selection.
Accuracy and responsiveness of adult stock selection is measured and results
fed back to the selection teams. Performance is measured as follows:

1. Quarterly hit-rate testing against Whitaker BookTrack listings, Bookseller
   core subject lists and specialist stock lists.

2. Annual hit-rate testing against Literary Prizes lists.

3. Regular use of the „Opening the Book‟ Stock Quality Health Check tool.
   See the Branching Out website for more details.

4. „Needs-Fill‟ data from CIPFA (Chartered Institute of Public Finance and
   Accountancy) surveying.

5. Request Satisfaction rates.

6. Number of items requested for purchase and the percentage of these
   previously rejected at selection.

NB. 4 and 5 are monitored but treated with caution. Customer demand as
expressed by the request system can lead to overstock and should not drive
stock policy.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                               14
Stock selection policy for Children and Young Adults
Kirklees libraries aim to supply the widest range of materials to children and
young people within current resources.

Fiction for Children and Young people:
1. To select material from approval copies received and examined by
   professional librarians in order to ensure that material is suitable for the
   appropriate age range of the child. As a result this means that material will
   appear on library shelves slightly later than the actual publication date.

2. Currently there is a policy of minimal duplication in hardback fiction, which
   allows a wider range of fiction to be supplied. The proportion of new stock
   bought as fiction is around 70% which reflects usage and need. In certain
   circumstances additional copies may be bought. Area libraries or branches
   may choose to buy additional copies from their stock editing funds.

3. The selection team buys first novels and works of minority interest to
   broaden the range of stock available and address the needs of the wider
   reading community.

4. Existing holdings and past performance are considered when selecting
   fiction titles. If possible fiction series are held together although many titles
   of popular children's series may be read discretely as single items.

5. Major fiction prize long-listed titles for Children and Young People are
   represented in Kirklees stock. There are over thirty prizes awarded each
   year (see Some of the main examples include:
   Carnegie Medal, Kate Greenaway Medal, Blue Peter Children's Book
   Award, Children's Book Award, Guardian Children's Fiction Award, Marsh
   Award for Children's Literature in Translation, Whitbread Children's Book
   of the Year Award.

6. T.V. Film and Entertainment spin-off material is bought, although titles are
   selected or rejected using relevant criteria, rather than related 'media-

7. The library service recognises a duty to provide classics or standard titles
   from the world of children's literature. If these are newly republished the
   selection team may buy them. Otherwise each area should ensure
   coverage via their stock editing programmes. The definition of classics and
   standard titles may be open to debate and professional librarians should
   build on their knowledge via sources listed below.

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Non - Fiction for Children and Young people:
1. Non- fiction selection aims to cover a broad range of subject coverage to
   reflect both the leisure needs of young people as well as their educational

2. Generally hardback titles are not bought in duplicate for individual libraries-
   it is preferred to offer a range of titles on one subject. Teachers and
   schools are able to have additional support and resources for the teaching
   of the National Curriculum from Kirklees Books Plus (Education Support

3. Content, currency, accessibility and authority are the most important
   criteria when selecting non-fiction stock. Cost may be taken into account if
   the book is also to be published in paperback. The proportion of new
   stock bought as non-fiction is around 30% which reflects usage and need.
   Reference and on-line sources are also used to complement non-fiction

4. Major non-fiction prize long-lists for information books represented, where
   appropriate, in Kirklees stock e.g. Times Educational Supplement
   Information Book Awards, Signal Poetry Award.

Selection of stock for Children and Young People:
Who buys the books?
The responsibility for the selection of books for Children and Young People is
divided in the following ways.

Newly Published Stock
 Selected by book selection team

 The team is headed by the librarian for Children and Young People
  (Huddersfield) and comprises a representative of the Children's Reading
  Development team plus two other librarians from Kirklees libraries.
  Membership of the team is rotated to develop staff knowledge and

 Fortnightly meetings are held to examine approval copies and select and
  categorise as appropriate. Discussion and debate are important here in
  order to select appropriately and develop staff awareness.

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 Preparation, training and awareness are vital to the selection process. This
  is an area that is currently under review. (Access to appropriate journals,
  specific criteria related to categories etc.)

Stock Editing and Stock Revision
 Stock editing and revision is undertaken by librarians at both branch and area
level. General factors taken into account include - replacement of withdrawn
stock, response to specific demand, (customer requests, surveys etc.), stock
promotion e.g. under-fives, teenage etc. Specialist staff may be consulted as

Children's Book Selection Sources
Reviews and articles about children's literature are increasing. As well as
handling and examining stock before selection, it is necessary to read widely
from both general and specialist sources e.g.

Specialist Journals

 Books For Keeps

 Carousel - the guide to children's books

 “Booktrusted News”

Non-specialist sources

Special features and reviews appear in, for example, The Bookseller, The
Guardian, Sunday Times, Times Educational Supplement and The Observer

Items not purchased for children's/young people's library
 Unsuitable format - e.g. novelty books for under-fives which may be
  inappropriate or unsafe or exam workbooks which involve fill-in-the-gap

 Unsuitable content - this may include material which is considered
  inappropriate for the age range for which it is aimed at (see categories), or
  offensive within the terms of Kirklees Equal Opportunities policies.

 Poor content or presentation. It may be that one or more items is newly
  published (fiction or non-fiction) containing similar subject matter, therefore
  selection will be made according to their relative merits.

 Schools buy reading schemes to encourage and teach reading skills.
  Different schools invest in different schemes that can be expensive and
  are appropriate to their particular teaching objectives. While it is not
  possible to duplicate multiple copies of reading schemes, the public library
  offers complimentary books (picture books, learners and movers)

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   designed by publishers to encourage reading for enjoyment and to
   develop children's reading skills at the same time.

 Budgetary constraints. The team may defer purchase until the paperback
  edition is available. If an item is very expensive a cheaper alternative may
  be considered.

 Dated information. Information books are checked to ensure that they
  contain current information - for example, subject areas such as books
  about different countries.

Categorisation of stock
Board books

              -   Sturdy form. Clear photos or pictures, minimum, clear text,
                  bright colours. Can be tactile or have flaps etc to stimulate
                  the senses.

              -   Content - everyday, familiar objects/situations. Rhythm,
                  rhyme and repetition. Questions and sound effects.

              Age: suitable for babies and toddlers from birth to two years.

Picture books

              Larger format, longer stories. Language can be more
              challenging. Content as before but also can be more
              imaginative, abstract, dealing with the wider world and
              developing emotions. Pictures carry story as well as text.

              Age: approximately 2-5yrs

“Learners”.   for beginner readers

              Generally one short story. Simple sentences. Smaller format.
              (around 50 pages) Well illustrated - speech bubbles are clear
              and not too complex.

              Age 5-7yrs

“Movers”.     For readers with growing confidence. Short chapters, more
              complicated sentences. Older subject matter. Some
              illustrations/speech bubbles.

              Age 6-8yrs

Fiction       stories for competent readers reflecting the wide range of tastes
              and experiences of children today.

              Age 8-14 years

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Lightning Read

              (Picture books for older readers - includes “Asterix”, film tie-ins
              e.g. Star Wars etc. these are illustrated picture books with a
              reading age and interest level beyond the scope of a five-year

              Age 6 - 14 years

Young Adult Fiction

              Stories that reflect the wide range of experiences and interests
              of teenagers today as they grow into adulthood. These books
              may contain quite adult themes.

              Books are generally bought in paperback format except for first

              Age 14 - 16 years

Young Adult Non fiction

              Teenagers can use the range of non-fiction books available in
              both the adult and children's libraries.

              However information books aimed specifically at teenagers may
              be bought e.g. books on health issues, emotional development,
              family matters, sport, fashion, environment, media, GCSE
              revision guides etc. These may be shelved in separate
              collections at some libraries.

              Books are generally bought in paperback format.

              Age 14-16years

Children's non-fiction

              Information books for 5-14 year olds.

              (This stock is colour-coded according to a simplified Dewey
              system that is also used in all Kirklees schools).

“All Aboard” Collection

Parents' Collection (Currently under review)

              Books to support parenting skills and the development of early
              childhood skills e.g. reading, writing, maths and play

              Age range: for parents of children aged 5 years and under.

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Hand in hand

               Picture books and some information books for children that deal
               with special situations and are better suited for use in
               conjunction with an adult


               dealing with change; moving house, new baby: death

               new experiences:   visiting the dentist, flying in an aeroplane

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Audio-visual Stock.

Audio-Visual Stock Selection: Objectives.
1. To extend and enhance the range of materials available to library
   customers to include film, recorded sound and other media.

   Formats include (for example) music compact disc, DVD, videotape,
   spoken word recordings on cassette tape or CD.

2. To provide access to library materials for customers unable to use printed

   For example: audio described videotapes, subtitled videotape or DVD,
   fiction and non-fiction on tape or compact disc.

3. To generate income for the library service.

Audio-Visual Stock Selection: Principles.
1. Video, DVD and recorded music collections are available in selected
   libraries only. Turnover and income from these collections are monitored
   against defined performance targets to ensure that they remain viable. A
   central collection of film and recorded sound is maintained at Huddersfield

2. Popular music and popular classics are purchased as priority in music
   selection. The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals‟
   (CILIP) agreement with the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) means that
   we cannot purchase most sound recordings until a minimum of three
   months after their publication. This agreement also places limits on the
   number of duplicate copies that we can purchase.

3. Film purchase concentrates on popular cinema and children‟s titles. Most
   titles are purchased at “sell-through” price. A small number of high-cost
   rental titles is purchased each month to maintain the currency of each
   collection. Some video and DVD producers do not allow rental of their
   products; we are therefore unable to purchase these items for loan.

4. Items with a low unit cost that are likely to generate high income are
   duplicated to maintain the profitability of video and recorded music

5. The library service accepts a duty to provide a wide range of audio-visual
   stock. It must, however, balance this with the need to generate income.
   Less popular audio-visual material, (for example jazz, some classical
   music, world cinema) is purchased in smaller quantities and rotated
   between libraries. Stock rotation ensures that all libraries receive regular
   refreshment of stock and that a wider range of potential customers sees

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                               21
   these items. The central video and recorded sound collection, housed at
   Huddersfield library, maintains a wider range of classical music, jazz and
   world music. It also maintains a range of world cinema titles.

6. Spoken word recordings on cassette or compact disc are a basic service
   for customers who are blind or partially sighted. For these customers they
   represent, aside from Braille text, their sole means of access to printed
   sources. Spoken word recordings are loaned free of charge to these
   customers. Sighted customers may also borrow these items for a small
   charge. All newly purchased spoken word recordings are rotated between
   libraries to ensure the widest possible use.

7. Some audio-visual material is considered as part of non-fiction stock and
   purchased from non-fiction book funds as required, specifically non-fiction
   video (for example keep fit, travel etc.), language courses on compact disc
   or cassette and Reference material on CD-ROM. These items are
   managed as part of the general non-fiction and reference stock.

Audio-Visual Stock Selection: Procedure.
An Audio-visual Team selects Compact discs, videos, DVD and spoken word
recordings for libraries in Kirklees.

The team consists of four or five members of staff. It meets each month to
select music on compact disc, spoken word cassettes, video and DVD.
Membership of the team changes annually. There is one permanent member
of the team, based at Huddersfield library, to maintain stock and media
awareness and ensure continuity.

Selection Sources.
Video and DVD stock is ordered in advance from supplier listings to ensure
that libraries receive new stock as close to release date as possible. Selection
Teams use popular film magazines like Empire to keep up to date. Retail and
information sites such as DVD Times and Play.Com provide information on
forthcoming DVD and VHS releases.

Spoken word stock is ordered in advance from publisher‟s catalogues.

Recorded music on compact disc is selected from current review magazines
(for example, Q Magazine; Mojo; The Gramophone) and supplier catalogues.

The audio-visual selection team considers customer requests when selecting
recorded sound, film and spoken word.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                22
7) Funding.
Central book funds are allocated by percentage to each grade of library. The
allocation pattern is reviewed annually by the Libraries Management Team
allowing funds to be managed strategically and in line with changing priorities.

 In addition stock revision funds are allocated to each geographical area on
the basis of number and grade of libraries; these too are reviewed and agreed
annually by the Libraries Management Team. Data on current holdings and
performance is combined with local staff knowledge and stock plans to enable
these funds to be targeted accurately.

Stock management data is used to determine allocation patterns rather than
historical precedent.

Central book funds are used to purchase material for children and young
people. There are also local stock editing funds available to edit and maintain
children‟s stock in each area of Kirklees.

Reference stock is purchased from two major book funds. One used for the
main reference library at Huddersfield, the other to maintain collections and
resources at the other Kirklees libraries.

A central audio-visual fund is allocated each year for the purchase of Video,
DVD and recorded music on compact disc. Stock management and
performance data is used to determine funding priorities each year.

8) Purchasing Procedures.
The library service purchases stock from library and specialist suppliers in line
with local government purchasing guidelines.

Larger elements of library spending, for example adult and junior book funds
are contracted to a principal supplier. Some elements of the book fund are not
included within the contract. This allows freedom to use more specialist
suppliers when necessary.
Orders for audio-visual material are placed with a range of specialist principal
suppliers, one for each type of material.

The library service takes advantage of purchasing consortia, joining with other
local authorities to negotiate improved discounts wherever possible.

9) Gifts and donations.
The library service welcomes donations from the general public.

Donated stock is allocated and managed in the same way as purchased
stock. Library staff decide on the most appropriate location and may withdraw
the item for sale of disposal when it is no longer required.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                 23
Library staff may choose to decline or discard donations when the material
does not fulfil the needs of current stock policies.

A standard letter acknowledges all donations.

10) Library Grading.
Grading allows customers to better understand the levels of stock and range
of services they can expect to find at any particular library within Kirklees.

Each library acts as a gateway to the whole range of library stock and
information services on offer within Kirklees but physical constraints of
existing buildings make it impossible to offer all services and complete stock
coverage at every library.

 The growth of electronic sources and networks, especially the Internet, offers
access to a much wider range of information sources than has been possible
in the past. This factor is taken into consideration, especially in the provision
of information resources.

 The continued value and prevalence of printed sources for education and
entertainment is also recognised. Library grading is pragmatic. It considers
the best method of providing information for each community within Kirklees.

Libraries are graded within Kirklees in relation to stock size, level of use and
geographical location.

Grading is reviewed every three years to ensure that services remain in tune
with changes in use and local communities.

Adult fiction and non-fiction grade profiles at present are as follows.

Grade A:      Non-fiction core subject coverage in hardback and paperback.
              Stock up to and including undergraduate level. Final referral
              point for non-fiction enquiries. Leisure non-fiction maintained
              through stock rotation.

              Fiction includes a range of first novels, high-performance titles
              (hardback and paperback), promotional collections and classics.
              Genre fiction and large print collections maintained through
              stock rotation

Grade B:      Non-fiction core subjects in hardback and paperback. Up to and
              including A-level. Leisure non-fiction collections maintained
              through stock rotation.

              Fiction stock selected largely for performance but with a range
              of first novels, promotional collections and classics. Genre fiction
              and large print maintained through stock rotation.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                  24
Grade C:     Core non-fiction subject areas mainly in paperback with some
             hardback stock through stock rotation. Leisure non-fiction areas
             maintained through stock rotation.

              Fiction stock selected largely for performance. Hardback fiction
             mostly through stock rotation First novels, promotional
             collections, classics, large print and genre fiction maintained
             through stock rotation.

Grade D:     Core non-fiction subject areas in paperback only, hardback non-
             fiction from stock rotation only. Leisure non-fiction maintained
             through stock rotation.

             High-performance fiction in paperback only. Some hardback
             fiction from stock rotation. A range of genre fiction, first novels,
             large-print, promotional collections and classics through stock

For current library grades see Appendix B.

Mobile Libraries.

Customers in some areas are served by the mobile library service. Each van
provides a range of adult and junior fiction and non-fiction. There is some
stock rotation as each van covers a different route each week over a seven-
week period. At present mobile libraries are not included in automated stock
rotation. New stock is purchased at the central Kirklees stock selection
meetings and from the mobile library stock-editing fund. Mobile library
customers have access to the full range of library stock through the library
catalogue and the request service.

Home Service.
The library service is delivered to housebound customers via Home Service
vans. A range of stock is supplied for these customers according to their
needs and requests. There is a separate collection of stock to serve the Home
Service and they are not currently part of automated stock rotation. A minimal
amount of stock is purchased for the Home Service by the central Kirklees
stock selection teams. The remainder of the stock is purchased from Home
Service‟s stock editing funds. Access to the full range of stock is possible
through the library catalogue and request service.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                 25
11) Stock Editing.
Why do we need to edit stock?
In any library constraints upon space and the constant purchase of new stock
requires the regular removal of existing material.

Out of date information misleads customers and can be dangerous.

Physical condition of stock deteriorates over time and with use.

The removal of unused, worn out and out of date stock makes it easier for
customers to find suitable material.

What criteria do we use to remove stock?
1. Age. Both fiction and non-fiction items are considered for withdrawal or
   replacement if they are more than six years old. The date that a particular
   item was added to stock is used to measure stock age.

2. Currency. Content and publication date is considered when assessing
   non-fiction items. Items containing out of date information are replaced or
   withdrawn depending on performance.

3. Poor physical condition. This includes items with broken binding and
   loose/missing pages or illustrations. „Use‟ data (number of issues) from the
   library circulation system is used in conjunction with physical examination
   to identify items for withdrawal, repair or replacement.

Stock Performance.
Poor performance is defined for adult book stock as follows:

   Fiction with no issues in the last 12 months.
   Non-fiction with no issues within the last 18 months.
   Videos and DVD with no issues in the last 6 months.
   CDs and talking books with no issues within the last 12 months.

NB. These are minimum standards. More detailed stock standards related to
library grade and branch stock profiles will be developed for inclusion in stock
procedural standards. Items not meeting use criteria should be carefully
evaluated before the decision is made to discard.

Performance is only partially useful as an indicator of value. Stock policy
stresses range of stock, especially in non-fiction. Discarding items purely on
the grounds of irregular use can weaken the range of available stock. This is

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                26
particularly true of those libraries that have a strategic non-fiction role. Use is
a much less important factor when weeding core subject stocks than it is
when weeding genre fiction or leisure non-fiction.

Library staff must ask why an item is not performing. Is it in the right place? Is
there a newer or better item available? We accept that some stock should be
retained even if it does meet not high performance targets. In accepting that
the library needs to appeal to a wider range of customers we must also accept
that range of stock is of primary importance.

Under-performing items may be reallocated to a more appropriate location.
Alternatively the item may need to be replaced with a better title in the same
subject area.

Data on stock performance is provided for each library every six months to
assist weeding.

Rebinding is used to preserve items that cannot be replaced by purchase and
to extend the life of popular, recently purchased items when rebind is more
cost-effective than replacement.

1. All staff receive training in how to identify items suitable for rebinding.

2. Each geographical area has its own binding fund.

3. A central binding fund is maintained for targeted stock management.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                    27
12) Stock Withdrawal and Disposal.
What happens to the items that are removed from our
1. Items in good condition but with poor performance may be transferred to
   another library or set to stock rotation. Fiction duplicates in good condition
   may be sent to pool stock. These copies are used to replace existing
   copies in poor physical condition.

2. Items in good condition but no longer required for library stock may be
   offered for sale. Stock is distributed to libraries with space for permanent
   sale or held for periodical book sales.

3. Items in poor physical condition or that contain out-date-information are
   recycled in line with the Council‟s environmental policies. A recycling bin is
   provided at each library to facilitate this.

4. Items with good performance (more than 5 issues in the last year) but in
   poor condition will be considered for replacement. Alternatively they may
   be rebound or repaired before return to the shelves.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                 28
13) Stock Rotation.
Why do we rotate stock?
1. Items are popular whilst they are „new‟ at a particular branch. Their use
   then often tails off over time. Stock rotation aims to move items on to
   another library before use declines and thereby extend their useful life.

2. Rotation helps to spread resources more fairly and allows customers to
   see a wider range of titles than static stock.

3. In some subject areas it is better to provide stock which is constantly being
   refreshed. This is especially the case in smaller branches where stocks
   are read quickly by a small number of customers.

Stock rotation software is used to manage all stock rotation within Kirklees.

The Stock Librarian works with area and branch staff to identify other
opportunities for automated rotation.

Stock rotation is a constant background process as opposed to a periodical

Rotation is used in conjunction with static stock. In core subject areas,
especially at Grade A and B libraries the emphasis remains on static stock.

This allows stocks to be built and managed more effectively in core non-fiction
areas and ensures adequate subject coverage.

The following areas have been prioritised for automated stock rotation:

1. Adult and junior spoken word            8. Large print stock.
                                           9. Romantic fiction.
2. Cookery
                                           10. Science fiction.
3. Crafts
                                           11. Sports biography
4. Crime fiction.
                                           12. Travel
5. Entertainment biography
                                           13. Western fiction.
6. Fantasy fiction.

7. Gardening.

The aim will be to provide a consistent collection size in these areas at
smaller libraries with regular exchanges of titles to keep collections fresh.

Every effort is made to keep series together, especially in science fiction and

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                   29
Performance of these areas of stock is monitored closely to test the feasibility
of extending automated rotation to other areas of stock.

Some new hardback fiction and non-fiction titles are purchased specifically for
rotation between C and D grade libraries. This improves the range of titles
available from these libraries and prevents stock from stagnating. A range of
rotation patterns is used to ensure that each C and D library receives a similar
range and number of new titles each year.

System reports are generated to target items for exchange based on current
performance and date added to stock. Stock rotation prioritises items with
good rather than poor performance. This prevents the unnecessary rotation of
dead stock.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                30
14) Stock Security and Recovery.

Stock theft is a crime. It disrupts the supply of information to customers and
limits choice.

Theft from libraries takes two forms:

1. Direct theft: Removal of items from the library shelves without having them

2. Non-return of issued items.

The library service recognises its duty to protect its stock from theft or misuse.
The first duty of the library authority is to maintain accurate records of its
holdings so that stock losses can be measured accurately.

Kirklees holds a manual stock count every two years. The count records all
items on library shelves on the date of the count and matches this against
holdings data from the library circulation system. The count identifies
separately items listed as „lost‟ (long overdue), „missing‟ from shelves as well
as those on loan. These figures allow more accurate measurement of non-
returned items and items stolen directly from library shelves.

The use of regular, automated inventory will be developed to replace the
manual count and increase the accuracy of holdings data. Dead entries will be
removed from the catalogue annually to maintain accuracy.

Accurate measurement of stock loss is the first step in a robust security

 Radio Frequency security systems are in use at all Grade A and B libraries.
All stock purchased for these locations will be security tagged. Staff at these
libraries will be trained in the proper use and customer care elements of these

Whilst these systems can act as a deterrent to direct theft it is recognised that
they cannot entirely prevent theft. At sites where direct theft is found to be a
problem additional measures may be taken. Closed access may be used to
protect items especially prone to theft such as DVD, compact discs and
videocassettes. CCTV or patrolling care-taking or security staff may be
considered at branches where all other measures fail.

Building layout and design takes stock security issues into consideration
wherever possible.

Library staff ensure that customers provide adequate, genuine identification
before stock is issued to them and library cards are used to issue all stock.

 All legal measures will be taken to recover items that are not returned to the
library service.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                  31
15) Literature Development and Stock Promotion.
Literature Development Policy
Mission Statement
To actively promote books and the reading of fiction in Kirklees.


       Promote the wide range of fiction available.

       Encourage people to make more adventurous choices in their reading.

       Introduce new authors to the reading public.

       Enrich reading experiences.

       Bridge the gap between the many writers producing material today in
       all countries of the world and the relatively small number of authors
       currently popular in Britain.

       Increase the fiction reading and borrowing habit in Kirklees libraries.

       Attract reluctant readers by demonstrating the pleasure and enjoyment
       to be had from fiction reading.

The Literature Development Group.
      The Literature Development Group should:
       Use a variety of methods of promotion both innovative and traditional.

       Meet regularly to provide a forum for the discussion of books and
       reading amongst staff.

       Establish a network for the exchange of literature information and
       promotional ideas.

       Seek partnership approaches with library suppliers, bookshops and
       other literature organisations for the purpose of promotion and/or

       Organise and advise on staff training needs in the area of literature

       Monitor and evaluate all promotions to assess their effectiveness and
       use this information to assist in future planning.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                    32
      Aim to reflect cultural diversity and respond to the literature needs of
      Kirklees‟ multi-cultural community.

      Seek co-operative approaches with other library authorities (particularly
      within West Yorkshire) over any possible broader literature initiatives.

      Seek to develop audience for books and reading in all Kirklees

      Disseminate Literature Development news to all staff throughout
      Cultural Services and other council departments as appropriate via
      newsletters etc.

      Scan reviews and purchase fiction for stock and/or display.

     Events should:
      Be staged primarily in libraries but utilising other venues in Kirklees
      when appropriate.

      Be small in number and of high quality and spread across the calendar

      Include a variety of formats that should be tailored to the size and
      character of the venue.

      Always have books and the reader at the heart of any activity.

      Stimulate enthusiasm for the act of reading.

      Aim where possible to provide refreshments.

      Be ticketed to assist with forward planning.

Promotions can be defined as any method of publicising books and/or reading
which does not constitute an event e.g. Display, press release, publicity stunt,
article, media interview, talk, stall, book list, poster etc.

     Promotions should:
      Aim to keep books and reading in the public eye.

      Be publicised to carefully targeted audiences and using publicity
      materials produced to the highest quality affordable in consultation with
      the Cultural Services publicity and marketing team.

      Stress the positive aspects of reading and the pleasure and satisfaction
      to be gained from it.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                33
Monitoring/Feedback should be sought via:
     Mailing forms given out at all events. Comments on these forms provide
     qualitative feedback.

     Numbered tickets (whether free or charged for) issued at all events.

     Staff at libraries hosting events or promotions who should make notes of
     any relevant or interesting comments made by members of the public.

     Review slips placed inside all books on display. Staff should encourage
     borrowers to complete and return these.

     Attendance figures should be kept for all events.

     Comments books placed at events.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                               34
16) How we measure stock performance.

Why do we measure stock performance?
The library service needs to measure the performance of stock to ensure that
our primary resource is in the right place to encourage use by customers and
is being managed successfully in line with this stock policy and national

Library stock does not remain static. Items are constantly being added to and
withdrawn from library stocks as part of day to day stock management.

Performance measurement helps library staff to prioritise spending on stock. It
helps library staff to identify areas where resources need to be spent, to take
account of customer demand and to maintain adequate stock coverage.

Stock performance is measured statistically as follows:

Stock Turnover.
Stock Turnover = Number of issues divided by stock size.

Turnover is used instead of simple issue statistics because it relates
performance to the size of each library stock. It is easier for a large collection
to generate a large number of issues. The stock turnover rate shows how
hard library stock is working in relationship to its size.

Stock Replacement Rate.
Stock Replacement Rate = Current stock total divided by the number of
                       accessions per year.

   By dividing the current total stock by the number of items added to stock
   each year the library service can measure how long it would take to
   replace the its whole stock. This figure can help us to keep stocks fresh
   over time and sustain stock levels. It will help to target spending by
   identifying worn out stocks.

Stock per 1000 Head of Population and Accessions per 1000
     Head of Population.

   Accessions per 1000 head of population = Number of accessions each year
                                               Current Population divided by 1000

This measure allows the library service to match library-stocking levels to
local community needs with greater accuracy.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                  35
How we measure stock condition and quality.
In line with the imperatives of Best Value and the Public Library Standards the
library service recognises the necessity of measuring stock quality and
coverage. The Stock Librarian will work in conjunction with the Libraries
Management Team and local staff to develop measures for stock quality and
physical condition.

Library stock holdings are checked periodically against literary prize short and
long lists. Core stock listings from the retail sector (for example those
published in the Bookseller) and other periodicals in the sciences and arts
field are used to evaluate subject coverage.

Kirklees has adopted and supports the development of the „Opening the
Book‟ Stock Quality Health Check for fiction stock. For further details visit the
Branching Out website.

Regular customer surveys and „needs fill‟ exercises measure customer
satisfaction in finding the items that they require in library stocks. The results
of these exercises feed into the stock selection process.

Systems data is used to identify items with poor performance and worn out
stock. The library computer system maintains a count of the number of uses
of each item and a record of the date that each item was last used. This data
is used in conjunction with stock performance data to assist in stock editing
and to target resources to areas of greatest need.

For more information on national public library standards see the DCMS
(Department of Culture Media and Sport) website.

17) Contacts and Feedback.
Mr. Rob Warburton
Assistant Head of Culture and Leisure Services (Libraries and Information
Culture and Leisure Services Headquarters.
Red Doles Lane.
West Yorkshire,

(01484) 226340

18) Weblinks.                        Public Lending Right                 The Booker Prize

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                  36                    The Orange Prize    The Whitbread Prize           Penguin Classics              The Guardian Prize                The Aventis Prize

                                          The Samuel Johnson Prize              Opening the Book         Literary Awards                Whitaker BookTrack                   CIPFA                      International Federation of Library
                                          Associations. (IFLA)     The Chartered Institute of Library
                                          and Information Professionals.                 Department for Culture, Media
                                          and Sport (DCMS)                   Annual Library Plans.       The Bookseller.     Kirklees Books Plus.

19) Background reading and sources.
Dave Muddiman and Alastair Black; “The Public Library Policy and Purpose”;
Comedia Working Paper 9; Comedia; 1993; ISBN 187366740X

Naomi Klein; “No Logo”; Flamingo; 2001; ISBN 0006530400

Peter Clayton and G E Gorman: “Managing Information Resources in
Libraries”; Library Association Publishing; 2001; ISBN 1856042979

Ron L Pybus; “The Management of Books in Public Libraries”; The Pybus
Partnership; 1998; ISBN 0953245306

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                             37
Alastair Black; “The Public Library in Britain 1914-2000”; The British Library;
2000; ISBN 0712346856

Stillwater Public Library (USA) Collection Development Policy available at

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                               38
20) Appendix A. Policy on the Provision and Display
  of Religious and Political Materials in Public
  Libraries in Kirklees.
The European Convention on Human Rights states that:

“Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include
freedom to hold opinion and to receives and impart information and ideas
without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers.” (Article

Kirklees Council Culture and Leisure Services acknowledge and recognise
the requirements of this Article and will apply it as follows with regard to
religious and political materials held in its public libraries.

      1. Book stock: A collection of books representing the widest range of
         religious and political groups and ideas will be made available on
         the open shelves of the Kirklees Library subject to the usual
         constraints of available space. A subsidiary collection of additional
         materials of the type usually provided unsolicited by various groups
         and organisations will be held in reserve and will be made available,
         like other reserve collections, through the book reservation system.
         All materials are included in the stock catalogue which is available
         to members of the public. Purchasing, accepting donations and
         stocking of religious and political books and other materials are
         subject to the conditions and practices set out in the Kirklees
         Library Stock Management Policy: In particular any that might, by
         their content, be considered to incite racism, violence or any other
         illegal act will be excluded. Religious and political materials will be
         obtained through library suppliers, as part of normal stock selection
         procedures, vial information supplied by various groups, unsolicited,
         or through inter-library loan.

      2. Information: KINFO, the local information database for Kirklees
         includes contacts and addresses of religious and political groups. It
         is available at all library service points in printed and/or electronic
         forms to any caller or enquirer. Any personal information is subject
         to the Data Protection Act. Content will be updated annually.

      3. Display of Posters and Other Materials: A vast quantity of literature
         is received every year. The priorities governing its display are as
         follows. First, any materials relating to Culture and Leisure Services
         and Kirklees Metropolitan Council. Second, local, community and
         regional information. Third, national posters and leaflets. Space is
         limited, so there is a strict time limit of 4 weeks for the display of any
         single item. Posters and other materials providing information about
         religious and political activities, events and groups will be displayed
         in line with this established policy and within the limitations it

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                                   39
         imposes. Any materials that are likely to incite racial hatred,
         advocate racism, fascism or suggest an illegal act will be refused.

Kirklees Stock Policy (ver.16) September 2004                            40

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