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Booklet on Student Engagement


  • pg 1
									Student Engagement

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Table of Contents

Engagement of Students in Learning .................................................................................. 3
Designs for Engaged Learning.......................................................................................... 12

Appendix A: References ................................................................................................... 17
Appendix B: Flow ............................................................................................................. 18
Appendix C: Range of Technology Use ........................................................................... 18
Engagement of Students in Learning
By Metiri Group

       “Schools cannot be made great by great teacher performances. They will only be
       made great by great student performances.”

               - Phil Schlechty (2002)

Universally, the mission of schools is to ensure that students acquire the skills, knowledge,
processes, and dispositions that enable them to thrive in today’s global, high tech society and
workplace. Today that means much more than academic excellence. 21st Century graduates
must be critical thinkers, collaborative team players, culturally sensitive, visually perceptive,
technologically adept, and curious and creative livelong learners (Partnership for 21st Century

The Partnership for 21st Century Learning linked education to economic viability in its recent
2008 publication on competitiveness quoting the Economic and Social Research Council,
““Economic success is increasingly based on the effective utilization of intangible assets, such
as knowledge, skills, and innovative potential as the key resource for competitive advantage.”

It is well recognized that students won’t excel in those areas unless they are routinely actively
and intrinsically engaged in deep learning. Yet increasing numbers of students are
disenfranchised from schooling, and significant numbers are dropping out before completing
high school. In the U.S., the drop out rate was 9.3 % in 2006, with that of minorities much higher
at 10.7% and 22.1% for black and Hispanic students respectively (NCES 2008) of those
students who enter the 9th grade do not go on to graduate. According to Statistics Canada, drop
out rates for 20- to 24-year-olds have declined from 16.6% in 1990 to 9.3% in 2006. While the
average dropout rate that that age group from 2004-05 to 2006-07 was 9.4 for Canada overall,
the numbers were slightly higher for Alberta at 11.2%. Furthermore, within that time period in
Alberta, the percentages for large cities, small towns and rural areas were 9.8%, 18.3% and
20.0% respectively, with numbers higher for males than females (Statistics Canada, 2007).

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills also reported that, “Countries that do well on PISA have
higher increases in GDP growth than countries that do not…A highly skilled work force can raise
economic growth by about two-thirds of a percentage point every year…Higher levels of
cognitive skill appear to play a major role in explaining international differences in economic

With the link between economic viability and education made clear, it is not surprising that

increased attention is being paid to student engagement in learning. Students must not only
stay in school, they must become deeply engaged in learning in order to acquire the 21st
Century skills they will need to contribute as citizens, family members, and workers in a
knowledge-based, global economy.

Student Engagement

For the purposes of this work, student engagement          DEEP LEARNING
is defined as, “the degree to which students are
actively pursuing deep learning related to                 Deep learning is the critical
established standards,” (Fredricks, J.A., Blumenfeld,      analysis of new ideas, linking those
P.C., & Paris, A. H., 2004). Deep learning is defined      ideas to already known concepts
as, “learning that involves the critical analysis of new   and principles, and leads to
ideas, linking them to already known concepts and          understanding and long-term
principles, and leads to understanding and long-           retention of concepts so that they
term retention of concepts so that they can be used        can be used for problem solving in
for problem solving in unfamiliar contexts,” (United       unfamiliar contexts.
Kingdom Higher Education Academy).

Experts in this field further describe engagement as
a combination of cognitive, behavioral, and             STUDENT ENGAGEMENT
emotional engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004).
While most schools focus on intellectual or cognitive   Student engagement is the degree
aspects of the students’ school experiences, lesser     to which students are actively
attention to date has been paid to the socio-           pursuing deep learning related to
emotional and behavioral aspects – except to            established standards (e.g.,
address negative aspects of the latter when they        cognitive/ intellectual engagement,
interfere with classroom and school functions.          socio-emotional engagement, and
Emergent research in the field indicates the            behavioral engagement).
interplay between the three aspects of student
engagement and especially, the contributions of
socio-emotional engagement of students to their cognitive development in schools.


In many ways, the purpose of student
engagement is captured in Mihaly
Csikszentmihaly’s diagram on flow. In
his 1996 book on FLOW, he described
the experience learners have when
there is harmony between the task the
learner engages in and the current
expertise/skill level of the learner with
skills required to complete the task
successfully. Disruptions in that
balance result on the one hand
boredom and on the other frustration.

Just above the flow diagnonal, when challenge exceeds expertise by a small margin results in
creativity. Just below the flow diagnonal, when skill exceeds the level of the challenge by a
small margin offers opportunity for students to build automaticity through practice.

In attempting to achieve flow experiences for students the following aspects of engagement
should be considered.

Cognitive or Intellectual Engagement (Investments)

The Partnership for 21st Century learning suggests that, “Cognitive skills are significantly more
important in determining economic outcomes than a traditional measure of educational success:
school attainment.” The studies by Stanford (Hanushek, 2005) cited in the P21 report on
competitiveness (2008) found that, “Increasing the average number of years of schooling
attained by the labor force boosts the economy only when increased levels of school attainment
also boost cognitive skills. In other words, it is not enough simply to spend more time in school;
something has to be learned there.”

Cognitive engagement has been addressed in the literature as an investment of effort and self-
regulation by the individual focused on deep, intellectual learning of the academics and
intellectual development, as evidenced by motivation, attitude, commitment, and self-regulation.
It can be summed up as “thoughtfulness and willingness to exert the effort necessary to
comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills,” (Fredricks et. al., 2004).

One of the key influences on cognitive engagement is the attribution belief on the part of the
student. That is, does the student attribute their progress (or lack thereof) to ability or effort?
Motivation and commitment are greatly influenced by such beliefs. Students who attribute their
progress to effort are much more likely to succeed since they feel that they have control over
the amount of effort committed to learning.

Socio-Emotional Engagement (Interactions/reactions)

By design, schools are social places for engaging students in learning. Socio-emotional
engagement refers to students’ affective reactions in and to schooling. It may be registered as
interest, boredom, anxiety, happiness, etc, but is generally thought to be a measure of the
identification or belonging the student associates with schooling.

Students typically do not learn alone. Rather, they work under the guidance of teachers, in the
company of peers, and with the support of family and community. While the socio-emotional
engagement of students is often addressed largely for the purposes of health, safety, and/or
citizenship, the research is clear that it does directly influence intellectual progress. In fact,
prosocial conduct and relationships are predictive of higher academic performance, with the
converse true for antisocial conduct (Zins, J.E., Weissberg, R., Wang, M, & Walberg, H., 2004).

A review of school programs that address social and/or emotional growth in students are often
very fragmented, targeting particular maladaptive behaviors (e.g., promote health, prevent
violence and delinquency, prevent dropping out, decrease teen pregnancy, etc.). However, few
such programs adequately address general reactions to teachers, classmates, academics and

schools -- all of which are important in creating positive ties to the school and positive
influences to the school work.

Johnson and Johnson (2003), researchers on cooperative learning, report that collaborative
learning results consistently in increased learning in comparison to competition and individual
work. Social-emotional competencies such as self-awareness, social awareness, self-
management, relationship skills, and responsible decision making influence behavior,
relationships with teachers, peers, and school are all important aspects of social-emotional

Behavioral Engagement (Participation)

Behavioral engagement focuses on participation. It is evidenced by the student’s following of
school rules, in class participation (e.g., academic and social), and extracurricular participation.
That participation often involves such behaviors as effort, persistence, concentration, attention,
asking questions, and contributing in class.

Behavior is influenced by both cognitive engagement and socio-emotional engagement.
Academic success often results in increased attendance, fuller class participation, increased
effort – success breeds success. On the other hand, repeated academic failure often results in
decreases in school participation. Similarly, prosocial or antisocial engagement has the
expected results.

Levels of Student Engagement

The Metiri Group developed a Student Engagement survey that includes five engagement levels
(Schlechty 2002; Fredricks et al 2004):
    Intrinsically Engaged
    Tactically Engaged
    Compliant
    Withdrawn
    Defiant

The types of engagement are defined in more detail below, followed by a graph of the
percentage of students in each level for Alberta’s Emerge program in Year 1.

Characteristics: Intrinsically Engaged Learners
 Student sees the activity as personally meaningful.
 The student's level of interest is sufficiently high that he persists in the face of difficulty.
 The student finds the task sufficiently challenging that he believes he will accomplish
   something of worth by doing it.
 The student's emphasis is on optimum performance and on "getting it right."

Characteristics: Tactically Engaged Learners
 The official reason for the work is not the reason the student does the work, she substitutes
   her own goals for the goals of the work.
 The substituted goals are instrumental -grades, class rank, college acceptance, and
   parental approval.

   The focus is on what it takes to get the desired personal outcome rather than on the nature
    of the task itself-satisfactions are extrinsic.
   If the task doesn’t promise to meet the extrinsic goal, the student will abandon it.

Characteristics: Compliant Students
 The work has no meaning to the student and is not connected to what does have meaning.
 There are no substitute goals for the student.
 The student seeks to avoid either confrontation or approbation.
 The emphasis is on minimums and exit requirements: “What do I have to do to get this over
   and get out?”

Characteristics: Withdrawn Students
 The student is disengaged from current classroom activities and goals. The student is
   thinking about other things or is emotionally withdrawn from the action.
 The student rejects both the official goals and the official means of achieving the goals.
 The student feels unable to do what is being asked, or is uncertain about what is being

Characteristics: Defiant
 The student is disengaged from current classroom activities and goals.
 The student is actively engaged in another agenda.
 The student creates her own means and her own goals.
 The student’s rebellion is usually seen in acting out-and often in encouraging others to rebel.

It is clear that cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral engagements are interdependent.
Schools that focus only on cognitive/intellectual achievement neglect aspects of student
engagement are doomed to fail a percentage of their students.

Provincial results from Year 1 (Elementary N=962; Secondary N=787)

Tips and Techniques
The following 10 tips and techniques represent emergent research findings:

Type of          Tips and Techniques
Cognitive        1. Tap into student interests and prior knowledge related to content to be
                    studied. Establish learning tasks in ways that help students see the
                    relevance and meaning of what they are studying in relationship to their
                    lives, family and communities.
                 2. Encourage students to set learning goals specific to the areas of
                    study/content; discourage extrinsic goal setting. Provide students with
                    choice as to how they attain these goals.
                 3. Provide feedback to students as to the level and quality of effort expended
                    in making progress toward the learning goals, not on their ability levels or
                    the speed with which they completed the work.
                 4. Model the process of inquiry and deep learning, and/or provide worked
                    examples for examination, so students will have exemplars from which to
                 5. Assign products that require students to demonstrate their learning, where
                    possible in authentic ways. Be clear and concise as to standards by which
                    the student work will be assessed.
Social-          6. Create formal opportunities for students to work collaboratively on
Emotional           important learning tasks.
                 7. Establish intellectually safe learning cultures that foster positive teacher-
                    student, peer-to-peer, and student-expert relationships.
Behavioral       8. Provide opportunities for students to participate in extracurricular and in
                    class activities. Scaffold such participation.
                 9. Purposefully discuss and set common standards for school-related
                 10. Provide opportunities for students to discuss, reflect on, and influence
                     group and individual behaviors.

Classroom Observational Rubrics on Student Engagement

Types of           1 = Low             2                    3                      4                    5 = High
Engagement         Defiant             Withdrawn            Compliant              Tactical             Intrinsic

                   Students defy       Not willing to       Effort is minimal,     Students exhibit     Students are
Cognitive          formal              exert any            motivation is to       bouts of             committed to
                   education and       psychological        not be                 excitement           the idea of
(Psychological     commitment to       effort to more       reprimanded for        about topics         learning
Investment)        learning. While     fully understand     non-compliance.        he/she is            because it is all
                   he/she may be       topics. Strive to    Expends                learning, but will   intrinsically
                   psychologically     be under the         minimal effort to      only pursue for      interesting to
                   committed to        radar.               do se. no              extrinsic            him/her. Highly
                   learning outside                         motivation to          reasons. Values      motivated to
                   school, he/she                           learn                  learning as          understand and
                   would never                                                     stepping stone       satisfy curiosity,
                   make the same                                                   to achieving         He/she also
                   commitment to                            No group               extrinsic agenda.    simply strives
                   school related                           dynamics unless                             for knowledge
                                                            required.              In a group
                   topics.                                                         he/she will          and values the
                                                                                   competitively        concept of
                                                                                   contribute to        learning.
                                                                                   discussion in        In a group
                                                                                   order to impress     he/she will
                                                                                   or achieve other     listen carefully
                                                                                   purposes             and intensely
                                                                                   Volunteers           contribute to
                                                                                   original,            discussion in
                                                                                   elaborated           order to
                                                                                   explanations         continue
                                                                                   when she/he          learning.
                                                                                   deems strategic.     Provides
Cognitive          Often enjoys        Less boredom,        Does not care if       Is up for the        Students
                   challenges          more students        deep learning is       challenge and        thoroughly
(Preference for    outside/ away       making an            achieved. but          can be               enjoy the
challenge and      from school, but    effort, although     will if forced to in   extremely            challenge and
deeper             defies doing so     intent seems         order to avoid         flexibility in       persevere
connection)        in school or for    aimed at staying     confrontation.         solving problems     through
                   school-related      under the radar.     Will work hard         as long as it will   difficulties.
                   purpose.            Adverse to hard      only if necessary      advance their        Exhibit flexibility
                                       work.                to avoid               extrinsic goals.     in problem
                                                            confrontation.         Works hard.          solving. Prefers
                                                                                                        tasks that are
                                                                                                        difficult, and
                                                                                                        require hard
Cognitive          May self-           Allows               Self regulates         Self regulates       Self regulates
                   regulate away       distractors to       own learning           own learning         own learning
(Strategic Self-   from school.        influence            through pre-           through pre-         through pre-
regulation)        Vocally or          learning             planning, time         planning, time       planning, time
                   visibly refuse to   negatively.          management,            management,          management,
plan evaluate      do in school.                            and                    and                  and
regulate                                                    metacognition.         metacognition.       metacognition.

Types of           1 = Low            2                 3                    4                   5 = High
Engagement         Defiant            Withdrawn         Compliant            Tactical            Intrinsic

                   Isolated from      No connection.    Moderate             Fairly strong       Strongly
Social-            the group.         Negative          connection to        identification      identifies with
Emotional          Negative ties to   attitude toward   school. Desire to    with school and     school and the
                   school, and        school.           connect is there.    the opportunities   deep learning it
(Interaction-      possibly peers                       Low level            it represents.      represents.
strength of ties   and teachers.                        interactions.
to school)         negative                             Group dynamics
                   attitude toward                      somewhat
                   school.                              unhealthy.

Social-            Strong             Unknown           Little reaction is   Positive reaction   Genuine,
Emotional          emotions           affective         expressed.           to school, peers,   healthy, positive
(Affective         against school     reaction. No      Some anxiety         and teachers        reaction to
reactions to       (and perhaps       indicators are    perhaps or                               school, peers,
school/            peers and/or       shown.            simply neutral                           and teachers
Teacher)           teacher)           Underlying        due to lack of
                                      anxiety or        connection.
                                      boredom?          Desire may be

Types of            1 = Low            2                  3                    4                      5 = High
Engagement          Defiant            Withdrawn          Compliant            Tactical               Intrinsic

                    Breaks rules.      Flies under the    Follows rules        Fully compliant        Complies with
Behavioral                             radar – some       only to the          with rules for         the rules
                                       breaking rules     extent that it is    extrinsic              because he/she
(following rules)                      as long as not     required to get      reasons.               agrees with
                                       obvious.           by.                                         them.

                    Vocal non-         Quiet non-         Participates         Participates in all    Fully
Behavioral          participation or   participation.     when called          activities, but        participates in
                    may actively       Might pretend to   upon as              only does              in-class
(Class              participate in     sleep in class.    minimally as         enough to get          activities to
participation)      inappropriate                         possible. Never      the A or B.            deep
                    ways                                  volunteers.                                 understanding
                                                                                                      and/or satisfy

(Observation)       Vocal non-         Quiet non-         May participate      Strategically          Fully
                    participation.     participation.     in extracurricular   participates in        participates in
                    May heckle of      Leaves school      activities to        extracurricular        extracurricular
(Extracurricular    distain.           as soon as         satisfy parents      activities that will   activities that
participation)                         possible.          or peers, but        count for              are of deep
                                                          doesn’t put forth    extrinsic              interest or for
                                                          effort.              purpose.               which he/she
                                                                               (parents,              has passion or
                                                                               college, dates,        curiosity.

The next section in this paper addresses the learning designs in schools that promote the three
types of engagement.

Designs for Engaged Learning

       “Classrooms and schools centered on learning and learners are intellectually
       rigorous places, exciting, and humane…concerned with honoring individuality,
       developing potential, and arming kids with an ability to think freely and

       There have always been extraordinary schools that accomplish extraordinary
       things with all kinds of students...Schools that are successfully reinventing
       teaching and learning look quite different…Ambitious learning requires school
       structures that provide time for the more complex teaching and relationships that
       give serious ongoing assistance to learners.”

                      - Linda Darling-Hammond, The Right to Learn (1997)

Some learning environments are more effective than others in scaffolding deep learning in
students. While one design does not fit all situations, there are some common design
characteristics for engaged learning that are grounded in emergent research on how people

Emergent research on highly qualified teachers, highly effective teaching, differentiation of
instruction, engagement, and response to intervention all emphasize how the right classroom
structures can engage students in deep learning (Marzano 2007; Decorte, Verschaffle,
Entwistle, and van Merrienboer, 2003; Darling-Hammond, 1997; Darling-Hammond & Bransford,
2005; Schlechty, 2002). The classroom that introduces content in ways that trigger student
interest, , challenge students to think, cue prior knowledge, provide relevancy, afford choice,
offer clear standards, formalize collaboration, and ensure intellectual safety lead to deep
learning by students.

Let us also not forget that students today are growing up with technology. They don’t know a
time without cell phones, space travel, TIVO, text messaging, and Facebook. Pollsters estimate
that the typical adolescent spends as much as 6 hours per day using digital media, often
multitasking using more than one technology. This is their world.

But make no mistake, while today’s children are digital savvy, that doesn’t necessarily mean
they know how to learn effectively using technology and media. Technology can be a vehicle for
re engaging students in learning, but only if the technologies are used in combination with

A recent meta-analysis (Rosen & Solomon, 2007) found that constructivist, technology-intensive
environments resulted in a significant increase in learning (i.e., effect size of .406). The impact
was even greater (i.e., effect size of .908) for higher order learning effects only.

Bodies of emergent research provide a host of distinct,
proven strategies for increasing engagement on the part     Elements of Design
                                                            to Engage Students
of students, in part through technology.
                                                            Content refers to student
Three major elements have emerged from the research         opportunities to engage with
on the effectiveness of classroom structures in advancing   academic subjects in ways that
deep learning through student engagement related to         result in deep understanding of
Content, Process, and Product.                              concepts, principles, and context.

                                                            Process refers to the learning
The following sections outlined key indicators that the     activities through which the student
learning designs will engage students. A second column      is able to make sense of, or
                                                            master, the content.
provides some examples of how technology could add
important dimensions to each indicator. Each of the         Product refers to the structures
indicators was identified by Dr. Philip Schlechty as        that enable students to rehearse,
critically important in his book, Working on the Work       apply, extend, and demonstrate
(2002).                                                     what he/she learned through a


Content refers to the material being presented, or what the student needs to learn (e.g.,
concepts, principles, and skills). The key indicators for this section are listed below as are some
examples of how technology can add value to each area.

Element         Design strategy                              How can technology be used to support and
                                                             enhance this design strategy?
Content/           Content addresses the standards             The class can use survey
Substance           commonly understood as                       technology to ascertain students
                    appropriate for the specified grade          interests related to the topic
                    level.                                      Web based resources can be
                   The design taps into student                 used for differentiated content
                    interests and the relevance of the           according to student interests
                    topic to the student.                       Relevance can be demonstrated
                                                                 through multimedia sources

Organization       The content is organized                    A concept mapping of the topic
                    sequentially where concepts build            can provide the student with the
                    upon one another – differentiation           fit of the day’s studies into the big
                    builds on student interest inventory         picture
                   The teacher “unpacks” the topic,            Pod casts as “building blocks”
                    plans the unit – including authentic         behind the lessons provide
                    tasks where appropriate                      excellent “just-in-time” learning
                   Teacher ensures that students have           for students (could be produced
                    the skills necessary to complete             by the students for their peers)
                    assignments                                 A class wiki provides a common
                   The teacher “chunks” content in              place for discussing issues, peer
                    order to scaffold students’ work with        coaching, building cooperative
                    the content                                  projects, archiving documents,
                   Models such as “worked examples”             etc.
                    are provided for students to
                    consider as examples

Novelty/           Teachers are inventive in students          Use a range of technologies
Variety             introduction to and investigations of        including simulations, video,
                    various “chunks” of the unit (e.g.,          student-generated images, and
                    inquiry, multicultural, multimedia,          collaboration with students in
                    varying roles and responsibilities,          different communities and
                    etc.)                                        cultures, etc.

Choice             Students are afforded the                   Technology can provide rich
                    opportunity to: chose topics, roles in       media through which students
                    groups, to work individually or              can express what they learned
                    collaboratively, the media through          Use peer-review processes to
                    which to demonstrate their learning,         manage student choices
                    etc.                                        Use online journaling to keep
                                                                 track of the wide range of student

To score high on the Content scale indicates that students find the subject matter interesting
and perceive it to be relevant, important, and attainable.


Product refers to the projects that require the student to rehearse, apply, and extend what he or
she has learned in a unit. Some examples of how teachers promote product engagement
include giving students’ a choice of how to express required learning (e.g., create a movie or
interview an expert) or encouraging students to create their own product assignments as long
as the assignments contain specific elements. Another method to increase product engagement
includes using rubrics that align with and extend students’ varied skills levels. Therefore, a high
score on the Product scale would indicate that students value class assignments and perceive
them to be to be meaningful, they understand the standards by which the product will be
assessed, and there is value to the product beyond the classroom. The key indicators for this
section are listed below as are some examples of how technology can add value to each area.

Element           Design strategy                           How can technology be used to support and
                                                            enhance this design strategy?
Product Focus        Teachers have outlined the units in      Students can use the web to
                      sufficient detail that they can           locate areas of interest and
                      assign student work products that         perhaps outside experts
                      align directly to the content as well     associated with the content area.
                      as to student interests                  Teachers can ask students to
                                                                discuss and critique product
                                                                ideas through online
Product              Students understand the                  Teachers can use technology and
Standards             standards by which their work             the web to post the unit outlines,
                      products will be assessed                 time lines, and student interests
                     Assignments are clear                    Product assignments, teams,
                     Indicators of success and                 timelines, and resources can be
                      standards of quality are clear            accessible 24/7 electronically
                     Timelines are clear
Authenticity –       Students are asked to critically         Wikis spaces can be set up that
Deep Learning         analyze new ideas; to link those          allows visibility of the student
                      ideas to prior knowledge; and to          work throughout the project; and
                      apply those new ideas in novel            peer-to-peer and teacher to
                      situations.                               student interactions
                                                               Worked examples can provide
                                                                inspiration for students who are
                                                                charting new territory

Authenticity -       Each product is linked to outside        The technology is often the only
Relevance             interested parties who take a keen        way in which students can
                      interest in the student’s work            connect and interact with experts
                                                                and others who are interested in
                                                                their projects.


Process refers to the activities in which the student engages in order to make sense of or
master the content. A high score on this scale would indicate that students perceive the
classroom as an environment in which they can learn through intellectual risk taking, without
fear of ridicule, they can work interactively and interdependently with others, and they perceive
those activities and tasks to be meaningful, as do persons of importance to them. The key
indicators for this section are listed below as are some examples of how technology can add
value to each area.

Element          Design strategy                            How can technology be used to support and
                                                            enhance this design strategy?
Intellectual        Students are free to learn and take       Virtual networks must also be
Safety               risks without fear of ridicule.            safe environments
                    Failure is viewed as learning
Affiliation         Students are provided                     Technology enables a myriad of
                     opportunities to work with others          collaborations both formally and
                     (peers, experts, community,                informally
                     students from other schools, etc.)        Through wikis and blogs,
                    Such affiliations promote                  students can join collaborative
                     collaborative planning,                    groups in join work and
                     communication, and                         interactions on important works
                     metacognition.                            Many online communities exist
                    Students have a sense of                   where students can join students
                     community and belonging with the           from other classrooms in work on
                     group. As a result, they are wiling        joint projects.
                     to participate
                    Students feel accepted
                    Group projects represent the
                     accomplishments of the group
                    Students are supportive of one
Affirmation         Persons of significant to the             Virtual posting of work offers
                     learner verify and affirm the              opportunities for those of
                     importance of the work                     significance to the student to view
                    Students are more careful when             and critique the work
                     they know the work will be viewed         Peer-to-peer critiques of student
                     publicly by other they care about          work are possible through online
                                                                communication networks

Appendix A: References

Bangert-Drowns, R.L. & Pyke, C. (2002). “Teacher ratings of student engagement with
   educational software: an exploratory study.” Educational Technology Research and
   Development, 50: 23-38.
Csikszentmihaly, M. (1996). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The Right to Learn: A Blueprint for Creating Schools That Work.
Darling-Hammond, L. & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What
   Teacher Should Learn and Be Able To Do.
De Corte, E., Verschaffel, L., Entwistel, N., & van Merrienboer, J. (2003) Powerful Learning
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Appendix B: Flow

Appendix C: Range of Technology Use


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