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Physiological Needs
   Animals need:
     Food (Nutrients)
     Oxygen

     Water

     Vitamins

     Minerals

   Who would have guessed….
Feeding Animals
   Animals are not autotrophic
       They cannot produce their own
          Thisexplains why my parakeet
          died when I was 9….
       They must consume other
        organisms (plants or animals) for
Cellular Respiration
   Process of converting sugars to
    chemical energy
   Occurs in the mitochondria
   Who wants to learn the entire

   Me neither, so here is the
    simplified reaction

1 glucose + 6 oxygen
6 water + 6 carbon dioxide + ATP
Other Nutrients
   Some nutrients can be absorbed
    through “environmental conditions”
       Whatever that means…..
   Sunlight (Vitamin D) is the classic
    (only?) example of this

   Guess why animals need oxygen
   You guessed it (didn’t you?)!
   Cellular Respiration

   Comes from the AIR
   Occasionally absorbed from water
    or other sources
   Other than air, water is the single
    most important factor in the
    survival of all animals
   Water is used in many processes
    and is essential for life
   Animals can last for weeks without
    food (in theory) but only a number
    of days at best without water
   From their diet animals also need:
     Vitamin B12
     Vitamin A

     Vitamin E

     Vitamin C

     And all those other ones found in
      the Flintstones vitamins your
      parents forced you to eat
   Animals also need:
     Calcium
     Phosphorous

     Sodium

     Etc

   Some minerals are toxic to some
    animals, even in small amounts
Animal Immune System
   In advanced animals (everything
    we will deal with) the Immune
    System is controlled by the lymph
   White blood cells and antibodies
    attack any antigens present in the
Antigens, Antibodies,
and Vaccines
   Antigens are molecules that
    stimulate an immune response
   Antibodies are proteins found in
    the blood that help the body
    identify and neutralize foreign
   Vaccines are antigenic
    preparations used to establish
     I got most of this from wikipedia….
More on Vaccines
   Vacca means cow
   Originally used to prevent smallpox by
    giving people small amounts of cowpox
   Different from variolation (innoculation)
    where you are actually given a small
    amount of the live virus…..
   Vaccines are usually dead or inactivated
    organisms or purified products derived
    from them
Mini Project
   Research Vaccines and develop a mini-
    proposal for the development of a
    vaccine for some disease.
   Proposal should include:
       Type of vaccine (there are 4 main types)
       Brief history of vaccines
       Explanation of how the vaccine would be
        created and then delivered
       Where the vaccine would be given
       Why the vaccine is needed
   This is due at the end of class today
Animal Diseases
   Biotechnology has a big impact on
    the identification and control of
    many animal diseases
       Keep in mind that when I say
        animal that usually refers to us as
   Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, or
    ELISA, is a biochemical technique used
    mainly in immunology to detect the presence
    of an antibody or an antigen in a sample.
   Antibodies in the blood indicate the presence
    of a pathogen the body is attempting to fight
   ELISA tests are usually produced from
    antigens extracted from research animals
Bacterial Infections
   Bacterial infections in animals are tested
    by culturing samples in an incubator
   Different agar media can be used to
    determine the presence of different
    bacteria upon examination after growth

   We proved we could grow the stuff,
    wonder if there’s money out there for
    people that can grow it….
Prevention and
   Animals could be produced with
    genetic resistance to a number of
   Insertion of appropriate gene
    segments from naturally resistant
    organisms could lead to resistance
Needle in a Haystack?
Try Needle in a 10,000
acre hay field…..
   In order to identify the gene
    (segment) responsible for a
    particular trait (like resistance)
    scientists create Knockout Animals
     These are animals (or plants) that
      do not contain the gene (segment)
     This tells us what that gene
      (segment) does
Put that in perspective

              Knightdale HS
Bio-Engineered Sharks?
   Not quite but researchers are
    trying to identify the gene
    (segment) that is responsible for
    the prevention of cancer in sharks,
    which could be used in humans
    either as a vaccine-type injection
    or some other therapy
Attack of the Killer
   Animals could be engineered with
    gene segments that code for the
    production of proteins that would
    attach potentially parasitic
From Me to You
   A common practice is to utilize
    antibodies produced in one
    organism for vaccination in another
   This jumpstarts the immune
    system of the vaccinated animal
A Apple Gene a day…
   Genes coding for certain medical
    compounds (primarily antibiotics)
    in a variety of livestock could
    enable us to provide preventative
    medication in semi-controlled
    doses to populations on a large

   But there are concerns…..
Advances in Animal
   Scientists have used biotechnology
    to create advances in the following
    areas of biotechnology.

     Animal Breeding
     Animal Health and Nutrition

     Food Production

     Pharmaceuticals

     Transplant Organs
Animal Breeding
   For centuries farmers and ranchers
    have bred large animals to
    produce traits such as:
     Feed efficiency
     Disease resistance

     High milk production
Breeding Types
   Traditional Breeding – mating of
    male and female animals
    producing single offspring.

   Selective Breeding – mating of
    animals with intention to pass
    favorable traits to progeny.
Limitations of
Traditional Breeding
   Livestock animals usually produce
    only one offspring a year, 5-8
    offspring in a lifetime and cannot
    breed until they are 3-5 years old.

   Females, such as cows, are
    usually fertile only about a 12 hour
Limitations of
Traditional Breeding
   A breeding male and female need
    to be in the same general
    geographic area.

   The sex of offspring are distributed
    fairly equally between male and
    female, which is not always
Modern Breeding
   Modern reproductive techniques
    are making genetic changes in
    livestock faster and more precise.

   We are going to look at;
                 insemination (AI)
        Artificial

        Embryo Transfer

        Semen Sexing

        Cloning

        Genetic Engineering
      Artificial Insemination
   Artificial Insemination (Ai) – method in
    which semen is collected from male
    animal and inserted into the uterus of
    one or more females with desirable
Artificial Insemination
   Has been used for centuries but not
    commonly used until breeders
    discovered how to freeze semen, first
    calf born from frozen semen in 1953.

   Frozen sperm can now be kept for
    decades and shipped anywhere in the
    world on dried ice or liquid nitrogen
Artificial Insemination
   Benefits;
       One superior bull can replace thousands
        of herd bulls.
       Can introduce new and better genetics
        into a herd.
   Disadvantages;
      Requires special techniques and
Artificial Insemination
   Process: Female’s stages of
    fertility are monitored precisely so
    that insemination can take place
    during the short period when she is

   Diagnostic tests based on
    immunoassays are used to check
    for ovulation and pregnancy.
Artificial Insemination
AI is combined with hormonal
  techniques that are used to
   1) increase the number of eggs
    produced during a single cycle
   2) accelerate onset of puberty and

   3) coordinate reproductive cycles
    of a herd of cows (estrus
Artificial Insemination
   How it is performed..
Embryo Transfer
   Embryo – a developing individual
    from the fertilized union of egg and

   Embryo Transfer – growing
    embryos are transferred into a
    surrogate female who carries the
    embryo to term.
Embryo Transfer
Embryo Transfer
   Benefits:
        Breeders  can save superior female
         animals for producing eggs and
         use other cows to carry out the

       A  single superior female can
         produce embryos for more than 30
         offspring a year.

        Embryos  can be frozen and
         preserved indefinitely
Embryo Transfer
   Benefits:
        Embryos   can be shipped anywhere
         in the world

        Embryos  can be transferred to to
         animals of different breeds in the
         same species.
Embryo Transfer
   Surrogate – a receiving female
    animal that carries an unrelated,
    inserted embryo through
    pregnancy to birth.

   In-vetro fertilization – combining
    the egg in the laboratory, literally
    “in glass”
Semen Sexing
   Process by which sperm cells are
    separated by sex.

   Can help determine the sex of an
    offspring in artificial insemination or
    Embryo transfer.
Semen Sexing
   Sperm bearing x-chromosome
    produces a female while sperm
    with a y-chromosome produce a

   In cattle x-chromosomes contain
    about 3-4% more DNA versus
Semen Sexing
   Scientists use this difference in a
    technique called Flow Cytometry.

   Flow Cytometry – fluorescent dye is
    added to sperm DNA. Cells with x-
    chromosomes fluoresce and scatter light
    differently from those with y-
    chromosomes. Lasers and light
    detectors measure the difference, and
    the information directs the machine to
    rapidly sort the cells.
Semen Sexing
   In 1999 cell sorters produced
    about 400,000 sexed sperm per
    hour with about 90% accuracy.

   This processes has about a 50%
    conception rate, with about 90%
    predictability of the sex of the
   Clone – an exact copy of an
    organism down to the genitic level.

   We have seen clones in sheep
    (Dolly), Cats (C.C.) and cattle
   Benefits:
       Farmers can have herds of
        superior, identical animals, with
        desired traits.

   Disadvantages:
     Loss of genetic variablility
     Expense, technical needs
Other Cloning Issues
   Cloning in animals is rare because
    it is EXPEN$IVE.
   Usually it is only used in research
    or to preserve the most
    outstanding traits and
   The process results in a large
    amount of tissue damage
   Cloning typically relies on the use
    of specialized sex cells
   However new advances with
    ennucleation has led to
    applications for the cloning of other
    types of cells
   Immunoassay – technique
    using antibodies produced as
    an immune response to a
    particular disease-causing

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