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					Regional Environment Action Plan for Central Asia
EAP Manual

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1 at a glance

        Process of Preparing REAP
        Contents of EAP and REAP
        Purpose of Manual
        Selected Priority Issues
        Organization of Manual
        PSIR Approach for Analyzing the Issues

Regional Environment Action Plan for Central Asia                                                         Chapter 2
EAP Manual                                                               General Guidelines for Preparation of EAP

1.1 Background
Central Asia occupies the intersection of Europe and Asia and borders the Russian Federation,
China, Afghanistan and Iran. The five Central Asia (CA) countries include Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. At over 3.8 million square kilometers,
Central Asia covers an area larger in size than India, Pakistan and Bangladesh combined, but with
a total population of only 60 million people.

The environmental problems which the Central Asian countries face today are having explicit
regional character. The necessity of addressing these problems through regional cooperation was
recognized in 1993 with the establishment of International Fund for the Aral Sea Rehabilitation
and an Intergovernmental Commission for Sustainable Development. The countries endorsed
the NuKus Deceleration for Sustainable Development in 1997. The Agreement on Cooperation
in the Field of Environment Protection and Rational Nature Use, was signed in 1998. The same
year the five CA countries made a Joint Statement on this at the Forth Ministerial Conference
Environment for Europe in Århus. At the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia
Pacific (ESCAP) meeting on regional ecological cooperation in Tehran, 14-16 February 2000, the
five Ministers of Environment reaffirmed their commitment to the need of a Regional
Environment Action Plan (REAP).

Following the Teheran Declaration, UNEP appointed a Central Asian Task Force and
commissioned a fact-finding mission to the region. The Mission reconfirmed the need for and
received political support from the five Ministers of the CA countries for the process and content
for REAP.

1.2 Process of preparing REAP
A Focal Point (FP) for REAP has been appointed by the Ministers of Environment (MoE). The
FP will select one issue and play the lead role in preparing EAP (Environment Action Plan).
Each FP will appoint a Collaborating Center (CC). CC will prepare an issue based EAP in
collaboration with the network of regional experts. The EAP will consists of a twenty-page
analysis part and a five-page implementation plan to address the issue. Based on the EAP reports
a consolidated draft REAP will be prepared. The draft REAP will be circulated for comments for
the regional experts and policy makers and reviewed at a sub-regional level workshop. This
   MoE           FP1           CC1
                                                   EAP:Waste Manag

   MoE          FP2           CC2                    EAP:Mountain Eco
                                                           EAP: Land Deg.                      Draft        REAP
                                                                                              REAP            for
   MoE          FP3           CC3                               EAP: Air Polln
                                                                                                for         Central
                                                                     EAP: Water               Central        Asia
                                                                     pollution                 Asia
   MoE          FP4           CC4

   MoE          FP5           CC5

                                           EAP                                     REAP              Review
MoE : Minister of Environment
                                          Manual                                   Manual           Workshops
FP    : Focal Point
CC : Collaborating Center
EAP : Environment Action Plan
REAP : Regional Environment Action Plan
                                          Figure 1.1: Process of Preparing REAP

Regional Environment Action Plan for Central Asia                                               Chapter 2
EAP Manual                                                     General Guidelines for Preparation of EAP

workshop will finalize the REAP and provide approval for the publication. The process is
illustrated in the Figure 1.1.

1.3 Contents of EAP and REAP
As illustrated in the Figure 1.1, an Environmental action plan (EAP) will be prepared on each of
the priority issues. The EAPs will become the basis for the REAP preparation.

Proposed contents of the EAPs:

 Part I: Analysis on the selected issue:
  In this section the issue would be analyzed using the proposed structure. Specific attantion
  should be focused on the analysis of the root causes of identified problems, identification of
  major sources of problems, assessment of transboundary aspects and analysis of present state
  of the identified problems. An important part will be the risk assessment, especially to
  human health, environment and socio-economic aspects. This part will also describe existing
  measures to address the problem.

 Part II: Implementation plan to tackle the issue:
    This section would focus on possible options to address the issues. To enable decision-
    makers set achievable targets, this section would suggest the options such as policies,
    technologies, redirection and reform of institutions. Options should consider the partnership
    with civil society and business sector in dealing with the critical issues. It would also give an
    insight to the following key questions: who should address these options? How much is the
    cost of implementation? What will be the impact of these options on the overall
    environment if implemented? The section would also suggest innovative means of financing
    the implementation of options.

REAP report will be prepared by consolidating the five EAP reports submitted by the CCs. The
REAP will be in three parts and an executive summary:

     Part I: The first section will cover a review of existing State of the Environment
      including NEAPs focusing on priority common and trans-boundary issues;

     Part II: This section will be a compilation of the Part I (Analysis section) of the EAP

     Part III: The third section will be a compilation of the Part II (Implementation plan) of
      the EAP reports.

1.4 Purpose of Manuel
The purpose of the subject manual is to provide step-by-step guidelines for use by the
Collaborating Centers and Focal Points on how to prepare the EAP for each of the selected
priority issues. A separate manual to prepare the REAP has also been prepared along with this
manual. To familiarize the use of this manual, a training workshop will be organized for the
Collaborating Centers and Focal Points.

Regional Environment Action Plan for Central Asia                                                Chapter 2
EAP Manual                                                      General Guidelines for Preparation of EAP

1.5 Selected Priority Issues
In March 2000, in Chimbulak, Kazakhstan, regional experts from the five CA countries discussed
and agreed on a number of regional environmental problems and priorities for the Central Asian
Region. The issues included: nuclear waste; Aral Sea and Caspian Sea Programmes; Biodiversity
conservation; Climate Change; Protection of the Ozone Layer; Desertification.

Following further analysis of the list of regional problems, five priority issues of most important
environmental concern issues were identified and approved for REAP. The issues are

            Waste Management;
            Water Pollution;
            Air Pollution;
            Land Degradation; and
            Mountain Ecosystems Degradation

1.6 Organization of Manual
This manual is organized in eight chapters. Chapter 1, Introduction, introduces the project
process, selected issues and contents of REAP. The Chapter 1 also provides the background on
the PSIR approach for analyzing the issues. Chapter 2 presents the general guidelines for the
preparation of EAPs including the structure of the EAP report. Issue specific exercises are also
provided the Chapters 2. Chapter 3 to 7 provides useful background material on the selected
issues waste management, water pollution, air pollution, land degradation, and mountain
ecosystem respectively. Summary and Conclusions are provided in the Chapter 8.

1.7 PSIR Approach
The Pressure-State/Impact-Response model is one of the most commonly applied framework in
analyzing an Environmental issue today (Figure. 1.2). It provides a systematic categorization of
socio-economic, environmental and natural resource information under four headings: stresses or
agents of environmental change, resources assets, environmental quality, and societal response.

Pressures are often classified into underlying forces such as population growth, energy
consumption, industrial activities. Human activities exert pressure on the environment. This causes
the state of the environment to change. Society, at different levels, will then respond to this change
with policies that affect human activities and directly affect the state of the environment as well.
Temporal and spatial information on pressure variables would provide the foundation for
estimating future projections of state or impacts of an issue.

The State refers to the prevailing conditions of the environmental issue resulting from the
pressure. For example concentration of pollutants such as SO2, PM are state variables for the
issue of air pollution. This state of the issue will, in turn, impact on human health and the

Society responds to these changes at different levels in the form of new legislation, new
technologies, changing community values, international obligations and economic reforms. These
social responses affect both the state of the issue and human activities (pressure). The ability to

 Regional Environment Action Plan for Central Asia                                            Chapter 2
 EAP Manual                                                  General Guidelines for Preparation of EAP

 respond depends on the quantity and the quality of the information available on the state and
 impact of and pressures on the issue.

“Human activities exert pressure on the environment and change its state, or
   condition. Society responds to this changed state by developing and
                           implementing policies”
            PRESSURE                                               STATE/IMPACT

         HUMAN ACTIVITIES                                        STATE OR CONDITIONS OF
           AND IMPACTS                       Pressure               THE ENVIRONMENT
                Energy                       s                            Air
              transport                      Resourc                     water
               Industry                      es                     Land resources
             Agriculture                                              Bio-diversity
              Fisheries                                            Human settlements
                Others                                            Culture and heritage
                          Information                    Information

    Social responses                                                      Social responses
   (decisions-actions)                  INSTITUTIONAL AND                (decisions-actions)
                                      INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES
                                      Economic instruments
                                        New technologies
                                      Changing community

  Figure 1.2: Pressure-state-response model (Source: Adapted from OECD, 1993)