Bima Dompu 2000 11 - Tourism Study Report by keralaguest

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									          Kerjasama Indonesia - Jerman




Potential of Tourism as Factor of
 Economic Development in the
  Districts of Bima and Dompu




                PRODA-NT
         Dukungan Otonomi Daerah di NTB/NTT
                   November 2000
         Kerjasama Indonesia - Jerman




Potential of Tourism as Factor of
 Economic Development in the
  Districts of Bima and Dompu




                         By:
                    Philipp Hans




              PRODA-NT
              Jl. Tukad Balian No. 7, Renon – Denpasar 80226
              Telp: 0361 237 738
              Fax:    0361 237 738
              E-mail: birgit@indosat.net.id
                                            Kerjasama Indonesia - Jerman



                                                     Table of Contents
1         INTRODUCTION OF THE TWO KABUPATEN BIMA AND DOMPU                                                                          1
    1.1     THE KABUPATEN BIMA ............................................................................................... 1
       1.1.1     Economy ............................................................................................................. 1
       1.1.2     The Budget Expenses for Kabupaten Bima ........................................................ 2
    1.2     THE KABUPATEN DOMPU ........................................................................................... 2
       1.2.1     Economy ............................................................................................................. 2
    1.3     BOTH KABUPATEN ...................................................................................................... 3
2         THE PRESENT TOURISM IMAGE OF SUMBAWA AND THE KABUPATEN
          BIMA AND DOMPU                        4
    2.1     A PICTURE ABOUT THE TWO KABUPATEN FROM RECENT TRAVEL-BOOKS ................... 4
    2.2     THE CURRENT TOURISM SITUATION ........................................................................... 4
       2.2.1     Kabupaten Bima................................................................................................. 4
       2.2.2     Kabupaten Dompu ............................................................................................. 4
       2.2.3     Future Tourism Potential in the Kabupaten ...................................................... 5
         2.2.3.1 Recommendation ........................................................................................... 5
3         TOURISM STATISTICS IN THE KABUPATEN BIMA                                                          8
    3.1     TOURIST ARRIVALS FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES ........................................................... 8
       3.1.1     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 10
4         TOURIST ARRIVALS THROUGH OFFICIAL GATEWAYS 11
    4.1     ARRIVALS THROUGH M. SALAHUDDIN AIRPORT....................................................... 11
       4.1.1     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 12
         4.1.1.1 Architecture of the airport ............................................................................ 12
    4.2     ARRIVALS THROUGH BIMA SEAPORT ........................................................................ 13
       4.2.1     Arrivals through Sape Seaport......................................................................... 13
       4.2.2     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 13
         4.2.2.1 Architecture of the Seaport .......................................................................... 13
    4.3     ARRIVALS THROUGH BIMA BUS TERMINAL .............................................................. 13
       4.3.1     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 14
5         THE HOTEL SECTOR IN KABUPATEN BIMA                                                    14
    5.1     ACCOMMODATIONS IN KAB. BIMA ........................................................................... 14
    5.2     DIRECT EMPLOYMENT IN THE ACCOMMODATION SECTOR ........................................ 14
    5.3     RESULTS FROM THE HOTEL CLASSIFICATION ............................................................ 15
       5.3.1     Summary and Recommendations ..................................................................... 17
    5.4     TAX INCOME THROUGH THE HOTEL SECTOR............................................................. 18
       5.4.1     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 18
6         ANALYSIS OF TOURISM LOCATIONS IN KABUPATEN BIMA 19
    6.1     BIMA CITY ................................................................................................................ 19
       6.1.1     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 20
    6.2     THE VILLAGE OF MARIA AND WAWO ....................................................................... 20
       6.2.1     Recommendation .............................................................................................. 21
    6.3     SURROUNDING OF SAPE AND SANGEANG VOLCANO ................................................. 22
    6.4     THE WHITE SAND BEACHES OF WANE AND RONTU .................................................. 22
    6.5     OVERALL CONCERNS ................................................................................................ 22
7         THE HOTEL SECTOR IN THE KABUPATEN DOMPU                                                           23
    7.1     HOTEL CLASSIFICATION............................................................................................ 23
       7.1.1     Hotels and Losmen in Dompu City .................................................................. 24
       7.1.2     Hotels and Losmen at Lakey Beach ................................................................. 24
8         TOURISM STATISTICS IN THE KABUPATEN DOMPU                                                         25


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   8.1     STATISTICS FROM THE DINAS PARIWISATA ............................................................... 25
   8.2     POLICE STATISTICS ................................................................................................... 26
      8.2.1    Average Age and Sex Ratio .............................................................................. 28
   8.3     TOURIST RELATED INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................................................... 29
9        THE SITUATION AT LAKEY BEACH 30
   9.1     SEVERAL ASPECTS ABOUT TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AT LAKEY BEACH ................... 30
      9.1.1    Problems at Lakey Beach................................................................................. 31
        9.1.1.1 Recommendation ......................................................................................... 31
      9.1.2    Road Constructions.......................................................................................... 31
      9.1.3    Natural Environment of the Location .............................................................. 32
   9.2     EMPLOYMENT ........................................................................................................... 33
        9.2.1.1 Recommendation ......................................................................................... 33
10       GUNUNG TAMBORA                    34
   10.1 A VISION FOR GUNUNG TAMBORA AND ITS SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES .............. 35
   10.2 ECO-TOURISM AT GUNUNG TAMBORA ..................................................................... 35
      10.2.1 The Eco-tourists ............................................................................................... 36
      10.2.2 The Attractions in the Region around Gunung Tambora ................................ 36
   10.3 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AT THE SLOPE OF GUNUNG TAMBORA .............................. 37
      10.3.1 Recommendation .............................................................................................. 38
11       OUTLOOK AND GENERAL CONCERNS                                          38




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LIST OF GRAPHICS
I. GRAPHIC: PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF GRDP AT CURRENT MARKET PRICE FOR 1998 1
II. GRAPHIC: GRDP BY INDUSTRIAL ORIGIN FOR KAB. DOMPU IN PERCENT 1997.................. 3
III. GRAPHIC NATURE BASED TOURIST ATTRACTIONS. .............................................................. 6
IV. GRAPHIC: CULTURAL TOURIST ATTRACTION. ....................................................................... 6
IV. GRAPHIC: CULTURAL TOURIST ATTRACTION. ....................................................................... 7
IV. GRAPHIC: PERCENTAGE OF INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC TOURISTS 1999................... 10
V. ROOM QUALITY STATISTIC FOR KAB. BIMA ..................................................................... 16
VI. GRAPHIC INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC TOURISTS REGISTERED IN HOTEL LILA GRAHA
      FROM 1995 TO 1999 .......................................................................................................... 16
VII. GRAPHIC: ROOM QUALITY CLASSIFICATION..................................................................... 23
VIII. INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS TO KAB. DOMPU 1995 - 2000 ................................................ 27
IX. GRAPHIC: INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS TO LAKEY BEACH IN 1997 ..................................... 28
X. INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS TO LAKEY BEACH BY AGE GROUP FROM JANUARY TO MAY 2000
      .......................................................................................................................................... 29




LIST OF TABLES
1.     TAB. PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TOURISTS COMPARED TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR IN KAB. BIMA 8
2.     PERCENTAGE CHANGE OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST (I.T.) TO KAB. BIMA 1994-1997 ....... 8
3.     INTERNATIONAL TOURIST DEVELOPMENT 1997 - 1999 ....................................................... 9
4.     RECORDED TOURISTS COMING THROUGH AIRPORT SALAHUDIN BY NATIONALITY FROM 1994-
       99...................................................................................................................................... 12
5.     HOTEL CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA.................................................................................... 15
6.     INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC TOURIST IN THE KAB. DOMPU ....................................... 25
7.     INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS IN KAB. DOMPU FROM 1995 TO 2000 ..................................... 26
8.     CRITERIA TO ESTIMATE THE ATTRACTION OF NATURE-BASED TOURISM: GUNUNG TAMBORA
       AND ITS MOUNTAIN FOREST. ............................................................................................ 36




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1 Introduction of the two Kabupaten Bima and Dompu
This report is about the tourism development of the two Kabupaten (Kab.) Bima and
Dompu in East Sumbawa. It creates a picture of the present situation, gives general and
specific recommendations and tries to draw a distinct vision for future tourism
development in this region.


1.1 The Kabupaten Bima
Being part of the Province of NTB, the Kabupaten (Kab.) Bima is located in East
Sumbawa. Its boundaries are the Flores Sea, the Sape Strait, the Indian Ocean and the
Kab. Dompu.
The Kab. Bima is divided into 11 Kecamatan (Kec.) which are: RasanaE/ + B, Belo,
Woha, Monta, Bolo, Wawo, Wera, Sape, Donggo and Sanggar.
The total area covers 4596,90 km² with a population of 477.318 inhabitants and a
population density of 104 per./km². However, the density varies enormously between 10
per./km² in Kecamatan (Kec.) Sanggar and 503 per./km² in Kec. RasanaE. (Word-
Appendix (W.-A.) Tab. 3).
Nine main rivers flow through the Kab. and are essential for the irrigation of the fertile
land used for agriculture (W.-A. Tab. 4).
There is a distinct rainy season from December to March and a dry season from June to
September. The district has an average rainfall of 1025 mm/year and an average daily
temperature of 30° to 32°C. It reaches an average of 79 rain days per year.

1.1.1 Economy
The economy is divided into nine industrial sectors with agriculture, livestock and
forestry the most important, followed by trade, hotel and restaurant and the service sector
ranking third.
In Graphic I, the “Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) at 1993 constant market
price” shows a distribution percentage of these sectors for 1998.

I.     Graphic: Percentage Distribution of GRDP at Current Market Price for


                                     Services
                                     12,19%
                      Finance/ Rent
                                                                  Agriculture/Livestoc
                          1,30%
                                                                      k/ Forestry
                  Transportation /                                      49,45%
                  Communication
                      8,56%


            Trade/ Hotel/
             Restaurant
              16,66%
                      Construction
                        6,22%

                      Electricity/ Gas/                   Mining/ Quarriying
                       W atersupply                            2,29%
                          0,24%           Manufacturing
                                             3,09%



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1998
The trade, hotel and restaurant sector is the second largest contributor to the GRDP. With
16,11% it made a total of 108 Mio. Rp. in 1997 (W.-A. Tab. 6).

The main “products” within each sector are listed below:
 Agriculture: Wet and dry rice, garden plots, onion and soybeans.
 Commercial agricultural enterprises: Cashew nut and coffee.
 Livestock: Mainly buffalo, cattle.
 Fishery: Shrimps, tuna fish, pearl, sea-grass.
 Forestry: Rotan, teakwood.
 Industry: Salt production.
 Mining: Marble.
 Tourism: Local and international transit tourists.

1.1.2 The Budget Expenses for Kabupaten Bima
The government budget expenses comprise tourism and telecommunication into one
sector. The GRDP combines hotel and restaurant with trade. These different listings make
a direct comparison of income and expenses in the tourism sector on government level
very difficult.
Budget expenses increased in the years 96/97 and 97/98. The tourism and
telecommunication sector grew considerably in 96/97 compared to the previous year. This
budget increase of 500% is due to the monetary crisis and high investments in the telecom
sector. With 90 Mio. Rp., the budget for 1997/98 seems extremely low for these two
important segments of the sector.
(Exel-Appendix (E.-A.) Tab. 9)

1.2 The Kabupaten Dompu
Being part of the Province of NTB, the Kab. Dompu is located in East Sumbawa. Its
boundaries are the Flores Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Kab. Bima.
The Kab. Dompu is divided into six Kec.: Dompu, Hu'u, Woja, Kempo, Kilo and Pekat.
The total area covers 2324,55 km² with a population of 187.168 inhabitants and a density
of 81 per./km².
There is a distinct rainy season from December to March and a dry season from Mai to
September. The district has an average rainfall of 744 mm/year and an average daily
temperature of 25° to 30°C. It reaches an average of 57 rain days per year (W.-A. Tab. 5).

1.2.1 Economy
The economy is divided into nine sectors with agriculture, livestock and forestry being
the biggest sector followed by trade, hotel and restaurant and in third place the service
sector.
In Graphic II, the Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) at 1993 constant market
price shows a proportional distribution of these sectors for 1997.
The main products of the region are the same as in Kab. Bima but there are certain
particularities. The government has sponsored large-scale cattle and buffalo ranches and
cashew plantations on the depopulated slopes of Gunung Tambora. Large transmigration
areas with settlers from Java and Bali are in Pekat and on the way to Hu’u.


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The main tourism market is Lekay Beach that is popular within the international surfing
society. Dompu City is a transit town, visited by local salespeople (local transit tourists).

1.3 Both Kabupaten
The structure and percentage of the GRDP of the districts Bima and Dompu are nearly the
same. What differs is the total income. The GRDP of Kab. Bima at constant and current
market price is about 150% larger than that of Kab. Dompu, which reflects the difference
in size, population and economic strength between the two Kabupaten.
A closer look on the Trade and Tourism Sector reveals that the GRDP at constant market
price in 1997 in Kab. Bima is 6.5 times higher than in Kab. Dompu.
One reason is that the trade sector in Kab. Bima is much stronger. Through the two
gateways Bima and Sape trade very vibrant in Kab. Bima. (W.-A. Tables 6-13).

II.    Graphic: GRDP by Industrial Origin for Kab. Dompu in Percent 1997




        GRDP by industrial Origin for Kab.Dompu in percent.
                                              (current market price)

                                          Services
                                          15,63%
                  Financial, rent and
                       Service
                       3,21%                                                   Agriculture/Livestock and
                                                                                        Forestry
                                                                                        43,53%

      Transportation and
       Communication
           6,01%



           Trade, Hotel, and
              Restaurant
               16,98%


                                                                            Mining and Quarriying
                               Construction
                                                                                    2,69%
                                 8,00%
                                                Electicity, Gas and Water
                                                           Supply             Manufacturing
                                                           0,28%                 3,67%




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2 The present tourism image of Sumbawa and the Kabupaten
  Bima and Dompu

2.1 A picture about the two Kabupaten from recent travel-books
Both Kab. Bima and Dompu are not very popular for foreign tourists within Indonesia.
Tourists who are represented in the statistics are basically on transit on their way to or
from Flores and Komodo (or further East) or just interested in surfing near Hu’u.
Examples of recent travel-guides on this topic read as follows:

“The majority of the fine coastline of East Sumbawa is lined with photogenic stilted
fishing villages, a reminder of the Bajo, Buginese and Makarrese seafaring peoples who
have long traded with the area. Centred on its capital town of Bima, eastern Sumbawa has
little to recommend it, except for the surfing areas around Hu’u on the south coast.
Another place travellers head to is the port town of Sape, where the ferries to Komodo
and Flores depart.”

Bima itself is described as follows:
“The slightly sad port town of Bima has precious little remaining of its former glories.
The streets are coated with horse dung from its many dilapidated dokar, and the buildings
are characterless and dull. The port remains fairly busy, with battered wooden schooners
and the occasional rusting iron cargo ship, though once it was the most important port in
Nusa Tenggara.”
Or:
“The town has nothing to lure the prospective visitor, but is a useful place to break up the
otherwise agonizing overland trip to Komodo and beyond. The only attraction in Bima is
the 1920s Sultan’s Palace (Rp5000), a large white building with black beams that could
be anything from a school to a set of government offices and distinctly lacking in external
aesthetic appeal. The exhibits are pretty drab, a few gaudy reconstructions of costumes
that the sultan might have worn and dusty glass cases full of unmarked, unfathomable
junk.”


2.2 The Current Tourism Situation
2.2.1 Kabupaten Bima
Kab. Bima holds no unique tourism attraction, which is strong enough to attract
reasonable numbers of visitors from abroad.
On the other hand, there are several places of interest, which in combination are suitable
for a medium size tourism development.

2.2.2 Kabupaten Dompu
Kabupaten Dompu has one international tourist attraction at Lakey Beach (near Hu’u).
The attraction is limited to surf professionals, which are mainly drawn from Australia,
New Zealand, USA and Britain. But the market and the capacity are limited.




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2.2.3 Future Tourism Potential in the Kabupaten
In both Kab., the Dinas Pariwisata develops lists of tourism sites that should be promoted.
According to officials, several sights have been promoted over the last five to eight years.
Travelling to the location reveals either that nothing has been done yet for any tourism
development or that the site is not worth being promoted in the present way. This simply
reflects the former government system. The Dinas Pariwisata (D.P.) did not need to
manage a tourism region in an efficient way. Therefore, the first thing to be done would
be to create a draft in which the single tourist attractions are ranked by importance.
In graphic No. III and IV, the author develops two possible graphics and the places
chosen according to their importance. The graphics represent Nature Based and Culture
Based tourist attractions. These two graphics illustrate how these categories can be
presented. The tables that both Dinas Pariwisata prepared (W.-A. Tab. 21 / 22) are still
very useful, as they serve as a guideline on what the area in total has to offer.
The most unique sites with high potential in Kab. Dompu are Lakey Beach, the volcano
Tambora with its teak wood forest and the small island of Satonda. The most interesting
attractions in Kab. Bima are Wane and Rontu beach and the Sangeang volcano. The
cultural sites and festivals are important day visitors and increase the attraction of East
Sumbawa as a destination.
While Kab. Dompu holds the better tourist locations, Kab. Bima is better equipped
with a working infrastructure, such as airport, harbours (Bima, Sape), hospitals,
banks, and travel agents. A close cooperation in the tourist sector would allow Kab.
Bima a further upgrading in their infrastructure whereas Kab. Dompu can
concentrate on the development of sustainable tourist areas for recreation, sport,
nature and wildlife.


2.2.3.1 Recommendation
    The author recommends a three sectional list giving a hierarchical ranking within
       the sectors. The ranking should reach from the most unique and attractive place to
       the smaller and less interesting places. No sector should contain more than four
       sites.
    All sites are to be explained in detail referring to their attraction.
    Based on the first list another one should inspect each site with regard to what is
       lacking, and what needs to be done to boost the place as tourist attraction.
    The third list based on the first two examines what endangers the tourism site
       before and after a tourism development.
    Considering these three lists, three or four locations should be extracted, on which
       the D.P. concentrates its efforts to create a sustainable tourism destination.
    It is necessary to give attention to the most attractive sites in order to handle
       the resources as effectively as possible. A thoughtful government
       management plan with careful consideration of the most prosperous locations
       is the best advertisement to attract private investors in the future.




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III.   Graphic Nature based tourist attractions.
                                                       Nature based tourist attractions

                                     Beaches                                                      Volcanoes/ Virgin Forest


       Surfing               Snorkelling/ Diving           Recreation              Trekking               Bird/ Wildlife             Recreation
                                                                                                            Watching


  Lekay Beach (Hu’u)             Satonda Island          Oi Wobo               Gunung Tambora             Forest at G. Tambora           Satonda
  For professional surfers.      Very few locals.        Spring water          App.: 600 – 800            Only during trekking.          Lake
  High season Apr.- Aug.         App. 300 Foreigners     swimming pool.        Tourists per year.         No facilities.
  9 Hotels with 143 rooms        per year.               Income 2,1 Mio Rp.    90% Local,
  Average amount of Tourist      On boat trip Bali-                            10% Foreigners                                            Oi
  per year 1670. (1995-99) /                                                                              Oi Panihi
                                 Flores.                                       Community revenue, no
                                                                                                          No facilities
                                                                                                                                         Panihi
  Av. age: 27                    No data available       Sangeang Beach        further statistical data
  Income: 835 Mio Rp/yr:                                 Locals                available.
  (1670 tourists*10 days
  *50.000Rp.)                                                                                             Tambora Reserve
                                                         Rontu Wane                                       Is located in Kec.
                                                                               Sangeang Volcano           Donggo, north east of
  Rontu Beach                                            Beach                 Few foreigners: with       Bima bay. No data, not
                                                         Locals, Foreigners    local travel agent or      known as destination.
  Losmen closed in 97/98.
  Less than 100 Foreigners                                                     individually.
  per year.                                                                    No tourist related                                     In Kab. Bima
                                                         Lamere Beach
                                                                               infrastructure.
                                                         Locals, no data
                                                                                                                                      In Kab. Dompu
  Wane Beach
  Very few foreigners.                                   Salondo               Oi Panihi                                           Presentation by Ph. H.

  No accommodation.                                      Fresh water spring    Waterfall, no facilities
                                                                               Soft trekking
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IV. Graphic: Cultural tourist attraction.


                                            Cultural based Tourism attractions


               Villages                                Agro Culture                        Museum/ Tradition


    Lengge Maria                                  Colonial Coffee                       Museum Asi Mbojo
    No official statistic available.              plantation                            Not well maintained
    Private Agents: “Ora Travel”:                 On the slope of G. Tambora in
    1996: 434 Foreigners                          the buffer zone, next to the
    1997: 140 Foreigners                          virgin forest.                        Private Museum Samparaja
    1998: 260 Foreigners                                                                Small, but informative.
    20 - 30% of tourists can be
    added on top of the numbers                   Cashew Plantations
    from Ora Travel, which visit
    the site individually or with                 Fruit plantations                     HUT Bima (5. Juli)
    other travel agents.                          No access infrastructure              Adat & old Bimanese tradition.
                                                                                        Traditional dances & music.
                                                                                        Lomba Panjat Pinang
                                                           In Kab. Bima                 Reinvented in this year.
    Sambori Village
    Promoted as a traditional
                                                           In Kab. Dompu
    village. It is worth going there
    but not with the intention to
    see a traditional village.                                                                   Presented by Ph. H.
    There is no interaction with
    local people.


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3 Tourism Statistics in the Kabupaten Bima
The author received statistical data from following departments:
    Central District Statistics Office (Kantor Biro Pusat Statistik Kabupaten (BPS))
    Tourism office (Kantor Dinas Pariwisata)
    Police Office (Kantor Polisian)


3.1 Tourist Arrivals from Official Sources
The material from the BPS is listed in Exel Appendix Tab. 15. For the years 1999/2000 the
BPS has no statistics available. Between 1996/97, there is an increase of international tourists
of 27,7 %. In October 1997, the political upheaval and environmental disasters began and a
10,25% drop of foreign visitors in 1998 is recorded. In 1999, the number dropped another
53% to about 2400 foreign tourists. Analysing the percentage, the figures seem reasonable
compared to other provinces or districts in Indonesia during these critical years where the
drop of international tourists is similar. The total figures, however, are questioned later with
direct comparison to other sources.
Due to the monetary crisis, the constant increase of domestic tourists with more than 32%
over three recorded years seems doubtful.

1.   Tab. Percentage of total tourists compared to the previous year in Kab. Bima
Tourists      1996/97           1997/98        1998/99*
International +27,7%            -10,25%        -53,3%
Domestic      +43%              +34%           +32,83%
Source: BPS Bima, *BPS intern data.
Presentation by Ph.H.

The tourism department that has been operating since 1996 could only hand out statistics
about international tourists by nationalities for the years 1994 through 1997 (E.-A. Tab. 13).
It was not possible to get new statistics for 1998/ 99/ 2000. The Dinas Pariwisata (D.P.) does
not document data about domestic tourists.
A closer look at Tab. 2 shows that there is a slight decrease of tourists in the year 1996/97 (–
7,72 %). This stands in contradiction to the figures of the BPS that show an increase
(+27,7%) for the same period. The total figures for these two years differ significantly as
well (1996 to 1997: BPS 4011 international tourists (i.t.) to 5122 i.t. and the D.P. 6590 i.t. to
6081 i.t.).

2.   Percentage Change of International Tourist (i.t.) to Kab. Bima 1994-1997
                                      1994/95 1995/96     1996/97
International Tourists (IT.)          +18,10% +39,53      -7,72%
Source: Dinas Pariwisata. Presentation by Ph.H..




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Exel-Table 13 and 14 from the D.P. and the police reveal that last four documented years
(94-97) tourists from the Netherlands hold the first place. In 1994/95 Germans are second
and French are third. This picture, however, changes around in 1996/97, probably due to a
French documentary film about the Komodo dragon that boosted the interest for eastern
Indonesia in France.1

The police collect their data directly from the hotels so that they can be regarded as a primary
source. The police register every tourist who stayed overnight in the Kabupaten. Even though
the lists up to 1996 were not available anymore, the police figures are generally quite
accurate. They are collected every day directly from the hotels. Unfortunately the police has
no statistics about national tourists.

3.   International Tourist development 1997 - 1999
                                 1997/98             1998/99
International Tourists           -1,04%              -22,95%
Source: Police statistics. Presentation by Ph. H..

It is very difficult to interpret the data of the three institutions because they are contradictory.
The ranking within the three Tab. in Exel-Appendix 12-14 show clearly that the Netherlands
provide the biggest group of visitors coming to the Kabupaten. Second largest group with
app. 50% fewer persons are Germans and French followed by Australians and North
Americans.
If we assume Tab. 15 from the BPS (E.-A. Tab. 15) to be precise, the international tourists
constitute only a quarter of the total number of tourists (domestic & international) to the
Kab. .
The BPS also presents data for 1999 that are not identical with the statistic just mentioned. In
graphic V. (p. 14) international tourists only constitute a proportion of 8% of the total
numbers. A closer look at those reveals that Europeans make up the biggest proportion
(64%), followed by Oceania with 14%. ASEAN tourists have only a share of 5%. This is
significantly different from other regions in Indonesia, where ASEAN tourists often account
for more than 70% of the total number of tourists. This information is essential for later
market analysis, promotion and development of necessary infrastructure.




1
  Komodo Island, the home of the Komodo dragon is the main attraction in East Indonesia. This is represented
in the enormous increase of tourists. From 1978 to 1988 3400 i.t. were recorded, in 1989 the number increased
to 4900 and in the first six month of 1990 the total number of i.t. reached 9100. (Brandon, K.; 1996)


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IV.     Graphic: Percentage of International and Domestic tourists 1999


             Percentage of International and Domestic Tourists
                                    1999
                                                          International
                                                               8%




                                Domestic
                                  92%



Source: BPS Kabupaten Bima, presentation by Ph.H.



3.1.1 Recommendation
The author comes to the following recommendations:
        In the future more attention should be paid generating statistics. The enormous
           differences between the statistical data of the departments make predictions very
           difficult and not reliable.
        Nationality, age and profession are very important indicators for analysis and
           should therefore be taken into the statistics. (Since 2000 this is done at Lakey)
        Data collection, indicators, sources and presentation on one topic should be
           uniform in all the departments to guarantee transparent comparison. If these
           statistics are changed for their individual purpose, these modifications are to be
           clearly marked in order to stay transparent.
        Because domestic tourist make up ¾ of the total number of tourists in the region,
           it is essential to comprise them in the statistics and get detailed information about
           their habits and needs. (This is specific work for the Dinas Pariwisata)
        Every year the statistics should be analysed and new trends should be
           channelled and steered. (Dinas Pariwisata)
        Existing marketing channels are to be identified.
        The Dinas Pariwisata should open communication with travel agencies in
           Bima.
        Creation of an efficient questionnaire to gather statistic data. Analyse the
           demand of Dutch, German and French tourists because they seem to be the
           largest group of tourists travelling through the Cab. Bima.




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4 Tourist Arrivals Through Official Gateways
There are four main entry gates to the Cab. Bima:
                     1. The airport M. Salahuddin 20 km southwest of Bima city,
                     2. The harbour of Bima,
                     3. The seaport of Sape
                     4. The bus terminal in the centre of town (coming overland)
Tourists heading to Dompu or Lakey Beach have to pass the Kab. Bima, except when
travelling by bus from Sumbawa Besar.


4.1 Arrivals through M. Salahuddin Airport
This airport is of great importance to East Sumbawa and the adjacent island of Flores. Due to
the economic crisis, many flights were cancelled and one airline stopped operating. Merpati
Airline connects Bima with Denpasar, Mataram, Kupang and Ruteng.2
The most important connection is Denpasar Bali that is operating daily, except Sundays.
The statistics obtained at the airport seem reasonable. There are two tables listed in Exel-
Appendix. First is “Foreign Tourist Arrivals Through M.S. Airport Bima from 1994 – 1999”
(Tab. 16), the second, “Foreign Tourist Arrivals per Month at Bima Airport M. Salahudin
from 1997 to mid 2000”(Tab. 17).
Monthly records before 1997 are not available. Direct comparison between the two tables is
possible for the years 1997 through 1999. The total tourist numbers in these three years differ
slightly, which gives an unprofessional impression, since the data come from the same
source.
The total amount of international tourists recorded through Bima Airport in the years 1994 to
1999 counts less than 12.000 as shown in Tab. 4 (p.17). The dominant nationalities are German,
Australian, Dutch and American. During the last four years, Australians were the most frequent
flyers. Roughly only 1/3 of the Australians are registered in Kab. Bima because their main target
is Lakey Beach in Kab. Dompu.
In 1998 and 1999, the second largest nationality arriving through the airport are Americans. With
a similarly high number of people they are registered in Kab. Bima and in Lakey Beach. It would
be interesting to know for future planning if these tourists are the same in both Kab. or if they can
be divided into two different interest groups. Because of incomplete statistics material this cannot
be found out at present.
It was not possible for the author to gather information about domestic tourists travelling by
plane. Due to the economic crisis there was a harsh drop of domestic passengers that forced
Merpati to cut the frequency of their flights. Such a limit in weekly flights means a limit in max.
capacity, which limits the amount of incoming international tourists to visit the area (East
Sumbawa, Komodo).
Recently the Airport was enlarged. Hopefully, passenger capacity will justify this huge
investment. Arguing from a tourism perspective, the airport will be the first or the last thing the
guest sees coming to or departing from the island. Recognizing this aspect, the new architecture
can be critically described as functional but not attractive.

2
    No time schedule was prepared because during the fieldworks schedules changed regularly.


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           4.    Recorded Tourists Coming Through
                 Airport Salahudin by Nationality from
                 1994-99
                 Nationality                            Tourist
           1     Germany                                2.218
           2     Australia                              2.097
           3     Netherlands                            1.479
           4     USA                                    1.368
           5     France                                 773
           6     United Kingdom                         731
           7     Japan                                  651
           8     Swiss                                  378
           9     New Zealand                            295
           10    Austria                                204
           11    Denmark                                190
           12    Sweden                                 177
           13    Italy                                  156
           14    Brazil                                 153
           15    Spain                                  141
           16    Others                                 482
                 Total                                  11.493
           Source: Extracted from Data by M. Salahudin Airport
           In 1995 the month 5-9 and in 1997 the month 2-6 are not recorded
           due to lack of statistics.




4.1.1 Recommendation
      Statistics should record national as well as international passengers.
      Arriving and departing national and international passengers should be recorded.
      As already done, the nationality of international passengers is to be listed.
      Occupancy rate should be presented for each month and year.
      Due to the fact that Americans are registered homogenously over the two Kab. it is
       important to find out more about their travel characteristics. They might be interested
       in the three main attractions the area has to offer: surfing, culture and Komodo
       dragons. If that is true, serious attention should be paid to his group.

4.1.1.1 Architecture of the airport

    More attention should be paid to traditional art and architecture.
    An airport restaurant should be located on the airport ground with view on the airstrip
     and plane schedule information always available. (Airport authority)
    A telephone for national and international calls is to be installed on the airport
     ground. (Telecom)
    Professional tourist information has to be available at the arrival hall. (Dinas
     Pariwisata)


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4.2 Arrivals through Bima Seaport
Over the last 12 years including 2000, there where approximately 182 000 arrivals and 219
000 departures through the sea-gate of Bima. The head of the port estimates that of these
numbers 25 % are international tourists. This figure is regarded as far too high. The author
estimates the portion of international tourists not higher than 10%. This would still mean an
average of app. 1520 foreigners per year from 1989.
In August two new express passenger ferries started operating. Their service is excellent,
travel time and price are reasonable and the capacity sufficient. A trip from Denpasar takes
no longer than eight hours, a meal is served in an air-conditioned cabin, and the ferry has a
capacity of 900 hundred passengers and costs 1/3 of the plane flight.
This service is a healthy competition on the transport sector. Coordinated in a professional
way, overcapacity can be avoided.
Observing the ferry arrival at 4 a.m., the author could count 15 - 20 foreign passengers per
arrival. Most of them were surfers bringing their boards with them. Especially when
travelling with sports equipment, this kind of transportation is much easier for the tourists
and therefore more attractive than flying or travelling by bus (E.-A. Tab. 19).

4.2.1 Arrivals through Sape Seaport
Sape seaport is interesting for all foreign tourists who want to travel to Komodo and/or
Flores by Ferry.
Another destination is Waikelo in East Sumba. The author could get no statistics from the
harbour authorities. A time schedule is listed in E.-A. Tab. 18/ 20.

4.2.2 Recommendation
      Statistics should be more detailed and international tourist arrivals or departures
       should be recorded.
      Upgrading Bima port is a contribution to locals and tourists with the service of a
       better infrastructure. It creates new jobs on a short and long term basis.
      Upgrading of Sape seaport and its infrastructure with sense to traditional architecture.

4.2.2.1 Architecture of the Seaport

The harbour in Bima is completely rundown and an unpleasant place for anybody arriving or
departing. Especially the arriving area should be upgraded. Traditional art and architecture
should be considered. Necessary infrastructure such as a restaurant, telephone, toilets,
mushola and a nice waiting hall are urgently needed to make travelling comfortable.



4.3 Arrivals through Bima Bus Terminal
The bus terminal is located in the city centre near the hotel and losmen area. Night busses
leave every evening at around 8 p.m. to Mataram (Lombok) and Denpasar (Bali). They arrive


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from there at around 3 to 5 in the morning. The buses are mostly air-conditioned and in a
suitable condition. Organisation and administration is very efficient. There are app. five bus
agencies located in Bima.
Most of the backpackers or overland tourists are using this kind of transportation. It is also
the main transportation for locals, since it is a convenient, reliable and a cheap way to travel.

4.3.1 Recommendation
With the good organized and professional booking system of the bus companies, it should be
possible to gather data about foreign tourists using this kind of transportation. This can be the
responsibility of the D.P. to work closely together with the bus companies.
One example for a close cooperation would be the tourist office recommending bus
companies that present monthly data about international tourists. These bus companies will
get information leaflets, which can be handed out, on the bus trip. Tourists will recognize this
as a good service on behalf of the bus company.


5 The Hotel Sector in Kabupaten Bima
Quality and service of hotels and losmen in Kab. Bima are very poor and do not encourage
tourists to stay longer than necessary. If the Kab. Bima wants to shake off its bad image of
Bima City as a dull and dirty transit town; the hotel sector must be totally modified.
Therefore the author checked all accommodations in the region and created a hotel-standard
list.


5.1 Accommodations in Kab. Bima
Today there are 10 accommodations in Bima City with a capacity of 215 rooms or appox.
424 beds. Another four accommodations are situated at Sape with 51 rooms and 98 beds.
That makes an average of 21.5 rooms per accommodation for Bima City and average of
12.75 rooms in Sape. A detailed list can be found in E.-A. Tab. 5.
During the past two years six accommodations had to close down. The main reasons for this
development are:
           b) Mismanagement
           c) Corruption and
           d) Prostitution.
At the moment it seems as if there is a slight overcapacity of hotel rooms in Bima city. The
following classification (in 5.3.) reveals an additional and very serious problem.
5.2 Direct employment in the Accommodation Sector
Until recently it was assumed that the hotel sector creates app. 1 to 1,5 jobs per hotel room.
New studies in several developing countries can deny this assertion. This survey also reveals
that the direct employment in the hotel sector just creates 1 job per 4,5 rooms. It could be
assumed that the hotel owners do not reveal the true employment numbers because they fear



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higher tax rates. But even with twice as many employees the hotels would just create one job
for two hotel rooms.
According to the employees the salaries ranged from 50 000 – 150 000 (1$US = 9000) per
month which is far below the government minimum salary. Most of the employees in Bima
city and in Sape were not from the region. Most of the workforce comes from Flores and
Sumba.


5.3 Results from the Hotel Classification
It seemed necessary to look at the hotel situation a little closer. For that reason a hotel
classification list was prepared. With three categories that are split into three levels in total 9
grades can be given for the rooms. This classification gives an impression of the standard and
the price service value of the present hotels.
The classification was done in both Kab.. It is known that the list is subjective but in itself it
is homogenous because the author has judged all existing rooms.
Following criteria were used for the classification:

5.    Hotel Classification Criteria
Classification                  Criteria
Room Quality
                                 [Very clean, airy room, light, nice arrangement of interior, friendly helpful staff, good
A+/ A/ A-: Bagus / Good         breakfast,]
B+/ B/ B-: Cukup / reasonable   [Clean, airy, light, good service]
                                [Not very clean, sticky room, slow service, bad information, run down, facilities not
C+/ C/ C-: Kurang bagus / bad   working, noisy]



Price-Service-Value
                                The high price reflects a very professional and good service.
A+/ A/ A-: Good Value           Basic quality and basic service are reflected in a very low price
                                High price with less service.
B+/ B/ B-: Average Value        Basic standard slightly overpriced compared with other accommodations
C+/ C/ C-: Overpriced           Quality and price are not attractive to tourists.
The total list where all rooms are classified can be found in E.-A. Tab. 6.




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V.                         Room Quality Statistic for Kab. Bima

                                            Room Quality Statistic for Kab. Bima

                       100
     Amount of rooms




                       80

                       60

                       40

                       20

                           0
                               A+       A   A-                B+            B       B-             C+     C       C-
                                                                   Classification

                                                                                                                       S
ource: Field survey by Ph. H./ Nu. W.

Graphic VI exposes clearly that there is no room that suits the criteria of A+ to B+. Only
three hotels operating are suitable to cater and service a wider range of tourists. These are
Lambitu, Parewa and Lila Graha. Most of the international tourists are staying at one of these
hotels. Lambitu and Lila Graha were able to present a hotel statistic (E.-A. Tab.7A/7C). For
hotel Parewa nearly all data are missing (E.-A. Tab. 7B).
Hotel Lila Graha is working together with eight travel agents, one from Netherlands, three
from Bima, three from Lombok and one from Ujung Pandang. The hotel owner comes from
Bali and has been operating the hotel since 1980. In graphic VII it can be seen that in 1995
more than 50% of the tourists were foreigners. Since then, a continuous decrease of
international tourists took place, during which the number of domestic tourists increased
tremendously.

VI.   Graphic International and Domestic Tourists registered in Hotel Lila Graha
from 1995 to 1999

                                International and Domestic Tourists in Hotel Lila Graha

     2500
                                                                                                           2193
     2000
     1500
                                 1210              1159               1198
     1000                       1081                                                         993
                                                 947
                                                                                                           684
         500                                                                                 519
                                                                       276
                       0
                                1995             1996                1997                1998           1999

                                                          Domestic           International




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Source: Field survey by Ph. H./ Nu. W. (Presentation Ph.H.)
The harsh drop of foreign tourists from 947 to 276 can be explained by two main reasons. 1.
In October 1996 hotel Lambitu started operating and some travel groups and individuals
preferred that hotel.
2. In 1997 with beginning of the financial crisis less groups and individual tourists came to
the region.
The new hotel Lambitu was not seriously affected by the crisis (E.-A. Tab. 7C). The number
of international tourists increased at least 15% each year. The hotel won tourists from Lila
Graha, because it offered a better standard for a similar room rate. During the economic crisis
and the downfall of the rupiah many backpackers could afford this hotel rather than a cheap
losmen.
In 1999, international tourists had a share of 23,8% at hotel Lila Graha as compared to only
12,9 % in hotel Lambitu. These figures are the result of the questionnaire that the two hotels
filled out for the GTZ study team. These primary data can be compared with the secondary
data from the BPS which counts a share of 18,63% international tourists in Lila Graha and
10,32% in hotel Lambitu (E.-A. Tab. 8).
The portion of international compared to domestic tourists is shown in graphic V.
The hotel owners could not offer the author a table about the occupancy rate of their hotel.
Most of the hotels either don’t have any statistics or hand out wrong statistics because
they fear higher taxes. This might also be one reason why the statistics from different
sources over the same aspect are not identical.
This attitude makes a long-term planning and development nearly impossible.


5.3.1 Summary and Recommendations
         The quality of the existing hotels and losmen is insufficient. Rooms are sticky,
          often not clean and the bathrooms smelly and dirty. Mattresses are old and sheets
          often not washed.
         Statistic data is very insufficient and most owners do not want to work together
          with the D. P. because they fear higher tax payments.
         All the different statistics such as questionnaires, occupancy rate etc. bother hotel
          employees and owners because they never get any feedback about the results.
         A clear and transparent tax system for the hotels and losmen is recommended and
          that might be integrated in a “bonus program”.
         Most of the hotels need to be renovated, which as well be integrated into a “bonus
          program”.
         All losmen and hotels must present monthly statistics and a “bonus program”
          could lead to better commitment.
         A minimum of hygiene should be enforced and controlled e.g. by involving the
          Indonesian hotel association into the upgrading program.




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5.4 Tax Income through the Hotel Sector
To make any reliable predictions and forecasts, precise and accurate statistical material is
needed. As these are not available, the following calculations must be regarded as rough
estimates.
At current market price in 1998, the government earned app. 86 Mio. Rp. through the trade,
hotel and restaurant sector.
A rough calculation with existing figures indicates that the income can be much higher.
The author concentrates on the international tourists only.
    - Police figures of foreign tourist from 1998: 3352 persons.
    - Average length of stay: 1,6 days.
    - Average expenditure per tourist per day: 50000 Rp. (6,25 US$)

3352 * 1,6 * 50000Rp. = 268.160.000Rp.
From this amount 10 % tax is taken and creates 26,8 Mio. Rp. of tax income trough
international tourists’ expenditures on hotel, food and minor transportation only.
This is just the tax income from international tourists; not yet included are, special travel
arrangements, transportation, souvenirs etc. This proportion makes already 31% of the annual
income in this sector. If the average length of stay can be increased from 1,6 to 2 days that
would mean an increase of tax income of 25% or app. 70 Mio. Rp..
The fact that international tourists only hold app. 10% of the total number of tourists shows
the great economic potential this sector has to offer.
This calculation example demonstrates that accurate statistics are essential
    - to predict and forecast the revenue of tourism.
    - calculate the future tax income in the sector.
    - make the tax system more transparent.

An increase in quality (hotels, infrastructure etc) can have the same positive economic impact
as increasing the quantity of services and of tourists. Increasing the quality requires a
commitment to sustainable development that will benefit the community, private investors
and the government.
Tourism, as all the other economic sectors has positive and negative aspects. With the
decision towards a sustainable tourism and an increase of quality rather than quantity,
positive effects will prevail.


5.4.1 Recommendation
In the first phase, government and city council should concentrate on upgrading existing city
infrastructure and try to activate the private sector to join in this development, e.g. if bigger
companies invest in the upgrading of city infrastructure they get free advertisement space or
lower tax rates.
For hotel and restaurant owners this can be done by a “bonus program” that might include tax
reduction when the accommodation:
         Prepares reasonable statistics,
         Employs more staff,


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         Trains the staff in tourism matters,
         Invests in renovation and upgrading of the hotel,
         Invests in government advertisement (Dinas Pariwisata).
In the second phase new accommodations can be promoted. Before opening a new hotel the
investor must present a detailed market analysis. A transparent budget plan must be presented
to reduce mismanagement and corruption. One department (town planning / Dinas Pariwisata
) has to analyse the monthly and yearly statistics to regulate the hotel sector to avoid
overcapacity.3


6 Analysis of Tourism Locations in Kabupaten Bima
There are four sites that will be presented comprehensively. This includes
   a) Bima city,
   b) The village of Maria and Wawo,
   c) Surrounding of Sape and Sangeang volcano,
   d) White sand beaches of Rontu and Wane.


6.1 Bima City
As already mentioned, Bima is a transit town for domestic and international tourists. The
description of travel book in 2.1. is precise and true.
But it has some advantages that shall be specified in the following.
The town is the central arriving and departure point for East Sumbawa, Komodo and Flores
because it offers all transportation possibilities. Further infrastructure such as
telecommunication, moneychanger, restaurants, shops, hotels, leisure facilities, hospitals are
nearly without competition. These advantages in infrastructure are the central key for a future
tourism development and by upgrading of these facilities a major benefit in daily life for
town residents.
Telecommunication is a very important factor to attract tourists in such an area. Internet
connection, which is becoming the communication tool of the future, will offer tourists a
great communication service (Internet café). A variety of good restaurants a nicely renovated
cinema and attractive billiard bars are services that might allure foreign tourist to spend a
night longer than they may have intended to.
The Sultans palace “Asi Mbojo”, which is now functioning as a museum, is an attraction, but
must be renovated, the presented items better displayed and more information must be
available trough well trained guides and/or handbooks. Mrs Hj. Siti Maryam Rachmat, SH
belonging to the Sultans family opened her own private museum “ Samparaja Bima” with old
relicts of that time. A close cooperation or unification of the two places would increase the
attraction of the museum Asi Mbojo.
Bima City is the starting point for several day trips into the region. Especially those tourists
who rely on a certain infrastructure could be attracted if the quality of the hotels, already
3
 In Kec. Karo in North Sumatra the Dinas Pariwisata forbid to open new accommodations or further adding of
rooms to existing hotels because of overcapacity.


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mentioned in 5.3. would be better. When the tourists are able to spend a convenient night in
Bima City the Kab. Bima has attractive daytrips to offer. Recommended are the village Maria
with the rice barns, Oi Wobo hill resort and the beautiful village of Sambori. These daytrips
combine culture with fantastic panoramic views over the land.
Insufficient is the waste collection in town and the horse dung covered streets.


6.1.1 Recommendation
        The existing infrastructure such as garbage collection, drainage system, walkways in
         city centre, harbour, bus terminal etc. should be upgraded (a benefit for city residents,
         domestic and international tourists). Further attention concern should be given to
         better telecommunication (Internet Cafe), better evening leisure facilities (Cinema,
         nice Billiard Café, sports facilities).
        Cooperation or maybe unification of the two museums and upgrading of the Sultans
         palace is necessary due to the fact that they are the major attraction in the city.
        The market area should be upgraded (Benefit for city residents and domestic and
         international tourists).
        Renovations or new constructions (of all official buildings) should take traditional
         architecture into account.
        Traditional festivals such as Hut Bima July 5. must be promoted in and outside of the
         Kab. Bima. A festival calendar is to be produced and promoted and has to be yearly
         renewed.
        It has to be considered that, depending on the nationality, international tourist require
         different infrastructure. Therefore a clear market analysis is important.
        Awareness building about tourism and appropriate behaviour towards foreigners
         should be integrated in primary and secondary education and included into courses
         with people involved in tourism related services. Guides, BenHur drivers, restaurant
         and hotel employee are the target groups.4 In case of the BenHur drivers, the BenHur
         Association in Bima is to be integrated.


6.2 The Village of Maria and Wawo
These two places offer traditional culture and recreation. The two villages are located 30 min.
outside of Bima on the road to Sape. L. Maria is notable for its traditional wood and tile rice
barns (lengge) massed on a hill outside the village. Nearby lies the Dutch colonial recreation
site Oi Wobo; a swimming pool nourished by spring water and a colonial bungalow that
functions as a losmen. High costs limit the renovation works to a minimum, such as the
swimming pool floor, a new fence (that doesn’t really make sense).
Locals enjoy the place on weekends. The entrance fee does not even cover the running cost.
In its better days, travel agencies sold the site as a colonial attraction (For detailed
information see: W.-A. Tab. 12).


4
    In Waikelo the Dinas Pariwisata organised a workshop for guides or personnel in contact with foreign tourists.


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6.2.1 Recommendation
This place has the potential to work profitably and attract locals as well as domestic and
international tourists. Because it is app. 450 m over sea level the air is fresh, the spring water
is crystal clear and with the colonial building the place has a certain atmosphere.
It is situated half way to Sape and to spend a night there would be more attractive than
staying in Bima or Sape.
To run the place successfully requires a new strategy. Total renovation and restructuring of
the site with new management is essential. A pilot project at the fresh mountain water pool
site in Oi Wobo is to be established.
      To accomplish a full renovation, a close cooperation with the private sector is
         essential. In October 2000, the swimming-pool-floor was renewed and a fence around
         the pool was built. Single activities like these that are not imbedded into an overall
         architecture plan of the site, are lost investments.
      With a long-term planning and more precise frequency data private companies can be
         attracted to invest in tourism sites as a promotion effect.5
      The private sector offers know-how, material, cash flow and management experience.
      The government can offer tax reduction, cheaper/ free advertisement.

Essential for success is:
    The complete renovation of the swimming pool.
    A nicely renovated bungalow and furniture in the former colonial stile.
    A good restaurant with Indonesian and western cuisine.
    A well-run and clean garden.
    New administration with new management.
    Relocation of buildings.
    A new fence around the complex.

This pilot project can demonstrate how government, private investors of different origins,
travel agencies and local community can work together in the tourism sector.
More information about Oi Wobo and the swimming pool Mada Panga 48 km east of Bima
on the way to Dompu is found in W.-A. Tab. 12.




5
 The author had talks with the Coca-Cola Company Bima. They where very interested to negotiate this kind of
matter with the responsible authorities.


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6.3 Surrounding of Sape and Sangeang Volcano
North of Sape at Matamboko are nice sand beaches that are suitable for swimming and
snorkelling.
No direct investment should be undertaken from official and government side to promote this
area. The best promotion for this area is the upgrading of Sape and its tourism related
infrastructure.
For the active tourist a trekking tour up the panoramic Sangeang is recommended. This site
can be developed and guided by the government in close cooperation with local
communities. The GTZ is already active in this area and can be involved into a community
development plan concerning tourism development in this area.


6.4 The White Sand Beaches of Wane and Rontu
Beautiful white sand beaches are situated at the south cost of the Kab. Bima. Both sites are
suitable for a medium tourism development. Swimming as well as bathing is possible. In
1997 a Bimanese built some cottages at Rontu and closed them down after one year of
operation. The ruins can still be seen. This had two major reasons:
           a. The beginning of the economic and political crisis.
           b. Access was not convenient.
At present an engagement is still not advisable. Firstly the road on the south cost from Wane/
Rontu to Hu’u and Lekay Beach should be constructed (app. 18 – 20 km). This would offer
the possibility of a roundtrip and does not force the tourists (but also locals) to travel back
north (Dompu, Bima), in order to get south (Wane, Rontu) again. With this road construction
the area becomes much better accessible and will benefit the location.


6.5 Overall Concerns
Especially for the sites mentioned in 6.2 up to 6.4. the succeeding points should always be
taken into account:
     It is advisable and strongly recommended to integrate the local communities as much
        as possible into a tourism related development process.
     Local land rights should be defined and respected. Adat and religious impact should
        always be taken into account. (For example: Is sun & sea tourism acceptable in a
        strongly Islamic area?)
     These sites and the interaction with the local communities should be managed with
        professionalism and a long-term concept.




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7 The Hotel Sector in the Kabupaten Dompu
The Kabupaten Dompu has two main hotel sites - the city of Dompu and at Lakey Beach,
near the village of Hu’u.
Lakey Beach, where the first accommodation was opened in 1989, is the main international
tourist attraction in East Sumbawa. It specialized on surfers, which mainly come from
Australia, New Zealand, USA, Britain and Japan. On weekends, Indonesian teenagers favour
the place only 33 km south of Dompu.
Possible attractions for future development with good potential are Pulau Satonda for diving
and snorkelling and Gunung Tambora with its stunning mountain forest as an eco-tourism
resort for conservation, bird watching, trekking and historical agro culture (colonial coffee
plantation).


7.1 Hotel Classification
The result of the hotel classification undertaken by the survey team draws a similar picture as
in Bima (See Graphic VIII). The rooms are generally in a poor condition, fairly maintained
and often overpriced. A detailed hotel list is found in E.-A. Tab. 24 and the classification is
found under Tab. 25 in the E.-A..


VII.                Graphic: Room Quality Classification

                                         Room Quality Classification

                   80
                   70
                   60
    Total Number




                   50
                   40
                   30
                   20
                   10
                    0
                        A+    A     A-            B+    B      B-      C+   C      C-
                                                       Marks


Presented by Ph.H. & Nu. W.




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7.1.1 Hotels and Losmen in Dompu City
In Dompu, there are eight accommodations with 85 rooms and 174 beds. Within these eight
accommodations 24 persons are directly employed. Statistically that means 3,55 rooms create
one job, or one room creates 0,28 jobs.
Dompu, similar to Bima, is a transit town where today mostly salesmen and truck drivers etc.
stay overnight. Since transportation and road quality have been increased, the number of
international tourists who stayed overnight has decreased rapidly.6 Only hotel Samada, hotel
Pusaka and hotel Kartika can still report a few travellers per year.
Predictions over the occupancy rate is difficult because there are nearly no records over
domestic tourists, and the hotel owners do not prepare any themselves.


7.1.2 Hotels and Losmen at Lakey Beach
In Leaky Beach nine hotels with 133 rooms and 250 beds can be counted. There are 69 direct
employees. That means two rooms create one job. With a figure of 0,52 it shows the best
correlation between the number of employees and room quantity in both Kabupaten.
The reason why the hotel situation in Kab. Dompu might be slightly better (see graphic VIII)
is that the hotel owners at Lakey concentrate on the international market and consequently
have better service and nicer rooms to offer, which also calls for more employees.
The poor quality of marked analysis and concept planning can be demonstrated by a few
simple examples.
Some places offer bathtubs in the bathroom but no hot water is available. The owners have
the perception that with that kind of investment the place becomes luxurious and suits the
western taste. Because they do not know the function of a bathtub it was not necessary for
them to install warm water.
Some places have built the rooms behind the restaurant in a row facing each other. The result
is that tourists sitting on the veranda are facing each other and not the beach.




6
    Hotel Kota Baru was hit hard by this development.


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8 Tourism Statistics in the Kabupaten Dompu
In the case of Kab. Dompu the statistics from the Dinas Pariwisata and the police are of
major interest. The police was very cooperative and could present us the primary data for
each month.
Statistics of international tourists in Kab. Dompu are more or less reflecting the situation at
Lakey Beach.


8.1 Statistics from the Dinas Pariwisata
Like in Bima, the D.P. was established in 1996. The data for 1998 and 1999 show a decrease
of international (-4,24%) and domestic (-17,52%) tourists in 1999. It has to be mentioned that
most of the domestic tourists are registered in Dompu City whereas most international
tourists are registered in Lakey Beach (Tab. 6). There were no statistics available that
allowed separating the two sites to do single analyses. The peak months for international
tourist are from May to August/ September.

6.   International and Domestic Tourist in the Kab. Dompu
Month         International Tourist         Domestic Tourist
             1998         1999             1998        1999

January              141            92            602           318
February             172           130            370           276
March                119           184            245           243
April                220           185            209           282
May                  303           209            170           208
June                 137           228            201           320
July                 275           253            363           291
August               219           227            382           301
September            182           227            395           268
October              185            90            285           281
November             115           128            379           293
December              99           122            514           313
                   2.167          2.075          4.115         3.394
Source: Dinas Pariwisata Kab. Dompu




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8.2 Police Statistics
The police was able to hand out data from 1995 to 2000. In 2000 they started to gather more
detailed data, which opened further analysing possibilities about international tourists.
In Tab.7, the monthly figures and the total numbers of international tourists for each year are
listed. It is positive to see that the figures from the police and the D. P. differ only slightly
and the general trend is the same.

7.    International Tourists in Kab. Dompu from 1995 to 2000
                      1995         1996           1997   1998   1999   2000*
     January          23           93             62     141    92     57
     February         59           113            56     172    130    87
     March            Lost data    74             104    119    184    131
     April            144          95             156    240    185    140
     Mai              169          113            235    303    209    132
     June             144          130            284    137    228    126
     July             197          108            298    275    253
     August           141          66             300    219    227
     September        61           106            213    175    227
     October          55           52             151    185    90
     November         58           58             119    115    128
     December         22           63             102    97     122
     Total:           1073         1071           2080   2178   2075   673
Source: Extract of police statistics Kab. Dompu

The enormous increase of tourists from 1996 to 1997 is very impressive. After that the total
numbers stagnated at about 2100 over three years.
In graphic IX the monthly amount of tourists is shown over five years. The nicest graph
without any significant interruptions was 1997. Tourist numbers increased from February to
June, stayed constant on a high level and decrease from September to December. Looking at
the first four months of 1998 the increase is much steeper than in the years before, but drops
dramatically in June. The increase is due to the inflation of the ruphia that makes travelling
for international tourists incredibly cheap. Whereas the drop shows the fear of international
tourist, travelling to a politically unstable and unsafe country. In comparison to other areas in
Indonesia the total numbers are relatively stable during the political crisis. This might be
related to the kind of tourists coming Lakey Beach.




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VIII.    International Tourists to Kab. Dompu 1995 - 2000




Graphic: Presentation by Ph. Hans

Over all the recorded years Australians are the dominating group of tourists coming to Lakey
Beach. Taken the numbers of 1997 Australians make up 47,6%, New Zealanders 9,7%,
Americans 7,7%, British 7,5% and Japanese 5,2%. All the other nationalities together make
up 22,3%.
Graphic X shows the seasonal fluctuation and the major nationalities coming to Lakey. The
high season, during the dry season, is between June to August. With a capacity of 133 rooms
and app. 270 beds it can be estimated that the occupancy rate during these months can reach
up to 100%.




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IX.        Graphic: International Tourists to Lakey Beach in 1997


                        International Tourist to Lekay Beach in 1997

                 300
                                                                                         Others
                                                                                         Peru
                                                                                         South Afrika
                 250                                                                     Germany
                                                                                         France
                                                                                         Brazil
                                                                                         Japan
                 200                                                                     New Zeland
                                                                                         British
                                                                                         USA
      Tourists




                                                                                         Australia
                 150




                 100




                 50




                  0
                       Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   Mai   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Okt   Nov   Dez
                                                     Month




8.2.1 Average Age and Sex Ratio
In 2000 the police started to collect further data on international tourists that reveals
information over the age and the sex ratio of international visitors to Lekay.
From the persons represented in the 2000 statistics, 84,8% are male and 15,2% are female
tourists. The average age is 27,44 years.
These statistics are essential for further promotion and developing infrastructure in the future.
Graphic XI gives an overview of the amount of each age group. In total numbers the age
groups 24 years and 28 years are the most dominant. The age groups from 24 up to 28 years
make up 35,44% of the total tourist numbers at Lakey Beach.



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X. International Tourists to Lakey Beach by age group from January to May 2000

                    International Tourists to Hu'u by age group from Januar -
                                             May 2000

               80
               70
               60
               50
    Quantity




               40
               30
               20
               10
                0
                    <10 11.- 19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30    31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40 41 - 46 - 51<
                        18.                                                                                                                45 50

                                                                                    Age

Source: Primary data from police Kab. Dompu. Presentation by Ph.H.



8.3 Tourist related Infrastructure
There are 30 restaurants (rumah makan) reported in the Kab. Dompu. In Lakey only three
restaurants are operating, and the food quality is not the best. Stomach sickness such as
diarrhoea, cramps etc are frequently reported by foreigners in Lakey. (Restaurant list W.-A.
No. 24)
BNI 46 is the only of four banks (BRI, BPD and PD. BPR LKP) where it is possible to
change international currencies. The exchange rates are lower than in Bima and there is no
private moneychanger in town.
At Leaky Beach some hotels change the common currencies but to a rate that is app. 10% to
15% lower as in Dompu city. International phone calls in Kab. Dompu are only possible at
three places in the city.
Mada Prama is the name of a once famous swimming pool site. On weekends music bands
played near the poolside and especially young people enjoyed the place. The author found
this place closed down. (Further information in W.-A. No. 25)




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9 The Situation at Lakey Beach
Since more than 10 years the main reason for international tourists coming to the beach have
been the ideal waves for surfing.
There are nine hotels and losmen set along the beach. The standard varies from basic to air-
conditioned rooms. Up to 85% of the foreign visitors are male surfers and the major
nationalities are Australians, New Zealanders, Americans, British and Japanese.
The white sand beach stretches over 1,5 km. There is the possibility of snorkelling, but of
low quality. During low tied the reef offers some water ponds that are quite nice to relax or
offer swimming possibility for children. Good swimming is just likely during high tide.
The size of the waves and the fact that they break on the reef excludes all surf-beginners.
The hotels and losmen cover a stretch of about 600-700 m of coastline. To the left and right
lies undeveloped land, the backside is mountainous and covered with forest.
Due to very bad transportation and the lack of any kind of modern infrastructure as
electricity, western food, cold drinks, etc. the numbers of tourists stayed relatively low over
the first couple of years. The major breakthrough was in 1995. The infrastructure such as
transportation to the Kab. and further to the beach is becoming more convenient. Electricity
is available, new hotels started operating. In just one year the tourist numbers doubled.
High season is during the dry period from June to August with max. 303 recorded
international tourists per month. The off-season is marked by the rainy period and statistics
reveal less than 100 tourists per month.
There are no official statistics about the length of stay but the author estimates an average of
7 to 10 days.7


9.1 Several Aspects about Tourism Development at Lakey Beach
The nearest village is Hu’u 4 km north of Lakey. Until today there are no commercial
relationships between the tourism resort and the village. This economically unstable situation is
probably one reason for the very high rate of beach-theft. The average is at least one beach-theft
per week. In August 2000 an incident was reported that might indicate a new dimension of crime.
A foreigner who was guarding the possessions of his friends was forced by a group of people
with parangs (long knifes) to hand out the belongings. Referring to Gunung Rinjani8 (Lombok) it
is obvious how important the safety issue is for tourists. If safety cannot be guaranteed and the
situation even worsens, a decline of tourist numbers will be the consequence. Hotel owners are
very serious about this situation and try to guarantee best safety at their places. But this is not a
matter of private security anymore and if the local government is interested in a positive tourism
development, safety has to be assured by an effective and uncorrupted police.




7
  This assessment was done after consultation with tourists and hotel owners. It is more likely to be 10 than 7
days.
8
  This volcano on Lombok is famous for a three to four day trekking tour. Since tourists beginning in 1998 were
attacked and robbed while trekking up the volcano, tourist numbers declined app. 80%. Hotels, guides, porters
and other small businesses involved in this eco-tourism site face sever difficulties today.


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9.1.1 Problems at Lakey Beach
Besides the safety factor there are several others that can or already have harmed further
tourism development.
Problems:
    1. Beach safety.
    2. Hygiene and sanitation.
       a. Kitchen, food and drinking water: There have been serious reports from tourist. On one
          single day 14 people where reported sick. There are only three restaurants operating, the
          others just offer snacks or drinks.
       b. Room quality: Room and bathroom hygiene are often in a very pour condition (E.-A.
          No.25). This is not a matter of money rather than knowledge and training.
   3. Solid and liquid waste disposal
       a. There is no rubbish collection. Hotels burn their waste on the compound. During
          weekends, when local youth from Dompu inherit the scene, the whole area is littered with
          plastic and other rubbish.
       b. There is now adequate liquid waste disposal system.
   4. Beach infrastructure:
   a. No sufficient walkway that connects the accommodations.
   b. No light at the hotel beachfront.
   c. Informal bus terminal that destroys the silence of the place especially on weekends.


9.1.1.1 Recommendation
   The author was often asked, by the hotel owners whether Lakey has any positive
   potential for the future. It was obvious that they feared about their investments they
   made. Some have not reached their break-even point yet and for successful operation the
   places needed new investment for renovation. These are unlikely to be done in this
   unpredictable future. Tourists who have been at Lakey repeatedly report that the
   accommodations are dilapidated and truly need renovation.
        All hotel owners should come together and cooperate with each other.
        Hotel owners should invest in renovation and upgrading of their places
        A reasonable solution is to be found for the waste disposal and the rubbish littered
          each weekend by locals.
        Police is to be taken responsible for further thefts.

   The Dinas Pariwisata can act as a coordinator between the parties and might organize
   trainings for the hotel staff in close cooperation with the Indonesian hotel association.


9.1.2 Road Constructions
   The road from Dompu is not in the best condition but should not rank on the priority list
   of the Kabupaten.
   On the long term it is more important to complete the road between Hu’u and Rontu/
   Wane in Kab. Bima. This road is urgently needed to make the region more accessible.
   Discussions with KAPET revealed that these plans already exist but are not yet realized.


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9.1.3 Natural Environment of the Location
   The natural scenery in the hinterland with its dense forest is to be guarded. Now it is
   endangered by illegal logging through villagers. There are several reasons why it is
   important to save the forest.
           a. If the forest at the slopes of the mountain range vanishes the occurring
               flooding during the rainy season, already reported by hotel owners, will
               increase and the damages can be enormous.
           b. By changing the natural beauty, the place becomes less attractive for tourists.
           c. The forest-covered hills can be used for light trekking, which is a further
               attraction besides surfing. Surfers, non-surfers and locals can be attracted
               through this further outdoor possibility. Thus this is another source of income
               for locals, as they can work as guides or porters.
   Surfers already complain that the wave is overcrowded. This is a very serious indicator,
   that the place is entering a new phase of development. These surfers who were attracted
   by the wave and the natural beauty of the place will search for new destinations.
   If other surfers cannot be attracted and no alternatives for non-surfers are found, a
   decline of the places attraction is predictable.
   A survey, which discovers the needs and the wishes of recent tourists, is urgently needed.
   This survey can be completed by the Dinas Pariwisata and should question the tourists
   directly. Following points are essential:

   1.Nationality;
   2. Sex;
   3. Age;
   4. Length of stay;
   5. Main interest;
   6. Where did they get the
       information about the site;
   7. How many times have they been
       there;
   8. Daily expenditure;
   9. Kind of transportation (name) to
       Lakey;
   10. Any hassle on the way;
   11. What are they missing at Lakey,
       their hotel?
   12. What do they like most (if it’s a
       surfer: other than surfing) and
       what do they dislike at Lakey?




                                                                                           32
       A survey team should be responsible for the data collection and analysis. The survey
       group that does the fieldwork should be fluent in English, because that might increase
       the willingness of the tourists to spend some time with the survey team.


9.2 Employment
The Aman Gati hotel, is the biggest employer9 at Lakey. Still the quote for employees per
hotel room is at 0,64. 10 Fathmans has the highest quote with two employees per room
whereas 40% are schoolchildren. This high quote is achieved only because they have only
four rooms and they run a very well going restaurant.
The average quote lies at 0,50 in Lakey that means one employee for 2 rooms.
From a development perspective, the cost of creating jobs in tourism must be compared to
the costs associated with investment leading to job creation in other sectors. Although it is
often assumed that high levels of capital are not required, this is incorrect, if the emphasis
is based on non-star hotels as it is in Lakey. A handful of studies focusing on the cost per
hotel job found the hotel sector to be more capital-intensive than modern industries. No
matter how the industry is portrayed, tourism does not distinguish itself as a creator of
employment, and it is less labour-intensive than commonly assumed.
Building materials, food and even the employees are mostly imported from outside the
Kab. Dompu. The percentages of employees in the hotel Aman Gati at Lakey Peak show
this fact very brilliantly. The owner is Balinese and also has a hotel on Bali. That might
be one reason why most of the workers come from Bali. The information manager and
receptionist Pak Made handed out the following list of their workforce’s origin:
1. Balinese: 80%; 2. Florenese: 15%; 3. Sasak: 2%; 4. Javanese: 2%; 5. Dompu: 1%.
Most of the building material and professional workforce (handicraft) during the building
operation came from Bali. Several times it was mentioned that workers from Bali or
Flores were more reliable and more willing to work than locals.
Most owners complain about the lack of qualified people on the local market.
This means that there is a high leakage of the incoming money because it has to be spent
on food, equipment and workforce that are imported.
Any investment undertaken by the government to upgrade the place will benefit the hotel
sector and their counterparts, but will not lead to a sustainable cash flow into the Kab., the
region and to the locals.


9.2.1.1 Recommendation

For a sustainable form of tourism that benefits the local government the local
communities and the private sector future efforts should concentrate on the involvement
of locals into the process.
The existing international Surfing Beach Lakey, that receives a reasonable number of
foreigners, must be integrated into a development plan that links the economies of the
surrounding communities with tourism.
9
     Three categories of tourism-related employment
       a. Direct employment: hotels, restaurants, clubs, taxis, and souvenirs.
       b. Indirect employment: as a result from inputs to the tourism sector, such as mechanics, tailors.
       c. Induced employment: the “multiplier effect”.
10
     In the past it was thought that tourism creates 1,5 jobs per hotel room.
Concerns should be:
      1. How can local agricultural products be sold to the hotel sector/ restaurants?
          Which fruits and vegetables can be harvested at the high season and are
          therefore suitable to increase the local income?
      2. Is there a regular market nearby that could be upgraded to be of interest for
          local and for foreign tourist?
      3. Is there a regular fish market preferably on weekends that might be an
          attraction for day visitors and foreign tourists? Visitors from Dompu can combine
               recreation with the possibility to buy fresh and cheap fish. Whereas foreigners might
               use it as a photogenic attraction near their accommodation.
           4. There is no local handicraft for souvenirs. It should be studied if there is a
              potential for this sector that can increases the employment possibilities in the
              region and diversifies the income of local households. This kind of work can
              especially be done during the rainy season.


10 Gunung Tambora
“The volcano Gunung Tambora erupted in April 1815 causing a natural catastrophe without equal
in recorded history (de Jong Boers 1995). The eruption was the biggest ever in human memory.
An estimated 80-150 km³ of volcanic material were released.11 It had major impact on the socio-
economic and ecological developments on the Indonesian archipelago, and the eruption has
provided a better understanding of the relationship between volcanic eruptions and climate (de
Jong Boers 1995). Although details of the geology, chemistry, petrology, geomorphology have
been obtained during a series of studies (Zollinger 1855, Allard et al. 1982, Self et al. 1984, Self
and Woden 1987, Foden 1986, Heyckendorf and Jung 1992), and anecdotal information on
demographic changes, agriculture and land use in the years after the eruption have been described
(Stommel and Stommel 1979, de Jong Boers 1995), very little is known about the biological
characteristics or ecological succession of this extraordinary mountain. It is instructive to piece
together information of ecological succession of Tambora.” (Trainor, C. 2000)
The slopes of the volcano were bare above 2100 m, however Casuarina forest was noted at 2200
m to 2550 m by Pannekoek van Rhedan (1913) and Petroeschevsky (1947). Stands of tall timber
were noted on the northern slopes (de Jong Boers 1995). In 1933 Koster and De Voogd described
habitat from the lowlands to the peak starting with “fairly barren, dry and hot country”, then they
entered a “mighty jungle of Duabanga mollucana” with “huge, majestic forest giants”. De Voogd
considered that the Duabanga moluccana trees could not have reached such great size in little
over 100 years, inferring that some may have survived the eruption (de Jong Boers 1995). At
1100 m they entered a montane forest with “…a multitude of thin stems”. As they progressed they
reached stinging nettles, giant reeds and climbing ferns. (Trainor, C. 2000)
Ecological succession continues not only after the eruption, but also from anthropogenic
disturbance including a major forest logging concession operated by P. T. Veneer Products, illegal
logging and forest conversion to agricultural crops, particularly coffee plantations.




11
     For comparison about 18km³ from Mt Krakatau in 1883.


                                                                                                 34
10.1 A Vision for Gunung Tambora and its Surrounding Communities
Since more than one decade tourism has been promoted in the region of Pekat at the slope
of G. Tambora. However, until today nothing has been undertaken to realize this tourism
project. Instead the government signed a logging concession on the northern slopes of the
volcano.
With further, and due to the economic crisis, intensified logging not only the unique
forest will vanish. Birds and other wildlife are endangered, erosion and landslides will
increase, and dry season will start earlier because rivers dry out sooner, well water is
getting lower and malaria might be able to survive in higher altitudes. All the realistic
negative effects that are brought in by the logging company P.T. Veneer are ignored.
Officials concentrate on the present benefits such as employment and capital income for
the government. Economical concerned questions for future development should be:
     How long is it profitable for P.T. Veneer to log in that area?
     Does the company create diversified working possibilities, with diversified
        educational know-how?
     What is the origin of the majority of workforce?
     What will happen with the workers when the company leaves?
     Who is and can be hold responsible for the negative impact in the future, related to
        the logging of the unique forest?
     Might there be an alternative to create capital income, employment and a
        sustainable development for the region?
Agriculture seems to be very prosperous in the region. Soil is very fertile and the
minimum factor is water that is drained trough deep wells to the surface.
Cattle farming seem profitable. Wide-open plains, unpopulated land, offer a good
surrounding. Even here water is the minimum factor. If the forest vanishes most probably
the two sectors mentioned above will have difficulties and the development of any kind of
tourism will become unrealistic.


10.2 Eco-Tourism at Gunung Tambora
The eco-tourism product is a combination of resources, activities, and tourism services
that are sold and managed through professional tour operators. Eco-tourism seeks to
benefit local communities and meet conservation objectives in design, implementation,
and management. To ensure business sustainability the site must be actively marketed to
national and international tour operators and directly to the eco-tourists.
Eco-tourism is a highly specified branch of tourism. It is based on an intact nature with
the aim to make it partly accessible without ruining the ecosystem.
From this first survey in the two Kabupaten and the environmental data from BirdLife
International about Tambora and Satonda these two sites have the natural potential to
open it as an eco-tourism destination.
Essential for a successful eco-tourism development is a clear commitment from the
government to implement, control, guard and manage the national park effective and
efficiently.
There are three inter-related ways in which nature-based and eco-tourism can be
promoted by government actions. These are:
     The role of government in policy and program coordination, including revenue
        collection and retribution.
     The infrastructure and incentives which the government dedicates to eco-tourism;


                                                                                       35
      Planning and promotion between national and local level eco-tourism ventures.

Why is eco-tourism regarded as more effective and better as other tourism forms?
There are several reasons:
    Tries to save environment
    Concerned about its impact.
    Uses as many local products as possible (from building material over architecture
       to human resources)
    In the sector itself a wide variety of jobs are created (example: forest ranger –
       hotel manager – porter)
    Environmental impact on the other sectors
    Good future prospects because of worldwide recognition.


10.2.1 The Eco-tourists
One reason that sheds a positive light on this form of tourism is the tourist himself. The
demographics of eco-travellers bear relevant information. At present, most eco-tourists
come from the U.S., Europe, Canada, and Australia. As the populations of these nations
age and as a large number of people have more leisure time, there is a huge potential for
increased travel. They will have the leisure time and the money to enjoy eco-tourism
experiences. In general it can be assumed that eco-tourists are largely made up of
wealthier, better-educated and older travellers.
In the beginning, during the first years, younger travellers will be attracted, because most
of the facilities will not have the necessary standard. It depends on the commitment of all
stakeholders how quick the shift to the “older” and wealthier eco-tourists can be achieved.


10.2.2 The Attractions in the Region around Gunung Tambora
      The territory of the northern mountain forest which starts at an elevation of 480 m
       and leads trough different vegetation zones with interesting birds and wild life.
      The peak of the volcano with its spectacular views at 2826 m over sea level.
      The island Satonda with its sand beach, swimming and snorkelling possibilities
       and the “mysterious” and unique lake in the middle of the island.
      A waterfall called Oi Panihi (actually belonging to Kab. Bima).

8.   Criteria to Estimate the Attraction of Nature-based Tourism: Gunung
     Tambora and its Mountain Forest.

                    Naturally given                       Given      Not clear    No
      Natural Attraction
      Beauty and variety of the landscape                    X
      High Biodiversity*                                     X
      Big animals                                            X
      Other interesting animals                              X
      Easy access to animal watching*                                   X
      Interesting vegetation (i.e. rainforest)               X
      Endemic species or specific landscape                  X
      Untouched ecosystem                                               X
      Possibilities for swimming (Waterfall, Lake, Sea)      X


                                                                                         36
      Nature based sports (Rafting, diving, climbing,         X
      trekking)
      Pale ontological sites                                                             X
      Climate
      Comfortable Temperature and humidity                    X
      Dry season longer than 3 month*                         X

                            Further Criteria                Given     Not given       No
      Accessibility
      Distance to an Airport or other Tourism               5 h to    6,5 h to Hu’u   6,5 h to
                                                            Dompu                     airport
      infrastructure
      Duration and Comfort of the journey are in            Reasona   Reasonable      Reasona
                                                            ble                       ble
      correlation with its attractiveness
      Attractions in the surrounding
      Are there any other attractions on the island or in     X
      the surrounding!!
      Do these attraction differ from this attraction         X
      Can other sites be visited on the way to the site       X
      Cultural attractions
      Archeologically sites                                                              X
      Indigenous tribes                                                                  X
      Lodges and Food
      Existing adequate accommodation                                                    X
      Possibility to build an accommodation!!                 X
      Good fresh food!!                                                                  X
      Basics
      Safety of the tourist!!                                              X
      Basic Medical care                                                                 X
* Very important criteria
!! Minimum criteria
It is very important to estimate the potential of an eco-tourism site and see if it is
competitive (e.g. unique and able to attract visitors). In Tab. 8 there are several criteria
listed that should help to estimate the potential of a nature-site.


10.3 Tourism Development at the Slope of Gunung Tambora
This is just an example what initially must be done to guarantee a stable foundation for an
eco-tourism program. The more professional and reliable data is produced the more likely
private national and international investors will engage in a tourism development.

Presupposition:
To develop economically and ecologically sustainable tourism in the area the following
points must be guaranteed:
   1. The area around the volcano and the mountain forest must be declared as a
       national park.
   2. No logging of primary forest is permitted in the park, neither by companies nor by
       locals.
   3. Land right and tax system must be transparent and predictable.


                                                                                                 37
10.3.1 Recommendation
     1. A detailed eco-tourism master plan should analyse the area in detail. A Yayasan or
        foundation that is already involved in eco-tourism planning should be engaged.
        International assistance would help to focus on the right market. (Possible
        Yayasan is Indecon).

     Relevant issues:
                 Detailed analysis of the given natural attraction, future possible
                    activities, needed infrastructure. Gathering of all information about the
                    biodiversity of the forest.
                 Has the site enough potential to attract reasonable numbers of tourists
                    to diversify the economy in the region and contribute to government
                    income?
                 An economic research of the market and the proposed income after
                    implementation. (With possible joint ventures of national and
                    international Travel agencies)
                 What do the surrounding communities and NGO’s think of an eco-
                    tourism perspective (random)?
                 How can they be involved in the process?
                 What kind of accommodation and other infrastructure is required?
                 Which marked shall be attracted?
                 Which private investors are suitable for the development?
                 How can other sectors in the region contribute and what can they gain
                    from tourism?


11 Outlook and General Concerns
As outlined through out the text, present tourism in the two Kabupaten is still at the very
beginning. With the exception of tourists going to Lakey national and international
tourists fall into the category - transit tourists. There has never been an overall concept for
both of the Kabupaten to develop an attractive tourist destination.12 The rising of Lakey
beach, with today international recognition, is not the reward of long-term vision and
strategically planning. It was discovered by male surfers, was promoted in their sub-
culture, and will vanish when the surfers don’t come back.
With the decentralisation of Indonesian Provinces and Districts the local government and
their departments are given more power and possibilities to develop their Province or
District in a prosperous way. Therefore the present local governments want manage their
resources as effective and efficiently as possible. In this sense tourism has great potential
to contribute to the districts income. With long-term investment into human resources and
a bright concept of sustainable tourism it can develop to one of the most innovative and
driving economic sectors in the two Kabupaten. The problem, concerning tourism, the
decision makers is facing today lies beyond their direct power. It is the matter of national
security and safety.

12
  This fact, the lack of planning, implementing and guarding is almost true to all Indonesian destinations.
During the rule of “Ordre Baru” also the tourism development was a hierarchical top to bottom process,
with no influence of the lower levels.


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The beginning of the political, environmental and economic crisis in 1997 dramatically
changed the face of Indonesia booming tourism industry. Only recently some tour &
travel agencies are promoting some selected areas in Indonesia again. With ongoing riots,
demonstrations, killings and increasing theft rates it is unlikely that it will be a fast
recovery.
With the true will, to build a better Indonesia for the next generation, all political
institutions and civil society is asked to engage with all their possible efforts. With this
hope of re-establishing political-, economical stability and faith into governmental
institutions the time is right to restructure the tourism department. Restructuring the
department, a long and difficult process, will open new possibilities. The new tourism
department shall understand itself as a “creative and coordinating” department. That
means, it works closely together with other sectors, defines links and dependencies and
does concept planning. These plans, concepts and visions, all detailed and backed by
essential data is introduced to Bappeda to enable them designing more efficient and
effective regional plans for the future.




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