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					                                                                                     Final Report




Bicycle Use Master Plan (BUMP)
                                                         ES   INT


                                                                                         April 2001
                                                                    ER
                           Marshall
                                                                     NA
                                                                         T IO NA L




                           Macklin
                           Monaghan
   PROJECT MANAGERS • ENGINEERS • SURVEYORS • PLANNERS
                                                                                              Vol. 1
Table of Contents


                                                                                                                    4.   Strategy ........................................................................ 25
                                                                                                                         4.1 Cycling Network ................................. 25
                                                                                                                             Primary Network ................................. 27
                                                                                                                             Secondary Network ............................. 29
                    Executive Summary..............................................................i                         Windsor Loop and Trans Canada Trail
                                                                                                                             Connection........................................... 29
                    Acknowledgements .......................................................... vi                       4.2 Cycling Awareness .............................. 30
                                                                                                                         4.3 Cycling-Transit Link ........................... 35
                    1.     Introduction...................................................................1              4.4 End-of-Trip Facilities .......................... 37
                           1.1 Study Purpose........................................ 1                                       Bicycle Parking ................................... 37
                           1.2 Study Approach..................................... 2                                         Shower and Change Facilities ............. 42
                           1.3 BUMP Organization.............................. 3
                                                                                                                    5.   Toolbox ......................................................................... 43
                    2.     Context............................................................................. 4        5.1 Design Guidelines ............................... 43
                           2.1 North American Cycling Perspective.... 4                                                      Types of Cyclists ................................. 43
                               Recreation, Health and Fitness Benefits 5                                                     Bicycle Characteristics and Design
                               Transportation Efficiency Benefits ....... 6                                                  Criteria................................................. 45
                               Environmental Benefits......................... 7                                             Alignment Elements ............................ 50
                               Economic Benefits ................................ 7                                          Bikeway Design................................... 53
                           2.2 The Windsor Experience....................... 9                                               Intersection Treatments ....................... 60
                               Previous Municipal Initiatives............... 9                                               Illumination ......................................... 65
                               BUMP Initiatives................................. 12                                          Support Facilities................................. 67
                                                                                                                             Bollards and Offset Gates.................... 70
                    3.     Direction .......................................................................22               Stairways with Side Ramps ................. 71
                           3.1 Cycling Vision..................................... 22                                        On-Road Traffic Control ..................... 72
                           3.2 Cycling Principles ............................... 22                                         Curbs.................................................... 74
                               Cycling Routes .................................... 22                                    5.2 Site Specific Applications ................... 75
                               Cycling Network Design ..................... 23
                               Cycling Awareness.............................. 24
                           3.3 Cycling Goals...................................... 24
Table of Contents


                    6.     Implementation.........................................................77
                           6.1 Implementation Strategy ..................... 77                                 List of Figures
                           6.2 Administrative Structure ..................... 78                                                                      On or Following
                           6.3 Funding................................................ 82                                                                               Page
                               BUMP Capital Investment .................. 82                                    4.1   Route Evaluation Matrix ..................... 28
                               BUMP Operations Funding................. 84                                      5.1   Howard Avenue Multi-Use Trail
                               BUMP Implementation Costs ............. 87                                             (Devonshire Mall Area ........................ 75
                           6.4 Monitoring........................................... 90                         5.2   Memorial Drive Multi-Use Trail
                                                                                                                      Connection at Walker Road................. 75
                    7.     Recommendations ................................................ 92                  5.3   Huron Church Road / E.C. Row
                                                                                                                      Expressway Underpass ........................ 75
                    8.     Glossary .......................................................................96   5.4   Intersection of Cabana Road and
                                                                                                                      Dougall Avenue................................... 75
                    Bibliography........................................................................99      5.5   Howard Avenue / Ypres Boulevard
                                                                                                                      Connection........................................... 75
                                                                                                                5.6   Walker Road / E.C. Row Expressway
                                                                                                                      Underpass ............................................ 75

                    List of Maps                                                                                List of Tables
                                                                   On or Following                                                                      On or Following
                                                                                      Page                                                                                Page
                    Map 1          Existing Cycling Network ................... 10                              5.1   Minimum Stopping Sight Distances for
                    Map 2          Major Barriers ..................................... 12                            Bicycles ............................................... 49
                    Map 3          Candidate Routes................................. 26                         5.2   Minimum Radii for Paved Bikeways .. 50
                    Map 4          Recommended Cycling Network                                                  5.3   Widening of the Riding Curve Surface
                                   (Completed)......................................... 27                            on Curves............................................. 51
                    Map 5          Recommended Primary Cycling                                                  5.4   Vertical Curve Lengths........................ 51
                                   Network............................................... 27                    5.5   Sag Vertical Curves for Bicycles......... 52
                    Map 6          Recommended Secondary Cycling                                                5.6   Extra Bikeway Width Required on
                                   Network............................................... 29                          Grades.................................................. 53
                    Map 7          The Windsor Loop and Trans Canada                                            5.7   Typical Cross Slopes ........................... 53
                                   Trail Connection.................................. 29                        5.8   Bikeway Illumination Levels............... 68
Table of Contents


                    Appendices
                       A BUMP and BUDS Recommendation
                          Comparison
                       B BUMP Implementation Schedule
                       C Unit Price Schedule

                    Technical Appendix (Volume 2)
                       1 Written Submissions
                       2 BUMP Contact List
                       3 Public Events
                       4 News Articles
                       5 Newsletters
                       6 Candidate Route Evaluation Field Notes
                       7 Correspondence
                       8 Steering Committee / Liaison Committee
                          Meeting Agendas & Minutes
                       9 User Survey
                       10 Public Attitude Survey, Decima
Executive Summary                                                                                                                                                i


                                                                             The recommendations of the BUMP are to:

                                                                             Cycling Network [Page 25]


                     T   he Bicycle Use Master Plan (BUMP) is a
                         statement of the City of Windsor’s
                     commitment to develop a visible and connected
                                                                             1. Complete those sections of the Primary
                                                                                Network identified on Map 5 as achievable
                                                                                within five years.
                     cycling network that is easily accessible, safe and
                     actively used by all types of cyclists.                 2. Complete those sections of the Secondary
                                                                                Network identified on Map 6 as achievable
                     The City’s commitment to cycling was formally              within five years.
                     expressed in 1991 with the adoption of the Bicycle
                     Use Development Study (BUDS). The resulting             3. Complete those sections of the Primary
“Residents have
                     construction of a 40+ kilometre off-road trail             Network identified on Map 5 as achievable in
clearly expressed
                     system has created an increasing demand for city-          the longer term (years 5 through 20).
their desire for a
                     wide cycling facilities.
comprehensive
cycling network
                     The expansion of Windsor’s cycling network
that connects all                                                                                                                             Windsor’s cycling
                     required a fresh look at the role of the bicycle as a
neighbourhoods                                                                                                                                vision is a visible
                     means of transportation, as well as roadway
throughout                                                                                                                                    and connected
                     design, promotion and education issues. Through
Windsor.”                                                                                                                                     cycling network
                     the BUMP process, due consideration was given
                     to recreation and cycling trends, previous                                                                               that is easily
                     municipal initiatives, community and                                                                                     accessible, safe and
                     neighbourhood desires, as well as best practices.                                                                        actively used by all
                                                                                                                                              types of cyclists.
                     As a 20-year guide, this Plan establishes a vision,
                     guiding principles and goals for cycling in
                     Windsor. A cycling network and design guidelines
                     are presented along with specific strategies for
                     improving cycling awareness, the cycling-transit
                     link and end-of-trip facilities.                        Photo: Participants on one of the BUMP cycling tours along the
                                                                             Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario.
Executive Summary                                                                                                       ii


                4. Complete those sections of the Secondary         13. Work with the Ministry of Transportation to
                   Network identified on Map 6 as achievable in         develop and implement bicycle safety
                   the longer term (years 5 through 20).                strategies.
                                                                    14. Encourage the “share the road” bumper sticker
                5. Establish a full time Cycling Coordinator
                                                                        campaign being conducted by the Windsor
                   position in the Traffic Engineering
                                                                        Bicycling Committee to continue.
                   Department. The primary responsibility of
                   this individual is to implement the BUMP.
                                                                    15. Lead through example by:
                6. Add the appropriate criteria to the Strategic       •   improving cycling access to City Hall
                   Roadway Improvement Program (STRIP) and                 through the provision of additional secure
                   Roadway Improvement Management System                   bicycle parking facilities plus shower and
                   (RIMS) to include Primary Network                       change facilities;
                   connections.
                                                                       •   providing cycling skills programs such as
                7. Continue to develop other off-road trails               CAN-BIKE through Parks & Recreation
                   through parks that were not identified in the           programs;
                   BUMP.                                               •   creating an incentive program for
                                                                           employees who cycle to work;
                8. Construct every road as a bicycle friendly
                   roadway.                                            •   compensating employees who choose to
                                                                           use their own bicycles for City business,
                9. Commit annual funds to the implementation of            just as it compensates employees who
                   the BUMP.                                               drive their motor vehicles for City
                                                                           business;
                Cycling Awareness [Page 30]
                                                                       •   making CAN-BIKE training courses
                10. Develop safe cycling skills in children.               available to City staff on staff time, to
                                                                           minimize the risk associated with using a
                11. Teach adult cyclists their rights and                  bicycle during the workday and to enhance
                    responsibilities.                                      the cycling skills necessary to commute
                                                                           safely by bicycle;
                12. Teach motorists how to more effectively share
                    the road with cyclists.
Executive Summary                                                                                                            iii


                    •   continue to encourage special events such        •   developing partnerships with businesses to
                        as Bike-to-Work Week; and                            sponsor the installation of bicycle parking
                                                                             facilities;
                    •   promoting cycling tourism by continuing
                        to provide route mapping information such        •   funding, on an annual basis, a post-and-
                        as the Trails and Facilities Map both in             ring (or similar) bicycle parking program
                        print and potentially on a website.                  to provide facilities in areas where there is
                                                                             an identified demand;
                Cycling-Transit Link [Page 34]
                                                                         •   adopting the bicycle parking location
                16. Improve bicycle routes to transit centres.               guidelines described in the BUMP;
                                                                         •   actively encouraging innovative bicycle
                17. Increase bicycle parking at transit centres.             parking facility designs, such as covered
                                                                             bicycle sheds in existing motor vehicle
                18. Work with Transit Windsor to expand the                  parking spaces; and
                    provision of bicycle racks mounted to Transit
                    Windsor buses.                                       •   working with community cycling
                                                                             associations to create permanent
                19. Promote the use of cycling and transit.                  relationships for the provision of
                                                                             temporary, long-term bicycle parking at
                End-of-Trip Facilities [Page 37]                             special events.

                20. Conduct a Bicycle Parking Inventory.              22. Work with private businesses to promote
                                                                          bicycle commuting.
                21. Increase the amount and quality of bicycle
                    parking facilities by:                            23. Create bonus provisions in Windsor’s
                                                                          planning policies to encourage developers to
                    •   proactively installing short and long-term
                                                                          provide showers, change space and bicycle
                        bicycle parking in the public right-of-way;
                                                                          parking above the minimum requirements.
                    •   promoting commuter cycling to the
                        University of Windsor, St. Clair College,
                        plus secondary and elementary schools,
                        and assist these institutions in the
                        purchasing and siting of bicycle parking;
Executive Summary                                                                                                                iv


                In order to effectively implement the BUMP, it is         29. That the City adopt a cycling network
                recommended:                                                  implementation process similar to that
                                                                              outlined in Figure 6.1.
                Implementation Strategy [Page 77]
                                                                          Funding [Page 82]
                24. That Council adopt the BUMP, thereby
                    committing the City of Windsor to the                 30. That the Traffic Engineering Department and
                    implementation of its recommendations.                    the Cycling Coordinator prioritize individual
                                                                              bikeway projects on an annual basis. The
                25. That the City of Windsor commit annual                    results of this exercise should be documented
                    funding to:                                               in a report to Council outlining the progress in
                    •   initiate the cycling awareness, cycling-              implementing the BUMP, and the plan for
                        transit and end-of-trip recommendations as            both network development and programming
                        identified in Chapter 4; and                          for the upcoming year.

                    •   construct the cycling network generally in        31. That staff review the costing of each route at
                        keeping with the phasing illustrated on               the appropriate time through a more detailed
                        Maps 5 and 6.                                         planning and design exercise in keeping with
                                                                              the process identified in Figure 6.1.
                26. That the City, during road resurfacing or
                    rehabilitation projects, consider the BUMP            32. That the City commit, as a minimum, annual
                    recommendations prior to proceeding.                      funding in the order of $200,000 for BUMP
                                                                              management and cycling awareness
                Administrative Structure [Page 78]                            initiatives. This would include the annual
                                                                              salary of the Cycling Coordinator, seasonal
                27. That the City of Windsor establish the position           contract staff, network promotion, special
                    of Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic                     event costs, and partial costs associated with
                    Engineering Department to oversee cycling                 the preparation of safety and education
                    related issues and to coordinate                          materials.
                    implementation of the BUMP.
                                                                          33. That the responsibility for pavement surface
                28. That the Windsor Bicycling Committee continue             maintenance for on-road cycling network
                    in its current role, and assist staff in confirming       facilities be assigned to the City’s Road
                    priorities for implementation of the BUMP.
Executive Summary                                                                                                          v


                    Operations Division of the Public Works         Monitoring [Page 90]
                    Department.
                                                                    41. That the City, through the Traffic Engineering
                34. That the responsibility for off-road bikeway        Department, establish a cycling data collection
                    facilities outside the road rights-of-way be        program.
                    assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation
                    Department and include surface maintenance      42. That Transportation Engineering, through the
                    and snow/debris removal.                            Bicycle Coordinator, report annually to
                                                                        Council and the Windsor Bicycling
                35. That maintenance of on-road and off-road            Committee on the BUMP implementation
                    bikeway pavement markings and signage be            progress and priorities for the upcoming year.
                    the responsibility of the Traffic Engineering
                    Department.                                     To implement these recommendations, an
                                                                    implementation strategy is provided at the
                36. That the City of Windsor budget $10,000 a       conclusion of the report. This strategy brings
                    year for the next 20 years to develop and       together the short and long term actions required
                    implement a bicycle parking program.            to achieve the cycling vision with the
                                                                    administrative structure, funding mechanisms and
                37. That the responsibility for developing and      monitoring elements necessary for success.
                    managing this program be assigned to the
                                                                    It should be noted that the BUMP is not intended
                    City’s new Cycling Coordinator.                 to be a static document. The timing and details
                                                                    related to implementation of the BUMP,
                38. That the City investigate costs and suppliers   particularly the location of recommended routes
                    for post-and-ring stands.                       and bikeway types, can and should evolve through
                                                                    community consultation and detailed technical
                39. That the City commit annual funding to          studies as appropriate. At the same time,
                    implement BUMP over 20 years.                   however, the extensive community effort that
                                                                    established the overall direction for this Plan must
                40. That the City investigate public and private    be respected. Therefore, specific changes to
                    sector funding programs to assist in            routing alignments, facility types, awareness
                    implementing the BUMP.                          initiatives and implementation priorities should be
                                                                    evaluated in the context of such a decision’s
                                                                    impact upon the community’s desire to achieve
                                                                    the cycling vision.
1   Introduction                                                                                                                                  1


                                                                              BUDS and focus municipal efforts on developing
                                                                              the on-street facilities. This was to be done by
                                                                              filling in the gaps in the existing recreationway
                                                                              network, and improving connections to, from and
                                                                              between existing cycling facilities.


                     T   he City of Windsor has been actively
                         developing a cycling and multi-use recreation
                     network since 1991 with the adoption of the
                                                                              1.1       Study Purpose

                                                                              The purpose of the Bicycle Use Master Plan
                     Bicycle Use Development Study (BUDS). The                (BUMP) is to guide the development of a
                     completion of a comprehensive cycling network is         comprehensive cycling network for Windsor that
                     viewed as integral to Windsor’s vision for a             will make it the pre-eminent city for cycling in
                     balanced transportation system.                          North America. As such, the Plan emphasizes
                                                                              integrating, enhancing and expanding Windsor’s
                     Windsor’s existing 40+ kilometre off-road trail          existing on and off-road cycling network,
                     system has become the envy of many North                 facilitating the use of bicycles for commuting,
“Windsor’s           American cities. The challenge for the City over         leisure and tourism, and providing a genuine
existing 40+         the next 20 years is to integrate this multi-use trail   transportation alternative to the use of motor
kilometre off-road   system with an on-road cycling network. As               vehicles.
trail system has     stated in the Windsor Area Long Range
become the envy      Transportation Study (WALTS):
of many North                                                                                                                     The BUMP is
                          “…emphasis should now be on                                                                             intended to build
American cities.”        continuing to implement the [BUDS]                                                                       on the success of
                         through the interconnection of planned on-                                                               the Bicycle Use
                         road primary Bikeways with the                                                                           Development Study
                         established Recreationway trails.”                                                                       (BUDS) and the
                                                                                                                                  existing trail
                     To address this challenge, the City of Windsor                                                               network.
                     retained the consulting team of Marshall Macklin
                     Monaghan Limited, ESG International, Stantec
                     Consulting and Paradigm Transportation Solutions
                     Limited. Their assignment was to update the              Photo: Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario
1   Introduction                                                                                                                                                 2


                      1.2    Study Approach
                                                                                                                                              The public was
                      The BUMP was developed through the following                                                                            actively involved in
                      five phase process:                                                                                                     the BUMP study
                                                                                                                                              through various
                      1. Assessing the Existing Conditions - involved
                                                                                                                                              activities such as
                         identifying and assessing the existing cycling
                                                                                                                                              public meetings.
                         network, resident and cyclist opinions, and
                         corridor opportunities and constraints.

                      2. Developing the Cycling Network - involved
“The purpose of          establishing a vision and principles for the
the Bicycle Use          BUMP, and the identification of candidate          Photo: BUMP Public Meeting #2 at Malden Park – Windsor, Ontario

Master Plan              cycling routes.
(BUMP) is to guide                                                          the public in the study. Key public consultation
                      3. Developing the Cycling Network Plan and
the development of                                                          activities included:
                         Implementation Strategy - involved evaluating
a comprehensive
                         all candidate cycling routes, determining a
cycling network for                                                                cycling tours on May 2 and 3, 2000;
Windsor that will        preferred cycling network and route
                         classifications, as well as developing potential
make it the pre-                                                                   public open houses on May 3, 2000, July 13,
                         design solutions for challenging areas.
eminent city for                                                                   2000 and November 22, 2000;
cycling in North
                      4. Identifying Proposed Policies, Programs,
America.”                                                                          a Bicycle User Survey, conducted in the
                         Liability Issues and Funding Sources -
                                                                                   field, circulated at public events and posted
                         involved researching and evaluating cycling
                                                                                   on the BUMP website;
                         strategies appropriate for the Windsor context.
                                                                                   a statistically valid Public Attitude
                      5. Reporting - involved preparing and adopting
                                                                                   Telephone Survey of a random sample of
                         the BUMP.
                                                                                   Windsor area residents;
                      Public consultation activities were recognized as a
                                                                                   a dedicated Webpage that provided updates
                      key element in the BUMP study. Every effort was
                                                                                   of the study as it progressed;
                      made to involve stakeholders and members of
1    Introduction                                                                                                                                                  3


                           opportunities for residents to submit their      expressed their desire for a comprehensive cycling
                           comments; and                                    network that connects neighbourhoods throughout
                                                                            Windsor. Therefore, while on-going monitoring
                           a series of Monthly Newsletters.                 and adjustments will be required, the focus of
                                                                            implementing the BUMP should be on achieving
                     1.3     BUMP Organization                              the cycling vision.

                     The Bicycle Use Master Plan (BUMP) sets forth a
                     vision, network and strategy to further enhance
“Residents have      and develop Windsor’s cycling network. It builds
clearly expressed    on the success of the City’s efforts to date, and is
their desire for a   organized as follows: Introduction, Context,
comprehensive        Direction, Strategy, Toolbox, Implementation and
cycling network      Recommendations. A Glossary, Bibliography and
that connects        Appendices are also provided at the end of the
neighbourhoods       report and a separate Technical Appendix                                                                                    The BUMP study
throughout           documents other aspects of the study process.                                                                               provides direction
Windsor.”                                                                                                                                        for establishing on-
                     The BUMP is not intended to be a static                                                                                     road cycling
                     document. As the network is developed and the                                                                               connections
                     urban fabric evolves, the routing and priorities                                                                            through the
                     identified in this Plan may change. Similarly, as                                                                           provision of
                     new technologies and design options emerge, they                                                                            facilities such as
                     will have to be considered.                                                                                                 bike lanes.

                     The timing and details related to implementing the
                     BUMP, particularly the location of recommended
                     routes and bikeway types, can and should evolve
                     through community consultation and detailed
                     technical studies as appropriate. At the same time,
                     however, the extensive community effort that           Photo: Example of on-road bike lanes, St. George Street – Toronto,
                     established the overall direction of this Plan         Ontario
                     should be respected. Residents have clearly
2   Context                                                                                                                                           4


                                                                          The demand for cycling and walking facilities is
                                                                          high in communities across Ontario.
                                                                          Municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area, as
                                                                          well as Ottawa, London, Kitchener-Waterloo,
                                                                          Milton and Brampton, to name a few, are actively
                                                                          developing networks to encourage cycling and

                    C
                          ycling has evolved to become a practical,       walking, and to lower reliance on the personal
                          cost effective, environmentally sensitive       automobile. At the provincial level, the Ontario
                          and healthy mode of transportation for both     Trails Council is promoting the integration of
                    recreation and utilitarian purposes across North      community and regional trail systems into a
                    America. It is recognized as an integral and          province-wide system to be known as the Ontario
                    necessary part of a city’s transportation system in   Trillium Trails Network. At the same time, the
                    addition to being a viable alternative to             Trans Canada Trail Foundation opened the Trans
                    automobile use.                                       Canada Trail on September 9, 2000.
                    The following provides a context for the growth
                    and trends in cycling from a North American
“Across Ontario,    perspective and describes Windsor’s experience.
recreational
cycling is          2.1     North American Cycling Perspective
recognized as one                                                                                                                  “The demand for
of the top three                                                                                                                   cycling and
                    Across Ontario, recreational cycling is recognized
recreational                                                                                                                       walking facilities is
                    as one of the top three recreational pursuits,
pursuits…”                                                                                                                         high in
                    having a 20% participation rate and an estimated
                                                                                                                                   communities
                    annual growth rate of 2.3% (Ministry of
                                                                                                                                   across Ontario.”
                    Citizenship, Culture and Recreation, 1998). In the
                    City of Toronto, approximately 20% of the city’s
                    population cycle for utilitarian purposes, for
                    example to get to work, school, shopping and
                    running errands, while 44% of the population
                    cycle for recreational purposes, including leisure
                    and fitness pursuits (Decima Research Inc., 1999).
                                                                                   Photo: Riverfront Trail entrance at Riverside
                                                                                   Drive and Lincoln Road – Windsor, Ontario
2    Context                                                                                                                                            5


                        According to David Foot, author of Boom, Bust &         Recreation, Health and Fitness Benefits
                        Echo, and his American counterparts, significant
                        changes are occurring in recreation as a result of      Cycling and walking enhance fitness and provide
                        demography. In short, a large proportion of our         an enjoyable, convenient and affordable means of
                        population is ageing and looking for different          exercise and recreation. The most effective fitness
                        types of recreational opportunities than were           routines are moderate in intensity, individualized,
                        typical in the past. The following general trends       and incorporated into our daily activities. Cycling
                        have been observed, all of which have                   and walking can both accomplish this, and at the
                        implications for cycling network development:           same time provide mobility.
“Cycling and
walking can
                             there is a renewed interest in spending
enhance one’s
                             “quality time” with family and friends,
mental outlook and                                                                                                                    Trails that pass
                             while pursuing high quality recreational
well being, improve                                                                                                                   though a variety of
                             experiences;
self-image, social                                                                                                                    neighbourhoods
relationships and            staying healthy through active recreational                                                              help to unite the
increase self-               pursuits is viewed as important;                                                                         community.
reliance by
instilling a sense of        there is a strong interest in tourism and
independence and             recreational activities that respect the natural
freedom.”                    and cultural environments, and also offer
                             educational opportunities; and                     Photo: Ganatchio Trail – Windsor, Ontario


                             there is a pervasive interest in getaway travel    In Ottawa, two-thirds of 1700 commuter cyclists
                             where the goal is to obtain a high quality         surveyed in 1991 ranked health and fitness as the
                             recreational experience at a reasonable cost.      primary reason for cycling to work.

                        The promotion of cycling has significant                Cycling and walking can enhance one’s mental
                        individual, societal, environmental and economic        outlook and sense of well being, improve self-
                        benefits.                                               image, social relationships and increase self-
                                                                                reliance by instilling a sense of independence and
                                                                                freedom.
2   Context                                                                                                                                               6


                     Trails that pass though a variety of                 Transportation Efficiency Benefits
                     neighbourhoods help to unite communities. They
                     act as meeting places, and provide for informal      Cycling and walking are a means of transportation
                     interaction between people from a variety of         that are efficient, affordable and accessible. For
                     backgrounds.                                         distances up to 10 km in downtown areas, cycling
                                                                          is the fastest of all modes from door to door. The
                     Trail projects (construction, operation,             National Bicycle and Walking Study: Final Report
                     maintenance and promotion) can help to foster        (1994) noted that in U.S. cities, 25% of all trips
“In Edmonton, a      partnerships among individuals, government, local    are 1.5 km or less, and over two-thirds are 8 km or
survey of 2,400      business and various interest groups. There are      less. In the U.S., 20% of all cycling trips involve
cyclists in 1989     many examples of successful private and public-      travel to and from work. This demonstrates the
showed that 75%      sector partnerships that have emerged as a result    potential for increasing the number of cycling
of the reported      of the development of trails across the country,     trips.
bicycle trips were   such as the Chrysler Greenway through Essex
for reasons other    County.
                                                                                                                                         Cycling is
than recreation.                                                                                                                         becoming a mode
Almost 20% of        The focus of our health system is shifting from
                     protecting people from hazards in the environment                                                                   of choice for
the cyclists                                                                                                                             commuting and
surveyed rode all    to developing healthy environments in which
                     people live. Evidence suggests that improved                                                                        utilitarian
year round,                                                                                                                              purposes as an
indicating that      cycling and walking facilities lead to higher
                     participation rates. Increased physical activity                                                                    alternative to the
winter cycling is                                                                                                                        automobile.
viable.”             such as walking, cycling and other trail related
                     actives could help to reduce the risk of coronary
                     heart disease. A more active population can, in
                     turn, reduce the cost of medical care, decrease
                                                                          Photo: Typical bike lane pavement marking – Toronto, Ontario
                     workplace absenteeism and help to maintain the
                     independence of older adults, thereby reducing the
                     cost of institutional care.                          In Edmonton, a survey of 2400 cyclists in 1989
                                                                          showed that 75% of the reported bicycle trips
                     Encouraging people to cycle and walk can reduce      were for reasons other than recreation. Almost
                     urban and suburban dependence on the                 20% of the cyclists surveyed rode all year round,
                     automobile, a target in healthy cities.              indicating that winter cycling is viable.
2    Context                                                                                                                                          7


                       Road improvements to increase the safety of           up fewer resources in their production,
                       cyclists can and should enhance the safety of other   maintenance and storage than motor vehicles,
                       road users. For example, the U.S. Federal             thereby reducing the demand on materials and
                       Highway Administration reports that paved             energy resources. Encouraging bicycle use and
                       shoulders on two-lane, rural roads have been          reducing the dependence on the automobile is also
                       shown to reduce run-off-the-road, head-on and         consistent with current Provincial Policy
                       sideswipe collisions by 30% to 40%. In addition,      initiatives regarding “Smart Growth”.
                       several municipalities have found that paved
                       shoulders reduce maintenance costs related to         Economic Benefits
Trail systems can      shoulder deterioration, grading and snow plowing.
have varied levels                                                           Following significant investment in bicycle
of tourist             Two major surveys conducted in the U.S., one in       facilities, cities in industrialized countries have
attraction. They       1994 (Richelieu Valley Tourism) and one in 1997       experienced dramatic increases in the level of
can be travel          (Survey of Delaware Bicyclists) showed that 99%       cycling. For example, Copenhagen experienced a
destinations in        of all respondents said they cycled for recreation,   cycling increase of 50% in five years, while both
themselves,            fitness and health, 65% to 90% used their bicycle     Eugene, Oregon and Toronto experienced an
encourage visitors     for touring and vacationing, and 40% to 50%           increase of 75% (New York City Bicycle Master
to extend their stay   cycled for basic transportation purposes. Many        Plan, 1997).
in the area or         who have had a positive recreational cycling
enhance business       experience try cycling for utilitarian purposes.
and pleasure
visits.                Environmental Benefits
                                                                                                                                   There is ample
                       Cycling and walking are energy-efficient, non-                                                              evidence that trails
                       polluting modes of travel. Short distance, motor-                                                           can provide a
                       vehicle trips are the least fuel-efficient, and                                                             tourist draw to a
                       generate the most pollution per kilometre. These                                                            community.
                       trips have the greatest potential to be replaced by
                       cycling and walking trips as well as integrated
                       walking-cycling-transit trips. Shifting to these
                       modes can reduce ozone depletion, the greenhouse
                       effect, ground-level air pollution, photochemical     Photo: Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario

                       smog, acid rain and noise pollution. Bicycles take
2   Context                                                                                                                        8


                     There is ample evidence that trails provide                  group, spent $17 per day camping or $50 per
                     significant economic benefits for adjacent                   day staying in motels. Cyclists travelling
                     landowners and local businesses. Trails provide              alone spent an average of $22 per day
                     benefits to the local economy during both                    camping or $60 per day staying in motels;
                     construction and operation. Trail construction               and
                     results in direct benefits such as jobs, including
                     the supply and installation of materials.                   in Ontario, the Eastern Ontario Trails
                     Following construction, benefits emerge in the              Alliance estimated that at the end of a ten
                     form of expenditures by trail users. A few                  year build-out period, 320 kilometres of
                     examples include:                                           their system, constructed at a cost of $5.4
                                                                                 million will generate approximately $36
                           trails in New Brunswick employ around                 million in annual economic benefits in the
                           1500 people for an average of six months              communities through which it passes, and
“The Ontario               per year;                                             create or sustain over 1100 jobs.
Ministry of
Transportation            70% of trail users of the Bruce Trail cite the    Trail systems can have varied levels of attraction
reported that             trail as the main reason for visiting the area,   for tourists. They can be travel destinations in
touring cyclists          and they spend an average of about $20.00         themselves, encouraging visitors to extend their
spend an average          per user, per visit, within a 10 kilometre        stay in the area or enhancing business and
of $130 per day in        corridor on either side of the trail;             pleasure visits. By increasing the “level of tourist
Ontario, and the                                                            draw”, travellers can be expected to stay longer,
bicycle retail and        the San Antonio Riverwalk is considered the       resulting in an additional night's lodging and
tourist industry          anchor of the tourism industry in San             meals, a major direct new benefit to local
contributes a             Antonio, Texas and contributes $1.2 billion       businesses.
minimum of $150           annually into the local economy;
million a year to                                                           A 1997 survey of Canadian tourists active in the
the Ontario               in 1988, users of the Elroy-Sparta Trail in       outdoors showed that 30% of Ontario tourists
economy.”                 Wisconsin averaged expenditures of $25.14         cycled on at least one occasion while on vacation.
                          U.S. per day for trip-related expenses (over      The Ontario Ministry of Transportation reported
                          $1.2 million annually);                           that touring cyclists spend an average of $130 per
                                                                            day in Ontario, and the bicycle retail and tourist
                          more than 600,000 Americans took a bicycle        industry contributes a minimum of $150 million a
                          vacation in 1985, and when travelling in a        year to the Ontario economy. Bed and breakfast
2   Context                                                                                                                                                        9


                     operators between Ottawa and Kingston report          90 percent of respondents as being supportive of
                     that the majority of their business is from touring   the development of a network of linear parks and
                     cyclists. Cyclists in Vermont spend an average of     trails throughout Windsor for cycling, walking,
                     $180 US per day, the same amount expected of          running and skiing. Responding to this public
                     someone travelling by car.                            interest and enthusiasm, the City, with the
                                                                           assistance of a consulting team, followed up with
                     Bicycle manufacture, sales and repairs, as well as    the Bicycle Use Development Study (BUDS),
                     bicycle tourism, recreation and delivery services     which was adopted by Council in 1991.
                     contribute to the economy with little to no public
                     investment or subsidy. The Worldwatch Institute
                     reported in 1987 that 1.2 million bicycles were
                                                                                                                                                  Through the
                     produced in Canada compared to 0.8 million
                                                                                                                                                  BUMP process,
                     automobiles. The small size of the bicycle results
                                                                                                                                                  residents were able
                     in infrastructure costs for bikeways and bicycle
                                                                                                                                                  to express their
                     parking that are 10 to 20 times less than for the
                                                                                                                                                  opinions on the
                     same quantity of automobiles.
                                                                                                                                                  direction for
“Windsor                                                                                                                                          cycling in Windsor.
residents clearly    2.2     The Windsor Experience
expressed their
desire to complete   The following provides a brief overview of
the                  various municipal initiatives that have identified
implementation of    the demand for cycling facilities within Windsor      Photo: BUMP Public Meeting #1 at the Main Library – Windsor, Ontario

the cycling          and assisted in the development of the existing
                     off-road trail system. Information and trends         In summary, the BUDS was based on the four E’s
network through                                                            for improving cycling – engineering, education,
the extensive        specific to Windsor identified through the BUMP
                     study process are also reviewed.                      enforcement and encouragement. Some of the
public                                                                     major recommendations of the BUDS included:
consultation
forums associated    Previous Municipal Initiatives
                                                                                   creating opportunities for new cyclists to
with the                                                                           have a positive first cycling experience;
                     Residents of Windsor have long expressed the
community
                     desire for an interconnected cycling network for
strategic plan.”                                                                   actively promoting municipal programs,
                     both recreation and utilitarian purposes. In 1989,
                     the Culture and Recreation Master Plan identified             events and the benefits of cycling;
2   Context                                                                                                                                     10


                            supporting all forms of recreational and              the Walker Homesite and Devonwood Trail
                            utilitarian cycling;                                  through the Devonshire Planning District;
                                                                                  and
                           promoting the implementation of high
                           standard and highly visible facilities for             the Southwood Lakes Trail in the Roseland
                           cycling use; and                                       Planning District.

                           mapping a proposed cycling and recreation       Through the planning approval process, lands
                           network.                                        have also been reserved for bikeways and
                                                                           recreationways in East Riverside, Devonshire
“The Windsor Area     The BUDS laid the foundation for the 40+ km of       Heights, North Roseland, South Cameron and
Long Range            cycling and multi-use trails that exist in Windsor   along the Lauzon Parkway in accordance with the
Transportation        today that are illustrated on Map 1. This network    BUDS. In addition, several Environmental Study
Study and Official    includes:                                            Reports (ESR’s) have begun to implement the
Plan processes                                                             proposed BUDS network such as the bikeway
further confirmed          the College Avenue and West                     under construction on the west side of the Lauzon
the public’s desire        Recreationway through west and south            Parkway from Matthew Brady Boulevard to
to complete the            Windsor;                                        Tecumseh Road, and the identification of a
cycling network for                                                        preferred east-west bikeway connection between
both recreational          the Ambassador/Assumption/Centennial            Memorial Park and Jackson Park.
pursuits and as a          Recreationway along the Detroit River;
means of
                           the Roseville Garden Park Trail in the Forest
supporting the
                           Glade Planning District;
development of a                                                                                                               The Riverfront
balanced                                                                                                                       Trail was a result
                           the Little River Corridor and Ganatachio
transportation                                                                                                                 of the direction
                           Trails through the Riverside and East
system.”                                                                                                                       established by the
                           Riverside Planning Districts;
                                                                                                                               Bicycle Use
                           on-road bicycle routes along Raymond and                                                            Development
                           Edgar Avenues;                                                                                      Study.



                                                                           Photo: Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario
2   Context                                                                                                                                  11


                     The community’s continued support of cycling        The WALTS and Official Plan (OP) processes
                     network development was affirmed through the        completed in 1999 further confirmed the public’s
                     1996 Community Strategic Plan (CSP) process.        desire to complete the cycling network for both
                     The CSP provides an overall guide for all           recreational pursuits and as a means of supporting
                     municipal initiatives. The plan established a       the development of a balanced transportation
                     community vision, municipal mission statement       system.
                     and several strategic themes and objectives.
                                                                         WALTS established a 20-year transportation
                     Residents clearly expressed their desire to         master plan for Windsor. Its goal was to create a
                     complete the implementation of the cycling          transportation system that balances the use of
                     network through the extensive public consultation   private automobiles, public transit, walking and
                     forums associated with the CSP. This resulted in    cycling.
                     the following cycling supportive statements being
                     included in the document:                           WALTS supported the development of a cycling
                                                                         and recreationway network, in addition to placing
                          develop an “adopt a” program for parks,        an emphasis on completing the on-road sections of
“Central to the           natural areas, sections of waterfront,         the network.
BUMP study was            bikeways, etc.;
the need to
determine from            develop an improved signage system to
stakeholders and          educate the public about trails and the                                                             “The City’s new
Windsor residents         natural environment;                                                                                Official Plan
the type and form
                                                                                                                              supports the
of cycling network        implement the Bikeway Plan;
                                                                                                                              development of
they wanted.”
                                                                                                                              recreational and
                          provide transportation systems that enhance
                                                                                                                              commuter cycling
                          physical mobility and better serve the
                                                                                                                              facilities.”
                          economic and social needs of the
                          community; and

                          develop an overall urban transportation
                          system plan for Windsor.
                                                                               Photo: City of Windsor Official Plan, 2000
2   Context                                                                                                                        12


                      The OP established a 20-year planning framework       they wanted. Through the process of developing
                      to manage the physical growth and development         Windsor’s BUMP, information was collected and
                      of Windsor. The plan was aimed at strengthening       analyzed related to cycling barriers, issues and
                      the City through its neighbourhoods. Key to this      opportunities. This information was obtained
                      strategy is improving the character of, and           through a number of mechanisms including
                      connections within and between, neighbourhoods.       cycling tours, public open houses, meetings with
                                                                            stakeholders, user and public attitude surveys,
                      Cycling policies in the OP relate to:                 written and verbal input provided by the public,
                                                                            plus the knowledge and experience of the Steering
                           the identification of a cycling and recreation   Committee and consulting team. The key findings
                           network;                                         of this review are summarized in the following
                                                                            section.
                           requiring that all proposed developments and
                           infrastructure undertakings provide facilities   Map 2 illustrates some of the major cycling
                           for cycling movement and storage wherever        barriers and destinations within Windsor.
                           appropriate; and
Windsor residents                                                           The barriers include those that restrict or prohibit
identified a number        requiring the installation of cycling            cycling use, such as the E.C. Row Expressway
of opportunities to        supportive facilities, such as bicycle racks,    and rail lines. There are also those roads that
improve cycling at         as a part of the development of major            discourage cycling for all but the most
the public open            employment, commercial and institutional         experienced cyclist because of the traffic volumes,
houses.                    uses.                                            such as Huron Church Road, Tecumseh Road and
                                                                            the intersections of Howard Avenue and Division
                      The BUMP study is intended to build on the            Road.
                      success of these studies through the research and
                      input collected and analyzed over the course of the   Major destinations include recreational,
                      study.                                                employment and institutional centres such as the
                                                                            University of Windsor, St. Clair College, the
                      BUMP Initiatives                                      Riverfront, City Centre, the various automotive
                                                                            and employment areas, Tecumseh, Devonshire
                      Central to the BUMP study was the need to             and University Malls plus various City parks.
                      determine from stakeholders and Windsor
                      residents the type and form of cycling network
2   Context                                                                                                                        13
Through the
BUMP process, a
                                                                                   Signage such as the visibility, location and
number of cycling
                                                                                   lack of network signage;
barriers were
identified.                                                                        Cycling along Riverside Drive East being
                                                                                   desired by the broader community, and the
                                                                                   neighbourhood’s desire to maintain a quiet
                                                                                   residential character;

                                                                                   Trail Use Conflicts between cyclists, walkers
                                                                                   and in-line skaters along various
                                                                                   recreationways, especially along
                                                                                   Ambassador/Assumption/Centennial and
                      Photo: Rail underpass on Dougall Avenue – Windsor, Ontario   Ganatchio Trails;

                      Public Open Houses and Bicycle Tours                         Traffic Volume and Speed along certain
                                                                                   roads within Windsor such as Huron Church
                      A series of public open houses and bicycle tours             Road, Tecumseh Road and portions of
                      were held throughout the BUMP study. The                     Riverside Drive;
“The overall          purpose of these events was to involve the public
objective of the      in determining the direction and programs                    On-street Parking along various streets
Decima Survey was     recommended in this report.                                  combined with the monthly alternating
to measure the                                                                     arrangement from one side to another;
prevalence of         Cycling issues that emerged through discussions
cycling in Windsor    with the public at the open houses and bicycle               Cost/funding issues related to the City’s
with a focus on       tours included:                                              ability to establish particular routes or
utilitarian trips.”                                                                connections given the cost of design, right-
                             Road Conditions such as uneven, cracked or            of-way acquisition, construction and long-
                             potholed road surfaces, catch basins and              term maintenance;
                             debris such as sand, gravel and litter;

                             Traffic Controls such as the duration of
                             signal timings and the indiscriminate use of
                             all-way stops;
2   Context                                                                                                                                     14


                                                                                Attractiveness of various areas for cyclists
                                                                                such as along the Detroit River, Riverside
                                                                                Drive and in old Walkerville;

                                                                                Directness of the grid road pattern for
                                                                                moving cyclists across the city;               Approximately
                                                                                                                               47% or 113,000
                                                                                Momentum created by the City through the       Windsor residents
                                                                                continued support and development of the       over the age of 15
                                                                                cycling network;                               are cyclists.

              Photo: Public Meeting #2 at Malden Park – Windsor, Ontario        Mild Climate creating a longer, if not year
                                                                                round, cycling season; and
                     Law Enforcement as it applies to both                      Flexible Rights-of-Way that can
                     cyclists and motorists; and                                accommodate either on-street cycling lanes
                                                                                or paths within the boulevards.
                     Education and Awareness of safe cycling
                     practices, cycling as an alternative to               In addition to the public events, the study team
                     automobile use and Windsor’s cycling                  conducted two surveys.
                     network.
                                                                           Public Attitude Survey
              Cycling opportunities that emerged through
              discussions with the public and Steering                     Decima Research conducted a statistically valid
              Committee, as well as the study team’s                       public attitude survey over the telephone to a
              investigation include:                                       random sample of Windsor, LaSalle and
                                                                           Tecumseh households.
                     Existing Trail System is well established,
                     used and maintained, particularly along the           The objectives of the survey were to:
                     riverfront and in East Riverside and West
                     Windsor;                                                   estimate bicycle ownership among
                                                                                households, and the number of utilitarian
                                                   “The is ideal
                     Topography is relatively flat which analysis               and recreational cyclists;
                     for cycling;                  reveals that age is a
                                                   primary factor in
                                                   contrasting the
                                                   different types of
                                                   cycling groups,
                                                   such that when age
                                                   increases the
                                                   prevalence of
2   Context                                                                                                                                15


                   establish a profile of Windsor area residents     Decima’s complete survey results are provided
                   with regard to their use of the bicycle both      under separate cover as a technical appendix
                   as a mode of transportation and a                 (Volume 2). The following summarizes the five
                   recreational vehicle;                             major conclusions of the survey.

                   determine barriers to utilitarian cycling,        1. Cycling is a critical mode of transportation
                   current transportation modes used and                and form of recreation for Windsor area
                   opportunities to encourage cycling;                  residents.

                   estimate the percentage of cyclists who use       In total, approximately 23% of the population or
                   their bicycle in conjunction with public          56,350 persons cycle for utilitarian purposes,
                   transit, and the potential to increase this       including getting to work, school, shopping,
                   activity;                                         running errands or visiting. Given that some of
                                                                     these utilitarian cyclists ride for more than one of
                   identify any concerns the public may have         these practical purposes, the more detailed
                   about cycling or cyclists in the Windsor
                   area;                                                      Households with Bicycles
                   gauge the public’s perception of the overall
                   quality of cycling facilities available, and                                                             Decima asked: “Do
                   options on possible mechanisms for                           No                                          you or does anyone
                   improvement; and                                            35%                                          in your household
                                                                                                   Yes                      own a bicycle?”
                   obtain information on the public’s                                              65%
                   perception of atmospheric smog and the
                   aggressive behaviour of cyclists and
                   motorists.

              A total of 501 interviews were completed as a part
              of the survey, and the results had a margin of error
              of less than 4.8% within Windsor.                      estimates sum to greater than the total:
2   Context                                                                                                                                                                                   16


                                              almost 17,000 or 7% of cyclists ride to work.                                        Concerns About Windsor Area Cycling
                                              These cyclists make approximately 61,000
                                                                                                                                            Total      Non-Cyclist   Recreational   Utilitarian
                                              work trips per week. Almost half (47%)                                                        n=501        n=264          n=122        n=155
                                              have a commute of less than 20 minutes, the                                                     %            %              %              %
                                              average ride taking 19.5 minutes;                               Careless cyclists               21           25            19             16
                                                                                                              Nothing/No concerns             20           20            24             17
                                                                                                              Worried about collisions        15           17            15             12
                                              almost 9,600 or 4% of cyclists bike to                          Lack of paths and trails        11           10            14             12
                                              school. Just over half (51%) have a                             Lack of bike lanes              11            8            10             18
                                                                                                              Careless drivers                11            7            15             13
                                              commute of less than 20 minutes; and                            Traffic Conditions              9             8             8             14
                                                                                                              Narrow Streets                  7             7             4             10
                                              almost 52,000 or 22% of cyclists ride to go                     Road conditions                 5             4             4             11
                                                                                                              Safety gear/helmets etc         5             5             5             4
                                              shopping, run errands or go visiting, making                    Bikes on sidewalks              5             7             1             3
                                              almost 124,000 trips per week.                                  Safety (general)                4             4             3             4
                                                                                                              Lack of knowledge/education     3             3             1             3
                                                                                                              of CYCLISTS
                        In total, there are approximately 106,000                                             Do not know/Did not say         3            4              1             2
                        recreational cyclists who ride for leisure or fitness,
                        representing 45% of the population. Almost one-                                      Decima asked: “What concerns if any do you have about cycling or cyclists
                        quarter of Windsor area residents can be classified                                  in Windsor?”
                        as cyclists who ride for recreational and fitness
                        purposes only.                                                                           2. Cyclists in Windsor are not a marginalized
                                                                                                                    group.
                       250,000
                                                                                              202,472            The profile identifies a group who tends to be
The estimated                                                                                                    mainstream residents with a skew to younger
                       # Among Windsor Area




number of cycling                                                       123,739                                  citizens with a moderate to high socio-economic
                          15+ Population




trips reveals the                                 61,043                                                         status.
importance of                                                28,196
cycling as a mode                                                                                                Those who are younger are more likely to be
                                              0
of transportation in                                                                                             utilitarian cyclists than those who are older. It is
                                                    Work




                                                                                                Recreation
                                                                          Shopping/Visiting
                                                               School




Windsor.                                                                                                         also evident that as household income rises, so too
                                                                                                                 does the probability that a member of the
                                                                                                                 household is a utilitarian cyclist. Men (60%) are
                                                                                                                 much more likely to be utilitarian cyclists than
2   Context                                                                                                                                                                  17


                    women (40%). Further, nine-in-ten (91%)                   38% would "bike-n-ride" if there were bike racks
                    utilitarian cyclists also cycle for recreation or         attached to City buses.
                    fitness.
                                                                              The non-cyclist profile is essentially opposite
                    Age also plays a role in defining recreational            from the recreational cyclist profile. For example,
                    cyclists. Those who are younger are more likely to        those who are older (50+) are less likely to cycle
                    cycle for recreation or fitness than those who are        as are those who earn lower incomes. Further,
                    older; however, recreational cyclists (median age         women are more likely to be non-cyclists than are
                    39.3) tend to be older than utilitarian cyclists          men.
                    (median age 30.3). It is also evident that as income
“Three-in-five or   rises, so to does the number of recreational cyclists.    3. The overall perceptions of the quality of
60% of              Considering that this fact is also true for utilitarian      cycling routes and facilities in Windsor
recreational        cyclists, it is apparent that higher income earners          suggest there is significant opportunity for
cyclists name       are more likely to be cyclists in general.                   improvement.
distance as the
number one reason   Three-in-five or 60% of recreational cyclists name        Despite the fact that 44% of Windsor area
they do not cycle   distance as the number one reason they do not             residents evaluate cycling routes and facilities as
for utilitarian     cycle for utilitarian purposes. The next major
purposes.”          concern is unsafe traffic conditions (18%). It is                        Changes that would Improve Windsor Area Cycling
                    also apparent that some feel cycling to work is
                    simply not feasible - "can't carry things on bike"                                                    Total   Non-Cyclist   Recreational   Utilitarian
                    (8%), "incompatible with work clothes" (7%), and                                                     n=501      n=264         n=122         n=115
                                                                                                                           %          %             %               %
                    "lack of secure bike parking" (7%) are the third,
                                                                               More bike paths and trails (off-street)    28          24            35            27
                    fourth and fifth most common barriers to                   More bike lanes (on-street)                26          24            23            33
                    utilitarian cycling.                                       Better education for cyclists               7           9             5             4
                                                                               Better education for motorists              2           3             2             1
                                                                               Enforce rules/regulations (give             2           4             1             1
                    When those mentioning distance (60%) as the                tickets/fines)
                    cycling barrier were asked what steps could be             Repair potholes and bad pavement            2           2             2             2
                                                                               Promote cycling                             2           2             3             2
                    taken to encourage them to begin cycling to work           More bicycle parking                        2           1             1             5
                    or school, 42% said "nothing". However, when               Cyclists SHOULD be on sidewalks             2           1             2             3
                                                                               DK/NS                                      17          20            16            13
                    prompted, 31% of those who said "nothing" said
                    they would combine cycling with public transit if         Decima asked: “What ONE thing do you feel the City or your employer
                    there was convenient and secure bike parking, and         or school could do to improve cycling in Windsor?”
2   Context                                                                                                                                               18


                       at least "good", fewer than two-in-ten feel the                thing that would improve cycling in Windsor.
                       quality of cycling facilities is "excellent" (4%) or
                       very good (12%).                                               4. There is considerable opportunity to increase
                                                                                         combined cycling and transit trips.
                       Almost three-quarters (72%) of Windsor area
                       residents feel atmospheric smog is "a major                    Currently, 6% of all cyclists have combined
                       problem" in the City. Cyclists are somewhat more               cycling and public transit at some time. However,
                       likely to feel this way than non-cyclists are.                 9% of utilitarian cyclists have combined the two
                       Overall, one-quarter (24%) of respondents say                  transportation modes compared to only 3% of
                       they switch to a more environmentally friendly                 recreational cyclists.
                       mode of transportation during smog alert days.
                       However, utilitarian cyclists (34%) are                        Of those cyclists who have combined cycling and
                       significantly more likely to change their behaviour            public transit, 80% state they would be more
                       than recreational (20%) or non-cyclists (21%).
                                                                                 Ways to Stimulate NEW Combined Cycling and Public Transit Trips
One-quarter (26%)      Based on residents' evaluations, there are
of respondents feel    considerable opportunities to improve the
adding more on-        overall quality of cycling facilities and routes.
street bike lanes is   Residents stated two key areas of improvement             Convenient and                            64%
the number one         that would have the greatest impact on the              secure bike parking
thing that would       overall quality of cycling facilities and routes
                                                                                 at public transit                                Utilitarian Cyclists
                                                                                      stops                     41%
improve cycling in     in the Windsor area:
Windsor.                                                                                                                          Recreational Cyclists
                            more off-street bike paths or trails; and             Convenient and                        58%
                                                                                 secure bike racks
                            more on-street bike lanes.                            attached to city
                                                                                       buses                   39%

                       Almost three-in-ten or 28% of respondents
                       volunteered that adding more off-street bike                      % YES
                                                                                                 0%      20%      40%       60%          80%       100%
                       paths is the number one thing that would
                       improve cycling in the Windsor area. An
                       additional one-quarter (26%) feel that adding          Decima asked: “Would you consider combining cycling in the same
                       more on-street bike lanes is the number one            trip if the following were provided? How about…”
2   Context                                                                                                                                               19


                   likely to bike-n-ride more often if secure bike         other. More than two-in-five (43%) of
                   parking facilities were available. A similar            respondents feel motorists' respect for other road
                   proportion (49%) say they would be more likely to       users has decreased in the past five years. A
                   do it more often if there were bike racks attached      lesser proportion (23%) feel cyclists' respect for
                   to buses. These findings are similar among both         other road users has decreased. However, some
                   recreational and utilitarian cyclists.                  Windsor residents have a somewhat more
                                                                           optimistic outlook – 13% feel motorists' respect
                   Of those cyclists who do not combine cycling with       for other users is increasing, and 18% feel cyclists'
                   public transit, 52% would be more likely to try it      respect is increasing.
                   if secure bike parking facilities were available.
                   Slightly fewer (48%) say they would be more
                   likely to try it if there were bike racks attached to
                                                                                             Travel Time to the Nearest
                   buses. Both ideas appeal somewhat more to                                          Bike Path                           User Survey
                   utilitarian cyclists that are not already combining                                                                    question read:
                   cycling with public transit than recreational
                                                                                                 Do Not Know
                                                                                                                          1-5 min
                                                                                                                                          “How far in
                                                                                                    13%
                   cyclists. They would be significantly more likely
                                                                                    >20 min
                                                                                        7%
                                                                                                                                    38%
                                                                                                                                          minutes do you live
                   (58% versus 39%) than recreational cyclists to                 8%
                                                                                                                                          from the nearest
                   begin combining cycling and public transit if bike       16-20 min                                                     major bike path or
                   racks were attached to City buses.                                                                                     trail?”
                                                                                        13%

                   5. Public education and communication are                        11-15 min                     21%
                                                                                                               6-10 min
                      required to address concerns about cycling in
                      Windsor.
The Bicycle User
Survey provided    The principle issue is one of perceived                 These views are reflected in the public's views
cyclists an        carelessness, and the public seems to be engaged        towards cycling on and off the road. More than
opportunity to     in a "he said, she said" debate. For example, one-      nine-in-ten or 95% of Windsor area cyclists are
provide their      in-five respondents say their number one concern        comfortable cycling on bike trails or paths, and
opinions to the    about cycling in Windsor is cyclists who don't          more than eight-in-ten (83%) on residential
consulting team.   obey the rules and laws.                                streets. Furthermore, almost six-in-ten (59%)
                                                                           believe they would be comfortable cycling on
                   There is a perception of a decline in the general       major roads with bike lanes. Less than two-in-ten
                   respect that motorists and cyclists have for each       or 17% of cyclists are comfortable cycling on
2   Context                                                                                                                                                                                20


                      major roads without bike lanes. Utilitarian              1. Cycling is a critical mode of transportation
                      cyclists are more likely to be comfortable cycling          and form of recreation. Overall 40% of
                      in any of these areas than are recreational cyclists.       respondents indicated they ride to work
                                                                                  between 5 to 7 days per week.
                      Bicycle User Survey
                                                                               2. Respondents feel safest cycling on bike paths
                      A second survey was developed for existing                  or trails. Interestingly, 67% indicated they
                      Windsor cyclists and recreationway users.                   would feel safe riding on major roads with
                      Surveys were provided to municipal staff to                 bike lanes.
“Interestingly, 67%   circulate, and were also handed out at the cycling
of respondents to     tours and the first public workshop. It was also
the Bicycle User      posted on the BUMP website. Finally, direct
Survey stated they    interviews were conducted by the study team on                                                         Safety for Cyclists
would feel            the recreationway network.
                                                                                                                                                                                    99
comfortable cycling                                                             Bike trails or paths   1
on major roads        The purpose of the user survey was to give                                        0

with bike lanes.”     cyclists a chance to offer their opinions to the
                      consulting team on:                                                                                                                      65
                                                                                Residential Streets                               32
                                                                                                           4
                           where and how often they currently ride
                           their bicycle;                                          Major roads with
                                                                                                                                                                67
                                                                                         bike lanes                     16
                                                                                                                        17
                           where they want to cycle; and
                                                                                Major roads without            6
                           what they think should be done to improve                     bike lanes                                                                            92

                           cycling in Windsor.                                                         2

                                                                                                       0           10        20   30          40     50   60         70   80   90    100

                      Over 225 cyclists responded to the User Survey,                                                                  Safe          %


                      yielding some interesting results. The detailed                                                                  Not Safe
                                                                                                                                       Do Not Know
                      analysis of the Bicycle User Survey is provided
                      under separate cover as a technical appendix. The
                      six key findings from this survey are as follows:       User Survey question asked: “Would you feel safe cycling on…”
2   Context                                                         21


              3. Bike paths are generally within a convenient
                 distance of residential areas, with 59% of
                 respondents having a path within 10 minutes
                 of their home.

              4. There is interest in conducting cyclist training
                 courses, such as CAN-BIKE.

              5. When asked what they believe would improve
                 cycling in Windsor, respondents showed a
                 strong preference for more bike paths and
                 trails, on-street bike lanes, pothole repair and
                 motorist education.

              6. Smog alert days do not appear to greatly
                 influence people’s choice to cycle, with 45%
                 indicating that they still bike on these days.
3   Direction                                                                                                                      22


                                                                              3.2       Cycling Principles

                                                                              Principles will guide the implementation of the
                                                                              BUMP by providing the qualitative framework for
                                                                              evaluating different routes, designs and awareness
                                                                              opportunities.
                       B   ased on the previous cycling and trail related
                           studies completed by and for the City of
                       Windsor and the input received through the
                                                                              Based on the existing studies, knowledge of the
                                                                              consulting team and the public input received
                       BUMP study process, a clear direction for cycling      during the BUMP study, the Windsor specific
                       within Windsor emerged. This direction is              cycling principles used to guide the development
                       encapsulated into a vision, principles and goals.      of this Plan are as follows:

                       3.1     Cycling Vision                                 Cycling Routes
Windsor’s cycling
vision is a visible    Windsor’s cycling vision clearly expresses what        Visible           The cycling network should be a
and connected          the City is attempting to achieve with cycling, and                      visible component of the
cycling network        provides the foundation for all municipal                                transportation system.
that is easily         decisions to implement this cycling master plan.
accessible, safe and                                                          Connected         All cycling routes should be
actively used by all   Cycling within Windsor is recognized as playing                          connected to form an overall
types of cyclists.     an important role in achieving a balanced                                cycling network.
                       transportation system. In this regard, the specific
                       cycling vision for Windsor as articulated in the       Easily            Cycling routes should be easily
                                                                              Accessible
                       Official Plan and expanded through the BUMP                              accessible from all
                       study is:                                                                neighbourhoods within Windsor.

                       Cycling Vision   A visible and connected cycling       Destinations      Cycling routes should provide
                                        network that is easily accessible,                      access to major destinations
                                        safe and actively used by all types                     within Windsor.
                                        of cyclists.
3   Direction                                                                                                                                 23


                                                                                     Flexible R.O.W     Cycling routes should take
                                                                                                        advantage of rights-of-way
                                                                                                        capable of accommodating
                                                                                                        cycling facilities.

“The cycling                                                                         New R.O.W.         New rights-of-way should
network should be                                                                                       accommodate cyclists.
a visible
component of the
                                                                                     Integration with   The cycling network should be
                                                                                     other modes
transportation                                                                                          integrated with other modes of
system.”                                                                                                transportation, particularly public
                                                                                                        transit.

                                                                                     Cycling Network Design

                                                                                     Variety of Types   The cycling network should
                                                                                                        consist of a variety of on and off-
                                                                                                        road facilities.

                                                                                     Neighbourhood      Cycling facilities should
                                                                                     Character          complement the character of
                                                                                                        neighbourhoods.
                    Photo: Participants on one of the BUMP cycling tours along the
                    Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario                              Safe               The cycling network should be
                                                                                                        designed to maximize the safety
                    Attractive and         Cycling routes should take                                   of all users.
                    Scenic Areas
                                           advantage of attractive and
                                           scenic areas, views and vistas.           Wayfinding         Wayfinding to and along the
                                                                                                        cycling network should be readily
                    Diverse                The cycling network should                                   visible and clear.
                    Experience
                                           provide a diverse on and off-road
                                           cycling experience.
3   Direction                                                                                                                                              24


                All Abilities &   The cycling network should            3.3       Cycling Goals
                Interests
                                  appeal to all cycling abilities and
                                  interests.                            Goals reflect the long-range purpose of this Plan
                                                                        and provide a measure to evaluate the success of
                Supportive        Cycling supportive services and       its implementation.
                Services &
                Facilities
                                  facilities, such as bicycle racks,
                                  should be available along cycling     In keeping with Windsor’s cycling vision and
                                  routes and at major destinations.     principles, the following goals have been
                                                                        developed for the BUMP:
                Cycling Awareness
                                                                        5 Minute Radius       To have cycling facilities
                Promotion &       The City should actively promote                            available within a five minute
                Education                                                                     radius of all neighbourhoods.
                                  and educate the public on the
                                  benefits of cycling as a viable
                                  mode of transportation.               Double Cycling        To double the number of cycling
                                                                        Modal Share
                                                                                              trips, and increase the cycling
                Traffic           Cyclists should be made aware                               modal split to 4% within 10
                Regulations                                                                   years.
                                  that they are legally obligated to
                                  obey traffic regulations.
                                                                                                                                           “The City should
                Respect for       Motorists should be made aware
                Cyclists                                                                                                                   actively promote
                                  that a bicycle is defined as a
                                                                                                                                           and educate the
                                  vehicle under the Highway
                                                                                                                                           public on the
                                  Traffic Act, and that cyclists have
                                                                                                                                           benefits of cycling
                                  a legal right to be on the road.
                                                                                                                                           as a viable mode of
                Signage           Clear and concise signage should                                                                         transportation.”
                                  be used by the City to promote
                                  the cycling network.


                                                                        Photo: BUMP cycling tour wrap-up at City Hall – Windsor, Ontario
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                                       25


                                                                                4.1      Cycling Network

                                                                                Windsor’s cycling network, when completed, will
                                                                                consist of three types of facilities:

                                                                                       Bike Lanes that are dedicated portions of the

                      T   he cycling strategy for Windsor is based on
                          the BUMP’s vision, principles and goals. The
                      cycling strategy consists of four elements:
                                                                                       road surface for exclusive bicycle use.
                                                                                       These are designated by pavement markings
                                                                                       that separate the portion of the road used by
                                                                                       motor vehicles from that portion used by
                      1. A Cycling Network of bike lanes, multi-use                    bicycles;
The BUMP                 trails and signed bicycle routes.
strategy is to                                                                         Multi-use Trails that are any off-road
expand Windsor’s      2. Promoting Cycling Awareness through                           dedicated facility for pedestrians and in-line
existing cycling         education, encouragement and enforcement.                     skaters as well as non-motorized vehicles
network, promote                                                                       such as cyclists; and
awareness, improve    3. Improving the Cycling-Transit Link to
the cycling-transit      increase commuter and long-distance cycling                   Signed Routes that are any roads specifically
link and provide         trips.                                                        signed to encourage bicycle use.
end-of-trip
facilities.           4. Providing End-of-Trip Facilities to meet the
                         needs of cyclists.

                      Each of these elements and their corresponding                                                                                The Riverfront and
                      recommendations are discussed in the sections that                                                                            Ganatchio Trails
                      follow. Implementing all of these elements is                                                                                 will be expanded
                      required if Windsor’s cycling vision is to be realized.                                                                       and connected to
                                                                                                                                                    create a loop
                      The BUMP is intended to support and                                                                                           around Windsor.
                      complement the recommendations of the Bicycle
                      Use Development Study (BUDS). For
                      comparison purposes, Appendix A lists both the
                      BUMP and BUDS recommendations.                            Photo: Riverfront Trail entrance near the University of Windsor –
                                                                                Windsor, Ontario
4   Strategy                                                                                                                          26


                      It is important to emphasize that the bicycle is         to ensure that all roadways in a community are
                      formally recognized as a vehicle by the Province         designed, updated and maintained in a way that
                      of Ontario, as outlined in the Highway Traffic           provides a safe environment for bicycle use. No
                      Act, R.S.O., 1990. Bicycles, therefore, have the         matter how extensive the on-road bike lanes or trail
                      right to share all classes of roadways, including        facilities are, some cyclists, especially commuters,
                      arterial roads, collectors and local streets, with the   will choose to ride on most roads. They have that
                      exception of freeways.                                   right, and accordingly, should feel safe and
                                                                               comfortable in doing so.
                      The fact that bicycles have a right to use
                      municipal and provincial roadways leads to an            Windsor’s cycling network is envisioned as an
                      important principle of roadway design – that             integrated system of on-road and off-road
                      “every road is a cycling road”. The City,                facilities that respond to the direction outlined in
                      therefore, should adopt bicycle friendly design          Chapter 3. It will generally be a grid of north-
                      guidelines for all streets, whether a road is            south and east-west routes, spaced approximately
                      designated as part of the cycling network or not.        two kilometres apart. This spacing will ensure that
                                                                               all residents will be no more than a five minute
                      Bicycle friendly roadway features typically              bike ride from the network.
It is important to    include:
recognize that                                                                 Candidate Route Evaluation
                            4.3 to 4.5 metre wide curb lanes;
bicycles are
                                                                               Prior to recommending a cycling network for
considered vehicles         catch basin grates that are bicycle friendly       Windsor, the public, staff and study team
under the Highway           and ideally located out of the desired path        identified over 110 candidate cycling routes as
Traffic Act, and            for cycling; and                                   shown on Map 3. Each candidate route was
that every road
                                                                               evaluated through a four step process:
should be designed          traffic control devices that are programmed
to accommodate              with bicycles in mind, particularly detector       1. Travel each candidate route (ground proof) by
cyclists.                   loops that have their sensitivity adjusted to         cycling it, or in a few cases, by driving it in a
                            allow bicycles to actuate a traffic signal.           motor vehicle. This included all on-road
                                                                                  routes such as Parent Avenue, off-road routes
                      The City of Windsor recognizes that providing a             such as the lands adjacent to the Little River,
                      cycling network and multi-use trail system to serve         and through areas such as Malden Park;
                      a community does not release it from an obligation
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                                      27


               2. Assess each route using the evaluation factors                Map 4 identifies the proposed network. To
                  identified in Figure 4.1, the technical                       accommodate the wide ranging expectations and
                  expertise of the study team and the public’s                  skill level of cyclists in the City, the cycling
                  input;                                                        network is divided into two systems: the Primary
                                                                                Network and the Secondary Network. It is
               3. Accept or reject each candidate route based                   expected that this hierarchy of bikeway types will
                  on Steps 1 and 2; and                                         lead to increased bicycle use. It will also
                                                                                encourage less experienced cyclists to gain
               4. Determine an appropriate bikeway type for                     expertise through the use of signed routes and
                  each accepted route based on the results of                   multi-use trails.
                  Steps 1 through 3.
                                                                                                                                                When determining
               The qualitative assessment notes prepared by the
                                                                                                                                                the feasibility of a
               study team as they initially evaluated each route
                                                                                                                                                proposed cycling
               are provided under separate cover as a technical
                                                                                                                                                route,
               appendix. It should be noted that the proposed
                                                                                                                                                consideration
               network is based on these notes, in addition to the
                                                                                                                                                should be given to
               other input received and the study team’s
                                                                                                                                                factors such as the
               expertise.
                                                                                                                                                provision of safe
                                                                                                                                                crossings of major
                                                                                                                                                barriers.


                                                                                Photo: E.C. Row Expressway overpass at Mark Avenue – Windsor,
                                                                                Ontario


                                                                                Primary Network

                                                                                The Primary Network is identified on Map 5. It
                                                                                will function as the spine of Windsor’s cycling
                                                                                network, providing direct connections across the
                                                                                City.
               Photo: Route evaluation of the E.C. Row Expressway overpass at
               Mark Avenue – Windsor, Ontario
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                                              28


                                                                               Figure 4.1
                                                                        Route Evaluation Matrix
           Factor                                                                                  Criteria
Safety                       1.   Are there numerous railway track crossings?
                             2.   Is there a high volume of trucks and transit vehicles?
                             3.   Is there the potential for significant turning movement conflicts due to a high number of commercial and residential mid block driveways?

Pavement Width               Are the number of lanes and lane widths:
                             1. Sufficient with a reduction in the width of one or more lanes?
                             2. Sufficient for the majority of the route with some reduction in lane width?
                             3. Insufficient - requires the reduction in the number of traffic lanes or a road widening?
                             4. Insufficient, and no additional right of way is available for widening without property acquisition?

On-Street Parking            1.   None along entire route.
                             2.   Along entire route.
                             3.   Along entire route and insufficient pavement width for cycling.

AADT                         Is the average annual daily traffic:
                             1. Below the threshold for existing lane configurations? A good opportunity may exist to reduce the number of lanes.
                             2. At or just below the threshold for lane configuration? A limited opportunity exists to reduce the number of lanes.
                             3. Above the threshold for the existing lane configurations? Insufficient lane capacity exists to accommodate current demand and, no
                                  opportunity exists to reduce the number of lanes.

Crossing of Major Barriers   1.   Does the route have any major barriers?
                             2.   Does the route provide a safe crossing of those barriers?

Connectivity                 1.   Does the route provide a vital connection to existing trails?

Convenience                  1.   Is the route impeded by numerous stop signs?
                             2.   Is the route impeded by numerous closely spaced traffic control signals?

Access                       1.   Does the route serve any major destinations within a five minute radius?

Attractiveness               1.   Is the route conducive to good cycling (good aesthetics)?
                             2.   Is the route highly visible?
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                     29


                      The Primary Network consists of a grid of north-        Secondary Network
                      south and east-west routes traversing the City. It
                      is intended that the Primary Network be composed        The Secondary Network is identified on Map 6.
                      of properly designed bike lanes and multi-use           It will provide the neighbourhood connections to
                      trails. However, given physical constraints and         the Primary Network.
                      funding realities, it is recognized that this is a
                      long-term goal. Therefore, the primary network          The Secondary Network traverses neighbourhoods
                      may also consist of signed routes, where                to allow cyclists a more diverse and leisurely      The Windsor loop
                      appropriate, until bike lanes or multi-use trails can   experience. As such, it is composed                 is intended to
                      be developed to serve the same connectivity             predominately of signed routes, with some multi-    provide a circular
                      function.                                               use trails.                                         connection across
                                                                                                                                  the City’s
                      The Primary Network is expected to                      The Secondary Network is expected to                neighbourhoods by
                      accommodate:                                            accommodate:                                        building on the
                                                                                                                                  success of the
                             high cyclist volumes;                                 low cyclist volumes;                           Riverfront, West-
                                                                                   cycling and trail traffic that is locally      end and Ganatchio
                             cycling and trail traffic that is destination
                             oriented to locations such as major                   oriented, recognizing that this network also   trail systems.
                             employers and community facilities; and               is intended to provide connections to the
                                                                                   Primary Network; and
                             cyclists with a moderate to high level of
                             experience and skill.                                 cyclists with a low to moderate level of
                                                                                   experience and skill.

The Primary                                                                   Windsor Loop and Trans Canada Trail Connection
Network will
                                                                              The cycling network for Windsor incorporates two
largely be
                                                                              additional important features; the Windsor Loop
composed of bike
                                                                              and the Trans Canada Trail connection, as
lanes and multi-use
                                                                              illustrated on Map 7.
trails.
                                                                              The Windsor Loop provides a circular connection
                                                                              across the City’s neighbourhoods. It is intended


                      Photo: Toronto, Ontario
4   Strategy                                                                                                                     30


                      to extend the success of the Riverfront, West-end          Establishing a full time Cycling Coordinator
                      and Ganatchio trail systems. It also provides              position in the Traffic Engineering
                      access to the adjacent municipalities.                     Department. The primary responsibility of
                                                                                 this individual is to implement the BUMP;
                      The Trans Canada Trail Connection, which is a
                      part of the Windsor Loop, is intended to connect           Adding the appropriate criteria to the
                      the City of Windsor to the Chrysler Canada                 Strategic Roadway Improvement Program
                      Greenway. The connection through the Town of               (STRIP) and the Roadway Improvement
“People of all ages   LaSalle will provide the City with an important            Management System (RIMS) to include
and abilities must    link to this national system.                              Primary Network connections;
be encouraged and
educated to use       Recommendations                                            Continuing to develop other off-road trails
Windsor’s cycling                                                                through parks that were not identified in the
network for both      The City of Windsor will initiate the expansion of         BUMP;
recreational and      the existing cycling and trail network by:
commuting                                                                        Constructing every road as a bicycle friendly
purposes.”                 Completing those sections of the Primary              roadway; and
                           Network identified on Map 5 as achievable
                           within five years;                                    Committing annual funds to the
                                                                                 implementation of the BUMP.
                           Completing those sections of the Secondary
                           Network identified on Map 6 as achievable       4.2     Cycling Awareness
                           within five years;
                                                                           A successful cycling network is one that is
                           Completing those sections of the Primary        actively and properly used. People of all ages and
                           Network identified on Map 5 as achievable       abilities must be encouraged and educated to use
                           in the longer term (years 5 through 20);        Windsor’s cycling network for both recreational
                                                                           and commuting purposes.
                           Completing those sections of the Secondary
                           Network identified on Map 6 as achievable       Education and encouragement go hand in hand to
                           in the longer term (years 5 through 20);        increase cycling. Together they improve skills
                                                                           and raise awareness of the benefits of cycling.
4   Strategy                                                                                                              31


               The Windsor Bicycling Committee is educating         2. Teach adult cyclists their rights and
               motorists through their “share the road” campaign.      responsibilities;

               The City of Windsor is proactively encouraging       3. Teach motorists how to more effectively share
               cycling through initiatives such as:                    the road with cyclists; and

                    Windsor Parks and Recreation Trails and         4. Work with the Ministry of Transportation to
                    Facilities Map that identifies existing            develop and implement bicycle safety
                    cycling routes and destinations;                   strategies.

                    Windsor Bicycling Committee that is a           Children can be effectively taught safe cycling
                    committee of City Council devoted to            skills through the school system. The school
                    increasing the number of cyclists within the    boards should be encouraged to deliver CAN-
                    City, and providing adequate and safe           BIKE or similar courses that deliver messages
                    facilities for cycling;                         such as:

                    Bike-to-Work Week that is an annual event            Wear a helmet, since it reduces the risk of
                    promoted by the Windsor Bicycling                    serious head injury by 85%;
                    Committee to increase the number of
                    commuter cyclists; and                               Obey all traffic laws, since cyclists have the
                                                                         same responsibilities and consequences as
                    Windsor Police Service City Centre Patrol            motorists;
                    Unit that enhances patrol capacity and on-
                    street safety by increasing the accessibility        Look both ways before crossing the street;
                    through the City Centre by having officers
                    on patrol using bicycles.                            Always ride with the flow of traffic;

               Recommendations                                           Be predictable by signalling your intentions;

               There are four components to address cycling              Be visible by wearing bright or reflective
               education in Windsor:                                     clothing, and always using a front and rear
                                                                         light at night; and
               1. Develop safe cycling skills in children;
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                32


                             Very young children should always ride
                             with experienced supervision.

                       The second component of educating cyclists is to
                       focus on adults. Adult cyclists fall into several                                                    The City’s existing
                       different categories of riders. Some adults are                                                      Trails and
                       comfortable riding on busy streets and mixing                                                        Facilities Map,
CAN-BIKE is a          with traffic, while others prefer quieter streets or                                                 shown here,
series of cycling      off-road trails. There are also adults who ride                                                      provides an
education courses      only a few times a year – for recreational, work                                                     excellent
for cyclists of all    and commuting purposes. Therefore, educational                                                       means of
ages and abilities.    efforts must be tailored to match the concerns of                                                    communicating
Using classroom        each group and their cycling requirements.                                                           information about
and on-road                                                                                                                 cycling in Windsor.
sessions, the course   Targeting adult cyclists with education can be
teaches cyclists       more challenging than children since they may
how to make            have long established cycling habits and are not
appropriate            often held together as a captive audience.
decisions in traffic   However, the City should take advantage of its
and how to handle      existing programs, committees and publications,
their bike in          such as the Windsor Parks and Recreation Trails
emergency              and Facilities Map, Windsor Bicycling Committee
situations.            and Bike-to-Work Week to deliver CAN-BIKE or
                       similar programs that deliver the following
                       messages:                                              Be alert for other users, motorists and
                                                                              potential road hazards such as potholes and
                             Obey all traffic laws, since cyclists have the   loose gravel;
                             same responsibilities and consequences as
                             motorists. Disobeying traffic laws gives         Wear a helmet, since it reduces the risk of
                             cyclists a bad reputation, is potentially        serious head injury by 85%;
                             dangerous and may result in a ticket under
                             the Highway Traffic Act;                         Always ride where motorists and others
                                                                              expect to see cyclists;
4   Strategy                                                                                                               33


                    Be predictable by signalling your intentions,         Be patient, since cyclists have a right to
                    never weaving in and out of traffic and               travel on every road except expressways.
                    staying approximately 1 metre away from               Aggressive driving creates an unnecessary
                    the curb;                                             atmosphere of hostility;

                    Be visible by wearing bright or reflective            Be predictable by signalling your turns;
                    clothing and always using a front and rear
                    light at night; and                                   Do not sound your horn unless necessary,
                                                                          since cyclists can see and hear motor
                    Stay off sidewalks since in Ontario, bicycles         vehicles; and
                    ridden by adults are legally classified as
                    vehicles and should behave as such.                   Follow and pass at a safe distance so
                                                                          cyclists can react safely to hazards that
               The third component of education is to teach and           motorist may not see.
               inform motorists. The goal should be to foster a
               broad awareness and respect for cyclists. Many        The final component of education is for the City
               motorists are already cyclists and can be             of Windsor to work with the Ministry of
               encouraged to ride more often. All motorists          Transportation to develop and implement bicycle
               should be taught good driving practices and           safety strategies.
               information about cycling behaviour to improve
               safety.                                               A 1998 Coroners report on cycling fatalities stated
                                                                     that the Ministry of Transportation (MTO) should
               As with adult cyclists, the City should take          take a lead role in encouraging bicycle use in
               advantage of its existing programs, committees        urban centres and in improving safety.
               and publications to deliver the following message
               to motorists:                                         The City of Windsor should work with the MTO
                                                                     to implement the recommendations in the
                    Obey all traffic laws, since a minor collision   Coroners report, which included:
                    between a motor vehicle and a cyclist could
                    result in a serious injury to the cyclist;            improving cycling safety content in all
                                                                          publications and driving courses;
                    Be alert for cyclists, for sudden changes in
                    their behaviour, and at intersections;
4   Strategy                                                                                                                        34


                      providing current bicycle safety training for                 Improving cycling access to City Hall
                      all driver examiners, police recruits and                     through the provision of additional secure
                      court personnel, as outlined above; and                       bicycle parking facilities plus shower and
                                                                                    change facilities;
                      providing funding for bicycle promotion and
                      safety programs to assist Windsor in                          Providing cycling skills programs such as
                      reducing cycling injuries.                                    CAN-BIKE through Parks & Recreation
                                                                                    programs;
               In addition, the “share the road” bumper sticker
               campaign being conducted by the Windsor                              Creating an incentive program for
               Bicycling Committee should be encouraged to                          employees who cycle to work;
               continue.
                                                                                    Compensating employees who choose to use
                                                                                    their own bicycles for City business, just as
                                                                                    it compensates employees who drive their
                                                                                    motor vehicles for City business;

                                                                                    Making CAN-BIKE training courses
               Photo: Windsor Bicycling Committee “share the road” bumper sticker   available to City staff on staff time, to
                                                                                    minimize the risk associated with using a
               There are three main components to encourage                         bicycle during the workday, and to enhance
               cycling within Windsor. The City should:                             the cycling skills necessary to commute
                      Lead through example;                                         safely by bicycle;

                      Encourage special events; and                                 Continuing to encourage special events such
                                                                                    as Bike-to-Work Week; and
                      Promote cycling tourism.
                                                                                    Promoting cycling tourism by continuing to
               The City of Windsor must assume an on-going                          provide route mapping information such as
               leadership role to encourage cycling if the BUMP                     the Trails and Facilities Map both in print
               is to be successful. This includes activities such                   and potentially on a website.
               as:
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                              35


                     4.3     Cycling-Transit Link                           surrounding the site. For example, at Devonshire
                                                                            Mall and Tecumseh Mall, bicycle parking is
                     Improving the cycling-transit link is an important     readily available in conjunction with the shopping
                     part of making cycling a part of daily life in         centre facilities. However, at the College Avenue
                     Windsor. Linking cycling with Transit Windsor          and City Centre transit centres, there are few, if
                     buses will overcome barriers such as lengthy trips,    any, secure bicycle parking facilities.
                     personal security concerns and riding at night or in
                     poor weather. This link also enables cyclists to       Through the Public Attitude Survey, it was
Improved bicycle     reach more distant areas across the City, and          revealed that 80% of respondents believe that
parking facilities   increases transit ridership on weekends and            providing more bike racks at transit stops would
should be provided   holidays.                                              improve the cycling-transit link within Windsor.
at major transit
centres such as      The cycling-transit link can also make access to
                                                                                                                                        “Transit Windsor
Devonshire Mall.     transit less expensive. In suburban
                                                                                                                                        has committed to
                     neighbourhoods, population densities are often too
                                                                                                                                        improving the
                     low to offer transit service within the typical
                                                                                                                                        cycling-transit link
                     walking distance of 500 metres of every
                                                                                                                                        through the
                     commuter. Within the last 20 years, many transit
                                                                                                                                        installation of
                     agencies built expansive motor vehicle park-and-
                                                                                                                                        bicycle carriers on
                     ride lots or centralized depots as an alternative to
                                                                                                                                        its buses for a trial
                     costly feeder bus service. Many of these facilities
                                                                                                                                        period, plus
                     are within easy cycling distance, provide
                                                                                                                                        promotion of the
                     opportunities to increase cycling and transit
                                                                                                                                        service through the
                     ridership and reduce taxpayer costs, traffic
                                                                                                                                        media, its website
                     congestion and air pollution.
                                                                                                                                        and brochures.”
                     In Windsor, the development of transit centres at
                     College Avenue, Devonshire Mall, the City Centre
                     and Tecumseh Mall provide an excellent
                     opportunity to improve the cycling-transit link.

                     Presently, bicycle parking facilities at Transit
                     Windsor centres vary depending on the uses
                                                                                 Photo: Bike rack on a Transit Windsor Bus – Windsor,
                                                                                 Ontario
4   Strategy                                                                                                                            36


                       Transit Windsor has committed to improving the           secure bicycle parking at the College Avenue and
                       cycling-transit link through the installation of         City Centre transit centres should be increased as
                       bicycle carriers on its buses for a trial period, plus   an incentive to cyclists to use Transit Windsor.
                       promotion of the service through the media, its
                       website and brochures. This commitment should            The third component is to encourage Transit
                       be further encouraged.                                   Windsor to continue to allow bicycles on buses.
                                                                                Transit Windsor’s installation of bicycle carriers is
                       Recommendations                                          a positive step that should be actively promoted
                                                                                and encouraged. The demand for these carriers
                       There are four main components required to               should be monitored and increased as appropriate.
                       improve the cycling-transit link in Windsor:
                                                                                The fourth component is to promote the use of
                       1. Improve bicycle routes to transit centres;            cycling and transit. Transit Windsor should
Good bicycle                                                                    actively promote its bicycle services through its
parking facilities     2. Increase bicycle parking at transit centres;          website, brochures, advertisements and public
are secure,                                                                     gatherings. The City should continue to offer
plentiful, easily      3. Work with Transit Windsor to expand the               Transit Windsor its support, while also promoting
accessible, adjacent      provision of bicycle racks mounted on Transit         Transit Windsor’s bicycle services at every
to destinations and       Windsor buses; and                                    opportunity.
covered.
                       4. Promote the use of cycling and transit.

                       The City of Windsor plans to improve bicycle
                       routes to transit centres. Map 4 identifies the
                       complete cycling network, including routes that
                       will link to transit centres. In addition, the City is
                       working to encourage more mixed use
                       developments along transit routes, and provide
                       better bicycle access to transit locations
                       throughout Windsor.

                       The second component of promoting bicycle-
                       transit integration is to provide secure bicycle
                       parking at key transit stations. The amount of
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                           37


                     4.4     End-of-Trip Facilities                            Bicycle Parking

                     Every cycling trip has two basic components: the          The availability of convenient, secure bicycle
                     route used by the cyclist, and the “end-of-trip”          parking is important to cyclists. Safe and secure
                     facilities available at the destination. These end-       bicycle parking offers these benefits:
                     of-trip facilities include bicycle parking and
                     sometimes showers and change rooms for
                     commuters.                                                                                                      Bicycle parking
                                                                                                                                     facilities at
The City of          When the end-of-trip facilities do not meet the
                                                                                                                                     Devonshire Mall.
Windsor’s            users’ needs, they will use other means of
                                                                                                                                     Note the cyclist
planning policies    transportation. In a nationwide United States
                                                                                                                                     avoided using the
require bicycle      Harris Poll conducted in 1992, it was revealed that
                                                                                                                                     bike rack due to its
parking facilities   over half the respondents who had ridden a
                                                                                                                                     “wheel-bender’”
for new              bicycle in the past year would sometimes
                                                                                                                                     design.
commercial and       commute to work by bicycle, or commute more
industrial           often, if there were showers, lockers and secure
development.         bicycle storage at work. The Public Attitude
                     Survey clearly indicated there was support for            Photo: Devonshire Mall – Windsor, Ontario

                     more bicycle parking and shower facilities in
                     Windsor.                                                         it inexpensively and efficiently increases a
                                                                                      building’s parking capacity;
                     Clearly, the availability of convenient and
                     appropriate end-of-trip facilities is a critical factor          it effectively serves those who use bicycles
                     in an individual’s decision whether or not to use a              as a mode of transportation;
                     bicycle in Windsor.
                                                                                      it encourages bicycle use; and

                                                                                      it can be a great promotional item for
                                                                                      businesses.
4    Strategy                                                                                                                            38


                                                                                       Security of the area: determined by the
                              Support for More Bicycle Parking                         cyclists’ perception of how prone a given
                               Not at all                                              area is to bicycle theft. This is fairly
Source: Public                   4%
                                                                                       subjective and is predicated on the cyclist’s
Attitude Survey,
                                                                                       individual experiences with bicycle theft.
Decima Research
Inc., 2000.      Improve                                            Improve
                                                                                  Good bicycle parking facilities are secure,
                 somewhat                                            greatly
                   33%                                                63%         plentiful, easily accessible, adjacent to
                                                                                  destinations and covered.

                                                                                  The design of bicycle parking units varies widely.
                                                                                  Generally, units can be divided into different
                           Cyclists’ need for bicycle parking ranges from
                                                                                  categories based on the level of security they
                           simply a convenient piece of street furniture to
                                                                                  provide.
                           which they can lock their bicycle, to storage in a
                           bicycle locker that affords weather, theft and
                                                                                         High security units enclose the entire
                           vandalism protection, gear storage space and 24-
                                                                                         bicycle inside a lockable “cabinet”.
                           hour personal access. A cyclist’s specific needs
                                                                                         Ranging in price from $1000 to $2500 per
                           are typically determined by several factors:
                                                                                         unit, these facilities are likely only
                                                                                         appropriate in locations where cyclists
                                 Type of trip being made: whether or not the
                                                                                         might be leaving their bicycles for
                                 bicycle will be left unattended all day or for
                                                                                         extended periods of time such as transit
                                 a few minutes;
                                                                                         centres. Another method of providing
                                 Weather conditions: covered bicycle parking             high security parking is to allow cyclists to
                                 is of more importance during wet weather;               lock their bikes to low security units
                                                                                         within a locked compound. This is
                                 Value of the bicycle: the more a cyclist has            especially effective for large employers
                                 invested in their bicycle, the more concerned           since it provides a large number of parking
                                 they are about theft protection; and                    spaces at a relatively low cost.
4   Strategy                                                                                                                                         39


                                                                            Low profile racks that support the bicycle by the
                                                                            front wheel are not recommended since they can
                                                                            result in bent rims and other damage caused by the      “Key locations for
An example of a                                                             bicycle falling over.                                   bicycle parking
high security                                                                                                                       facilities include
                                                                            The City of Windsor’s planning policies require         staging areas such
bicycle facility.
                                                                            any new development to provide two bicycle              as Malden Park,
                                                                            parking spaces for the first 10 motor vehicle           major network
                                                                            parking spaces, and a minimum of one bicycle            nodes such as
                                                                            space for each 20 additional motor vehicle spaces.      transit centres, and
                                                                            There should be more detailed guidance on where         at major
                                                                            the bicycle parking facilities should be located.       destinations such
                    Photo: Bicycle lockers                                                                                          as malls, City Hall,
                                                                            The selection of parking facilities on a site-by-site
                                                                                                                                    libraries and along
                               Medium-High security units that allow the    basis should consider cyclist comfort, location and
                                                                                                                                    the riverfront.”
                               bicycle and wheels to be locked together     security for both the cyclist and his/her property.
                               without having to remove “quick release”     Some recommended locations for installation
                               wheels.                                      include:

                               Medium security units require “quick               near main or well-used entrances to
                               release” wheels to be removed and locked           buildings;
                               along with the frame of the bike. The best
                               medium-security units prevent the bike             along surveillance corridors, in areas
                               from falling over. Medium-security units           pedestrians frequent or across from
                               range in price from $70 to $1000 each,             windows;
                               depending on style and capacity.
                               Preferred units are easy to use without            in well-lit areas;
                               written or pictorial instructions, and
                               support the frame of the bike, not the
                               wheel alone. They also allow one wheel
                               to be locked with the bike and/or two
                               bikes to be locked together.
4   Strategy                                                                                                                          40


                                                                     located such that the facility can be accessed
                                                                     from all sides.

An example of a                                                 Recommendations
medium-high
security bicycle                                                There are two components to address bicycle
parking unit.                                                   parking in Windsor:
                                                                                                                      “Improving cycling
                                                                1. Conduct a Bicycle Parking Inventory; and           as a viable mode of
                                                                                                                      commuting
                                                                2. Increase the amount and quality of bicycle         requires showers
                                                                   parking facilities.                                and changing
                     Photo: Richmond Hill, Ontario                                                                    facilities.”
                                                                The BUMP study did not involve an inventory and
                                                                evaluation of bicycle parking facilities, locations
                                                                and types. Such a study would be useful to
                                                                determine:
An example of a                                                      the total number of off-street bicycle parking
medium security                                                      spaces;
post-and-ring bike
rack.                                                                the total number of covered off-street
                                                                     bicycle parking spaces;

                                                                     bicycle rack types in use, and user
                                                                     satisfaction with them;
                     Photo: Toronto, Ontario                         bicycle rack visibility;
                            under canopies or roof overhangs;
                                                                     signage for bicycle racks not readily visible;
                                                                     and
                            on flat surfaces; and
                                                                     rack location.
4   Strategy                                                                                                                  41


               The second component to address bicycle parking             secondary and elementary schools, and
               in Windsor is to increase the amount and quality            assist these institutions in the purchasing and
               of bicycle parking facilities.                              siting of bicycle parking;

               Adequate bicycle parking at key locations                   develop partnerships with businesses to
               throughout the network will allow cyclists to have          sponsor the installation of bicycle parking
               more confidence in securing their property while            facilities;
               pausing along the network, or once they have
               reached their destination.                                  fund, on an annual basis, a post-and-ring (or
                                                                           similar) bicycle parking program to provide
               Key locations for bicycle parking facilities include        facilities in areas where there is an identified
               staging areas such as Malden Park, major network            demand;
               nodes such as transit centres, major employers,
               and at major destinations such as malls, City Hall,         adopt the bicycle parking location guidelines
               libraries and along the Riverfront. In addition,            described in the BUMP;
               proper bicycle parking facilities should also be
               considered where multi-use trails intersect                 actively encourage innovative bicycle
               pedestrian-only trails, such as at Ojibway Park.            parking facility designs, such as covered
               The provision of bicycle parking facilities in these        bicycle sheds in existing motor vehicle
               locations, along with signage explaining the                parking spaces; and
               reasons for restricting bicycle use, will help to
               discourage cycling on inappropriate trails,                 work with community cycling associations
               reinforce trail etiquette and encourage the proper          to create permanent relationships for the
               use of the trail system.                                    provision of temporary, long-term bicycle
                                                                           parking at special events.
               Therefore, to increase the amount and quality of
               bicycle parking facilities the City should:            As the basis for the bicycle parking program, the
                                                                      City should install post-and-ring style bicycle
                     proactively install short and long-term          racks. Such racks are typically installed in
                     bicycle parking in the public right-of-way;      commercial areas, such as a business
                                                                      improvement area, within the municipal right-of-
                     promote commuter cycling to the University       way between the travelled portion of the roadway
                     of Windsor, St. Clair College, plus              and the sidewalk. Experience in other
4     Strategy                                                                                                                        42


                       municipalities indicates that such units are               Recommendations
                       actively used by cyclists and are relatively
                       inexpensive to install. For example, the City of           To increase the number of shower and change
                       Toronto’s average installation cost is $50 per unit.       facilities for cyclists, the City should:

                       Shower and Change Facilities                                    Work with private businesses to promote
                                                                                       bicycle commuting; and
                       Improving cycling as a viable mode of commuting
                       requires shower and change facilities. As                       Create bonus provisions in Windsor’s
                       previously discussed, the Public Attitude Survey                planning policies to encourage developers to
                       identified a demand for such facilities amongst                 provide showers, change space and bicycle
                       current cyclists.                                               parking above the minimum requirements.


    Source: Public             Support for Shower Facilities at Work
                                      Not at all
    Attitude Survey,                   19%
    Decima Research,
    Inc., 2000.
                                                                       Improve
                                                                        greatly
                         Improve                                         41%
                        somewhat
                           40%




                       There is, however, no zoning by-law requirement
                       for new developments to provide shower and
                       change facilities for cyclists. As a result, only
                       some cyclists are served by showers and
                       permanent changing and storage spaces at their
                       workplaces.
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                              43


                                                                          American Association of State Highway and
                                                                          Transportation Officials, 1999. Guide for
                                                                          the Development of Bicycle Facilities;

                                                                          Vélo Quebec, 1992. Technical Handbook of
                                                                          Bikeway Design; and

              T   he construction of Windsor’s cycling network
                  should be designed to consistent and safe
              standards.
                                                                          Canadian Institute of Planners, 1990.
                                                                          Community Cycling Manual – A Planning
                                                                          and Design Guide.
              The following provides general design guidelines
              for the construction of the cycling network and      Types of Cyclists
              supporting facilities including site specific
              applications in the Windsor context.                 A successful bicycle facility should provide a
                                                                   comfortable environment for the anticipated users.
              5.1     Design Guidelines                            It is, therefore, important to identify the target
                                                                   group for whom the bicycle facility is being
              The following design guidelines are based on best    designed. According to Fitness Canada’s
              practices, provincial guidelines, other accepted     Campbell Inquiry (1988), over 40% of all adult
              guidelines and practices and the expertise of the    Canadians describe themselves as cyclists. Within
              consulting team. Key reference manuals include:

                    Transportation Association of Canada, 1998.
                    Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines;

                    Transportation Association of Canada, 1999.                                                         Recreational
                    Geometric Design Guideline for Canadian                                                             cyclists on an off-
                    Roads;                                                                                              road multi-use
                                                                                                                        trail.
                    Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, 1996.
                    Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design
                    Guidelines;

                                                                   Photo: Windsor, Ontario
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                   44


               this group, however, there is wide range of skill     inclement or severe weather, or for longer
               levels and considerable variation in typical trip     distances, utilitarian cyclists may combine cycling
               length and purpose.                                   trips with transit. They generally have good bike
                                                                     handling skills and a commitment to use their
               From a planning perspective, cyclists can             bicycle whenever possible. Research indicates
               generally be grouped according to cycling             that younger adults are more likely to cycle for
               purpose, age and skill level.                         utilitarian purposes as are male cyclists.

               Cycling Purpose                                       Age

               Recreational cyclists are individuals who use a       Adult cyclists constitute the main group of
               bicycle for trip enjoyment, and usually take          bicycle infrastructure users. Their skill levels vary
               relatively short trips at lower speeds. An ultimate   based on their experience and age. Trips range
               destination is of secondary importance.               from casual recreational riding around the local
                                                                     neighbourhood, to utilitarian cycling over short
                                                                     and long distances each day for work, shopping or
                                                                     fitness purposes.

Recreational                                                         Child cyclists, especially those under the age of
Cyclists                                                             13, often ride their bikes on residential streets,
                                                                     pathways and sidewalks to get to the corner store,
                                                                     school, friends’ homes and recreational areas.
                                                                     Their motor skills and physical size are not always
                                                                     fully developed. This makes them less visible and
                                                                     prone to unpredictable behaviour, which may
                                                                     offset their ability to react to hazardous situations.
                                                                     Young cyclists must be educated on the rules of
               Photo: Windsor, Ontario                               the road and safe cycling techniques. Bikeway
                                                                     designers must consider child cyclists as a key
               Utilitarian cyclists are individuals who use a        user group. Children should be encouraged to use
               bicycle primarily for travel to and from specific     their bicycle for utilitarian purposes. The child
               destinations such as work, school, shops or           cyclist of today who cycles to school, the corner
               recreation centres. Often, utilitarian cyclists do    store and school can become the utilitarian and
               not own or use a personal automobile. In              commuter cyclist of tomorrow.
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                   45


              Skill Level                                              Barriers to Commuting

              Casual cyclists typically ride occasionally, and         Distance, unsafe traffic conditions and lack of
              usually within their local neighbourhood or to           proper facilities are often cited as the major
              local community destinations. They have                  obstacles that discourage recreational cyclists
              reasonably good cycling skills, usually avoid            from becoming utilitarian cyclists. This group
              roads with moderate to high traffic volumes and          also cites incompatibility with work clothes, lack
              generally obey the rules of the road that they           of shower, change room and parking facilities,
              understand. They become easily discouraged by            plus a perceived difficulty in carrying personal
              unfavourable cycling conditions, and typically           belongings on their bicycles as barriers to cycling.
              prefer residential streets, trails and roads with bike
              lanes, but they usually ride on the latter type of       It should be noted that as standards for work dress
              facility only during the off-peak or times of lower      have become more casual, the incompatibility
              traffic volumes. Ideal off-road conditions for           with work clothes has become less of an issue.
              casual cyclists are typically wide, flat routes,
              which do not require a high level of skill or a          Bicycle Characteristics and Design Criteria
              significant degree of attention to bicycle handling
              and control.                                             Dimensions

              Experienced cyclists ride frequently and do so for       Bicycles are distinct from all other modes of
              both recreational and utilitarian purposes               transportation. They are the lightest and smallest
              including leisure, sport and commuting purposes.         vehicles on the road network.
              They generally have good bike handling skills,
              and are not often discouraged by traffic or adverse      To assure safety and comfort, the design of
              cycling conditions. Utilitarian cyclists tend to         bicycle facilities should account for the dynamic
              prefer wide shared curb lanes and on-street bike         envelope required by a moving cyclist. The
              lanes in urban areas, and paved shoulders on low         envelope consists of:
              volume roads in rural areas. As for off-road
              conditions, they prefer a wide range of trail types,           the actual space occupied by a bicycle and
              and often prefer challenging trails with a variety in          cyclist (typically 0.6 m wide by 2.0 m high);
              topography and surface conditions.
                                                                             an operating space allowance to
                                                                             accommodate the natural side-to-side
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                               46


                    movement of a cyclist plus variations in      Total design dimensions of 1.75 m (length), 2.5 m
                    bicycle tracking (0.2 m each side); and       (height) and 1.5 m (width) should be assumed for
                                                                  the bicycle.
                    an additional clearance envelope to provide
                    separation from lateral and overhead
                    obstacles (0.25 m lateral and 0.5 m
                    overhead).




                                                                                                                           Bicycle Operating
Bicycle Operating                                                                                                          Space
Space




                     Source: MTO, 1996 Ontario Bikeways
                     Planning and Design Guidelines




                                                                                      Source: MTO, 1996 Ontario Bikeways
                                                                                      Planning and Design Guidelines
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                       47


              Design Speed                                                                 roadways which are generally constructed to a
                                                                                           design speed of at least 50 km/h (for motorized
              Most recreational cyclists can maintain a speed of                           vehicles), sight distances and curvatures should, in
              20 to 25 km/h, while utilitarian and fitness cyclists                        most cases, exceed the minimum bikeway design
              usually travel at higher speeds. In order to ensure                          parameters. In the majority of cases, the cyclist’s
              that the bikeway system is safe for all users, a                             eye height is above that of the driver in a typical
              minimum design speed of 40 km/h should be                                    car, therefore the cyclist will actually be able to
              provided. On descents with steeper grades                                    observe hazards at a greater distance.
              (exceeding 4 %), the design speed should be
              increased to 60 km/h. It should be noted that
              since on-street bikeway systems utilize existing

                                                            Acceptable Ascent Grades for Design Purposes




              Source: Balshone, L. Bruce, 1993. Bicycle Transit: Its Planning and Design
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                             48


              Maximum Grades                                                       distance. The advent of the electric or electric
                                                                                   assisted bicycle will require a future review of
              There are two major considerations when                              these standards.
              designing grades: the effort to ascend or climb,
              and conditions required for safe descent.                            Where one-way bicycle operation is proposed and
                                                                                   cyclists will be travelling in a downhill direction,
              For a cyclist riding on a bike without a                             steeper and/or longer grades are not as much of a
              transmission system, it is almost impossible to                      concern. It should be recognized, however, that
              climb a 50 metre long 10% grade. Bicycles                            speeds and stopping distances increase when
              equipped with a simple transmission system allow                     travelling downhill, and that the available sight
              almost every cyclist to climb a 50 metre 15%                         distances must be checked accordingly.
              grade. However, grades greater than 5% should
              normally be avoided, and desirable conditions,                       Effect of Motor Vehicle Speed on Cyclists
              especially for long uphill grades, should not
              exceed 3%. Where possible, on long steep grades                      The space that is available between cyclists and
              it is desirable to introduce relatively flat rest areas              vehicular traffic is an important safety issue.
              approximately every 100 metres of horizontal                         Motorized vehicles that pass with significant




                                                                                                                                          The Aerodynamic
                                                                                                                                          Effect of Truck
                                                                                                                                          Passing




              Source: MTO, 1996. Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                            49


              travel speeds cause an aerodynamic force, which                          tires and the bikeway surface, and the braking
              pushes the cyclist away or off of the roadway. It                        capacity of the bicycle.
              is estimated that a force of 1.75 kg is acceptable
              from a comfort and safety point of view.                                 Stopping sight distance is given by the formula:

              Stopping Sight Distances                                                 S = 0.694V + V2 / 255 (f + G/100)

              The minimum stopping site distance for bicycles                          Where: S = stopping sight distance (m)
              is the distance required to bring a bicycle to a full                           V = speed (km/h)
              controlled stop upon spotting an obstacle. It is a
              function of the cyclists’ perception and reaction                               F = coefficient of friction
              time prior to breaking, the initial speed of the                                G = grade (%) (upgrade positive,
              bicycle, the coefficient of friction between the                                    downgrade negative)

                        Grade 1                                      Design speed (km/h)
                         (%)            10         15          20    25      30      35     40                    45        50
                                                              Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (m)                                         Table 5.1
                                                                                                                                          Minimum Stopping
                             +12        8          13           18           -          -        -        -        -          -           Sight Distances
                             +10        8          13           18          24          -        -        -        -          -           For Bicycles
                             +8         8          13           19          25         32        -        -        -          -
                             +6         8          13           19          25         32       40        -        -          -
                             +4         8          13           19          26         33       41       49        -          -
                             +2         8          14           20          26         34       42       51       61          -
                              0         9          14           20          27         35       44       53       63         74
                              -2        9          14           21          28         36       45       55       66         77
                              -4        9          15           21          29         38       47       58       69         81
                              -6        9          15           22          30         39       50       61       73         86
                              -8        9          16           23          32         42       53       65       68         92
                             -10        10         16           24          34         44       56       70       84        100
                             -12        10         17           26          36         48       61       76       92        110
                        Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads
                        1
                            Note: A positive grade is uphill, and a negative grade is downhill
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                     50


              Table 5.1 illustrates minimum stopping sight         For most applications and conditions, the
              distances for a range of speeds and grades. It is    coefficient of lateral friction varies from 0.3 at 25
              based on 2.5 seconds of perception-reaction time     km/h to 0.22 at 50 km/h, and for unpaved surfaces
              and a coefficient of friction (f) of 0.25 that       is reduced to 50% of those of paved surfaces.
              accounts for paved surfaces during wet weather       Table 5.2 provides the coefficient of lateral
              and typical braking characteristics of bicycles.     friction and minimum radius for a range of design
                                                                   speeds and super-elevation rates.
              The coefficient of lateral friction for unpaved
              surfaces should be reduced to 50% of those for         Design       Coefficient        Minimum radius (m)
              paved surfaces.                                        speed            of                                          Table 5.2
                                                                     (km/h)         lateral           e=0.02           e=0.05
                                                                                                                                  Minimum Radii for
              Alignment Elements                                                   friction           (m/m)            (m/m)
                                                                                                                                  Paved Bikeways
                                                                       25              0.30              15              14
              The following provides information on horizontal,
              vertical and cross slope alignments.                     30              0.28              24              21

              Horizontal Alignment                                     35              0.27              33              30

              The minimum radius of a curve depends on the             40              0.25              47              42
              bicycle speed, super-elevation and coefficient of
              friction between the bicycle tires and the bikeway       45              0.23              64              57
              surface. The following formula should be used to
              determine the minimum radius of horizontal               50              0.22              82              73
              curves:                                              Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads


              R=V2 / (127 * (e + f))                               Refer to Table 5.6 for typical cross slopes for
                                                                   bikeways. It should be noted that a combination
              Where: R = radius (m)                                of steep grade and high super-elevation might
                     V = speed (km/h)                              cause discomfort for slow moving cyclists.
                     e = super-elevation (m/m)
                     f = coefficient of lateral friction           Horizontal curves must be of sufficiently large
                                                                   radius to ensure that cyclists can safely negotiate
                                                                   the curve at the design speed. When horizontal
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                                                 51


                    curves are of very small radius, bikeway widening                 The minimum length of crest vertical curves
                    should be considered to compensate for the                        depends on the minimum stopping sight distance
                    tendency of cyclists to track toward the inside of                for the design speed of the facility. This is
                    the curve. Widenings are not necessary for curves                 calculated to satisfy the safety requirements of
                    over a 32m radius, and will therefore not usually                 bringing a bicycle from full speed to a full stop
                    be a consideration for on-street routes. Table 5.3                when an obstacle is spotted on the bikeway surface.
                    shows the recommended widening of the riding                      Table 5.4 shows vertical curve lengths for different
                    surface on curves.                                                design conditions for paved surfaces under wet
                                                                                      conditions. Stopping sight distance for unpaved
Table 5.3                                                                             surfaces should be adjusted accordingly to satisfy
Widening of the       Radius of                 Extra width required                  reduced lateral friction conditions equal to 50% of
Riding Curve         Curvature (m)                (grade 0 to 3%)                     those for paved surfaces.
Surface on Curves                                                                                                                                          Table 5.4
                                                                                                                                                           Vertical Curve
                         24 to 32                       250 mm                                                                                             Lengths
                         16 to 24                       500 mm
                                                                                                                   Minimum curve length (m)
                          8 to 16                       750 mm
                                                                                        Change                              Design speed (km/h)
                                                                                           of
                           0 to 8                      1,000 mm                          grade         10     15      20      25      30       35     40      45     50
                    Source: Vélo Quebec, 1992. Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design       (%)

                    Horizontal curves must also be checked to ensure                        2           -      -       -       -       -        -      -       -     11
                    that there are no obstructions located on the inside
                    of the curve, which could block the cyclists’ line                      5           -      -       -       -      15       32     51      71    100
                    of sight and reduce stopping sight distance.
                                                                                           10           -      -      13      27      44       69     102     145   199
                    Vertical Alignment
                                                                                           15           -     10      22      40      67      104     153      -      -
                    Maximum gradients have been previously
                                                                                           20           3     14      30      54       -        -      -       -      -
                    discussed. The minimum gradient for bicycles is
                    0.6%, however, this can be reduced to 0% when                          25           6     18      37       -       -        -      -       -      -
                    drainage is provided by adequate cross slope (1%
                                                                                       Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads
                    to 2%).
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              The following formula should be used to
              determine the stopping sight distances when they            Design Speed                    Minimum Sag
              are greater than the curve length above the line:              (km/h)                       Curvature (m)

              L = 2S-274/A                                                       25                               1.5
                                                                                                                                  Table 5.5
              Where: L = minimum curve length                                    30                               2.5             Sag Vertical
                     S = minimum stopping sight distance                                                                          Curves for
                         from Table 5.4                                          35                                3              Bicycles
                     A = algebraic difference in grades (%)
                                                                                 40                                4
              Below the line, stopping sight distances are less
              than the curve length and L = AS2/274.                             45                                5

              The criterion for bicycles on sag curves is                        50                                6
              comfort, which is expressed in terms of a vertical   Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads
              maximum radial acceleration of 0.3 m/s2.
              However, it is important to consider non-            It is recommended that bikeways with steep
              illuminated bicycle paths, which might be used by    grades be widened to allow cyclists the extra
              cyclists after dark, by providing them with longer   space needed to either make corrections to their
              vertical curves. Table 5.5 provides K values         trajectory at higher speeds going downhill, or to
              corresponding to different design speeds. The        maintain balance at lower speeds heading uphill.
              following formula should be used to determine the    It is not necessary to widen bikeways on grades
              minimum sag curvature:                               shorter than 75 m or shallower than 6%.
                                                                   Table 5.6 summarizes the extra bikeway width
              K=V2/390                                             required on grades as a function of steepness and
                                                                   length.
              Where: V = speed in km/h.
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                                                                                    Cross Slope
                                                   Length (m)
Table 5.6          Grade (%)                                                        A bikeway may have a crown or continuous cross
Extra Bikeway                           25-75          75-150          150+         slope. It is preferable to use a balanced cross
Width Required                                                                      slope on two-way bikeways for drainage purposes,
on Grades               3-6                 -          20 cm           30 cm        and also to direct cyclists to the right side of the
                                                                                    bikeway. Typical cross slopes depend on the
                        6-9             20 cm          30 cm           40 cm        surface type. Table 5.7 summarizes typical cross
                                                                                    slopes for different surface materials.
                         9+             30 cm          40 cm           50 cm
                 Source: Vélo Quebec, 1992. Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design

                                                                                                                                                  Table 5.7
                                                                                                                         Range of cross
                 Horizontal and Vertical Clearance                                           Surface
                                                                                                                           Slope (%)
                                                                                                                                                  Typical Cross
                                                                                                                                                  Slopes
                 For on-road bicycle facilities, a minimum                                   Concrete                       1.5% to 2%
                 horizontal clearance of 600 mm should be
                 maintained between the bikeway and any                                       Asphalt                        2% to 4%
                 obstruction having height in excess of 150 mm
                 including signs, lighting poles, trees and curbs.                  Gravel, crushed stone,                   2% to 4%
                 For off-road facilities, a minimum clearance of                             earth
                 600 m should be maintained between the trail and                  Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads
                 any obstructions such as signs, trees, shrubs,
                 fences, barriers and trailside furnishings.

                 A minimum vertical clearance of 2.5 m should be                    Bikeway Design
                 maintained to the underside of all overhead
                 structures.                                                        Bike Lanes

                 Additional clearance may be required over that                     Bike lanes on urban roads consist of a designated
                 which is identified above to accommodate service                   space between the edge of the vehicular lane and
                 vehicles and other users such as equestrians on                    the curb. Pavement markings, symbols and
                 off-road rural trails.
5   Toolbox                    54




Typical Bike
Lane Cross
Section


               1.2m minimum
                1.5m optimal
               1.8m maximum
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              signage are used to designate this space for       Bike Lanes with On-Street Parking
              exclusive bicycle use. Bike lanes have several
              advantages over wide shared lanes. Some of these   Bike lanes on roads with on-street parking should
              include exclusive space, and the perception of a   be considered in commercial and residential areas
              higher level of safety. Bike lanes are therefore   where the demand for and turnover of parking is
              attractive to less skilled cyclists and may        high, or where commercial and residential
              encourage more people to cycle. The optimum        property owners may not accept the reduction or
              recommended bike lane width is 1.5 m (1.2 m        prohibition of on-street parking. Bike lanes on
              minimum to 1.8 m maximum), enabling cyclists to    roads with on-street parking are located
              travel in single file. Lane widths greater than    immediately adjacent to the left of parked vehicles
              1.8 m are not recommended since they may           along the curb. Designing this type of bikeway
              encourage use by automobile drivers for passing    facility must take into consideration the potential
              other vehicles on the right, or for stopping and   hazard to cyclists of vehicle doors opening into
              parking.                                           the travelled portion of the roadway.

                                                                 In order to allow clearance for vehicle doors, and
                                                                 to minimize collisions with cyclists, the combined
                                                                 bicycle/parking lane should be a minimum of
                                                                 4.0 m wide. This width allows for a 1.6 m bike
                                                                 lane and a 2.4 m wide curbside parking stall. The
                                                                 extra 0.4 m added to the typical 2.0 m wide
                                                                 curbside parking stall provides space for the
                                                                 opening of vehicle doors, and encourages cyclists
                                                                 to travel at a safe distance away from parked
                                                                 vehicles.



              Photo: Toronto, Ontario
5   Toolbox              56




Typical Bike lane with
On Street Parking
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                   On Street Signed Routes                               all road class types to provide bicycle friendly
                                                                         streets, whether a designated bikeway or not.
                   Standard
                                                                         The preferred width for a curb lane is 4.5m, with
                   On-street signed bike routes are typically found on   an acceptable range from 4.0m to 5.0m.
                   local and collector roads, although they can be
                   implemented on arterial roads to form a               An on-street signed route can form part of a
                   connection or link in a cycling network. On-street    cycling network when the addition of bike lanes is
                   signed routes should only be implemented where        not possible. In some cases bike lanes are
                   wide curb lanes exist or can be provided, or where    inappropriate, such as in residential
                   traffic volumes are low. Wide curb lanes should       neighbourhoods where traffic volume is low, or
                   have sufficient width to allow motorists to pass      impossible in the short term due to limited
                   cyclists without encroaching on an adjacent travel    pavement or right-of-way widths and/or because
                   lane. Wide curb lanes should be encouraged for        of on-street parking.
Wide Shared Lane
                                                                         In addition to bicycle route marker signs for on-
                                                                         street signed routes, consideration should be given
                                                                         to shared-use pavement markings and/or signs in
                                                                         accordance with accepted standards (e.g. Bikeway
                                                                         Traffic Control Guidelines, Transportation
                                                                         Association of Canada, 1998).
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Paved Shoulder:                                                               extended life of the vehicle lanes; and
Rural Section
                                                                              reduced run-off-the-road collisions.
                                                                      However, it should be noted that paved shoulders
                                                                      are not ideal for year round cycling since they
                                                                      often are used, whether intentionally or not, for
                                                                      snow storage during winter months.

                                                                      Multi-Use Trails

                                                                      Bi-Directional

                                                                      Multi use trails should be designed to
                                                                      accommodate a variety of user groups. Design
                                                                      standards vary depending upon the trail’s location,
                                                                      the anticipated number of users and permitted
                                                                      uses.

                                                                      The minimum width is typically 3.0 m, which
                                                                      allows for bi-directional flow. On popular,
                                                                      heavily travelled multi-use trails, widths of up to
                  Paved Shoulders                                     4.0 m are recommended to allow for a wider
                                                                      variety and greater number of users, and a centre
                  A relatively easy way to provide for cyclists on    line should be provided to organize traffic.
                  roads with granular shoulders is to pave a 1.5 m
                  wide section of the shoulder. Paved shoulders can   Recommended multi-use trail surfaces include
                  be considered for on-road routes along rural        granular (‘A’ gravel, stonedust) or asphalt.
                  sections with no curb or gutter edge, and a speed   Recently, some municipalities have been
                  limit at or below 80 km/h. Paved shoulders offer    experimenting with concrete and also asphalt
                  other advantages:                                   mixes that use materials such as recycled asphalt,
                                                                      plastics, rubber and ground glass. Certain types of
                         reduced maintenance costs associated with    granular surfaces limit trail access for other
                         the grading of gravel shoulders;             wheeled uses such as wheelchairs, strollers and in-
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Multi-use/
Boulevard Trail




                                                     2.0m




                  line skaters, so intended uses should be considered    Single-Track Trails
                  prior to the specification of surface materials. In
                  high volume or tourist areas, it may be desirable to   Many experienced off-road cyclists prefer single-
                  separate slower users from faster ones by              track trails. In rural areas they are often
                  providing separate trails.                             associated with large public conservation areas,
                                                                         provincial parks, municipal/regional forests as
                  Cyclists often find busy multi-use trails to be        well as privately owned lands such as cross
                  ineffective for commuter and utilitarian purposes      country and downhill ski resorts. In urban areas,
                  due to potential conflicts with other user groups.     single-track trails are often found in public
                  Pedestrians and other trail users can often feel       valleys, forest blocks and public parks.
                  uncomfortable on multi-use trails amongst high
                  volumes of cyclists and inline skaters.                Single-track trails may or may not be connected
                                                                         by off-road routes. Single-track trails tend to be
                                                                         narrower (0.6 m to 1.0 m), have a natural earth
                                                                         surface, and have the widest variety in
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              topographic and surface conditions. Typically,          predictable movement of cyclists, motorists and
              corner radii are smaller and grades are steeper         pedestrians. Since intersections are the most
              than bi-directional multi-use trails to provide the     likely areas for conflict between various users of
              greatest variety for off-road cyclists. Extensive       the roadway, care should be taken to design and
              single-track trail systems can be organized into a      mark the intersection approach such that all users
                                                                      understand and anticipate the potential movements
                                                                      of other road users.

Off-Road
Multi-Use
Trail
Typical
Cross
Section




              spine, loop, stacked loop or maze arrangement.
              Obstacles such as logs, rocks and boulders can be
              left on the trail bed to increase the level of
              difficulty and to challenge riders. In reality,
              single-track trails tend to be multi-use, since they
                                                                                                                           Off-Road Single
              are often used by bikers and cross-country skiers.
                                                                                                                           Track Trail
              Intersection Treatments

              Bikeway approaches to intersections should be
              carefully designed to encourage the safe and
                                                                     Photo: Guelph, Ontario
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                                                                                                 One of the most common conflicts at intersections
                                                                                                 occurs between right turning motor vehicles and
                                                                                                 cyclists proceeding straight through, since it is
                                                                                                 necessary for these two road users to cross paths.
                                                                                                 Pavement markings and signing should be
                                                                                                 designed to encourage such crossings in advance
                                                                                                 of the intersection, rather than in the immediate
                                                                                                 vicinity of the intersection. Left turning cyclists
                                                                                                 must also undertake a similar crossing with
                                                                                                 vehicular traffic whether they elect to undertake a
                                                                                                 “vehicular style” left turn by using the motor
                                                                                                 vehicle left turn lane, or they choose to complete a
                                                                                                 “pedestrian style” turn by proceeding straight
                                                                                                 through the intersection, then turning left to cross
                                                                                                 again on the intersecting road.



Photo: St. George Street – Toronto, Ontario



Bicycle lane at
the intersection of
St. George St. and
Harbord St. in
Toronto (above).

Note pavement
markings
compared to the
TAC standard in
the picture (right)                      Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines
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              For the above noted reasons, it is usually desirable
              to discontinue bike lane markings, or to change
              from a solid to a broken line on the approach to
              the intersection.

              The bike lane marking should be discontinued at
              the start of the taper when right turn lanes or
              channelizations are provided, or otherwise a
              broken line should be used a minimum of 30m
              from a signalized and 15m from an unsignalized
              intersection. This allows cyclists to merge with                                                                      Typical Mid-Block
              other traffic and prevent right turning motorists                                                                     Crossing
              from having to cross through a bike lane to make
              their turn, thereby cutting off cyclists at the
              intersection. By discontinuing the solid bike lane     Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads
              marking, both the cyclists and motorists are made
              aware of the fact that they are sharing a common
              lane and should react accordingly.


              Mid-Block Crossing
                                                                                                                                    Typical Stopping
              Many municipalities are now including hydro and                                                                       Sight Distance at
              abandoned/active rail corridors in their cycling                                                                      Mid-Block
              networks. Abandoned rail corridors in urban areas                                                                     Crossing
              are especially suited for multi-use trail systems,
              with many offering grade separated crossings of
              major arterial roads. Hydro corridors provide
              excellent opportunities for linear trail links, but
              they also result in road crossing challenges, often
              because they occur at mid-block locations. Where
              a bike path crosses a street, mid-block crossings
              traditionally tend to be avoided. This is largely
                                                                     Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                    63


              because a motorist may not expect conflicts with         The aforementioned traffic control devices should
              cyclists crossing mid-block, and it may be difficult     be designed and installed in accordance with the
              to satisfy the warrants for either a traffic signal or   Bikeway Traffic Control Guidance (TAC, 1998)
              crossover.                                               and the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control
                                                                       Devices for Canada (TAC, 1998).
              Mid-block crossings should be designed to
              provide advance warning to both motorists and                                                                    Bicycle Lane at
              cyclists of the impending crossing. The bikeway                                                                  Skewed Railroad
              should be designed to encourage the cyclist to                                                                   Crossing with
              reduce speed and to stop if necessary. Grade                                                                     Restricted Right-of-
              changes on the bikeway in advance of the crossing                                                                Way Width.
              combined with adequate sight distances, signing,
              textural surface contrast and bollards should be
              considered. Mid-block crossings of arterial or
              collector roads may warrant consideration of a
              separate traffic signal or a pedestrian crossover
              (PXO).

              Railway Crossings                                        Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines

              Any intersections with track crossings can be
              extremely dangerous for cyclists, and therefore
              extra caution should be applied to assure their safe
                                                                                                                               Bicycle Lane at
              operation. It is strongly recommended that
                                                                                                                               Skewed Railroad
              appropriate traffic control devices be installed at
                                                                                                                               Crossing with
              the intersections of railway tracks and bikeways.
                                                                                                                               Restricted Right-of-
                                                                                                                               Way Width and
              These include:
                                                                                                                               Gate Control.
                      pavement markings;
                      signage; and
                      lift gates.
                                                                       Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines
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              Furthermore, it is recommended that bikeways be
              designed to cross railways at as close to right                                                                                    Bicycle Lane at
              angles as possible. In many situations this may                                                                                    Skewed Railroad
              require widening of the trail or bikeway in                                                                                        Crossing with
              advance of the crossing, thereby allowing cyclists                                                                                 Unrestricted
              to reduce their speed and position themselves for                                                                                  Right-of-Way
              crossing at right angles. Rubber track guards are                                                                                  Width
              also recommended to assure better friction
              between bike tires and the pavement, and also to
              narrow the rail gaps.

                                                                                         Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines




                                                                                                                                                 Bicycle Friendly
                                                                                                                                                 Road Crossing




                    Source: MTO, 1991. Guidelines for the Design of Bikeways – Ontario
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              Cyclists Crossing at Traffic Signals                    It is recommended that municipalities consider the
                                                                      addition of coloured and/or textured pavement
              Bicycles should be considered in the timing of          treatments at interchange ramps and advance
              traffic signals and in the selection, sensitivity and   warning signs to inform both cyclists and
              placement of vehicle detection devices wherever         motorists of the bicycle crossing.
              there is bicycle traffic. It is very important that
              loop detectors at signalized intersections be           Illumination
              sensitive to bicycles, otherwise cyclists are likely
              to disobey the unchanged signal. Another                Effective lighting is an important influence on
              alternative is to utilize a pedestrian style push-      safe travel on bikeways, particularly after sunset.
              button to actuate traffic signals for cyclists. These   Modern lighting equipment on bicycles is
              should be located on the curb side, separate from       generally inadequate to illuminate potholes and
              the pedestrian push-button.                             other hazards to the cyclist while travelling at
                                                                      reasonable speeds. Specific bikeway illumination
              Coloured and/or Textured Pavement                       is recommended for routes expected to have
                                                                      significant nighttime use.
              Intersections, crossings and interchange ramps are
              considered to be the most difficult elements in a       It is recommended that the area bordering
              bicycle network. It has been recognized that the        bikeways for a width of two to five metres on each
              application of coloured and/or textured pavement        side be lighted to levels of at least 1/3 of that for
              to illustrate pedestrian and bicycle crossing points    the bikeway. The level of horizontal illumination
              at intersections may significantly improve the          needs to be sufficient to easily follow the
              safety of cyclists by informing both cyclists and       bikeway, avoid potholes and other obstacles and
              motorists of a bicycle crossing and the space it        to read pavement markings. Adequate vertical
              comprises. Coloured pavement treatments are             illumination should make vertical surfaces such as
              widely used in European cities. In North                fences, walls, curbs, trees and shrubs clearly
              America, a number of cities are now                     visible. The lighting system as a whole should:
              experimenting with coloured pavement and
                                                                            enable cyclists to see other cyclists;
              concrete treatments at crossings – Portland,
              Oregon being one notable example. Textured                    enable cyclists to read signs;
              pavement or concrete is also used in certain                  allow motorists to see cyclists where the
              jurisdictions.                                                path intersects a road or is in close proximity
                                                                            to a road; and
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                   provide adequate illumination along the                                 places where clearance to obstructions is
                   entire length and width of the bikeway.                                 minimal;
              Lighting of hazards or areas that are potentially                            areas where pedestrian volumes are high;
              hazardous to cyclists is recommended. This could
                                                                                           locations with special security
              include:
                                                                                           problems/issues; and
                   intersections with other trails or roads;                               special facilities such as stair and multi-unit
                                                                                           bicycle parking facilities.
                   sharp horizontal and vertical curves;
                   steep grades;
                   ramps to structures;
                   portals of tunnels and subways;




                                                                                                                                             Lighting for a
                                                                                                                                             Bikeway Crossing
                                                                                                                                             a Street




                                     Source: MTO, Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. 1996.
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              Table 5.8 summarizes the recommended                    location of the trail, there may be enough ambient
              illumination levels for various on-road and off-        light from nearby roads or parking lots to light the
              road locations.                                         trail. Finally, vegetation adjacent to the trail may
                                                                      need darkness to permit time to “rest”.
              The principal components that determine the
              performance of a lighting system are the lamppost,      Placement of the lighting poles must be carefully
              the luminaire and the light source. There are           considered. The minimum clear-zone should be
              many types of light sources including                   applied to the placement of lighting poles. Signs
              incandescent, fluorescent, mercury vapour,              should be installed in accordance with roadway
              halogen, high-pressure sodium and metal halide.         signage standards and be placed so that they are
              Metal halide, mercury vapour, halogen and high-         well lit.
              pressure sodium vapour are most often used
              because they are high-intensity lamps that are          It is also important to ensure that tree branches
              activated by electrical discharges. They provide        and other obstacles do not obstruct the passage of
              much greater luminous efficiency and have very          light. Therefore, periodic inspection and pruning
              long lamp lives. Although high-pressure sodium          of tree growth is necessary.
              vapour is the most energy efficient and bulb life is
              the longest, the colour spectrum is artificial. As a    Support Facilities
              result, human perception and behaviour in the
              nighttime environment can be enhanced with the          The provision of bicycle parking plus related
              use of low wattage metal halide lighting for off-       support and end-of-trip facilities is a key and
              road multi-use trails. The quality of low wattage       sometimes overlooked element of bikeway system
              metal halide light allows trail users to discern both   design. Developing and maintaining a
              the trailway surface and the surroundings. High         comprehensive network of on and off-road
              pressure sodium vapour lighting is the common           bikeway facilities does not automatically mean
              standard for roadways, and therefore applies to         cyclists will use the network. The network has to
              on-road bicycle facilities.                             be promoted, cyclists need to feel comfortable and
                                                                      safe in using it, and they must have access to
              Note that not all off-road trails need to be lit.       adequate parking and end-of-trip facilities. For
              Unlit trails can be easier to use at night since        commuters, this means secure bicycle parking
              cyclists’ eyesight can adjust to the darkness.          facilities, showers and change rooms.
              Lighting off-road trails can be very costly to
              implement and maintain, and depending on the
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                                                             Table 5.8
                                                    Bikeway illumination Levels

                       LOCATIONS                          MINIMUM              AVERAGE   UNIFORMITY RATIO

              MULTI-USE TRAIL
                          Horizontal                            1                  5           5/1
                             Vertical                           1                  5           5/1

              INTERSECTION ON UNLIT
              AND LIT STREET
                           Horizontal                           1                  3            3/1
                             Vertical                           2                  5           2.5/1


              DESIGNATED SIGNED
              ROUTE OR BIKE LANE
                           Horizontal                           2                  5           2.5/1
                             Vertical                           2                  5           2.5/1
              TUNNEL (>10 METRES)
                           Horizontal                          10                  43          4.3/1
                             Vertical                          12                  54          4.5/1
              TUNNEL (<10 METRES)
                           Horizontal                           6                  20          3.3/1
                             Vertical                           7                  24          3.5/1
              Source: MTO, 1999. Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines
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              Rest Areas

              Rest areas should be provided along off-road
              bikeway systems where highly visible and space
              permits. Areas where cyclists tend to stop such as
              interpretative stations, lookouts, restaurants,
              museums and other attractions or services are
              logical locations for rest areas. Ideally, there
              should be a rest area every five kilometres on a
              recreational bikeway. Typical furnishings to be
              considered include benches or tables, washrooms,
              drinking fountains, trash cans, information signing
              complete with mapping, plus bicycle parking
              facilities. Additional services may include an air
              pump, shelter and telephones. Parking for
              automobiles should be provided at key locations
              throughout the network, providing opportunities
              for both recreational cyclists using off-road
              cycling trails as well as commuters who may be
              encouraged to include cycling as part of their
              commute where “car-pool” lots are conveniently
              located. The number of spaces required should be                                                Typical Elements
              determined on a site-specific basis, and should                                                   in a Rest Area
              account for factors such as supply and demand of                                                          Design
              automobile parking elsewhere throughout the
              network.




                                                                    Source: ESG International design, 2001.
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              Bollards and Offset Gates                                                    Although not a preferred solution, offset gates can
                                                                                           be used as a bicycle traffic calming measure,
              To prevent access by unauthorized users such as                              particularly at busy intersections. Offset gates
              motor vehicles, barriers should be installed at the                          should be designed to provide uninterrupted
              trail entrances. Barriers must be clearly marked                             through access for bicycle trailers.
              and visible, otherwise they can become a hazard
              to cyclists. Trailside signage alerting cyclists of                          Bollards are typically used to control access to
              the upcoming roadway, intersection or other                                  bikeways. A single, central bollard should be
              hazards should be appropriately located to provide                           used to prevent collisions between cyclists and
              adequate time to slow down and/or stop as                                    prevent motorized vehicle access. The use of two
              required.                                                                    bollards is typically not recommended because it
                                                                                           can cause congestion and collisions as




              Source: MMM, 2001. Design adapted from Community Cycling Manual – A Planning and Design Guide, Canadian Institute of Planners, 1990.
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                                                                                                                               Stairs with a side
                                                                                                                               ramp.




              Source: TAC, 1991. Guidelines for the Design of Bikeways


              cyclists converge into the narrow central opening.         Stairways with Side Ramps
              Bollards should be at least 1.2 metres high and
              coated with a reflective material to be visible at         Staircases are a nuisance to cyclists, and in
              night.                                                     extreme cases can become a barrier to cycling.
                                                                         New staircases should be designed with a channel
              Both bollards and offset gates should be                   for bicycles, and existing staircases should be
              removable by trail management staff to allow               examined for opportunities for retrofitting. A
              access for maintenance vehicles.                           concave or channel-shaped ramp on the side of the
                                                                         staircase will allow cyclists to roll their bicycle
                                                                         while walking up or down the stairs.
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              On-Road Traffic Control                              (BTCGC), 1998 is the current national guideline
                                                                   for the signing of bikeways. The three different
              Signs, pavement markings and other traffic           categories of signs as outlined in the BTCGC are
              control devices for on-road bikeways should be       regulatory, warning and information.
              designed and installed to comply with the Manual
              of Uniform Traffic Control Devices published by
              the Ministry of Transportation, as well as the TAC
              Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines.
                                                                                                                                        Examples of typical
              It is also recommended that traffic control signs                                                                         regulatory signs.
              for off-road trails be designed with the same
              characteristics as on-road signs. This helps to
              establish consistency throughout the system. It
              can be assumed that adult cyclists who are also
              motor vehicle operators will be familiar with this    Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada.
              signing system. Following these standards will
              also benefit child cyclists who will be familiar     Regulatory: The regulatory signs convey traffic
              with on-road signing by the time they become         laws or regulations which would not otherwise be
              licensed motor vehicle operators.                    apparent. For example, bicycle lane signs should
                                                                   be located prior to the beginning of a marked bike
              Signage                                              lane to advise motorists and cyclists of the
                                                                   upcoming roadway designation.
              The objective of using traffic signs is to inform
              users of traffic regulations, warn of road
              characteristics and road hazards, and provide
              information necessary for route selection. Signs
              must be designed with these objectives in mind
              and installed properly to maximize their
              effectiveness. Only TAC approved bikeway signs
              are recommended for on-road bikeway facilities.

              The Transportation Association of Canada (TAC)
              Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada


                                                                   Photo: Windsor, Ontario
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                      Warning: These signs warn motorists or cyclists                     The Windsor Trail Signage Guidelines were
                      of potentially hazardous conditions on or adjacent                  developed in 1994 to provide a framework for
                      to the road or path. The use of warning signs                       signage on the off-road trail network. These
                      should be limited to areas where the conditions                     guidelines have been reviewed and adopted by the
                      might not be apparent to avoid overuse of a sign.                   City for use on their on-road bicycle network as
                                                                                          well. Where there exists a conflict between the
                                                                                          Windsor Trail Signage and the BTCGC, however,
                                                                                          the national guideline would take precedence.
Examples of typical
warning signs.
                                                                                                                                                             Examples of
                                                                                                                                                             appropriate signs
                                                                                                                                                             and pavement
                      Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada.
                                                                                                                                                             markings that can
                                                                                                                                                             be used for mid-
                                                                                                                                                             block discontinued
                                                                                                                                                             bike lanes (top) and
                                                                                                                                                             contra-flow lanes
                                                                                                                                                             (bottom).
Examples of typical
guide and
information signs.


                      Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada.


                      Guide and Information: These signs provide
                      cyclists with information relating to route
                      identification and direction to ensure that the route
                      is accurately followed.
                                                                                          Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada
5   Toolbox                                                                                                                                        74


              Curbs

              While typically not a major consideration in the
              design of bicycle facilities, the type and location
              of curbs should be considered among other factors
              such as lane width, on-street parking, vehicle
              speeds and volume. Generally, there are three
              types of curbs: barrier, semi-mountable and                                                                           Examples of
              mountable.                                                                                                            barrier (top) and
                                                                                                                                    mountable (middle)
              Barrier curbs are the preferred types of curb                                                                         and semi-moutable
              separation for sidewalks, which are usually                                                                           curbs (bottom).
              located in boulevard areas outside the travelled
              roadway. On lower speed urban roads, the barrier
              curb provides an added measure of safety for
              pedestrians by tending to keep errant vehicles,
              including bicycles, from leaving the road. Barrier
              curbs have a near-vertical face and are typically
              150 mm high. They are constructed both with and
              without an integral gutter. Barrier curbs are the
              most commonly used type of curbing, and are
              found on most local, collector and arterial urban
              roads.

              Semi-mountable curbs are more rounded in
              shape than barrier curbs, with somewhat less
              vertical difference (125 mm) between the gutter
              and top of curb. They are typically not found in      Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads.
              cycling environments. From a cycling
              perspective, however, their characteristics are       Mountable curbs (sometimes referred to as
              more like those of mountable curbs.                   gutters) have a relatively flat “vee” shaped cross
                                                                    section which is designed to contain drainage
                                                                    without presenting a significant obstruction or
5   Toolbox                                                                                                           75


              hazard to vehicles. They are often found in rural       These solutions demonstrate how the following
              or semi-urban conditions, separating the traveled       challenging areas may be overcome:
              lanes from an adjacent paved boulevard or
              shoulder.                                               1. Howard Avenue Multi-Use Trail (Devonshire
                                                                         Mall Area).
              Since they can be easily crossed, and their height
                                                                      2. Memorial Drive Multi-Use Trail Connection
              is such that it does not interfere with pedaling,
                                                                         at Walker Road.
              cyclists will not perceive mountable curbs as a
              substantial hazard. Catch basin grates are often        3. Huron Church Road/E.C. Row Expressway
              contained entirely within the width of the                 Underpass.
              mountable curb, and therefore do not take away          4. Intersection of Cabana Road and Dougall
              from the usable width of the roadway. The lateral          Avenue.
              clearance requirement for mountable curbs is
              therefore likely to be less than for barrier type       5. Howard Avenue/Ypres Boulevard Connection.
              curbs. Therefore, where roadway width is                6. Walker Road/E.C. Row Expressway
              constrained, a narrow bicycle lane could possibly          Underpass.
              be created adjacent to a mountable curb, whereas
              a similar width roadway with barrier curbs may
              not be a candidate for bicycle lanes. The fact that
              a cyclist can easily cross mountable curbs also
              provides greater opportunity for the cyclist to take
              evasive action in an emergency situation.

              Barrier curbs are the recommended design.

              5.2     Site Specific Applications

              Implementing the proposed network
              recommended in this plan will require the
              municipality to overcome various barriers as
              discussed in Chapter 4. To assist in this process,
              six potential design solutions are illustrated on the
              following pages.
         GRAND MAR

                              GRAND MAR



                                                     NORTH SERVICE

                                                                     E.C. R.O.W. EX




                                                                                                                                                                 SYDNEY
                   AIS ROA

                                        AIS DR
                                                                                                                    Pedestrian Connection
                                                                                                                     "   connection to off-road trail




                                                         ROAD
                                                                                                                         through intersection.
                                               AIN

                                                                                                                     "   ”cyclist dismount” and walk




                                                                                                                                                                   AV
                                                                                   P
                          D




                                                                                                                         bicycles through intersection




                                                                          RESSWAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                             AD




                                                                                                                                                                      EN
                    EAST




                                                                                                                                                                                                           RO




                                                                                                                                                                         U
                                                                                              DEVONSHIRE MALL                                                                                 N
                                                                                                                                                                                            IO




                                                                                                                                                                           E
                                                                                                                                                                                           S
                                                                                                                                                                                      D IVI
                                                                                                                          Trail Crossing of
                                                                                                                          Railway
                                                                                                                           "   align trail to cross railway at                                        Trail Junction with
                                                                                                                               90 degrees
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Howard Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       "   align trail to meet
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Howard Ave. Paved
                                                                                                                                                                                                           shoulders at 90
                                                                                                                                                                                                           degrees.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       "   Note: proposed paved
                                                     E.C. R.O.W. BRIDGE                                       HOWARD AVENUE                                                                                shoulders (north and
                                                                                                                                                                                                           south-bound) along
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Howard Ave. South




                                                                                                                                                         A RD             Signing

                                                                                                                                                       EV
                                                                                                                                                                           "   cyclists dismount to
                                                                                                                                                                               cross

                                                                                                                               UL
Signing                                                                                                                      BO
 "   cyclists dismount to
                                                                                                                          ON
                                                                                                                       ER
     cross

                                                                                                                     M
                                                                                                               H   CA
                                                                                                             UT
                                                                                                           SO
                                                                                                                                                                                        not to scale

                                          LEGEND
                                                                       proposed bike lane                                                City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study
                                                                       proposed off-road multi-use trail                                   Conceptual Site Specific Details
                                                                       proposed signed route                       Figure 5.1 Howard Avenue Multi-Use Trail (Devonshire Mall Area)
                                                                                      Wa
                                                                                         lk     er
                                                                                                Ro
                                                                                Ba




                                                                                                     ad
                                                                                  r ri
                                                                                      er
                                                                        1.5



                                                                                         cur
                                                                          m



                                                                                            b
                                                                              sid
                                                                                                                                                                    Grand Marais Road




                                                                                 ew




                                                                                                Cu
                                                                                   al k




                                                                                                  tc
                                                                                                    ur
Existing




                                                                                                      b
driveway
                                                                                                                                                                                            Bollards
                               1.5 m sidewalk




                                                                                                          Ba
                                                                          Plantings
                                      Barrier




                                                                                                             r
                                                                                                            rie
   Memorial Drive                                                                                                               Trail Sign




                                                                                                               rc
                                                                                                                                 "   no cycling on sidewalk




                                                                                                                 ur
                                                                                                                                     (north of Gr and Marais




                                                                                                                   b
                                                                                                                                     Road)




           Multi-use Trail (bidirectional)




                                                                                                                       Cu
                                                                                                                                                                                             Trail Connection




                                                                                                                          t
                                                                                                                                                                                             (bidirectional)




                                                                                                                         cu
                                                                                                                                                                                               "   to proposed multi-use




                                                                                                                           rb
                                                                                                                                                                                                   trail along Grand Marais
                                                                 Bollards                                                                                                                          Rd.
                                                                                                                                                                                               "   trail signing at
                                                                                                                                                                                                   intersection (cyclists to




                                                                                                                                 Ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                   cross intersection as




                                                                                                                                   r ri
                                                                                                                                                                                                   pedestrian)




                                                                                                                                      er
                                                                 Trail Sign




                                                                                                                                         cur
                                                                  "   cyclists dismount and walk




                                                                                                                                            b
                                                                      across intersection
                                                                  "   shared use trail along Walker                                                            Note:
                                                                      Road to connect with Grand                                                                "
                                                                      Marais Road (to provide for a
                                                                                                                          To Grand                                  interim solution pending finalization
                                                                                                                                                                    of brige structure recommended in
                                                                      common crossing of railway                          Marais                                    the Walker Road ESR.
                                                                      tracks)                                             Road
                                                                                                                                                                                                       not to scale

                              LEGEND
                                                                                                                                City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study
                                                proposed off-road multi-use trail                                               Conceptual Site Specific Details
                                                pedestrian crossing through intersection                   Figure 5.2 Memorial Drive Multi-Use Trail Connection at Walker Road
             NORTHWOOD STREET




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ST
                                                                                                           AY.
                                                                           multi-use trail
                                                                             "




                                                                                                                                                                                                              LE
                                                                                 through park to
                                                                                 connect with bike                                      NORTHWAY AVENUE




                                                                                                       ESSW
                                                                                 lanes on Northwood




                                                                                                                                                                                                          L
                                                                                 Street




                                                                                                                                                                                                        BE
                create opening in fence




                                                                                                                                                                                                      LA
                                                                                                                            off-road shared use (multi-
        off-road multi-use trail                                                                                            use) trail
         "   within E.C. R.O.W. Right of way, between
                                                                                                                             "




                                                                                                 EXPR
             fance and existing planting
             fence                                                                                                               along east side of Huron Church
                                                                                                                                 Road below E.C. R.O.W. expressway
         "   note: guide rail to off ramp to be
             extended                                                                                                                      signing
                                                                                                                                             "   cyclists dismount
   DAYTONA AVENUE                                                                                                                                to cross
                                                                                                                                                                 off-road multi-use trail
                                                                                                                                                                     "   trail within Huron Church Road
                                                                                                                                                                         R.O.W. on east side of road




                                                                                                   .
                                                                                              R.O.W
HURON CHURCH ROAD                                                                                                                    HURON CHURCH ROAD
   signing
    "   at Huron Church Road and E.C.                   signing
        R.O.W. off ramp
                                                                                                                                                      off-road multi-use trail




                                                                                         E.C.
    "   ”no cycling on sidewalk” - north
                                                         "   cyclists dismount to
                                                             cross
                                                E
        bound on Huron Church Road                                                                                                                      "   within Huron Church Road R.O.W.
                                                                                                                                                            on west side of road
                                            U

        north of inter section
    "   ”shared-use” on sidewalk south
                                         EN




                                                                                                                                                              D
        bound on Huron Church Road                                                                                                                                         signing
        south of intersection




                                                                                                                                                            OA
                                                                                                                                                                             "   cyclists dismount
                                      AV




                                                                                                                                                                                 to cross




                                                                                                                                                         R
                                   AL




                                                                                                                                                      EN
                                 NT




                                                                                                                                                                                          RO T.
                                                                                                                                                                                               )
                                                                                                                                                D




                                                                                                                                                                                       RE M S
                                                                                                                                                                                            AD
                           INE




                                                                                                                                             AR




                                                                                                                                                                                    TU HE
                                                                                                                                           GG
                         NT




                                                                                                                                                                                 (FU THLE
                       CO




                                                                                                         off-road multi-use




                                                                                                                                       RIN
                                                                                                         trail
                                                                                                          "   connection to Malden
                                                                                                              Park




                                                                                                                                     SP




                                                                                                                                                                                  BE
                                                                                                                                                                                               not to scale

    LEGEND
                                      proposed bike lane                                                                   City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study
                                      proposed off-road multi-use trail                                                     Conceptual Site Specific Details
                                      proposed signed route                                            Figure 5.3 Huron Church Road/E.C.Row Expressway Underpass
                                 Proposed Bike Lanes
                                   "   north on Dougall Ave.




                                                                                                                                                          Proposed Bike Lanes
                                                                                                                                                           "   east and west-bound on
                                                                                                                                                               Cabana Rd. (both sides)
                                                                                                                                                           "   through Dougall Ave.
                                                                                                                                                               intersection




           New Sign                                                                                                           Dougall Ave.
               "   cyclists dismount and walk
                   bicycles through intersection
                                                                                                                                                          New Sign
                                                                                                                                                           "   cyclists dismount and walk
          Proposed Signed Route                                                                                                                                bicycles through intersection
               "   along Roselawn Dr.




                                                                                                          E
                                                                                                          xi
                                                                                           k
                                                                                        al                                                                Existing Sign




                                                                                                            st
                                                                                      ew




                                                                                                              in
                                                                                                                                                           "   vehicular sign “do not enter”




                                                                                                              g
                                                                                    id                                                                     "   add “bicycles excepted” tab




                                                                                                                   S
                                                                                S




                                                                                                                   id
                                                                                                                                                               below
                                                                           ng




                                                                                                                      ew
                                                                        ti




                                                                                                  .
                                                                      is




                                                                                                                        al
                                                                                                na Rd
                                                                    Ex




                                                                                                                          k
                                                                                               Caba                                                       Proposed Signed Route


                                           D r.
                                la wn




                                                                                                                                   M
                           se




                                                                                                                                    cG
                         o




                                                                                                                                      re
                     R




                                                                                                                                          go
                                                                                                                                            rP
                                                                                                                                              l.
not to scale


                             LEGEND
                                                               proposed bike lane                                               City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study
                                                               proposed off-road multi-use trail                                Conceptual Site Specific Details
                                                               proposed signed route                                    Figure 5.4 Intersection of Cabana Road and Dougall Avenue
                                                               pedestrian crossing through intersection
                                                                                                                                                                               Caboto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ST.
                                                                                                                                                                                Club                                                M   INA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            L

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               TER




                                                                             MERCER ST.
                                                                                                                            LOGAN ST.

                 Jackson
                   Park
                                                                 FOCH ST.                                                                                                      VE.
                                                                                                                                                                            SA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WOODLAWN AVE.
                                                                                                                                                                                   MARENTETTE AVE.
                                                                                                                                      AY                        LE
                                                                                                                                                                           N                                                                                                                         Continuity of Parent Ave. facility.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WELLESLEY AVE.
                                                                                                                                 W
                                                                                                                             AIL                                                                                                                                                                      "   seek opportunity through agreement with




                                                                                                                                                                                                       ELSMERE AVE.
                                                                                                                            R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FOREST AVE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Caboto Club to provide signed route




                                                                                                                                                              LOUIS AVE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          connection along private driveway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          belonging to Club.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "   seek opportunity to develop at-grade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          pedestrian crossing of railway




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARENT AVE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Howard Avenue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "   multi-use trail on the west side subject to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          available width between the right-of-way
                 Off Road Trail
OUELLETTE AVE.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and existing buildings
                  "   adjacent to railway,
                                                                             RAI
                      (north side of tracks)                                              LWA                                                                                                                                                                                                        Parent Ave.
                      between Howard and                                                     Y                              ME
                                               McDOUGALL ST.




                      McDougall                                                                                                 MO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "   on-road signed route south of Optimist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Park/South Pacific Ave.
                  "   Bike lanes along                                                                                                RIA                                                                                           YPRES BLVD.
                      McDougall, Eugenie                                                                                                      LD
                                                               HOLDEN                                                                                 R.
                      and Remington                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ypres Blvd.
                  "   off-road trail through
                                                                                            DOTY



                                                                                                                                SO                                                                                                                                                                    "   on-road signed route or bike lanes
                      Jackson Park
                                                                                                                   BRAZIL
                                                                                                                                     UTH
                                                                                                                                            PA
                                                                                                                                                     CIF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Optimist
                                                                                                                                                         IC                                                                                                                                          Optimist Park
                      EUGENIE ST.                                                                                                                             AV
                                                                                                                                                                E.                                                                   Park                                                             "   existing off-road trail to make connection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with Memorial Ave.
                                                                                      .




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pedestrian Crossing of Howard
                                                                                    VE




                                                                                                                    BENSETTE AVE.
                                                                                  DA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ave.
                                                                           W AR



                                                                                                   REMINGTON ST.
                                                                        HO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARENT AVE.
                                                                                                                    HILDEGARDE ST.



                                                                                                                                                                                                     ELSMERE AVE.
                                                                                                                                       LILLIAN ST.




                                                                                                                    CHARLOTTE ST.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LANGLOIS CT.
                                                                                                                                                           STANLEY ST.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 JACOB
                                                                                           EDINBOROUGH                                                                                                                                                                                                                       not to scale
                                                               HOWARD AVE.




                          LEGEND
                                                                         proposed bike lane
                                                                               VANIER ST.
                                                                         proposed off-road multi-use trail                                                                                                                                                        City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study
                                                                         proposed signed route                                                                                                                                                                    Conceptual Site Specific Details
                                                                         existing signalized intersection                                                                                                                            Figure 5.5 Howard Avenue/Ypres Boulevard Connection
        Off-road to Digby Street
        and North Ser vice Road



        signing
         "   cyclists dismount to cross




                                                                      Signalized
                                                                     intersection




              On-ramp                                Bridge
                                                     abutments
                                                                                                                E.C.Row Expressway (elevated )
              Off-ramp


                                                                                                              On-ramp to E.C.Row Expressway
                                                                      Signalized
                                                                     intersection




               Proposed off-road                                                                      signing                                          Existing sidewalk -
               multi-use trail                                                                         "   cyclists dismount to cross                  continue off-road
                                                                                                                                                       route to connect with



                                                                                        Walker Road
                                                                                                                                                       proposed bike lanes
                                                                          Walker Road
                                                                                                      Existing sidewalk to                             on Rhodes Drive

South Service Road                                                                                    C&O railway




                                                                                                                                        Riberdy Road
                                                                                                      overpass




                               signing
                                 "   cyclists dismount to cross


                                                                                                                                                                               not to scale


               LEGEND
                                               proposed bike lane                                                               City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study
                                               proposed off-road multi-use trail                                                  Conceptual Site Specific Details
                                               proposed signed route                                                 Figure 5.6 Walker Road/E.C. Row Expressway Underpass
                                               pedestrian crossing through intersection
6   Implementation                                                                                                              77


                                                                          2. A practical implementation strategy that
                                                                             identifies and sets out a recommended
                                                                             approach to implement the Plan, and also
                                                                             addresses priorities and phasing;

                                                                          3. An administrative structure or organization

                     T   he BUMP is not intended to be a static
                         document. The timing and details related to
                     implementation, particularly the location of
                                                                             responsible for implementing all components
                                                                             of the Plan, as well as for co-ordinating multi-
                                                                             departmental resources, including funding
                     recommended routes and bikeway types, can and           commitments;
                     should evolve through community consultation
                     and detailed technical studies when appropriate.     4. Funding by Council for the entire Plan within
                     At the same time, however, the extensive                a specified timeframe (20 years); and
                     community effort that established the overall
                     direction for this Plan should be respected.         5. Monitoring of the Plan to assess
                                                                             implementation results and to serve as
                     The following implementation strategy is intended       feedback to refine on-going implementation of
“The challenge       to provide the tools and mechanisms necessary to        the Plan.
and success of any   implement the BUMP, and is consistent with the
master plan is       community’s cycling vision.                          Chapters 1 through 5 of the BUMP establish a
measured in part                                                          concise Cycling Master Plan that is based on a
by the ease with     6.1    Implementation Strategy                       clear vision, principles and goals, plus a set of
which it can be                                                           supporting recommendations.
implemented.”        The challenge and success of any master plan is
                     measured in part by the ease with which it can be    The following provides the implementing actions,
                     implemented. Ease of implementation is typically     administrative structure, funding and monitoring
                     measured by five criteria:                           elements that are recommended to successfully
                                                                          implement the BUMP.
                     1. The quality and clarity of the plan in terms of
                        its vision, principles and goals that guide it,   Implementing Actions
                        and the set of recommendations that provide
                        the strategy to achieve the plan;                 The implementation of the BUMP will be
                                                                          accomplished through both short and long term
6   Implementation                                                                                                               78


                      actions. Short term action is for Council to adopt         That the City, during road resurfacing or
                      the BUMP, thereby committing the City of                   rehabilitation projects, consider the BUMP
                      Windsor to the implementation of its                       recommendations prior to proceeding.
                      recommendations.
                                                                           6.2    Administrative Structure
                      Long term action is to commit annual funding to:
                                                                           People and leadership are the keys to setting the
                           initiate the cycling awareness, cycling-        implementation of the BUMP in motion. The
                           transit and end-of-trip recommendations         formal relationships between individuals and
                           identified in Chapter 4; and                    organizations and their operational practices are
                                                                           important factors in determining whether a BUMP
“People and                construct the cycling network generally in      initiative will proceed and be successful.
leadership are the         keeping with the phasing illustrated on         Maximizing participation and removing obstacles
keys to setting the        Maps 5 and 6.                                   to the flow of information between participants
implementation of                                                          are two of the main objectives in managing
the BUMP in           Recommendations                                      implementation.
motion.”
                           That Council adopt the BUMP, thereby            The current administrative structure for organizing
                           committing the City of Windsor to the           and implementing cycling initiatives within the
                           implementation of its recommendations.          City of Windsor largely rests with four
                                                                           departments, Traffic Engineering, Parks and
                           That the City of Windsor commit annual          Recreation, Planning and Building Services and
                           funding to:                                     Public Works, plus one committee of Council, the
                                                                           Windsor Bicycling Committee. It is lead by the
                           a) initiate the cycling awareness, cycling-
                                                                           Traffic Engineering Department. However, there
                              transit and end-of-trip recommendations
                                                                           is no staff person solely responsible for co-
                              as identified in Chapter 4; and
                                                                           ordinating all cycling activities as was envisioned
                                                                           in the BUDS. The BUMP confirms the earlier
                           b) construct the cycling network generally
                                                                           BUDS recommendation that the City establish a
                              in keeping with the phasing illustrated
                                                                           full time staff position to oversee cycling related
                              on Maps 5 and 6.
                                                                           issues in Windsor.
6   Implementation                                                                                                             79


                The BUMP recommends that this Cycling                 The Windsor Bicycling Committee is a citizen
                Coordinator position be created in the Traffic        advisory group appointed by City Council to
                Engineering Department since this department is       represent cyclists. The role of the Committee is to
                responsible for the implementation of this Plan.      provide input on the whole range of cycling
                The responsibilities of this position will include:   programs and services offered by the City. The
                                                                      citizen volunteers have been an invaluable
                      coordinating and championing the                resource in developing new and innovative
                      implementation of the BUMP across various       policies and programs to encourage cycling and
                      departments;                                    improve safety, and have contributed to the
                                                                      development of the BUMP.
                      liaison with the Windsor Bicycling
                      Committee;                                      The Windsor Bicycling Committee should be a
                                                                      partner in implementing the BUMP and should
                      providing cycling input on various              continue to have a valuable role in representing
                      municipal and development projects;             the interests of all cyclists in the City. The
                                                                      experience and knowledge of the members of this
                      coordinating the bicycle parking program;       committee are an asset that should be consulted
                                                                      for advice and input during the implementation of
                      managing cycling related projects;              the BUMP. They will provide input and assist
                                                                      staff in confirming priorities for implementation.
                      coordinating cycling related projects with
                      other agencies and adjacent municipalities;     Recommendations
                      inspiring participation within the community         That the City of Windsor establish the
                      for cycling; and                                     position of Cycling Coordinator in the
                                                                           Traffic Engineering Department to oversee
                      developing funding opportunities in both the
                                                                           cycling related issues and to coordinate
                      public and private realm.
                                                                           implementation of the BUMP.

                                                                           That the Windsor Bicycling Committee
                                                                           continue in its current role, and assist staff in
                                                                           confirming priorities for implementation of
                                                                           the BUMP.
6   Implementation                                                                                                           80


                It is recognized that the complete cycling network   not require a detailed feasibility analysis. Where a
                and priorities recommended in this Plan will         feasibility study is required, terms of reference for
                evolve through the environmental assessment,         the study should be prepared and if necessary,
                planning and capital budget processes. Therefore,    adopted by Council.
                as a guide it is recommended that the City adopt
                the cycling network implementation process           Phase II: Determine Feasibility
                outlined in Figure 6.1 to implement and refine the
                recommended cycling network.                         When a feasibility study is required, it is intended
                                                                     that it be developed through a process similar to a
                The four phase cycling network implementation        Class Environmental Assessment. This entails the
                process provides a formal mechanism to confirm       collection and analysis of relevant information,
                the validity of each route recommended in this       the identification and evaluation of alternative
                report.                                              design solutions, public consultation and the
                                                                     selection of a preferred alternative.
                Phase 1: Define Need
                                                                     Whenever alternative design solutions or detailed
                When a project involves a proposed cycling route     designs are prepared, they should be developed in
                identified in BUMP, or the opportunity to            accordance with recognized and accepted design
                establish a new route not identified in BUMP, the    guidelines as referenced in Section 5.1 of this
                Traffic Engineering Department and Bicycle           report.
                Coordinator should be notified. From a roadway
                planning and maintenance perspective, this is why    Where necessary, Council should be asked to
                criteria are recommended to be added to the City’s   confirm the preferred design solution or the
                Strategic Roadway Improvement Program                detailed design by resolution.
                (STRIP) and Roadway Improvement Management
                System (RIMS). Staff can then confirm that the       It should also be noted that in situations where
                route is still valid based on a review of the BUMP   there is a clear community demand for a cycling
                report and other relevant information.               facility, but site specific circumstances prevent it
                                                                     from being constructed, other nearby parallel
                If the route is still valid, staff should confirm    routes should also be closely examined for their
                whether or not a feasibility study is required to    suitability.
                implement the route. It is recognized that certain
                routes, such as those through existing parks, may
6       Implementation                                                                                                           81



                                                             Figure 6.1
                                              Cycling Network Implementation Process


    1. A project is identified by staff    6. Collect and assess background        14. Confirm detailed   17. Monitor facility
       that may involve or impact a           information such as road/lane            design and             and its use
       proposed bikeway designated            configurations, width, signal            associated costs
       in BUMP.
                                              timings, collision data, on street
Communicate to Traffic Engineering                                                                        18. Determine if
                                              parking and adjacent land uses       15. Schedule into           changes are
    and Bicycle Coordinator                                                             Capital Works          required
                                           7. Identify Alternative Design               Program
2. Determine validity of the route:
                                              Solutions
• Collect preliminary background
   information
                                                                                   16. Construction
• Review BUMP route selection              8. Evaluate Alternative Design
  criteria                                    Solutions and recommend
• Inform Windsor Bicycle Committee            Preferred Solution

                                           9. Consult public and agencies to
                                              review Alternative Design
    3. Meet with department heads to          Solutions and Preferred
       determine if feasibility study is      Solution
       required considering:
    • Information base/demand
    • Issues (e.g. maintenance)            10. Confirm Preferred Alternative
    • Alternative route options

                                           11. Develop detailed design,
                                                consulting BUMP facility
                                                design guidelines
    4. Define terms of reference
                                           12. Council Meeting (if required)

    5. Seek Council approval to
       proceed

                                           13. Consider other routes
6   Implementation                                                                                                           82


                Phase III: Development                                Implementation will require the co-ordination of
                                                                      resources and budgets of a number of City
                The development of cycling facilities involves:       Departments, including Traffic Engineering,
                                                                      Public Works, Parks and Recreation and Planning.
                       confirming the detailed design and
                       associated costs for the facility;             BUMP Capital Investment

                       Council’s commitment of the funding; and       The recommended BUMP cycling network requires
                                                                      a 20-year capital investment in the City’s
                       construction.                                  transportation and recreation system. As described
                                                                      in Chapters 2 and 3, such an investment has
                Phase IV: Monitoring                                  significant individual, societal, environmental and
                                                                      economic benefits, and is consistent with existing
                Once cycling facilities are constructed, their use    City of Windsor policies.
                and design should be monitored to ensure that
                they function as intended. When necessary, the        The capital cost estimates to construct the
                facility should also be upgraded and maintained to    recommended cycling network are based on the
                ensure continued safe use by cyclists.                field evaluation of existing conditions at a master
                                                                      plan level of detail. As such, these estimates cover
                Recommendation
                                                                      the basic cost of installing the facility and do not
                                                                      include costs associated with site-specific major
                      That the City adopt a cycling network
                                                                      improvements and/or additional site amenities.
                      implementation process similar to that
                      outlined in Figure 6.1.
                                                                      The cost estimates are based on the following unit
                                                                      prices:
                6.3    Funding
                                                                           Signed route - $2.00/m of roadway, which
                The BUMP is both an infrastructure plan and an
                                                                           reflects the cost of installing route signs and
                operations plan. Therefore it requires both capital
                                                                           directional signs at intersections (on average
                investment and operations funding to ensure its
                                                                           every 100 m), on both sides of the road.
                successful implementation.
                                                                           Bike Lane (restriping/signage) - $20.00/m
                The BUMP is a comprehensive Plan that will
                                                                           of roadway, which reflects the cost of line
                require an integrated approach to implement it.
6   Implementation                                                                                                             83


                     painting (up to 4 traffic lanes) and installing        determinations will be made on a site-by-site
                     bike lane signage on both sides of the road.           basis.
                     It is recognized that site specific
                     improvements may be necessary to ensure           In preparing this estimate, the following general
                     the continuity of a bike lane. For example,       assumptions were made:
                     this may include minor road widening and
                     intersection improvements at specific                  construction costs are in 2001 dollars and do
                     locations. These additional costs are not              not include taxes;
                     factored into the unit price of $20.00/m.
                                                                            costs associated with property acquisitions
                     Bike Lane (reconstruction) - $180.00/m of              are not included in unit prices;
                     roadway, which reflects the cost of
                     providing the additional pavement width to             costs associated with utility relocations are
                     accommodate bike lanes and bike lane                   not included in unit prices; and
                     signage on both sides of the road. In this
                     case, it is assumed that bike lanes are added          costs associated with major site-specific
                     during other roadway reconstruction (and               projects, such as bridges, railway crossings,
                     not as a stand alone project), therefore the           retaining walls and stairways, are not
                     cost of other items such as new curbs are              included in the estimate.
                     accounted for in the cost of roadway
                     reconstruction.                                   A comprehensive network implementation
                                                                       schedule is provided in Appendix B. This
                     Multi-use Trail - $100.00/m of trail, which       implementation schedule contains a detailed
                     reflects the cost of installing a new 3.5 m       breakdown of “order-of magnitude” costs for each
                     wide asphalt surfaced trail under normal site     individual route that forms part of the network in
                     conditions. Alternative surface treatments        accordance with the phasing plan identified through
                     may also be considered, such as concrete,         Maps 5 and 6.
                     however we have assumed asphalt trails for
                     our cost estimates. It is recognized that the     The prioritizing of individual projects in each phase
                     cost to add an asphalt surface to an existing     will be dependent on a number of factors. These
                     granular trail of sufficient width and            include the schedule of projects in the City’s
                     adequate base will be significantly less than     existing RIMS and STRIP programs, other
                     the unit price of $100.00/m. These
6   Implementation                                                                                                           84


                planning, design and environmental assessment           the City of Windsor. It is also a Plan intended to
                studies, as well as funding availability.               make the City one of the premier cycling
                                                                        communities in North America, and a destination
                Recommendations                                         for those interested in cycling tourism.

                      That the Traffic Engineering Department           The success of the BUMP will not only be
                      and the Cycling Coordinator prioritize            measured by how many kilometres of bikeway the
                      individual bikeway projects on an annual          City implements, but how the City of Windsor
                      basis. The results of this exercise should be     takes a leadership role in informing residents
                      documented in a report to Council outlining       about the network and its appropriate use. This
                      the progress in implementing the BUMP,            leadership begins with the Mayor and Members of
                      and the plan for both network development         Council adopting and promoting the BUMP, and
                      and programming for the upcoming year.            continues with a strong City Staff commitment to
                                                                        keep Windsor residents informed. The BUMP
                      That staff review the costing of each route at    therefore includes recommendations directed
                      the appropriate time through a more detailed      toward managing the implementation of this Plan,
                      planning and design exercise in keeping           increasing cycling awareness, improving the
                      with the process identified in Figure 6.1.        cycling-transit link and providing end-of-trip
                                                                        facilities.
                To assist staff in refining route construction costs,
                included in Appendix C is a detailed Unit Price         These activities require appropriate levels of
                Schedule for site-specific design treatments and        operational funding to be successful. The
                individual elements/amenities that may be part of a     following provides order of magnitude cost
                bikeway or trail system. These unit prices are          estimates for these operational commitments.
                based on averages from a number of related
                projects across Ontario, and can be used as a guide     Management and Cycling Awareness
                when developing detailed designs for individual
                routes throughout the network.                          Through constructing the cycling network there is
                                                                        an inherent obligation on the City to inform and
                BUMP Operations Funding                                 educate Windsor residents, both cyclists and non-
                                                                        cyclists, about the network and the benefits of
                The BUMP is more than a 20-year plan to develop         cycling, as well as safe and appropriate cycling
                an on and off-road integrated cycling network in        techniques.
6   Implementation                                                                                                           85


                Management and cycling awareness costs                Division of the Public Works Department. Costs
                associated with activities, such as the proposed      associated with snow and debris removal are
                Cycling Coordinator position, CAN-BIKE and            expected to be minimal and should be identified in
                Bike-to-Work Week initiatives, are difficult to       the City’s annual Road Improvement Maintenance
                determine at the outset. These will need to be        System (RIMS) program. Additional maintenance
                costed as they are developed. The City has a          costs associated with BUMP may be partially
                number of on-going cycling initiatives, and the       offset by simply reprioritizing the
                level of educational and awareness programming        clearing/sweeping schedule to ensure that streets
                may vary from year to year. Further, several of       with bike lanes are among those streets assigned a
                the BUMP initiatives have been designed to            high priority.
                complement existing City initiatives.
                                                                      The responsibility for off-road bikeway facilities
                Recommendation                                        outside the road rights-of-way should be assigned
                                                                      to the City’s Parks and Recreation Department.
                     That the City commit, as a minimum, annual       This would include surface maintenance and
                     funding in the order of $200,000 for BUMP        snow/debris removal.
                     management and cycling awareness
                     initiatives. This would include the annual       Continuity of pavement markings and signage
                     salary of the Cycling Coordinator, seasonal      between on-road and off-road facilities is essential
                     contract staff, network promotion, special       for the success of any cycling network.
                     event costs, and partial costs associated with   Maintenance of on-road and off-road bikeway
                     the preparation of safety and education          pavement markings and signage will be the
                     materials.                                       responsibility of the Traffic Engineering
                                                                      Department.
                Maintenance
                                                                      Based on the experience of the project team,
                As the cycling network is expanded, maintenance       overall trail maintenance costs per kilometre vary
                costs associated with ensuring a safe cycling         widely from $25.00/km per year for trails in a
                system will be incurred.                              suburban or rural setting to $340.00/km per year
                                                                      for a highly maintained trail system in an urban
                The responsibility for pavement surface               setting. The operations budgets for both the
                maintenance for on-road cycling network facilities    Public Works and Parks and Recreation
                should be assigned to the City’s Road Operations
6   Implementation                                                                                                           86


                Departments should be reviewed by staff to            End-of-Trip Facilities
                included these additional costs.
                                                                      The provision of end-of-trip facilities is an
                Recommendations                                       important component of the Plan. It is inherently
                                                                      connected to the provision of new routes and the
                      That the responsibility for pavement surface    objective of increasing the number of people who
                      maintenance for on-road cycling network         cycle. Simply put, the City can build the proposed
                      facilities be assigned to the City’s Road       cycling network, but without appropriate end-of-
                      Operations Division of the Public Works         trip facilities, and in particular secure and
                      Department.                                     convenient bicycle parking, few cyclists will use
                                                                      it.
                      That the responsibility for off-road bikeway
                      facilities outside the road rights-of-way be    Bicycles are somewhat like automobiles in this
                      assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation     respect. A city builds new roads or widens
                      Department and include surface                  existing ones in response to increasing demand
                      maintenance and snow/debris removal.            and to stimulate economic growth. As part of this
                                                                      activity, a city also provides parking on public
                      That maintenance of on-road and off-road        rights-of-way and on public land to serve the
                      bikeway pavement markings and signage be        additional motorists who use these new roads. In
                      the responsibility of the Traffic Engineering   addition, a city, through its Official Plan and
                      Department.                                     zoning by-laws, encourages and/or requires the
                                                                      private sector to provide parking on private
                Cycling-Transit Link                                  property. Failure to provide the necessary parking
                                                                      facilities will result in illegally parked vehicles.
                The improvement of the cycling-transit link will      This affects traffic circulation and the movement
                require an additional investment in the bike racks    of emergency services in the city.
                on City buses program. These costs will be
                incurred by Transit Windsor, subject to the           Although not at the same scale, cycling is very
                success of the current program, and have not been     similar. Evidence from other cities regarding
                identified in the BUMP.                               bikeways and cyclists clearly shows that “if you
                                                                      build it they will come”. Therefore increasing the
                                                                      number of cyclists travelling in the City of
                                                                      Windsor for both recreational and utilitarian
6   Implementation                                                                                                                              87


                purposes will require expanded end-of-trip            Engineering Department. It is also proposed that
                facilities, especially secure bicycle parking.        the City of Windsor investigate costs and
                                                                      suppliers for post-and-ring stands. Windsor
                The development and implementation of a bicycle       should commence a post-and-ring program
                parking program includes two components: a            starting in year two of the BUMP. It is further
                municipally funded program of installing bicycle      proposed that an annual target of 200 post-and-
                parking on public rights-of-way and on public         ring (or similar type of device) installations be set.
                land and by-law requirements for the private
                sector to provide bicycle parking for all new         Recommendations
                developments. The City has already implemented
                by-law requirements as described in Chapter 4.              That the City of Windsor budget $10,000 a
                                                                            year for the next 20 years to develop and
                The costs associated with implementing bicycle              implement a bicycle parking program.
                parking facilities can vary depending on the type
                of facility and the number of units installed each          That the responsibility for developing and
                year. The recommended approach is to provide                managing this program be assigned to the
                simple short-term post-and-ring parking stands,             City’s new Cycling Coordinator.
                similar to those developed by other municipalities.
                                                                            That the City investigate costs and suppliers
                The cost of installing post-and-ring style bicycle          for post-and-ring stands.
                parking can be as little as $50 per unit. For
                comparison purposes, multi-unit bike racks that       BUMP Implementation Costs
                can accommodate six bikes at a time cost
                approximately $600, and bicycle lockers, typically    Figure 6.2 sets out the costs associated with the
                used for long-term parking and subject to a rental    BUMP recommendations. Network development
                                                                                                                               The total cost for
                fee, can range in price from $1,000 to $2,000.        costs are estimated at $19,400,000 over 20 years.
                                                                                                                               BUMP over the 20-
                                                                      Bicycle parking program costs are estimated at
                                                                                                                               year horizon of the
                It is recommended that the City of Windsor            $10,000 per year. Operations costs are estimated
                                                                                                                               Plan is estimated at
                budget $10,000 a year for the next 20 years to        at $300,000 per year over the 20-year horizon of
                                                                                                                               $25,600,000.
                develop and implement a bicycle parking               BUMP. The total cost for BUMP over the 20-year
                program. The responsibility for developing and        horizon of the Plan is estimated at $25,600,000.
                managing this program should be assigned to the
                City’s new Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic
6        Implementation                                                                                                                                                     88




                                                                                                   Figure 6.2
                                                                                            BUMP Implementation Costs
    Component                                                                                                Short Term                       Long Term               Total
                                                                                                              (0-5 years)                     (5-20 years)          (20 years)
         Type of Improvement                                Lead Department                         Total Cost    Average Per Year   Total Cost Average Per Year    Total Cost
    1. Network Development
         Pavement Markings and Signage                      Traffic Engineering                     $1,468,400            $293,680       $55,710          $3,714     $1,524,110
         Off-road Facilities                                Parks & Recreation                        $618,300            $123,660    $2,665,800        $177,720     $3,284,100
         Road Reconstruction                                Public Works                            $2,454,600            $490,920   $12,124,620        $808,308    $14,579,220
                                                            Total All Departments                   $4,541,300            $908,260   $14,846,130        $989,742    $19,387,430

    2. Bicycle Parking                                      Traffic Engineering                        $50,000             $10,000     $150,000          $10,000      $200,000

                                                            Traffic Engineering                     $1,000,000            $200,000    $3,000,000        $200,000     $4,000,000
    3. Operations
                                                            Parks & Recreation                        $250,000             $50,000      $750,000         $50,000     $1,000,000
                                                            Public Works                              $250,000             $50,000      $750,000         $50,000     $1,000,000

    TOTAL                                                   Traffic Engineering                     $2,518,400            $503,680    $3,205,710        $213,714     $5,724,110
                                                            Parks & Recreation                        $868,300            $173,660    $3,415,800        $227,720     $4,284,100
                                                            Public Works1                           $2,704,600            $540,920   $12,874,620        $858,308    $15,579,220
                                                            Total All Departments                   $6,091,300          $1,218,260   $19,496,130       $1,299,742   $25,587,430
1
    Public Works costs are assumed to be included in road resurfacing or reconstruction projects.
6   Implementation                                                                                                          89


                Implementation of the BUMP can be achieved by                 organizations. For example, the Ontario
                Council allocating approximately $1,000,000                   Trails Council has been able to hire two
                annually for capital expenditures (network                    people under this program;
                development) and $250,000 annually for operating
                costs. It is expected that the majority of BUMP               Corporate Environmental Funds such as
                capital costs related to proposed on-road facilities          Shell, Mountain Equipment Co-op and
                be identified and included as component costs                 Canada Trust tend to fund small, labour-
                within planned roadway reconstruction or                      intensive projects where materials or
                resurfacing projects (STRIP). There should also               logistical support is required;
                be a continued emphasis on improving the off-
                road trail network.                                           Corporate Donations may consist of money
                                                                              or services in-kind, and have been
                To assist in reducing municipal taxpayer costs, the           contributed by a number of large and small
                City of Windsor should also pursue outside                    corporations over the years. A successful
                funding opportunities. It is the experience of the            local example is Chrysler Canada’s support
                consulting team that funding sources available                of ERCA’s Greenway project; and
                over the last few years for cycling and trail related
                projects is at or near an all time high, likely due to        Service Clubs such as the Lions, Rotary and
                the enormous popularity of trails today. It is                Optimists have assisted with a number of
                expected that this trend will continue                        high visibility projects at the community
                                                                              level.
                Examples of past funding sources include:
                                                                         The City of Windsor should investigate annual
                      The Province of Ontario’s “Superbuild”             public and private sector funding programs to
                      fund;                                              assist in implementing the BUMP.

                      Ontario Trillium Foundation that was               Recommendations
                      recently expanded in response to the money
                      collected throughout the Province by casinos;           That the City commit annual funding to
                                                                              implement BUMP over 20 years.
                      Human Resources Development Canada
                      program that enables personnel positions to
                      be made available to various groups and
6   Implementation                                                                                                         90


                      That the City investigate public and private          verify the route selection process; and
                      sector funding programs to assist in
                      implementing the BUMP.                                identify the supply and demand for bicycle
                                                                            parking.
                6.4     Monitoring
                                                                      Over time, the monitoring system should identify
                Implementation of the BUMP is expected to begin       changes in route preference to assist in
                in 2001. Implementation of the City-wide cycling      determining where to implement changes to “hard
                network infrastructure will be phased on an annual    and soft” cycling infrastructure.
                basis in accordance with capital funding. In
                addition, other road improvements will be             The results of this assessment may be used to
                completed in keeping with the design guidelines       determine the success of implementing various
                and standards set out in this Plan.                   types of cycling facilities. However, caution must
                                                                      be used in relying on an immediate response to a
                Collecting data to monitor the different aspects of   given improvement. An extended timeframe
                cycling behaviour will assist in evaluating the       should be established to ensure that cycling
                effectiveness and overall contribution of various     awareness initiatives are in place to assist in
                activities to achieve the stated vision and goals.    changing travel patterns and habits.

                This data collection should begin in 2001 and         Assessing the impact and costs of a cycling
                build off of the various BUMP initiatives, such as    program should be based on information such as:
                the User Survey and Public Attitude Survey. The
                data will establish a benchmark with which to               origin/destination counts;
                compare later data as the BUMP is implemented.
                                                                            screenline counts on a finer scale that are
                The data collection will be used to:                        appropriate to cycling travel patterns; and

                      confirm the overall direction and                     intersection counts to coincide with routes
                      implementation of the BUMP;                           on which improvements are proposed, and
                                                                            also on parallel routes.
                      confirm statistics on the number and type of
                      cyclists;                                       This information should be collected in each of
                                                                      the next five years and in alternating years after
6   Implementation                                                   91


                that. The information must be collected during
                the cycling season.

                The Traffic Engineering department, through the
                Bicycle Coordinator, should also prepare an
                Annual Progress Report to Council and the
                Windsor Bicycling Committee. This report will
                outline the progress made towards achieving the
                primary goals of the plan, identify changes in
                direction or priorities for the upcoming year, and
                confirm budget requirements.

                Recommendations

                      That the City, through the Traffic
                      Engineering Department, establish a cycling
                      data collection program.

                      That Traffic Engineering, through the
                      Bicycle Coordinator, report annually to
                      Council and the Windsor Bicycling
                      Committee on the BUMP implementation
                      progress and priorities for the upcoming
                      year.
7   Recommendations                                                                                                    92


                                                                   5. Establish a full time Cycling Coordinator
                                                                      position in the Traffic Engineering
                                                                      Department. The primary responsibility of
                                                                      this individual is to implement the BUMP.

                                                                   6. Add the appropriate criteria to the Strategic

               T   he recommendations of the BUMP are
                   provided in this Chapter for reference
               purposes. Readers are also directed to Chapters 4
                                                                      Roadway Improvement Program (STRIP) and
                                                                      Roadway Improvement Management System
                                                                      (RIMS) to include Primary Network
               through 6 for a complete discussion and rationale      connections.
               for each recommendation.
                                                                   7. Continue to develop other off-road trails
               Recommendations                                        through parks that were not identified in the
                                                                      BUMP.
               The City of Windsor will:
                                                                   8. Construct every road as a bicycle friendly
               1. Complete those sections of the Primary              roadway.
                  Network identified on Map 5 as achievable
                  within five years.                               9. Commit annual funds to the implementation of
                                                                      the BUMP.
               2. Complete those sections of the Secondary
                  Network identified on Map 6 as achievable        10. Develop safe cycling skills in children.
                  within five years.
                                                                   11. Teach adult cyclists their rights and
               3. Complete those sections of the Primary               responsibilities.
                  Network identified on Map 5 as achievable in
                  the longer term (years 5 through 20).            12. Teach motorists how to more effectively share
                                                                       the road with cyclists.
               4. Complete those sections of the Secondary
                  Network identified on Map 6 as achievable in     13. Work with the Ministry of Transportation to
                  the longer term (years 5 through 20).                develop and implement bicycle safety
                                                                       strategies.
7   Recommendations                                                                                                      93


               14. Encourage the “share the road” bumper sticker       •   promoting cycling tourism by continuing
                   campaign being conducted by the Windsor                 to provide route mapping information such
                   Bicycling Committee to continue.                        as the Trails and Facilities Map both in
                                                                           print and potentially on a website.
               15. Lead through example by:
                                                                   16. Improve bicycle routes to transit centres.
                  •   improving cycling access to City Hall
                      through the provision of additional secure
                                                                   17. Increase bicycle parking at transit centres.
                      bicycle parking facilities plus shower and
                      change facilities;                           18. Work with Transit Windsor to expand the
                                                                       provision of bicycle racks mounted to Transit
                  •   providing cycling skills programs such as
                                                                       Windsor buses.
                      CAN-BIKE through Parks & Recreation
                      programs;
                                                                   19. Promote the use of cycling and transit.
                  •   creating an incentive program for
                                                                   20. Conduct a Bicycle Parking Inventory.
                      employees who cycle to work;

                  •   compensating employees who choose to         21. Increase the amount and quality of bicycle
                      use their own bicycles for City business,        parking facilities by:
                      just as it compensates employees who             •   proactively installing short and long-term
                      drive their motor vehicles for City                  bicycle parking in the public right-of-way;
                      business;
                                                                       •   promoting commuter cycling to the
                  •   making CAN-BIKE training courses                     University of Windsor, St. Clair College,
                      available to City staff on staff time, to            plus secondary and elementary schools,
                      minimize the risk associated with using a            and assist these institutions in the
                      bicycle during the workday and to enhance            purchasing and siting of bicycle parking;
                      the cycling skills necessary to commute          •   developing partnerships with businesses to
                      safely by bicycle;                                   sponsor the installation of bicycle parking
                                                                           facilities;
                  •   continue to encourage special events such
                      as Bike-to-Work Week; and                        •   funding, on an annual basis, a post-and-
                                                                           ring (or similar) bicycle parking program
7   Recommendations                                                                                                             94


                      to provide facilities in areas where there is       •   initiate the cycling awareness, cycling-
                      an identified demand;                                   transit and end-of-trip recommendations as
                                                                              identified in Chapter 4; and
                  •   adopting the bicycle parking location
                      guidelines described in the BUMP;                   •   construct the cycling network generally in
                                                                              keeping with the phasing illustrated on
                  •   actively encouraging innovative bicycle
                                                                              Maps 5 and 6.
                      parking facility designs, such as covered
                      bicycle sheds in existing motor vehicle
                                                                      26. That the City, during road resurfacing or
                      parking spaces; and
                                                                          rehabilitation projects, consider the BUMP
                  •   working with community cycling                      recommendations prior to proceeding.
                      associations to create permanent
                      relationships for the provision of              27. That the City of Windsor establish the position
                      temporary, long-term bicycle parking at             of Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic
                      special events.                                     Engineering Department to oversee cycling
                                                                          related issues and to coordinate
               22. Work with private businesses to promote                implementation of the BUMP.
                   bicycle commuting.
                                                                      28. That the Windsor Bicycling Committee continue
               23. Create bonus provisions in Windsor’s                   in its current role, and assist staff in confirming
                   planning policies to encourage developers to           priorities for implementation of the BUMP.
                   provide showers, change space and bicycle
                   parking above the minimum requirements.            29. That the City adopt a cycling network
                                                                          implementation process similar to that
               In order to effectively implement the BUMP, it is          outlined in Figure 6.1.
               recommended:
                                                                      30. That the Traffic Engineering Department and
               24. That Council adopt the BUMP, thereby                   the Cycling Coordinator prioritize individual
                   committing the City of Windsor to the                  bikeway projects on an annual basis. The
                   implementation of its recommendations.                 results of this exercise should be documented
                                                                          in a report to Council outlining the progress in
               25. That the City of Windsor commit annual                 implementing the BUMP, and the plan for
                   funding to:                                            both network development and programming
                                                                          for the upcoming year.
7   Recommendations                                                                                                       95


               31. That staff review the costing of each route at   36. That the City of Windsor budget $10,000 a
                   the appropriate time through a more detailed         year for the next 20 years to develop and
                   planning and design exercise in keeping with         implement a bicycle parking program.
                   the process identified in Figure 6.1.
                                                                    37. That the responsibility for developing and
               32. That the City commit, as a minimum, annual           managing this program be assigned to the
                   funding in the order of $200,000 for BUMP            City’s new Cycling Coordinator.
                   management and cycling awareness
                   initiatives. This would include the annual       38. That the City investigate costs and suppliers
                   salary of the Cycling Coordinator, seasonal          for post-and-ring stands.
                   contract staff, network promotion, special
                   event costs, and partial costs associated with   39. That the City commit annual funding to
                   the preparation of safety and education              implement BUMP over 20 years.
                   materials.
                                                                    40. That the City investigate public and private
               33. That the responsibility for pavement surface         sector funding programs to assist in
                   maintenance for on-road cycling network              implementing the BUMP.
                   facilities be assigned to the City’s Road
                   Operations Division of the Public Works          41. That the City, through the Traffic Engineering
                   Department.                                          Department, establish a cycling data collection
                                                                        program.
               34. That the responsibility for off-road bikeway
                   facilities outside the road rights-of-way be     42. That Transportation Engineering, through the
                   assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation          Bicycle Coordinator, report annually to
                   Department and include surface maintenance           Council and the Windsor Bicycling
                   and snow/debris removal.                             Committee on the BUMP implementation
                                                                        progress and priorities for the upcoming year.
               35. That maintenance of on-road and off-road
                   bikeway pavement markings and signage be
                   the responsibility of the Traffic Engineering
                   Department.
8   Glossary                                                                                                                96


                                                                     Child Cyclist is any person under 13 years of age.
                                                                     For the purpose of determining appropriate
                                                                     bicycle facilities, these children are usually
                                                                     operating a bicycle with wheels of a maximum
                                                                     diameter of 600 mm.
               Bicycle is a vehicle, under the Highway Traffic       Cycling Network is the interconnected system of
               Act, propelled solely by human power, upon            bikeways and recreationways.
               which any person may ride. For the purpose of
               these guidelines, bicycle includes adult tricycles,   Cycling Route is any road or trail specifically
               tandem rider bicycles, unicycles, but does not        designated as being open to bicycle travel,
               include motor assisted bicycles.                      regardless of whether or not such facilities are
                                                                     designated for the exclusive use of bicycles, or are
               Cyclist is a person riding a bicycle and in control   to be shared with other modes of transportation.
               of the direction and speed of the bicycle.
                                                                     Experienced Cyclist is a rider assumed to have
               Bike Lane is a dedicated portion of the road          the physical and judgmental skills needed to
               surface for exclusive bicycle use. They are           safely and comfortably manoeuvre a bicycle in a
               designated by pavement markings that separate         variety of traffic conditions. Usually considered
               the portion of the road used by motor vehicles        an experienced adult cyclist over the age of 13.
               from that portion used by bicycles
                                                                     Grade Separation is the vertical separation of
               Bike Trail is a bikeway that is physically            conflicting travelled ways through use of a
               separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an      structure so that traffic crosses without
               open space and/or barrier, and is either within the   interference.
               highway right-of-way or within an independent
               right-of-way.                                         Highway is a general term denoting a public way
                                                                     for the purpose of vehicular travel, including the
               Bikeway is any road, trail or right-of-way            entire area within the right-of-way.
               provided for bicycle travel.
8   Glossary                                                                                                                 97


               Inexperienced Adult Cyclist is a cyclist 13 years     Roadway refers to the portion of the highway,
               of age or older who may have the judgmental and       including shoulders, designed for vehicle use.
               physical maturity necessary to manoeuvre a
               bicycle in a variety of traffic conditions, but       Shared Roadway/Bikeway is a type of bikeway
               typically does not feel secure or comfortable         where cyclists and motorists share the same
               riding in all traffic situations.                     roadway lane, and where special signage is
                                                                     installed to emphasize the signed bicycle route.
               Motor Vehicle is a vehicle that is self-propelled
               and can convey more than one person.                  Shoulder refers to the portion of the roadway
                                                                     outside the edges of the motor vehicle travel lanes,
               Multi-use Trail is any off-road dedicated facility    excluding curbs, and extending to the top of the
               for pedestrians and in-line skaters as well as non-   front slopes of the ditch. The shoulders may be
               motorized vehicles such as cyclists.                  paved or unpaved. It is an area where motor
                                                                     vehicles could reasonably stop if necessary, and
               Pavement Markings refer to painted or applied         where cyclists could ride if the shoulder is paved.
               lines or legends placed on any bikeway/roadway
               surface for guiding or warning traffic.               Sidewalk refers to the portion of a highway or
                                                                     street designed for preferential or exclusive use by
               Pedestrian is a person whose mode of                  pedestrians.
               transportation is on foot. A person "walking a
               bicycle" is considered a pedestrian.                  Sight Distance is a measurement of the cyclist's
                                                                     visibility, unobstructed by traffic or objects beside
               Recreational Cyclist is an individual who uses a      a bikeway or multi-use path, to the farthest visible
               bicycle for trip enjoyment, and usually takes         point of the bikeway/roadway surface.
               relatively short trips at lower speeds. An ultimate
               destination is of secondary importance.               Traffic Control Device refers to signs, signals or
                                                                     other fixtures, whether permanent or temporary,
               Right-of-way is a general term denoting land,         placed on or adjacent to the travelled way by
               property, or interest therein, usually in a linear    authority of a public body having jurisdiction to
               orientation, acquired for or devoted to public        regulate, warn or guide traffic.
               transportation purposes.
8   Glossary                                                          98


               Utilitarian Cyclist is an individual who uses a
               bicycle primarily for travel to and from specific
               destinations such as work, school, shops or
               recreation centres.

               Vehicle is a wheeled means of conveyance which
               is driven by any kind of power, including
               muscular power, capable of moving itself and a
               person, or being moved from place to place.
               Vehicle includes any bicycle.

               Wide Curb Lane refers to a roadway lane which
               is wider than a normal vehicle lane for shared use
               by bicycles and motorized traffic. This curb lane
               is of such width that bicycles and motorized traffic
               can be accommodated side by side in the same
               lane. It is the through lane closest to the curb or
               the shoulder of the road when a curb is not
               provided.
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