Final Report Bicycle Use Master Plan (BUMP) ES INT April 2001 ER Marshall NA T IO NA L Macklin Monaghan PROJECT MANAGERS • ENGINEERS • SURVEYORS • PLANNERS Vol. 1 Table of Contents 4. Strategy ........................................................................ 25 4.1 Cycling Network ................................. 25 Primary Network ................................. 27 Secondary Network ............................. 29 Executive Summary..............................................................i Windsor Loop and Trans Canada Trail Connection........................................... 29 Acknowledgements .......................................................... vi 4.2 Cycling Awareness .............................. 30 4.3 Cycling-Transit Link ........................... 35 1. Introduction...................................................................1 4.4 End-of-Trip Facilities .......................... 37 1.1 Study Purpose........................................ 1 Bicycle Parking ................................... 37 1.2 Study Approach..................................... 2 Shower and Change Facilities ............. 42 1.3 BUMP Organization.............................. 3 5. Toolbox ......................................................................... 43 2. Context............................................................................. 4 5.1 Design Guidelines ............................... 43 2.1 North American Cycling Perspective.... 4 Types of Cyclists ................................. 43 Recreation, Health and Fitness Benefits 5 Bicycle Characteristics and Design Transportation Efficiency Benefits ....... 6 Criteria................................................. 45 Environmental Benefits......................... 7 Alignment Elements ............................ 50 Economic Benefits ................................ 7 Bikeway Design................................... 53 2.2 The Windsor Experience....................... 9 Intersection Treatments ....................... 60 Previous Municipal Initiatives............... 9 Illumination ......................................... 65 BUMP Initiatives................................. 12 Support Facilities................................. 67 Bollards and Offset Gates.................... 70 3. Direction .......................................................................22 Stairways with Side Ramps ................. 71 3.1 Cycling Vision..................................... 22 On-Road Traffic Control ..................... 72 3.2 Cycling Principles ............................... 22 Curbs.................................................... 74 Cycling Routes .................................... 22 5.2 Site Specific Applications ................... 75 Cycling Network Design ..................... 23 Cycling Awareness.............................. 24 3.3 Cycling Goals...................................... 24 Table of Contents 6. Implementation.........................................................77 6.1 Implementation Strategy ..................... 77 List of Figures 6.2 Administrative Structure ..................... 78 On or Following 6.3 Funding................................................ 82 Page BUMP Capital Investment .................. 82 4.1 Route Evaluation Matrix ..................... 28 BUMP Operations Funding................. 84 5.1 Howard Avenue Multi-Use Trail BUMP Implementation Costs ............. 87 (Devonshire Mall Area ........................ 75 6.4 Monitoring........................................... 90 5.2 Memorial Drive Multi-Use Trail Connection at Walker Road................. 75 7. Recommendations ................................................ 92 5.3 Huron Church Road / E.C. Row Expressway Underpass ........................ 75 8. Glossary .......................................................................96 5.4 Intersection of Cabana Road and Dougall Avenue................................... 75 Bibliography........................................................................99 5.5 Howard Avenue / Ypres Boulevard Connection........................................... 75 5.6 Walker Road / E.C. Row Expressway Underpass ............................................ 75 List of Maps List of Tables On or Following On or Following Page Page Map 1 Existing Cycling Network ................... 10 5.1 Minimum Stopping Sight Distances for Map 2 Major Barriers ..................................... 12 Bicycles ............................................... 49 Map 3 Candidate Routes................................. 26 5.2 Minimum Radii for Paved Bikeways .. 50 Map 4 Recommended Cycling Network 5.3 Widening of the Riding Curve Surface (Completed)......................................... 27 on Curves............................................. 51 Map 5 Recommended Primary Cycling 5.4 Vertical Curve Lengths........................ 51 Network............................................... 27 5.5 Sag Vertical Curves for Bicycles......... 52 Map 6 Recommended Secondary Cycling 5.6 Extra Bikeway Width Required on Network............................................... 29 Grades.................................................. 53 Map 7 The Windsor Loop and Trans Canada 5.7 Typical Cross Slopes ........................... 53 Trail Connection.................................. 29 5.8 Bikeway Illumination Levels............... 68 Table of Contents Appendices A BUMP and BUDS Recommendation Comparison B BUMP Implementation Schedule C Unit Price Schedule Technical Appendix (Volume 2) 1 Written Submissions 2 BUMP Contact List 3 Public Events 4 News Articles 5 Newsletters 6 Candidate Route Evaluation Field Notes 7 Correspondence 8 Steering Committee / Liaison Committee Meeting Agendas & Minutes 9 User Survey 10 Public Attitude Survey, Decima Executive Summary i The recommendations of the BUMP are to: Cycling Network [Page 25] T he Bicycle Use Master Plan (BUMP) is a statement of the City of Windsor’s commitment to develop a visible and connected 1. Complete those sections of the Primary Network identified on Map 5 as achievable within five years. cycling network that is easily accessible, safe and actively used by all types of cyclists. 2. Complete those sections of the Secondary Network identified on Map 6 as achievable The City’s commitment to cycling was formally within five years. expressed in 1991 with the adoption of the Bicycle Use Development Study (BUDS). The resulting 3. Complete those sections of the Primary “Residents have construction of a 40+ kilometre off-road trail Network identified on Map 5 as achievable in clearly expressed system has created an increasing demand for city- the longer term (years 5 through 20). their desire for a wide cycling facilities. comprehensive cycling network The expansion of Windsor’s cycling network that connects all Windsor’s cycling required a fresh look at the role of the bicycle as a neighbourhoods vision is a visible means of transportation, as well as roadway throughout and connected design, promotion and education issues. Through Windsor.” cycling network the BUMP process, due consideration was given to recreation and cycling trends, previous that is easily municipal initiatives, community and accessible, safe and neighbourhood desires, as well as best practices. actively used by all types of cyclists. As a 20-year guide, this Plan establishes a vision, guiding principles and goals for cycling in Windsor. A cycling network and design guidelines are presented along with specific strategies for improving cycling awareness, the cycling-transit link and end-of-trip facilities. Photo: Participants on one of the BUMP cycling tours along the Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario. Executive Summary ii 4. Complete those sections of the Secondary 13. Work with the Ministry of Transportation to Network identified on Map 6 as achievable in develop and implement bicycle safety the longer term (years 5 through 20). strategies. 14. Encourage the “share the road” bumper sticker 5. Establish a full time Cycling Coordinator campaign being conducted by the Windsor position in the Traffic Engineering Bicycling Committee to continue. Department. The primary responsibility of this individual is to implement the BUMP. 15. Lead through example by: 6. Add the appropriate criteria to the Strategic • improving cycling access to City Hall Roadway Improvement Program (STRIP) and through the provision of additional secure Roadway Improvement Management System bicycle parking facilities plus shower and (RIMS) to include Primary Network change facilities; connections. • providing cycling skills programs such as 7. Continue to develop other off-road trails CAN-BIKE through Parks & Recreation through parks that were not identified in the programs; BUMP. • creating an incentive program for employees who cycle to work; 8. Construct every road as a bicycle friendly roadway. • compensating employees who choose to use their own bicycles for City business, 9. Commit annual funds to the implementation of just as it compensates employees who the BUMP. drive their motor vehicles for City business; Cycling Awareness [Page 30] • making CAN-BIKE training courses 10. Develop safe cycling skills in children. available to City staff on staff time, to minimize the risk associated with using a 11. Teach adult cyclists their rights and bicycle during the workday and to enhance responsibilities. the cycling skills necessary to commute safely by bicycle; 12. Teach motorists how to more effectively share the road with cyclists. Executive Summary iii • continue to encourage special events such • developing partnerships with businesses to as Bike-to-Work Week; and sponsor the installation of bicycle parking facilities; • promoting cycling tourism by continuing to provide route mapping information such • funding, on an annual basis, a post-and- as the Trails and Facilities Map both in ring (or similar) bicycle parking program print and potentially on a website. to provide facilities in areas where there is an identified demand; Cycling-Transit Link [Page 34] • adopting the bicycle parking location 16. Improve bicycle routes to transit centres. guidelines described in the BUMP; • actively encouraging innovative bicycle 17. Increase bicycle parking at transit centres. parking facility designs, such as covered bicycle sheds in existing motor vehicle 18. Work with Transit Windsor to expand the parking spaces; and provision of bicycle racks mounted to Transit Windsor buses. • working with community cycling associations to create permanent 19. Promote the use of cycling and transit. relationships for the provision of temporary, long-term bicycle parking at End-of-Trip Facilities [Page 37] special events. 20. Conduct a Bicycle Parking Inventory. 22. Work with private businesses to promote bicycle commuting. 21. Increase the amount and quality of bicycle parking facilities by: 23. Create bonus provisions in Windsor’s planning policies to encourage developers to • proactively installing short and long-term provide showers, change space and bicycle bicycle parking in the public right-of-way; parking above the minimum requirements. • promoting commuter cycling to the University of Windsor, St. Clair College, plus secondary and elementary schools, and assist these institutions in the purchasing and siting of bicycle parking; Executive Summary iv In order to effectively implement the BUMP, it is 29. That the City adopt a cycling network recommended: implementation process similar to that outlined in Figure 6.1. Implementation Strategy [Page 77] Funding [Page 82] 24. That Council adopt the BUMP, thereby committing the City of Windsor to the 30. That the Traffic Engineering Department and implementation of its recommendations. the Cycling Coordinator prioritize individual bikeway projects on an annual basis. The 25. That the City of Windsor commit annual results of this exercise should be documented funding to: in a report to Council outlining the progress in • initiate the cycling awareness, cycling- implementing the BUMP, and the plan for transit and end-of-trip recommendations as both network development and programming identified in Chapter 4; and for the upcoming year. • construct the cycling network generally in 31. That staff review the costing of each route at keeping with the phasing illustrated on the appropriate time through a more detailed Maps 5 and 6. planning and design exercise in keeping with the process identified in Figure 6.1. 26. That the City, during road resurfacing or rehabilitation projects, consider the BUMP 32. That the City commit, as a minimum, annual recommendations prior to proceeding. funding in the order of $200,000 for BUMP management and cycling awareness Administrative Structure [Page 78] initiatives. This would include the annual salary of the Cycling Coordinator, seasonal 27. That the City of Windsor establish the position contract staff, network promotion, special of Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic event costs, and partial costs associated with Engineering Department to oversee cycling the preparation of safety and education related issues and to coordinate materials. implementation of the BUMP. 33. That the responsibility for pavement surface 28. That the Windsor Bicycling Committee continue maintenance for on-road cycling network in its current role, and assist staff in confirming facilities be assigned to the City’s Road priorities for implementation of the BUMP. Executive Summary v Operations Division of the Public Works Monitoring [Page 90] Department. 41. That the City, through the Traffic Engineering 34. That the responsibility for off-road bikeway Department, establish a cycling data collection facilities outside the road rights-of-way be program. assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation Department and include surface maintenance 42. That Transportation Engineering, through the and snow/debris removal. Bicycle Coordinator, report annually to Council and the Windsor Bicycling 35. That maintenance of on-road and off-road Committee on the BUMP implementation bikeway pavement markings and signage be progress and priorities for the upcoming year. the responsibility of the Traffic Engineering Department. To implement these recommendations, an implementation strategy is provided at the 36. That the City of Windsor budget $10,000 a conclusion of the report. This strategy brings year for the next 20 years to develop and together the short and long term actions required implement a bicycle parking program. to achieve the cycling vision with the administrative structure, funding mechanisms and 37. That the responsibility for developing and monitoring elements necessary for success. managing this program be assigned to the It should be noted that the BUMP is not intended City’s new Cycling Coordinator. to be a static document. The timing and details related to implementation of the BUMP, 38. That the City investigate costs and suppliers particularly the location of recommended routes for post-and-ring stands. and bikeway types, can and should evolve through community consultation and detailed technical 39. That the City commit annual funding to studies as appropriate. At the same time, implement BUMP over 20 years. however, the extensive community effort that established the overall direction for this Plan must 40. That the City investigate public and private be respected. Therefore, specific changes to sector funding programs to assist in routing alignments, facility types, awareness implementing the BUMP. initiatives and implementation priorities should be evaluated in the context of such a decision’s impact upon the community’s desire to achieve the cycling vision. 1 Introduction 1 BUDS and focus municipal efforts on developing the on-street facilities. This was to be done by filling in the gaps in the existing recreationway network, and improving connections to, from and between existing cycling facilities. T he City of Windsor has been actively developing a cycling and multi-use recreation network since 1991 with the adoption of the 1.1 Study Purpose The purpose of the Bicycle Use Master Plan Bicycle Use Development Study (BUDS). The (BUMP) is to guide the development of a completion of a comprehensive cycling network is comprehensive cycling network for Windsor that viewed as integral to Windsor’s vision for a will make it the pre-eminent city for cycling in balanced transportation system. North America. As such, the Plan emphasizes integrating, enhancing and expanding Windsor’s Windsor’s existing 40+ kilometre off-road trail existing on and off-road cycling network, system has become the envy of many North facilitating the use of bicycles for commuting, “Windsor’s American cities. The challenge for the City over leisure and tourism, and providing a genuine existing 40+ the next 20 years is to integrate this multi-use trail transportation alternative to the use of motor kilometre off-road system with an on-road cycling network. As vehicles. trail system has stated in the Windsor Area Long Range become the envy Transportation Study (WALTS): of many North The BUMP is “…emphasis should now be on intended to build American cities.” continuing to implement the [BUDS] on the success of through the interconnection of planned on- the Bicycle Use road primary Bikeways with the Development Study established Recreationway trails.” (BUDS) and the existing trail To address this challenge, the City of Windsor network. retained the consulting team of Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited, ESG International, Stantec Consulting and Paradigm Transportation Solutions Limited. Their assignment was to update the Photo: Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario 1 Introduction 2 1.2 Study Approach The public was The BUMP was developed through the following actively involved in five phase process: the BUMP study through various 1. Assessing the Existing Conditions - involved activities such as identifying and assessing the existing cycling public meetings. network, resident and cyclist opinions, and corridor opportunities and constraints. 2. Developing the Cycling Network - involved “The purpose of establishing a vision and principles for the the Bicycle Use BUMP, and the identification of candidate Photo: BUMP Public Meeting #2 at Malden Park – Windsor, Ontario Master Plan cycling routes. (BUMP) is to guide the public in the study. Key public consultation 3. Developing the Cycling Network Plan and the development of activities included: Implementation Strategy - involved evaluating a comprehensive all candidate cycling routes, determining a cycling network for cycling tours on May 2 and 3, 2000; Windsor that will preferred cycling network and route classifications, as well as developing potential make it the pre- public open houses on May 3, 2000, July 13, design solutions for challenging areas. eminent city for 2000 and November 22, 2000; cycling in North 4. Identifying Proposed Policies, Programs, America.” a Bicycle User Survey, conducted in the Liability Issues and Funding Sources - field, circulated at public events and posted involved researching and evaluating cycling on the BUMP website; strategies appropriate for the Windsor context. a statistically valid Public Attitude 5. Reporting - involved preparing and adopting Telephone Survey of a random sample of the BUMP. Windsor area residents; Public consultation activities were recognized as a a dedicated Webpage that provided updates key element in the BUMP study. Every effort was of the study as it progressed; made to involve stakeholders and members of 1 Introduction 3 opportunities for residents to submit their expressed their desire for a comprehensive cycling comments; and network that connects neighbourhoods throughout Windsor. Therefore, while on-going monitoring a series of Monthly Newsletters. and adjustments will be required, the focus of implementing the BUMP should be on achieving 1.3 BUMP Organization the cycling vision. The Bicycle Use Master Plan (BUMP) sets forth a vision, network and strategy to further enhance “Residents have and develop Windsor’s cycling network. It builds clearly expressed on the success of the City’s efforts to date, and is their desire for a organized as follows: Introduction, Context, comprehensive Direction, Strategy, Toolbox, Implementation and cycling network Recommendations. A Glossary, Bibliography and that connects Appendices are also provided at the end of the neighbourhoods report and a separate Technical Appendix The BUMP study throughout documents other aspects of the study process. provides direction Windsor.” for establishing on- The BUMP is not intended to be a static road cycling document. As the network is developed and the connections urban fabric evolves, the routing and priorities through the identified in this Plan may change. Similarly, as provision of new technologies and design options emerge, they facilities such as will have to be considered. bike lanes. The timing and details related to implementing the BUMP, particularly the location of recommended routes and bikeway types, can and should evolve through community consultation and detailed technical studies as appropriate. At the same time, however, the extensive community effort that Photo: Example of on-road bike lanes, St. George Street – Toronto, established the overall direction of this Plan Ontario should be respected. Residents have clearly 2 Context 4 The demand for cycling and walking facilities is high in communities across Ontario. Municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area, as well as Ottawa, London, Kitchener-Waterloo, Milton and Brampton, to name a few, are actively developing networks to encourage cycling and C ycling has evolved to become a practical, walking, and to lower reliance on the personal cost effective, environmentally sensitive automobile. At the provincial level, the Ontario and healthy mode of transportation for both Trails Council is promoting the integration of recreation and utilitarian purposes across North community and regional trail systems into a America. It is recognized as an integral and province-wide system to be known as the Ontario necessary part of a city’s transportation system in Trillium Trails Network. At the same time, the addition to being a viable alternative to Trans Canada Trail Foundation opened the Trans automobile use. Canada Trail on September 9, 2000. The following provides a context for the growth and trends in cycling from a North American “Across Ontario, perspective and describes Windsor’s experience. recreational cycling is 2.1 North American Cycling Perspective recognized as one “The demand for of the top three cycling and Across Ontario, recreational cycling is recognized recreational walking facilities is as one of the top three recreational pursuits, pursuits…” high in having a 20% participation rate and an estimated communities annual growth rate of 2.3% (Ministry of across Ontario.” Citizenship, Culture and Recreation, 1998). In the City of Toronto, approximately 20% of the city’s population cycle for utilitarian purposes, for example to get to work, school, shopping and running errands, while 44% of the population cycle for recreational purposes, including leisure and fitness pursuits (Decima Research Inc., 1999). Photo: Riverfront Trail entrance at Riverside Drive and Lincoln Road – Windsor, Ontario 2 Context 5 According to David Foot, author of Boom, Bust & Recreation, Health and Fitness Benefits Echo, and his American counterparts, significant changes are occurring in recreation as a result of Cycling and walking enhance fitness and provide demography. In short, a large proportion of our an enjoyable, convenient and affordable means of population is ageing and looking for different exercise and recreation. The most effective fitness types of recreational opportunities than were routines are moderate in intensity, individualized, typical in the past. The following general trends and incorporated into our daily activities. Cycling have been observed, all of which have and walking can both accomplish this, and at the implications for cycling network development: same time provide mobility. “Cycling and walking can there is a renewed interest in spending enhance one’s “quality time” with family and friends, mental outlook and Trails that pass while pursuing high quality recreational well being, improve though a variety of experiences; self-image, social neighbourhoods relationships and staying healthy through active recreational help to unite the increase self- pursuits is viewed as important; community. reliance by instilling a sense of there is a strong interest in tourism and independence and recreational activities that respect the natural freedom.” and cultural environments, and also offer educational opportunities; and Photo: Ganatchio Trail – Windsor, Ontario there is a pervasive interest in getaway travel In Ottawa, two-thirds of 1700 commuter cyclists where the goal is to obtain a high quality surveyed in 1991 ranked health and fitness as the recreational experience at a reasonable cost. primary reason for cycling to work. The promotion of cycling has significant Cycling and walking can enhance one’s mental individual, societal, environmental and economic outlook and sense of well being, improve self- benefits. image, social relationships and increase self- reliance by instilling a sense of independence and freedom. 2 Context 6 Trails that pass though a variety of Transportation Efficiency Benefits neighbourhoods help to unite communities. They act as meeting places, and provide for informal Cycling and walking are a means of transportation interaction between people from a variety of that are efficient, affordable and accessible. For backgrounds. distances up to 10 km in downtown areas, cycling is the fastest of all modes from door to door. The Trail projects (construction, operation, National Bicycle and Walking Study: Final Report maintenance and promotion) can help to foster (1994) noted that in U.S. cities, 25% of all trips “In Edmonton, a partnerships among individuals, government, local are 1.5 km or less, and over two-thirds are 8 km or survey of 2,400 business and various interest groups. There are less. In the U.S., 20% of all cycling trips involve cyclists in 1989 many examples of successful private and public- travel to and from work. This demonstrates the showed that 75% sector partnerships that have emerged as a result potential for increasing the number of cycling of the reported of the development of trails across the country, trips. bicycle trips were such as the Chrysler Greenway through Essex for reasons other County. Cycling is than recreation. becoming a mode Almost 20% of The focus of our health system is shifting from protecting people from hazards in the environment of choice for the cyclists commuting and surveyed rode all to developing healthy environments in which people live. Evidence suggests that improved utilitarian year round, purposes as an indicating that cycling and walking facilities lead to higher participation rates. Increased physical activity alternative to the winter cycling is automobile. viable.” such as walking, cycling and other trail related actives could help to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. A more active population can, in turn, reduce the cost of medical care, decrease Photo: Typical bike lane pavement marking – Toronto, Ontario workplace absenteeism and help to maintain the independence of older adults, thereby reducing the cost of institutional care. In Edmonton, a survey of 2400 cyclists in 1989 showed that 75% of the reported bicycle trips Encouraging people to cycle and walk can reduce were for reasons other than recreation. Almost urban and suburban dependence on the 20% of the cyclists surveyed rode all year round, automobile, a target in healthy cities. indicating that winter cycling is viable. 2 Context 7 Road improvements to increase the safety of up fewer resources in their production, cyclists can and should enhance the safety of other maintenance and storage than motor vehicles, road users. For example, the U.S. Federal thereby reducing the demand on materials and Highway Administration reports that paved energy resources. Encouraging bicycle use and shoulders on two-lane, rural roads have been reducing the dependence on the automobile is also shown to reduce run-off-the-road, head-on and consistent with current Provincial Policy sideswipe collisions by 30% to 40%. In addition, initiatives regarding “Smart Growth”. several municipalities have found that paved shoulders reduce maintenance costs related to Economic Benefits Trail systems can shoulder deterioration, grading and snow plowing. have varied levels Following significant investment in bicycle of tourist Two major surveys conducted in the U.S., one in facilities, cities in industrialized countries have attraction. They 1994 (Richelieu Valley Tourism) and one in 1997 experienced dramatic increases in the level of can be travel (Survey of Delaware Bicyclists) showed that 99% cycling. For example, Copenhagen experienced a destinations in of all respondents said they cycled for recreation, cycling increase of 50% in five years, while both themselves, fitness and health, 65% to 90% used their bicycle Eugene, Oregon and Toronto experienced an encourage visitors for touring and vacationing, and 40% to 50% increase of 75% (New York City Bicycle Master to extend their stay cycled for basic transportation purposes. Many Plan, 1997). in the area or who have had a positive recreational cycling enhance business experience try cycling for utilitarian purposes. and pleasure visits. Environmental Benefits There is ample Cycling and walking are energy-efficient, non- evidence that trails polluting modes of travel. Short distance, motor- can provide a vehicle trips are the least fuel-efficient, and tourist draw to a generate the most pollution per kilometre. These community. trips have the greatest potential to be replaced by cycling and walking trips as well as integrated walking-cycling-transit trips. Shifting to these modes can reduce ozone depletion, the greenhouse effect, ground-level air pollution, photochemical Photo: Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario smog, acid rain and noise pollution. Bicycles take 2 Context 8 There is ample evidence that trails provide group, spent $17 per day camping or $50 per significant economic benefits for adjacent day staying in motels. Cyclists travelling landowners and local businesses. Trails provide alone spent an average of $22 per day benefits to the local economy during both camping or $60 per day staying in motels; construction and operation. Trail construction and results in direct benefits such as jobs, including the supply and installation of materials. in Ontario, the Eastern Ontario Trails Following construction, benefits emerge in the Alliance estimated that at the end of a ten form of expenditures by trail users. A few year build-out period, 320 kilometres of examples include: their system, constructed at a cost of $5.4 million will generate approximately $36 trails in New Brunswick employ around million in annual economic benefits in the 1500 people for an average of six months communities through which it passes, and “The Ontario per year; create or sustain over 1100 jobs. Ministry of Transportation 70% of trail users of the Bruce Trail cite the Trail systems can have varied levels of attraction reported that trail as the main reason for visiting the area, for tourists. They can be travel destinations in touring cyclists and they spend an average of about $20.00 themselves, encouraging visitors to extend their spend an average per user, per visit, within a 10 kilometre stay in the area or enhancing business and of $130 per day in corridor on either side of the trail; pleasure visits. By increasing the “level of tourist Ontario, and the draw”, travellers can be expected to stay longer, bicycle retail and the San Antonio Riverwalk is considered the resulting in an additional night's lodging and tourist industry anchor of the tourism industry in San meals, a major direct new benefit to local contributes a Antonio, Texas and contributes $1.2 billion businesses. minimum of $150 annually into the local economy; million a year to A 1997 survey of Canadian tourists active in the the Ontario in 1988, users of the Elroy-Sparta Trail in outdoors showed that 30% of Ontario tourists economy.” Wisconsin averaged expenditures of $25.14 cycled on at least one occasion while on vacation. U.S. per day for trip-related expenses (over The Ontario Ministry of Transportation reported $1.2 million annually); that touring cyclists spend an average of $130 per day in Ontario, and the bicycle retail and tourist more than 600,000 Americans took a bicycle industry contributes a minimum of $150 million a vacation in 1985, and when travelling in a year to the Ontario economy. Bed and breakfast 2 Context 9 operators between Ottawa and Kingston report 90 percent of respondents as being supportive of that the majority of their business is from touring the development of a network of linear parks and cyclists. Cyclists in Vermont spend an average of trails throughout Windsor for cycling, walking, $180 US per day, the same amount expected of running and skiing. Responding to this public someone travelling by car. interest and enthusiasm, the City, with the assistance of a consulting team, followed up with Bicycle manufacture, sales and repairs, as well as the Bicycle Use Development Study (BUDS), bicycle tourism, recreation and delivery services which was adopted by Council in 1991. contribute to the economy with little to no public investment or subsidy. The Worldwatch Institute reported in 1987 that 1.2 million bicycles were Through the produced in Canada compared to 0.8 million BUMP process, automobiles. The small size of the bicycle results residents were able in infrastructure costs for bikeways and bicycle to express their parking that are 10 to 20 times less than for the opinions on the same quantity of automobiles. direction for “Windsor cycling in Windsor. residents clearly 2.2 The Windsor Experience expressed their desire to complete The following provides a brief overview of the various municipal initiatives that have identified implementation of the demand for cycling facilities within Windsor Photo: BUMP Public Meeting #1 at the Main Library – Windsor, Ontario the cycling and assisted in the development of the existing off-road trail system. Information and trends In summary, the BUDS was based on the four E’s network through for improving cycling – engineering, education, the extensive specific to Windsor identified through the BUMP study process are also reviewed. enforcement and encouragement. Some of the public major recommendations of the BUDS included: consultation forums associated Previous Municipal Initiatives creating opportunities for new cyclists to with the have a positive first cycling experience; Residents of Windsor have long expressed the community desire for an interconnected cycling network for strategic plan.” actively promoting municipal programs, both recreation and utilitarian purposes. In 1989, the Culture and Recreation Master Plan identified events and the benefits of cycling; 2 Context 10 supporting all forms of recreational and the Walker Homesite and Devonwood Trail utilitarian cycling; through the Devonshire Planning District; and promoting the implementation of high standard and highly visible facilities for the Southwood Lakes Trail in the Roseland cycling use; and Planning District. mapping a proposed cycling and recreation Through the planning approval process, lands network. have also been reserved for bikeways and recreationways in East Riverside, Devonshire “The Windsor Area The BUDS laid the foundation for the 40+ km of Heights, North Roseland, South Cameron and Long Range cycling and multi-use trails that exist in Windsor along the Lauzon Parkway in accordance with the Transportation today that are illustrated on Map 1. This network BUDS. In addition, several Environmental Study Study and Official includes: Reports (ESR’s) have begun to implement the Plan processes proposed BUDS network such as the bikeway further confirmed the College Avenue and West under construction on the west side of the Lauzon the public’s desire Recreationway through west and south Parkway from Matthew Brady Boulevard to to complete the Windsor; Tecumseh Road, and the identification of a cycling network for preferred east-west bikeway connection between both recreational the Ambassador/Assumption/Centennial Memorial Park and Jackson Park. pursuits and as a Recreationway along the Detroit River; means of the Roseville Garden Park Trail in the Forest supporting the Glade Planning District; development of a The Riverfront balanced Trail was a result the Little River Corridor and Ganatachio transportation of the direction Trails through the Riverside and East system.” established by the Riverside Planning Districts; Bicycle Use on-road bicycle routes along Raymond and Development Edgar Avenues; Study. Photo: Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario 2 Context 11 The community’s continued support of cycling The WALTS and Official Plan (OP) processes network development was affirmed through the completed in 1999 further confirmed the public’s 1996 Community Strategic Plan (CSP) process. desire to complete the cycling network for both The CSP provides an overall guide for all recreational pursuits and as a means of supporting municipal initiatives. The plan established a the development of a balanced transportation community vision, municipal mission statement system. and several strategic themes and objectives. WALTS established a 20-year transportation Residents clearly expressed their desire to master plan for Windsor. Its goal was to create a complete the implementation of the cycling transportation system that balances the use of network through the extensive public consultation private automobiles, public transit, walking and forums associated with the CSP. This resulted in cycling. the following cycling supportive statements being included in the document: WALTS supported the development of a cycling and recreationway network, in addition to placing develop an “adopt a” program for parks, an emphasis on completing the on-road sections of “Central to the natural areas, sections of waterfront, the network. BUMP study was bikeways, etc.; the need to determine from develop an improved signage system to stakeholders and educate the public about trails and the “The City’s new Windsor residents natural environment; Official Plan the type and form supports the of cycling network implement the Bikeway Plan; development of they wanted.” recreational and provide transportation systems that enhance commuter cycling physical mobility and better serve the facilities.” economic and social needs of the community; and develop an overall urban transportation system plan for Windsor. Photo: City of Windsor Official Plan, 2000 2 Context 12 The OP established a 20-year planning framework they wanted. Through the process of developing to manage the physical growth and development Windsor’s BUMP, information was collected and of Windsor. The plan was aimed at strengthening analyzed related to cycling barriers, issues and the City through its neighbourhoods. Key to this opportunities. This information was obtained strategy is improving the character of, and through a number of mechanisms including connections within and between, neighbourhoods. cycling tours, public open houses, meetings with stakeholders, user and public attitude surveys, Cycling policies in the OP relate to: written and verbal input provided by the public, plus the knowledge and experience of the Steering the identification of a cycling and recreation Committee and consulting team. The key findings network; of this review are summarized in the following section. requiring that all proposed developments and infrastructure undertakings provide facilities Map 2 illustrates some of the major cycling for cycling movement and storage wherever barriers and destinations within Windsor. appropriate; and Windsor residents The barriers include those that restrict or prohibit identified a number requiring the installation of cycling cycling use, such as the E.C. Row Expressway of opportunities to supportive facilities, such as bicycle racks, and rail lines. There are also those roads that improve cycling at as a part of the development of major discourage cycling for all but the most the public open employment, commercial and institutional experienced cyclist because of the traffic volumes, houses. uses. such as Huron Church Road, Tecumseh Road and the intersections of Howard Avenue and Division The BUMP study is intended to build on the Road. success of these studies through the research and input collected and analyzed over the course of the Major destinations include recreational, study. employment and institutional centres such as the University of Windsor, St. Clair College, the BUMP Initiatives Riverfront, City Centre, the various automotive and employment areas, Tecumseh, Devonshire Central to the BUMP study was the need to and University Malls plus various City parks. determine from stakeholders and Windsor residents the type and form of cycling network 2 Context 13 Through the BUMP process, a Signage such as the visibility, location and number of cycling lack of network signage; barriers were identified. Cycling along Riverside Drive East being desired by the broader community, and the neighbourhood’s desire to maintain a quiet residential character; Trail Use Conflicts between cyclists, walkers and in-line skaters along various recreationways, especially along Ambassador/Assumption/Centennial and Photo: Rail underpass on Dougall Avenue – Windsor, Ontario Ganatchio Trails; Public Open Houses and Bicycle Tours Traffic Volume and Speed along certain roads within Windsor such as Huron Church A series of public open houses and bicycle tours Road, Tecumseh Road and portions of were held throughout the BUMP study. The Riverside Drive; “The overall purpose of these events was to involve the public objective of the in determining the direction and programs On-street Parking along various streets Decima Survey was recommended in this report. combined with the monthly alternating to measure the arrangement from one side to another; prevalence of Cycling issues that emerged through discussions cycling in Windsor with the public at the open houses and bicycle Cost/funding issues related to the City’s with a focus on tours included: ability to establish particular routes or utilitarian trips.” connections given the cost of design, right- Road Conditions such as uneven, cracked or of-way acquisition, construction and long- potholed road surfaces, catch basins and term maintenance; debris such as sand, gravel and litter; Traffic Controls such as the duration of signal timings and the indiscriminate use of all-way stops; 2 Context 14 Attractiveness of various areas for cyclists such as along the Detroit River, Riverside Drive and in old Walkerville; Directness of the grid road pattern for moving cyclists across the city; Approximately 47% or 113,000 Momentum created by the City through the Windsor residents continued support and development of the over the age of 15 cycling network; are cyclists. Photo: Public Meeting #2 at Malden Park – Windsor, Ontario Mild Climate creating a longer, if not year round, cycling season; and Law Enforcement as it applies to both Flexible Rights-of-Way that can cyclists and motorists; and accommodate either on-street cycling lanes or paths within the boulevards. Education and Awareness of safe cycling practices, cycling as an alternative to In addition to the public events, the study team automobile use and Windsor’s cycling conducted two surveys. network. Public Attitude Survey Cycling opportunities that emerged through discussions with the public and Steering Decima Research conducted a statistically valid Committee, as well as the study team’s public attitude survey over the telephone to a investigation include: random sample of Windsor, LaSalle and Tecumseh households. Existing Trail System is well established, used and maintained, particularly along the The objectives of the survey were to: riverfront and in East Riverside and West Windsor; estimate bicycle ownership among households, and the number of utilitarian “The is ideal Topography is relatively flat which analysis and recreational cyclists; for cycling; reveals that age is a primary factor in contrasting the different types of cycling groups, such that when age increases the prevalence of 2 Context 15 establish a profile of Windsor area residents Decima’s complete survey results are provided with regard to their use of the bicycle both under separate cover as a technical appendix as a mode of transportation and a (Volume 2). The following summarizes the five recreational vehicle; major conclusions of the survey. determine barriers to utilitarian cycling, 1. Cycling is a critical mode of transportation current transportation modes used and and form of recreation for Windsor area opportunities to encourage cycling; residents. estimate the percentage of cyclists who use In total, approximately 23% of the population or their bicycle in conjunction with public 56,350 persons cycle for utilitarian purposes, transit, and the potential to increase this including getting to work, school, shopping, activity; running errands or visiting. Given that some of these utilitarian cyclists ride for more than one of identify any concerns the public may have these practical purposes, the more detailed about cycling or cyclists in the Windsor area; Households with Bicycles gauge the public’s perception of the overall quality of cycling facilities available, and Decima asked: “Do options on possible mechanisms for No you or does anyone improvement; and 35% in your household Yes own a bicycle?” obtain information on the public’s 65% perception of atmospheric smog and the aggressive behaviour of cyclists and motorists. A total of 501 interviews were completed as a part of the survey, and the results had a margin of error of less than 4.8% within Windsor. estimates sum to greater than the total: 2 Context 16 almost 17,000 or 7% of cyclists ride to work. Concerns About Windsor Area Cycling These cyclists make approximately 61,000 Total Non-Cyclist Recreational Utilitarian work trips per week. Almost half (47%) n=501 n=264 n=122 n=155 have a commute of less than 20 minutes, the % % % % average ride taking 19.5 minutes; Careless cyclists 21 25 19 16 Nothing/No concerns 20 20 24 17 Worried about collisions 15 17 15 12 almost 9,600 or 4% of cyclists bike to Lack of paths and trails 11 10 14 12 school. Just over half (51%) have a Lack of bike lanes 11 8 10 18 Careless drivers 11 7 15 13 commute of less than 20 minutes; and Traffic Conditions 9 8 8 14 Narrow Streets 7 7 4 10 almost 52,000 or 22% of cyclists ride to go Road conditions 5 4 4 11 Safety gear/helmets etc 5 5 5 4 shopping, run errands or go visiting, making Bikes on sidewalks 5 7 1 3 almost 124,000 trips per week. Safety (general) 4 4 3 4 Lack of knowledge/education 3 3 1 3 of CYCLISTS In total, there are approximately 106,000 Do not know/Did not say 3 4 1 2 recreational cyclists who ride for leisure or fitness, representing 45% of the population. Almost one- Decima asked: “What concerns if any do you have about cycling or cyclists quarter of Windsor area residents can be classified in Windsor?” as cyclists who ride for recreational and fitness purposes only. 2. Cyclists in Windsor are not a marginalized group. 250,000 202,472 The profile identifies a group who tends to be The estimated mainstream residents with a skew to younger # Among Windsor Area number of cycling 123,739 citizens with a moderate to high socio-economic 15+ Population trips reveals the 61,043 status. importance of 28,196 cycling as a mode Those who are younger are more likely to be 0 of transportation in utilitarian cyclists than those who are older. It is Work Recreation Shopping/Visiting School Windsor. also evident that as household income rises, so too does the probability that a member of the household is a utilitarian cyclist. Men (60%) are much more likely to be utilitarian cyclists than 2 Context 17 women (40%). Further, nine-in-ten (91%) 38% would "bike-n-ride" if there were bike racks utilitarian cyclists also cycle for recreation or attached to City buses. fitness. The non-cyclist profile is essentially opposite Age also plays a role in defining recreational from the recreational cyclist profile. For example, cyclists. Those who are younger are more likely to those who are older (50+) are less likely to cycle cycle for recreation or fitness than those who are as are those who earn lower incomes. Further, older; however, recreational cyclists (median age women are more likely to be non-cyclists than are 39.3) tend to be older than utilitarian cyclists men. (median age 30.3). It is also evident that as income “Three-in-five or rises, so to does the number of recreational cyclists. 3. The overall perceptions of the quality of 60% of Considering that this fact is also true for utilitarian cycling routes and facilities in Windsor recreational cyclists, it is apparent that higher income earners suggest there is significant opportunity for cyclists name are more likely to be cyclists in general. improvement. distance as the number one reason Three-in-five or 60% of recreational cyclists name Despite the fact that 44% of Windsor area they do not cycle distance as the number one reason they do not residents evaluate cycling routes and facilities as for utilitarian cycle for utilitarian purposes. The next major purposes.” concern is unsafe traffic conditions (18%). It is Changes that would Improve Windsor Area Cycling also apparent that some feel cycling to work is simply not feasible - "can't carry things on bike" Total Non-Cyclist Recreational Utilitarian (8%), "incompatible with work clothes" (7%), and n=501 n=264 n=122 n=115 % % % % "lack of secure bike parking" (7%) are the third, More bike paths and trails (off-street) 28 24 35 27 fourth and fifth most common barriers to More bike lanes (on-street) 26 24 23 33 utilitarian cycling. Better education for cyclists 7 9 5 4 Better education for motorists 2 3 2 1 Enforce rules/regulations (give 2 4 1 1 When those mentioning distance (60%) as the tickets/fines) cycling barrier were asked what steps could be Repair potholes and bad pavement 2 2 2 2 Promote cycling 2 2 3 2 taken to encourage them to begin cycling to work More bicycle parking 2 1 1 5 or school, 42% said "nothing". However, when Cyclists SHOULD be on sidewalks 2 1 2 3 DK/NS 17 20 16 13 prompted, 31% of those who said "nothing" said they would combine cycling with public transit if Decima asked: “What ONE thing do you feel the City or your employer there was convenient and secure bike parking, and or school could do to improve cycling in Windsor?” 2 Context 18 at least "good", fewer than two-in-ten feel the thing that would improve cycling in Windsor. quality of cycling facilities is "excellent" (4%) or very good (12%). 4. There is considerable opportunity to increase combined cycling and transit trips. Almost three-quarters (72%) of Windsor area residents feel atmospheric smog is "a major Currently, 6% of all cyclists have combined problem" in the City. Cyclists are somewhat more cycling and public transit at some time. However, likely to feel this way than non-cyclists are. 9% of utilitarian cyclists have combined the two Overall, one-quarter (24%) of respondents say transportation modes compared to only 3% of they switch to a more environmentally friendly recreational cyclists. mode of transportation during smog alert days. However, utilitarian cyclists (34%) are Of those cyclists who have combined cycling and significantly more likely to change their behaviour public transit, 80% state they would be more than recreational (20%) or non-cyclists (21%). Ways to Stimulate NEW Combined Cycling and Public Transit Trips One-quarter (26%) Based on residents' evaluations, there are of respondents feel considerable opportunities to improve the adding more on- overall quality of cycling facilities and routes. street bike lanes is Residents stated two key areas of improvement Convenient and 64% the number one that would have the greatest impact on the secure bike parking thing that would overall quality of cycling facilities and routes at public transit Utilitarian Cyclists stops 41% improve cycling in in the Windsor area: Windsor. Recreational Cyclists more off-street bike paths or trails; and Convenient and 58% secure bike racks more on-street bike lanes. attached to city buses 39% Almost three-in-ten or 28% of respondents volunteered that adding more off-street bike % YES 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% paths is the number one thing that would improve cycling in the Windsor area. An additional one-quarter (26%) feel that adding Decima asked: “Would you consider combining cycling in the same more on-street bike lanes is the number one trip if the following were provided? How about…” 2 Context 19 likely to bike-n-ride more often if secure bike other. More than two-in-five (43%) of parking facilities were available. A similar respondents feel motorists' respect for other road proportion (49%) say they would be more likely to users has decreased in the past five years. A do it more often if there were bike racks attached lesser proportion (23%) feel cyclists' respect for to buses. These findings are similar among both other road users has decreased. However, some recreational and utilitarian cyclists. Windsor residents have a somewhat more optimistic outlook – 13% feel motorists' respect Of those cyclists who do not combine cycling with for other users is increasing, and 18% feel cyclists' public transit, 52% would be more likely to try it respect is increasing. if secure bike parking facilities were available. Slightly fewer (48%) say they would be more likely to try it if there were bike racks attached to Travel Time to the Nearest buses. Both ideas appeal somewhat more to Bike Path User Survey utilitarian cyclists that are not already combining question read: cycling with public transit than recreational Do Not Know 1-5 min “How far in 13% cyclists. They would be significantly more likely >20 min 7% 38% minutes do you live (58% versus 39%) than recreational cyclists to 8% from the nearest begin combining cycling and public transit if bike 16-20 min major bike path or racks were attached to City buses. trail?” 13% 5. Public education and communication are 11-15 min 21% 6-10 min required to address concerns about cycling in Windsor. The Bicycle User Survey provided The principle issue is one of perceived These views are reflected in the public's views cyclists an carelessness, and the public seems to be engaged towards cycling on and off the road. More than opportunity to in a "he said, she said" debate. For example, one- nine-in-ten or 95% of Windsor area cyclists are provide their in-five respondents say their number one concern comfortable cycling on bike trails or paths, and opinions to the about cycling in Windsor is cyclists who don't more than eight-in-ten (83%) on residential consulting team. obey the rules and laws. streets. Furthermore, almost six-in-ten (59%) believe they would be comfortable cycling on There is a perception of a decline in the general major roads with bike lanes. Less than two-in-ten respect that motorists and cyclists have for each or 17% of cyclists are comfortable cycling on 2 Context 20 major roads without bike lanes. Utilitarian 1. Cycling is a critical mode of transportation cyclists are more likely to be comfortable cycling and form of recreation. Overall 40% of in any of these areas than are recreational cyclists. respondents indicated they ride to work between 5 to 7 days per week. Bicycle User Survey 2. Respondents feel safest cycling on bike paths A second survey was developed for existing or trails. Interestingly, 67% indicated they Windsor cyclists and recreationway users. would feel safe riding on major roads with Surveys were provided to municipal staff to bike lanes. “Interestingly, 67% circulate, and were also handed out at the cycling of respondents to tours and the first public workshop. It was also the Bicycle User posted on the BUMP website. Finally, direct Survey stated they interviews were conducted by the study team on Safety for Cyclists would feel the recreationway network. 99 comfortable cycling Bike trails or paths 1 on major roads The purpose of the user survey was to give 0 with bike lanes.” cyclists a chance to offer their opinions to the consulting team on: 65 Residential Streets 32 4 where and how often they currently ride their bicycle; Major roads with 67 bike lanes 16 17 where they want to cycle; and Major roads without 6 what they think should be done to improve bike lanes 92 cycling in Windsor. 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Over 225 cyclists responded to the User Survey, Safe % yielding some interesting results. The detailed Not Safe Do Not Know analysis of the Bicycle User Survey is provided under separate cover as a technical appendix. The six key findings from this survey are as follows: User Survey question asked: “Would you feel safe cycling on…” 2 Context 21 3. Bike paths are generally within a convenient distance of residential areas, with 59% of respondents having a path within 10 minutes of their home. 4. There is interest in conducting cyclist training courses, such as CAN-BIKE. 5. When asked what they believe would improve cycling in Windsor, respondents showed a strong preference for more bike paths and trails, on-street bike lanes, pothole repair and motorist education. 6. Smog alert days do not appear to greatly influence people’s choice to cycle, with 45% indicating that they still bike on these days. 3 Direction 22 3.2 Cycling Principles Principles will guide the implementation of the BUMP by providing the qualitative framework for evaluating different routes, designs and awareness opportunities. B ased on the previous cycling and trail related studies completed by and for the City of Windsor and the input received through the Based on the existing studies, knowledge of the consulting team and the public input received BUMP study process, a clear direction for cycling during the BUMP study, the Windsor specific within Windsor emerged. This direction is cycling principles used to guide the development encapsulated into a vision, principles and goals. of this Plan are as follows: 3.1 Cycling Vision Cycling Routes Windsor’s cycling vision is a visible Windsor’s cycling vision clearly expresses what Visible The cycling network should be a and connected the City is attempting to achieve with cycling, and visible component of the cycling network provides the foundation for all municipal transportation system. that is easily decisions to implement this cycling master plan. accessible, safe and Connected All cycling routes should be actively used by all Cycling within Windsor is recognized as playing connected to form an overall types of cyclists. an important role in achieving a balanced cycling network. transportation system. In this regard, the specific cycling vision for Windsor as articulated in the Easily Cycling routes should be easily Accessible Official Plan and expanded through the BUMP accessible from all study is: neighbourhoods within Windsor. Cycling Vision A visible and connected cycling Destinations Cycling routes should provide network that is easily accessible, access to major destinations safe and actively used by all types within Windsor. of cyclists. 3 Direction 23 Flexible R.O.W Cycling routes should take advantage of rights-of-way capable of accommodating cycling facilities. “The cycling New R.O.W. New rights-of-way should network should be accommodate cyclists. a visible component of the Integration with The cycling network should be other modes transportation integrated with other modes of system.” transportation, particularly public transit. Cycling Network Design Variety of Types The cycling network should consist of a variety of on and off- road facilities. Neighbourhood Cycling facilities should Character complement the character of neighbourhoods. Photo: Participants on one of the BUMP cycling tours along the Riverfront Trail – Windsor, Ontario Safe The cycling network should be designed to maximize the safety Attractive and Cycling routes should take of all users. Scenic Areas advantage of attractive and scenic areas, views and vistas. Wayfinding Wayfinding to and along the cycling network should be readily Diverse The cycling network should visible and clear. Experience provide a diverse on and off-road cycling experience. 3 Direction 24 All Abilities & The cycling network should 3.3 Cycling Goals Interests appeal to all cycling abilities and interests. Goals reflect the long-range purpose of this Plan and provide a measure to evaluate the success of Supportive Cycling supportive services and its implementation. Services & Facilities facilities, such as bicycle racks, should be available along cycling In keeping with Windsor’s cycling vision and routes and at major destinations. principles, the following goals have been developed for the BUMP: Cycling Awareness 5 Minute Radius To have cycling facilities Promotion & The City should actively promote available within a five minute Education radius of all neighbourhoods. and educate the public on the benefits of cycling as a viable mode of transportation. Double Cycling To double the number of cycling Modal Share trips, and increase the cycling Traffic Cyclists should be made aware modal split to 4% within 10 Regulations years. that they are legally obligated to obey traffic regulations. “The City should Respect for Motorists should be made aware Cyclists actively promote that a bicycle is defined as a and educate the vehicle under the Highway public on the Traffic Act, and that cyclists have benefits of cycling a legal right to be on the road. as a viable mode of Signage Clear and concise signage should transportation.” be used by the City to promote the cycling network. Photo: BUMP cycling tour wrap-up at City Hall – Windsor, Ontario 4 Strategy 25 4.1 Cycling Network Windsor’s cycling network, when completed, will consist of three types of facilities: Bike Lanes that are dedicated portions of the T he cycling strategy for Windsor is based on the BUMP’s vision, principles and goals. The cycling strategy consists of four elements: road surface for exclusive bicycle use. These are designated by pavement markings that separate the portion of the road used by motor vehicles from that portion used by 1. A Cycling Network of bike lanes, multi-use bicycles; The BUMP trails and signed bicycle routes. strategy is to Multi-use Trails that are any off-road expand Windsor’s 2. Promoting Cycling Awareness through dedicated facility for pedestrians and in-line existing cycling education, encouragement and enforcement. skaters as well as non-motorized vehicles network, promote such as cyclists; and awareness, improve 3. Improving the Cycling-Transit Link to the cycling-transit increase commuter and long-distance cycling Signed Routes that are any roads specifically link and provide trips. signed to encourage bicycle use. end-of-trip facilities. 4. Providing End-of-Trip Facilities to meet the needs of cyclists. Each of these elements and their corresponding The Riverfront and recommendations are discussed in the sections that Ganatchio Trails follow. Implementing all of these elements is will be expanded required if Windsor’s cycling vision is to be realized. and connected to create a loop The BUMP is intended to support and around Windsor. complement the recommendations of the Bicycle Use Development Study (BUDS). For comparison purposes, Appendix A lists both the BUMP and BUDS recommendations. Photo: Riverfront Trail entrance near the University of Windsor – Windsor, Ontario 4 Strategy 26 It is important to emphasize that the bicycle is to ensure that all roadways in a community are formally recognized as a vehicle by the Province designed, updated and maintained in a way that of Ontario, as outlined in the Highway Traffic provides a safe environment for bicycle use. No Act, R.S.O., 1990. Bicycles, therefore, have the matter how extensive the on-road bike lanes or trail right to share all classes of roadways, including facilities are, some cyclists, especially commuters, arterial roads, collectors and local streets, with the will choose to ride on most roads. They have that exception of freeways. right, and accordingly, should feel safe and comfortable in doing so. The fact that bicycles have a right to use municipal and provincial roadways leads to an Windsor’s cycling network is envisioned as an important principle of roadway design – that integrated system of on-road and off-road “every road is a cycling road”. The City, facilities that respond to the direction outlined in therefore, should adopt bicycle friendly design Chapter 3. It will generally be a grid of north- guidelines for all streets, whether a road is south and east-west routes, spaced approximately designated as part of the cycling network or not. two kilometres apart. This spacing will ensure that all residents will be no more than a five minute Bicycle friendly roadway features typically bike ride from the network. It is important to include: recognize that Candidate Route Evaluation 4.3 to 4.5 metre wide curb lanes; bicycles are Prior to recommending a cycling network for considered vehicles catch basin grates that are bicycle friendly Windsor, the public, staff and study team under the Highway and ideally located out of the desired path identified over 110 candidate cycling routes as Traffic Act, and for cycling; and shown on Map 3. Each candidate route was that every road evaluated through a four step process: should be designed traffic control devices that are programmed to accommodate with bicycles in mind, particularly detector 1. Travel each candidate route (ground proof) by cyclists. loops that have their sensitivity adjusted to cycling it, or in a few cases, by driving it in a allow bicycles to actuate a traffic signal. motor vehicle. This included all on-road routes such as Parent Avenue, off-road routes The City of Windsor recognizes that providing a such as the lands adjacent to the Little River, cycling network and multi-use trail system to serve and through areas such as Malden Park; a community does not release it from an obligation 4 Strategy 27 2. Assess each route using the evaluation factors Map 4 identifies the proposed network. To identified in Figure 4.1, the technical accommodate the wide ranging expectations and expertise of the study team and the public’s skill level of cyclists in the City, the cycling input; network is divided into two systems: the Primary Network and the Secondary Network. It is 3. Accept or reject each candidate route based expected that this hierarchy of bikeway types will on Steps 1 and 2; and lead to increased bicycle use. It will also encourage less experienced cyclists to gain 4. Determine an appropriate bikeway type for expertise through the use of signed routes and each accepted route based on the results of multi-use trails. Steps 1 through 3. When determining The qualitative assessment notes prepared by the the feasibility of a study team as they initially evaluated each route proposed cycling are provided under separate cover as a technical route, appendix. It should be noted that the proposed consideration network is based on these notes, in addition to the should be given to other input received and the study team’s factors such as the expertise. provision of safe crossings of major barriers. Photo: E.C. Row Expressway overpass at Mark Avenue – Windsor, Ontario Primary Network The Primary Network is identified on Map 5. It will function as the spine of Windsor’s cycling network, providing direct connections across the City. Photo: Route evaluation of the E.C. Row Expressway overpass at Mark Avenue – Windsor, Ontario 4 Strategy 28 Figure 4.1 Route Evaluation Matrix Factor Criteria Safety 1. Are there numerous railway track crossings? 2. Is there a high volume of trucks and transit vehicles? 3. Is there the potential for significant turning movement conflicts due to a high number of commercial and residential mid block driveways? Pavement Width Are the number of lanes and lane widths: 1. Sufficient with a reduction in the width of one or more lanes? 2. Sufficient for the majority of the route with some reduction in lane width? 3. Insufficient - requires the reduction in the number of traffic lanes or a road widening? 4. Insufficient, and no additional right of way is available for widening without property acquisition? On-Street Parking 1. None along entire route. 2. Along entire route. 3. Along entire route and insufficient pavement width for cycling. AADT Is the average annual daily traffic: 1. Below the threshold for existing lane configurations? A good opportunity may exist to reduce the number of lanes. 2. At or just below the threshold for lane configuration? A limited opportunity exists to reduce the number of lanes. 3. Above the threshold for the existing lane configurations? Insufficient lane capacity exists to accommodate current demand and, no opportunity exists to reduce the number of lanes. Crossing of Major Barriers 1. Does the route have any major barriers? 2. Does the route provide a safe crossing of those barriers? Connectivity 1. Does the route provide a vital connection to existing trails? Convenience 1. Is the route impeded by numerous stop signs? 2. Is the route impeded by numerous closely spaced traffic control signals? Access 1. Does the route serve any major destinations within a five minute radius? Attractiveness 1. Is the route conducive to good cycling (good aesthetics)? 2. Is the route highly visible? 4 Strategy 29 The Primary Network consists of a grid of north- Secondary Network south and east-west routes traversing the City. It is intended that the Primary Network be composed The Secondary Network is identified on Map 6. of properly designed bike lanes and multi-use It will provide the neighbourhood connections to trails. However, given physical constraints and the Primary Network. funding realities, it is recognized that this is a long-term goal. Therefore, the primary network The Secondary Network traverses neighbourhoods may also consist of signed routes, where to allow cyclists a more diverse and leisurely The Windsor loop appropriate, until bike lanes or multi-use trails can experience. As such, it is composed is intended to be developed to serve the same connectivity predominately of signed routes, with some multi- provide a circular function. use trails. connection across the City’s The Primary Network is expected to The Secondary Network is expected to neighbourhoods by accommodate: accommodate: building on the success of the high cyclist volumes; low cyclist volumes; Riverfront, West- cycling and trail traffic that is locally end and Ganatchio cycling and trail traffic that is destination oriented to locations such as major oriented, recognizing that this network also trail systems. employers and community facilities; and is intended to provide connections to the Primary Network; and cyclists with a moderate to high level of experience and skill. cyclists with a low to moderate level of experience and skill. The Primary Windsor Loop and Trans Canada Trail Connection Network will The cycling network for Windsor incorporates two largely be additional important features; the Windsor Loop composed of bike and the Trans Canada Trail connection, as lanes and multi-use illustrated on Map 7. trails. The Windsor Loop provides a circular connection across the City’s neighbourhoods. It is intended Photo: Toronto, Ontario 4 Strategy 30 to extend the success of the Riverfront, West-end Establishing a full time Cycling Coordinator and Ganatchio trail systems. It also provides position in the Traffic Engineering access to the adjacent municipalities. Department. The primary responsibility of this individual is to implement the BUMP; The Trans Canada Trail Connection, which is a part of the Windsor Loop, is intended to connect Adding the appropriate criteria to the the City of Windsor to the Chrysler Canada Strategic Roadway Improvement Program Greenway. The connection through the Town of (STRIP) and the Roadway Improvement “People of all ages LaSalle will provide the City with an important Management System (RIMS) to include and abilities must link to this national system. Primary Network connections; be encouraged and educated to use Recommendations Continuing to develop other off-road trails Windsor’s cycling through parks that were not identified in the network for both The City of Windsor will initiate the expansion of BUMP; recreational and the existing cycling and trail network by: commuting Constructing every road as a bicycle friendly purposes.” Completing those sections of the Primary roadway; and Network identified on Map 5 as achievable within five years; Committing annual funds to the implementation of the BUMP. Completing those sections of the Secondary Network identified on Map 6 as achievable 4.2 Cycling Awareness within five years; A successful cycling network is one that is Completing those sections of the Primary actively and properly used. People of all ages and Network identified on Map 5 as achievable abilities must be encouraged and educated to use in the longer term (years 5 through 20); Windsor’s cycling network for both recreational and commuting purposes. Completing those sections of the Secondary Network identified on Map 6 as achievable Education and encouragement go hand in hand to in the longer term (years 5 through 20); increase cycling. Together they improve skills and raise awareness of the benefits of cycling. 4 Strategy 31 The Windsor Bicycling Committee is educating 2. Teach adult cyclists their rights and motorists through their “share the road” campaign. responsibilities; The City of Windsor is proactively encouraging 3. Teach motorists how to more effectively share cycling through initiatives such as: the road with cyclists; and Windsor Parks and Recreation Trails and 4. Work with the Ministry of Transportation to Facilities Map that identifies existing develop and implement bicycle safety cycling routes and destinations; strategies. Windsor Bicycling Committee that is a Children can be effectively taught safe cycling committee of City Council devoted to skills through the school system. The school increasing the number of cyclists within the boards should be encouraged to deliver CAN- City, and providing adequate and safe BIKE or similar courses that deliver messages facilities for cycling; such as: Bike-to-Work Week that is an annual event Wear a helmet, since it reduces the risk of promoted by the Windsor Bicycling serious head injury by 85%; Committee to increase the number of commuter cyclists; and Obey all traffic laws, since cyclists have the same responsibilities and consequences as Windsor Police Service City Centre Patrol motorists; Unit that enhances patrol capacity and on- street safety by increasing the accessibility Look both ways before crossing the street; through the City Centre by having officers on patrol using bicycles. Always ride with the flow of traffic; Recommendations Be predictable by signalling your intentions; There are four components to address cycling Be visible by wearing bright or reflective education in Windsor: clothing, and always using a front and rear light at night; and 1. Develop safe cycling skills in children; 4 Strategy 32 Very young children should always ride with experienced supervision. The second component of educating cyclists is to focus on adults. Adult cyclists fall into several The City’s existing different categories of riders. Some adults are Trails and comfortable riding on busy streets and mixing Facilities Map, CAN-BIKE is a with traffic, while others prefer quieter streets or shown here, series of cycling off-road trails. There are also adults who ride provides an education courses only a few times a year – for recreational, work excellent for cyclists of all and commuting purposes. Therefore, educational means of ages and abilities. efforts must be tailored to match the concerns of communicating Using classroom each group and their cycling requirements. information about and on-road cycling in Windsor. sessions, the course Targeting adult cyclists with education can be teaches cyclists more challenging than children since they may how to make have long established cycling habits and are not appropriate often held together as a captive audience. decisions in traffic However, the City should take advantage of its and how to handle existing programs, committees and publications, their bike in such as the Windsor Parks and Recreation Trails emergency and Facilities Map, Windsor Bicycling Committee situations. and Bike-to-Work Week to deliver CAN-BIKE or similar programs that deliver the following messages: Be alert for other users, motorists and potential road hazards such as potholes and Obey all traffic laws, since cyclists have the loose gravel; same responsibilities and consequences as motorists. Disobeying traffic laws gives Wear a helmet, since it reduces the risk of cyclists a bad reputation, is potentially serious head injury by 85%; dangerous and may result in a ticket under the Highway Traffic Act; Always ride where motorists and others expect to see cyclists; 4 Strategy 33 Be predictable by signalling your intentions, Be patient, since cyclists have a right to never weaving in and out of traffic and travel on every road except expressways. staying approximately 1 metre away from Aggressive driving creates an unnecessary the curb; atmosphere of hostility; Be visible by wearing bright or reflective Be predictable by signalling your turns; clothing and always using a front and rear light at night; and Do not sound your horn unless necessary, since cyclists can see and hear motor Stay off sidewalks since in Ontario, bicycles vehicles; and ridden by adults are legally classified as vehicles and should behave as such. Follow and pass at a safe distance so cyclists can react safely to hazards that The third component of education is to teach and motorist may not see. inform motorists. The goal should be to foster a broad awareness and respect for cyclists. Many The final component of education is for the City motorists are already cyclists and can be of Windsor to work with the Ministry of encouraged to ride more often. All motorists Transportation to develop and implement bicycle should be taught good driving practices and safety strategies. information about cycling behaviour to improve safety. A 1998 Coroners report on cycling fatalities stated that the Ministry of Transportation (MTO) should As with adult cyclists, the City should take take a lead role in encouraging bicycle use in advantage of its existing programs, committees urban centres and in improving safety. and publications to deliver the following message to motorists: The City of Windsor should work with the MTO to implement the recommendations in the Obey all traffic laws, since a minor collision Coroners report, which included: between a motor vehicle and a cyclist could result in a serious injury to the cyclist; improving cycling safety content in all publications and driving courses; Be alert for cyclists, for sudden changes in their behaviour, and at intersections; 4 Strategy 34 providing current bicycle safety training for Improving cycling access to City Hall all driver examiners, police recruits and through the provision of additional secure court personnel, as outlined above; and bicycle parking facilities plus shower and change facilities; providing funding for bicycle promotion and safety programs to assist Windsor in Providing cycling skills programs such as reducing cycling injuries. CAN-BIKE through Parks & Recreation programs; In addition, the “share the road” bumper sticker campaign being conducted by the Windsor Creating an incentive program for Bicycling Committee should be encouraged to employees who cycle to work; continue. Compensating employees who choose to use their own bicycles for City business, just as it compensates employees who drive their motor vehicles for City business; Making CAN-BIKE training courses Photo: Windsor Bicycling Committee “share the road” bumper sticker available to City staff on staff time, to minimize the risk associated with using a There are three main components to encourage bicycle during the workday, and to enhance cycling within Windsor. The City should: the cycling skills necessary to commute Lead through example; safely by bicycle; Encourage special events; and Continuing to encourage special events such as Bike-to-Work Week; and Promote cycling tourism. Promoting cycling tourism by continuing to The City of Windsor must assume an on-going provide route mapping information such as leadership role to encourage cycling if the BUMP the Trails and Facilities Map both in print is to be successful. This includes activities such and potentially on a website. as: 4 Strategy 35 4.3 Cycling-Transit Link surrounding the site. For example, at Devonshire Mall and Tecumseh Mall, bicycle parking is Improving the cycling-transit link is an important readily available in conjunction with the shopping part of making cycling a part of daily life in centre facilities. However, at the College Avenue Windsor. Linking cycling with Transit Windsor and City Centre transit centres, there are few, if buses will overcome barriers such as lengthy trips, any, secure bicycle parking facilities. personal security concerns and riding at night or in poor weather. This link also enables cyclists to Through the Public Attitude Survey, it was Improved bicycle reach more distant areas across the City, and revealed that 80% of respondents believe that parking facilities increases transit ridership on weekends and providing more bike racks at transit stops would should be provided holidays. improve the cycling-transit link within Windsor. at major transit centres such as The cycling-transit link can also make access to “Transit Windsor Devonshire Mall. transit less expensive. In suburban has committed to neighbourhoods, population densities are often too improving the low to offer transit service within the typical cycling-transit link walking distance of 500 metres of every through the commuter. Within the last 20 years, many transit installation of agencies built expansive motor vehicle park-and- bicycle carriers on ride lots or centralized depots as an alternative to its buses for a trial costly feeder bus service. Many of these facilities period, plus are within easy cycling distance, provide promotion of the opportunities to increase cycling and transit service through the ridership and reduce taxpayer costs, traffic media, its website congestion and air pollution. and brochures.” In Windsor, the development of transit centres at College Avenue, Devonshire Mall, the City Centre and Tecumseh Mall provide an excellent opportunity to improve the cycling-transit link. Presently, bicycle parking facilities at Transit Windsor centres vary depending on the uses Photo: Bike rack on a Transit Windsor Bus – Windsor, Ontario 4 Strategy 36 Transit Windsor has committed to improving the secure bicycle parking at the College Avenue and cycling-transit link through the installation of City Centre transit centres should be increased as bicycle carriers on its buses for a trial period, plus an incentive to cyclists to use Transit Windsor. promotion of the service through the media, its website and brochures. This commitment should The third component is to encourage Transit be further encouraged. Windsor to continue to allow bicycles on buses. Transit Windsor’s installation of bicycle carriers is Recommendations a positive step that should be actively promoted and encouraged. The demand for these carriers There are four main components required to should be monitored and increased as appropriate. improve the cycling-transit link in Windsor: The fourth component is to promote the use of 1. Improve bicycle routes to transit centres; cycling and transit. Transit Windsor should Good bicycle actively promote its bicycle services through its parking facilities 2. Increase bicycle parking at transit centres; website, brochures, advertisements and public are secure, gatherings. The City should continue to offer plentiful, easily 3. Work with Transit Windsor to expand the Transit Windsor its support, while also promoting accessible, adjacent provision of bicycle racks mounted on Transit Transit Windsor’s bicycle services at every to destinations and Windsor buses; and opportunity. covered. 4. Promote the use of cycling and transit. The City of Windsor plans to improve bicycle routes to transit centres. Map 4 identifies the complete cycling network, including routes that will link to transit centres. In addition, the City is working to encourage more mixed use developments along transit routes, and provide better bicycle access to transit locations throughout Windsor. The second component of promoting bicycle- transit integration is to provide secure bicycle parking at key transit stations. The amount of 4 Strategy 37 4.4 End-of-Trip Facilities Bicycle Parking Every cycling trip has two basic components: the The availability of convenient, secure bicycle route used by the cyclist, and the “end-of-trip” parking is important to cyclists. Safe and secure facilities available at the destination. These end- bicycle parking offers these benefits: of-trip facilities include bicycle parking and sometimes showers and change rooms for commuters. Bicycle parking facilities at The City of When the end-of-trip facilities do not meet the Devonshire Mall. Windsor’s users’ needs, they will use other means of Note the cyclist planning policies transportation. In a nationwide United States avoided using the require bicycle Harris Poll conducted in 1992, it was revealed that bike rack due to its parking facilities over half the respondents who had ridden a “wheel-bender’” for new bicycle in the past year would sometimes design. commercial and commute to work by bicycle, or commute more industrial often, if there were showers, lockers and secure development. bicycle storage at work. The Public Attitude Survey clearly indicated there was support for Photo: Devonshire Mall – Windsor, Ontario more bicycle parking and shower facilities in Windsor. it inexpensively and efficiently increases a building’s parking capacity; Clearly, the availability of convenient and appropriate end-of-trip facilities is a critical factor it effectively serves those who use bicycles in an individual’s decision whether or not to use a as a mode of transportation; bicycle in Windsor. it encourages bicycle use; and it can be a great promotional item for businesses. 4 Strategy 38 Security of the area: determined by the Support for More Bicycle Parking cyclists’ perception of how prone a given Not at all area is to bicycle theft. This is fairly Source: Public 4% subjective and is predicated on the cyclist’s Attitude Survey, individual experiences with bicycle theft. Decima Research Inc., 2000. Improve Improve Good bicycle parking facilities are secure, somewhat greatly 33% 63% plentiful, easily accessible, adjacent to destinations and covered. The design of bicycle parking units varies widely. Generally, units can be divided into different Cyclists’ need for bicycle parking ranges from categories based on the level of security they simply a convenient piece of street furniture to provide. which they can lock their bicycle, to storage in a bicycle locker that affords weather, theft and High security units enclose the entire vandalism protection, gear storage space and 24- bicycle inside a lockable “cabinet”. hour personal access. A cyclist’s specific needs Ranging in price from $1000 to $2500 per are typically determined by several factors: unit, these facilities are likely only appropriate in locations where cyclists Type of trip being made: whether or not the might be leaving their bicycles for bicycle will be left unattended all day or for extended periods of time such as transit a few minutes; centres. Another method of providing Weather conditions: covered bicycle parking high security parking is to allow cyclists to is of more importance during wet weather; lock their bikes to low security units within a locked compound. This is Value of the bicycle: the more a cyclist has especially effective for large employers invested in their bicycle, the more concerned since it provides a large number of parking they are about theft protection; and spaces at a relatively low cost. 4 Strategy 39 Low profile racks that support the bicycle by the front wheel are not recommended since they can result in bent rims and other damage caused by the “Key locations for An example of a bicycle falling over. bicycle parking high security facilities include The City of Windsor’s planning policies require staging areas such bicycle facility. any new development to provide two bicycle as Malden Park, parking spaces for the first 10 motor vehicle major network parking spaces, and a minimum of one bicycle nodes such as space for each 20 additional motor vehicle spaces. transit centres, and There should be more detailed guidance on where at major the bicycle parking facilities should be located. destinations such Photo: Bicycle lockers as malls, City Hall, The selection of parking facilities on a site-by-site libraries and along Medium-High security units that allow the basis should consider cyclist comfort, location and the riverfront.” bicycle and wheels to be locked together security for both the cyclist and his/her property. without having to remove “quick release” Some recommended locations for installation wheels. include: Medium security units require “quick near main or well-used entrances to release” wheels to be removed and locked buildings; along with the frame of the bike. The best medium-security units prevent the bike along surveillance corridors, in areas from falling over. Medium-security units pedestrians frequent or across from range in price from $70 to $1000 each, windows; depending on style and capacity. Preferred units are easy to use without in well-lit areas; written or pictorial instructions, and support the frame of the bike, not the wheel alone. They also allow one wheel to be locked with the bike and/or two bikes to be locked together. 4 Strategy 40 located such that the facility can be accessed from all sides. An example of a Recommendations medium-high security bicycle There are two components to address bicycle parking unit. parking in Windsor: “Improving cycling 1. Conduct a Bicycle Parking Inventory; and as a viable mode of commuting 2. Increase the amount and quality of bicycle requires showers parking facilities. and changing Photo: Richmond Hill, Ontario facilities.” The BUMP study did not involve an inventory and evaluation of bicycle parking facilities, locations and types. Such a study would be useful to determine: An example of a the total number of off-street bicycle parking medium security spaces; post-and-ring bike rack. the total number of covered off-street bicycle parking spaces; bicycle rack types in use, and user satisfaction with them; Photo: Toronto, Ontario bicycle rack visibility; under canopies or roof overhangs; signage for bicycle racks not readily visible; and on flat surfaces; and rack location. 4 Strategy 41 The second component to address bicycle parking secondary and elementary schools, and in Windsor is to increase the amount and quality assist these institutions in the purchasing and of bicycle parking facilities. siting of bicycle parking; Adequate bicycle parking at key locations develop partnerships with businesses to throughout the network will allow cyclists to have sponsor the installation of bicycle parking more confidence in securing their property while facilities; pausing along the network, or once they have reached their destination. fund, on an annual basis, a post-and-ring (or similar) bicycle parking program to provide Key locations for bicycle parking facilities include facilities in areas where there is an identified staging areas such as Malden Park, major network demand; nodes such as transit centres, major employers, and at major destinations such as malls, City Hall, adopt the bicycle parking location guidelines libraries and along the Riverfront. In addition, described in the BUMP; proper bicycle parking facilities should also be considered where multi-use trails intersect actively encourage innovative bicycle pedestrian-only trails, such as at Ojibway Park. parking facility designs, such as covered The provision of bicycle parking facilities in these bicycle sheds in existing motor vehicle locations, along with signage explaining the parking spaces; and reasons for restricting bicycle use, will help to discourage cycling on inappropriate trails, work with community cycling associations reinforce trail etiquette and encourage the proper to create permanent relationships for the use of the trail system. provision of temporary, long-term bicycle parking at special events. Therefore, to increase the amount and quality of bicycle parking facilities the City should: As the basis for the bicycle parking program, the City should install post-and-ring style bicycle proactively install short and long-term racks. Such racks are typically installed in bicycle parking in the public right-of-way; commercial areas, such as a business improvement area, within the municipal right-of- promote commuter cycling to the University way between the travelled portion of the roadway of Windsor, St. Clair College, plus and the sidewalk. Experience in other 4 Strategy 42 municipalities indicates that such units are Recommendations actively used by cyclists and are relatively inexpensive to install. For example, the City of To increase the number of shower and change Toronto’s average installation cost is $50 per unit. facilities for cyclists, the City should: Shower and Change Facilities Work with private businesses to promote bicycle commuting; and Improving cycling as a viable mode of commuting requires shower and change facilities. As Create bonus provisions in Windsor’s previously discussed, the Public Attitude Survey planning policies to encourage developers to identified a demand for such facilities amongst provide showers, change space and bicycle current cyclists. parking above the minimum requirements. Source: Public Support for Shower Facilities at Work Not at all Attitude Survey, 19% Decima Research, Inc., 2000. Improve greatly Improve 41% somewhat 40% There is, however, no zoning by-law requirement for new developments to provide shower and change facilities for cyclists. As a result, only some cyclists are served by showers and permanent changing and storage spaces at their workplaces. 5 Toolbox 43 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1999. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities; Vélo Quebec, 1992. Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design; and T he construction of Windsor’s cycling network should be designed to consistent and safe standards. Canadian Institute of Planners, 1990. Community Cycling Manual – A Planning and Design Guide. The following provides general design guidelines for the construction of the cycling network and Types of Cyclists supporting facilities including site specific applications in the Windsor context. A successful bicycle facility should provide a comfortable environment for the anticipated users. 5.1 Design Guidelines It is, therefore, important to identify the target group for whom the bicycle facility is being The following design guidelines are based on best designed. According to Fitness Canada’s practices, provincial guidelines, other accepted Campbell Inquiry (1988), over 40% of all adult guidelines and practices and the expertise of the Canadians describe themselves as cyclists. Within consulting team. Key reference manuals include: Transportation Association of Canada, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines; Transportation Association of Canada, 1999. Recreational Geometric Design Guideline for Canadian cyclists on an off- Roads; road multi-use trail. Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, 1996. Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines; Photo: Windsor, Ontario 5 Toolbox 44 this group, however, there is wide range of skill inclement or severe weather, or for longer levels and considerable variation in typical trip distances, utilitarian cyclists may combine cycling length and purpose. trips with transit. They generally have good bike handling skills and a commitment to use their From a planning perspective, cyclists can bicycle whenever possible. Research indicates generally be grouped according to cycling that younger adults are more likely to cycle for purpose, age and skill level. utilitarian purposes as are male cyclists. Cycling Purpose Age Recreational cyclists are individuals who use a Adult cyclists constitute the main group of bicycle for trip enjoyment, and usually take bicycle infrastructure users. Their skill levels vary relatively short trips at lower speeds. An ultimate based on their experience and age. Trips range destination is of secondary importance. from casual recreational riding around the local neighbourhood, to utilitarian cycling over short and long distances each day for work, shopping or fitness purposes. Recreational Child cyclists, especially those under the age of Cyclists 13, often ride their bikes on residential streets, pathways and sidewalks to get to the corner store, school, friends’ homes and recreational areas. Their motor skills and physical size are not always fully developed. This makes them less visible and prone to unpredictable behaviour, which may offset their ability to react to hazardous situations. Young cyclists must be educated on the rules of Photo: Windsor, Ontario the road and safe cycling techniques. Bikeway designers must consider child cyclists as a key Utilitarian cyclists are individuals who use a user group. Children should be encouraged to use bicycle primarily for travel to and from specific their bicycle for utilitarian purposes. The child destinations such as work, school, shops or cyclist of today who cycles to school, the corner recreation centres. Often, utilitarian cyclists do store and school can become the utilitarian and not own or use a personal automobile. In commuter cyclist of tomorrow. 5 Toolbox 45 Skill Level Barriers to Commuting Casual cyclists typically ride occasionally, and Distance, unsafe traffic conditions and lack of usually within their local neighbourhood or to proper facilities are often cited as the major local community destinations. They have obstacles that discourage recreational cyclists reasonably good cycling skills, usually avoid from becoming utilitarian cyclists. This group roads with moderate to high traffic volumes and also cites incompatibility with work clothes, lack generally obey the rules of the road that they of shower, change room and parking facilities, understand. They become easily discouraged by plus a perceived difficulty in carrying personal unfavourable cycling conditions, and typically belongings on their bicycles as barriers to cycling. prefer residential streets, trails and roads with bike lanes, but they usually ride on the latter type of It should be noted that as standards for work dress facility only during the off-peak or times of lower have become more casual, the incompatibility traffic volumes. Ideal off-road conditions for with work clothes has become less of an issue. casual cyclists are typically wide, flat routes, which do not require a high level of skill or a Bicycle Characteristics and Design Criteria significant degree of attention to bicycle handling and control. Dimensions Experienced cyclists ride frequently and do so for Bicycles are distinct from all other modes of both recreational and utilitarian purposes transportation. They are the lightest and smallest including leisure, sport and commuting purposes. vehicles on the road network. They generally have good bike handling skills, and are not often discouraged by traffic or adverse To assure safety and comfort, the design of cycling conditions. Utilitarian cyclists tend to bicycle facilities should account for the dynamic prefer wide shared curb lanes and on-street bike envelope required by a moving cyclist. The lanes in urban areas, and paved shoulders on low envelope consists of: volume roads in rural areas. As for off-road conditions, they prefer a wide range of trail types, the actual space occupied by a bicycle and and often prefer challenging trails with a variety in cyclist (typically 0.6 m wide by 2.0 m high); topography and surface conditions. an operating space allowance to accommodate the natural side-to-side 5 Toolbox 46 movement of a cyclist plus variations in Total design dimensions of 1.75 m (length), 2.5 m bicycle tracking (0.2 m each side); and (height) and 1.5 m (width) should be assumed for the bicycle. an additional clearance envelope to provide separation from lateral and overhead obstacles (0.25 m lateral and 0.5 m overhead). Bicycle Operating Bicycle Operating Space Space Source: MTO, 1996 Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines Source: MTO, 1996 Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines 5 Toolbox 47 Design Speed roadways which are generally constructed to a design speed of at least 50 km/h (for motorized Most recreational cyclists can maintain a speed of vehicles), sight distances and curvatures should, in 20 to 25 km/h, while utilitarian and fitness cyclists most cases, exceed the minimum bikeway design usually travel at higher speeds. In order to ensure parameters. In the majority of cases, the cyclist’s that the bikeway system is safe for all users, a eye height is above that of the driver in a typical minimum design speed of 40 km/h should be car, therefore the cyclist will actually be able to provided. On descents with steeper grades observe hazards at a greater distance. (exceeding 4 %), the design speed should be increased to 60 km/h. It should be noted that since on-street bikeway systems utilize existing Acceptable Ascent Grades for Design Purposes Source: Balshone, L. Bruce, 1993. Bicycle Transit: Its Planning and Design 5 Toolbox 48 Maximum Grades distance. The advent of the electric or electric assisted bicycle will require a future review of There are two major considerations when these standards. designing grades: the effort to ascend or climb, and conditions required for safe descent. Where one-way bicycle operation is proposed and cyclists will be travelling in a downhill direction, For a cyclist riding on a bike without a steeper and/or longer grades are not as much of a transmission system, it is almost impossible to concern. It should be recognized, however, that climb a 50 metre long 10% grade. Bicycles speeds and stopping distances increase when equipped with a simple transmission system allow travelling downhill, and that the available sight almost every cyclist to climb a 50 metre 15% distances must be checked accordingly. grade. However, grades greater than 5% should normally be avoided, and desirable conditions, Effect of Motor Vehicle Speed on Cyclists especially for long uphill grades, should not exceed 3%. Where possible, on long steep grades The space that is available between cyclists and it is desirable to introduce relatively flat rest areas vehicular traffic is an important safety issue. approximately every 100 metres of horizontal Motorized vehicles that pass with significant The Aerodynamic Effect of Truck Passing Source: MTO, 1996. Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines 5 Toolbox 49 travel speeds cause an aerodynamic force, which tires and the bikeway surface, and the braking pushes the cyclist away or off of the roadway. It capacity of the bicycle. is estimated that a force of 1.75 kg is acceptable from a comfort and safety point of view. Stopping sight distance is given by the formula: Stopping Sight Distances S = 0.694V + V2 / 255 (f + G/100) The minimum stopping site distance for bicycles Where: S = stopping sight distance (m) is the distance required to bring a bicycle to a full V = speed (km/h) controlled stop upon spotting an obstacle. It is a function of the cyclists’ perception and reaction F = coefficient of friction time prior to breaking, the initial speed of the G = grade (%) (upgrade positive, bicycle, the coefficient of friction between the downgrade negative) Grade 1 Design speed (km/h) (%) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (m) Table 5.1 Minimum Stopping +12 8 13 18 - - - - - - Sight Distances +10 8 13 18 24 - - - - - For Bicycles +8 8 13 19 25 32 - - - - +6 8 13 19 25 32 40 - - - +4 8 13 19 26 33 41 49 - - +2 8 14 20 26 34 42 51 61 - 0 9 14 20 27 35 44 53 63 74 -2 9 14 21 28 36 45 55 66 77 -4 9 15 21 29 38 47 58 69 81 -6 9 15 22 30 39 50 61 73 86 -8 9 16 23 32 42 53 65 68 92 -10 10 16 24 34 44 56 70 84 100 -12 10 17 26 36 48 61 76 92 110 Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads 1 Note: A positive grade is uphill, and a negative grade is downhill 5 Toolbox 50 Table 5.1 illustrates minimum stopping sight For most applications and conditions, the distances for a range of speeds and grades. It is coefficient of lateral friction varies from 0.3 at 25 based on 2.5 seconds of perception-reaction time km/h to 0.22 at 50 km/h, and for unpaved surfaces and a coefficient of friction (f) of 0.25 that is reduced to 50% of those of paved surfaces. accounts for paved surfaces during wet weather Table 5.2 provides the coefficient of lateral and typical braking characteristics of bicycles. friction and minimum radius for a range of design speeds and super-elevation rates. The coefficient of lateral friction for unpaved surfaces should be reduced to 50% of those for Design Coefficient Minimum radius (m) paved surfaces. speed of Table 5.2 (km/h) lateral e=0.02 e=0.05 Minimum Radii for Alignment Elements friction (m/m) (m/m) Paved Bikeways 25 0.30 15 14 The following provides information on horizontal, vertical and cross slope alignments. 30 0.28 24 21 Horizontal Alignment 35 0.27 33 30 The minimum radius of a curve depends on the 40 0.25 47 42 bicycle speed, super-elevation and coefficient of friction between the bicycle tires and the bikeway 45 0.23 64 57 surface. The following formula should be used to determine the minimum radius of horizontal 50 0.22 82 73 curves: Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads R=V2 / (127 * (e + f)) Refer to Table 5.6 for typical cross slopes for bikeways. It should be noted that a combination Where: R = radius (m) of steep grade and high super-elevation might V = speed (km/h) cause discomfort for slow moving cyclists. e = super-elevation (m/m) f = coefficient of lateral friction Horizontal curves must be of sufficiently large radius to ensure that cyclists can safely negotiate the curve at the design speed. When horizontal 5 Toolbox 51 curves are of very small radius, bikeway widening The minimum length of crest vertical curves should be considered to compensate for the depends on the minimum stopping sight distance tendency of cyclists to track toward the inside of for the design speed of the facility. This is the curve. Widenings are not necessary for curves calculated to satisfy the safety requirements of over a 32m radius, and will therefore not usually bringing a bicycle from full speed to a full stop be a consideration for on-street routes. Table 5.3 when an obstacle is spotted on the bikeway surface. shows the recommended widening of the riding Table 5.4 shows vertical curve lengths for different surface on curves. design conditions for paved surfaces under wet conditions. Stopping sight distance for unpaved Table 5.3 surfaces should be adjusted accordingly to satisfy Widening of the Radius of Extra width required reduced lateral friction conditions equal to 50% of Riding Curve Curvature (m) (grade 0 to 3%) those for paved surfaces. Surface on Curves Table 5.4 Vertical Curve 24 to 32 250 mm Lengths 16 to 24 500 mm Minimum curve length (m) 8 to 16 750 mm Change Design speed (km/h) of 0 to 8 1,000 mm grade 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Source: Vélo Quebec, 1992. Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design (%) Horizontal curves must also be checked to ensure 2 - - - - - - - - 11 that there are no obstructions located on the inside of the curve, which could block the cyclists’ line 5 - - - - 15 32 51 71 100 of sight and reduce stopping sight distance. 10 - - 13 27 44 69 102 145 199 Vertical Alignment 15 - 10 22 40 67 104 153 - - Maximum gradients have been previously 20 3 14 30 54 - - - - - discussed. The minimum gradient for bicycles is 0.6%, however, this can be reduced to 0% when 25 6 18 37 - - - - - - drainage is provided by adequate cross slope (1% Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads to 2%). 5 Toolbox 52 The following formula should be used to determine the stopping sight distances when they Design Speed Minimum Sag are greater than the curve length above the line: (km/h) Curvature (m) L = 2S-274/A 25 1.5 Table 5.5 Where: L = minimum curve length 30 2.5 Sag Vertical S = minimum stopping sight distance Curves for from Table 5.4 35 3 Bicycles A = algebraic difference in grades (%) 40 4 Below the line, stopping sight distances are less than the curve length and L = AS2/274. 45 5 The criterion for bicycles on sag curves is 50 6 comfort, which is expressed in terms of a vertical Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads maximum radial acceleration of 0.3 m/s2. However, it is important to consider non- It is recommended that bikeways with steep illuminated bicycle paths, which might be used by grades be widened to allow cyclists the extra cyclists after dark, by providing them with longer space needed to either make corrections to their vertical curves. Table 5.5 provides K values trajectory at higher speeds going downhill, or to corresponding to different design speeds. The maintain balance at lower speeds heading uphill. following formula should be used to determine the It is not necessary to widen bikeways on grades minimum sag curvature: shorter than 75 m or shallower than 6%. Table 5.6 summarizes the extra bikeway width K=V2/390 required on grades as a function of steepness and length. Where: V = speed in km/h. 5 Toolbox 53 Cross Slope Length (m) Table 5.6 Grade (%) A bikeway may have a crown or continuous cross Extra Bikeway 25-75 75-150 150+ slope. It is preferable to use a balanced cross Width Required slope on two-way bikeways for drainage purposes, on Grades 3-6 - 20 cm 30 cm and also to direct cyclists to the right side of the bikeway. Typical cross slopes depend on the 6-9 20 cm 30 cm 40 cm surface type. Table 5.7 summarizes typical cross slopes for different surface materials. 9+ 30 cm 40 cm 50 cm Source: Vélo Quebec, 1992. Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design Table 5.7 Range of cross Horizontal and Vertical Clearance Surface Slope (%) Typical Cross Slopes For on-road bicycle facilities, a minimum Concrete 1.5% to 2% horizontal clearance of 600 mm should be maintained between the bikeway and any Asphalt 2% to 4% obstruction having height in excess of 150 mm including signs, lighting poles, trees and curbs. Gravel, crushed stone, 2% to 4% For off-road facilities, a minimum clearance of earth 600 m should be maintained between the trail and Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads any obstructions such as signs, trees, shrubs, fences, barriers and trailside furnishings. A minimum vertical clearance of 2.5 m should be Bikeway Design maintained to the underside of all overhead structures. Bike Lanes Additional clearance may be required over that Bike lanes on urban roads consist of a designated which is identified above to accommodate service space between the edge of the vehicular lane and vehicles and other users such as equestrians on the curb. Pavement markings, symbols and off-road rural trails. 5 Toolbox 54 Typical Bike Lane Cross Section 1.2m minimum 1.5m optimal 1.8m maximum 5 Toolbox 55 signage are used to designate this space for Bike Lanes with On-Street Parking exclusive bicycle use. Bike lanes have several advantages over wide shared lanes. Some of these Bike lanes on roads with on-street parking should include exclusive space, and the perception of a be considered in commercial and residential areas higher level of safety. Bike lanes are therefore where the demand for and turnover of parking is attractive to less skilled cyclists and may high, or where commercial and residential encourage more people to cycle. The optimum property owners may not accept the reduction or recommended bike lane width is 1.5 m (1.2 m prohibition of on-street parking. Bike lanes on minimum to 1.8 m maximum), enabling cyclists to roads with on-street parking are located travel in single file. Lane widths greater than immediately adjacent to the left of parked vehicles 1.8 m are not recommended since they may along the curb. Designing this type of bikeway encourage use by automobile drivers for passing facility must take into consideration the potential other vehicles on the right, or for stopping and hazard to cyclists of vehicle doors opening into parking. the travelled portion of the roadway. In order to allow clearance for vehicle doors, and to minimize collisions with cyclists, the combined bicycle/parking lane should be a minimum of 4.0 m wide. This width allows for a 1.6 m bike lane and a 2.4 m wide curbside parking stall. The extra 0.4 m added to the typical 2.0 m wide curbside parking stall provides space for the opening of vehicle doors, and encourages cyclists to travel at a safe distance away from parked vehicles. Photo: Toronto, Ontario 5 Toolbox 56 Typical Bike lane with On Street Parking 5 Toolbox 57 On Street Signed Routes all road class types to provide bicycle friendly streets, whether a designated bikeway or not. Standard The preferred width for a curb lane is 4.5m, with On-street signed bike routes are typically found on an acceptable range from 4.0m to 5.0m. local and collector roads, although they can be implemented on arterial roads to form a An on-street signed route can form part of a connection or link in a cycling network. On-street cycling network when the addition of bike lanes is signed routes should only be implemented where not possible. In some cases bike lanes are wide curb lanes exist or can be provided, or where inappropriate, such as in residential traffic volumes are low. Wide curb lanes should neighbourhoods where traffic volume is low, or have sufficient width to allow motorists to pass impossible in the short term due to limited cyclists without encroaching on an adjacent travel pavement or right-of-way widths and/or because lane. Wide curb lanes should be encouraged for of on-street parking. Wide Shared Lane In addition to bicycle route marker signs for on- street signed routes, consideration should be given to shared-use pavement markings and/or signs in accordance with accepted standards (e.g. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines, Transportation Association of Canada, 1998). 5 Toolbox 58 Paved Shoulder: extended life of the vehicle lanes; and Rural Section reduced run-off-the-road collisions. However, it should be noted that paved shoulders are not ideal for year round cycling since they often are used, whether intentionally or not, for snow storage during winter months. Multi-Use Trails Bi-Directional Multi use trails should be designed to accommodate a variety of user groups. Design standards vary depending upon the trail’s location, the anticipated number of users and permitted uses. The minimum width is typically 3.0 m, which allows for bi-directional flow. On popular, heavily travelled multi-use trails, widths of up to Paved Shoulders 4.0 m are recommended to allow for a wider variety and greater number of users, and a centre A relatively easy way to provide for cyclists on line should be provided to organize traffic. roads with granular shoulders is to pave a 1.5 m wide section of the shoulder. Paved shoulders can Recommended multi-use trail surfaces include be considered for on-road routes along rural granular (‘A’ gravel, stonedust) or asphalt. sections with no curb or gutter edge, and a speed Recently, some municipalities have been limit at or below 80 km/h. Paved shoulders offer experimenting with concrete and also asphalt other advantages: mixes that use materials such as recycled asphalt, plastics, rubber and ground glass. Certain types of reduced maintenance costs associated with granular surfaces limit trail access for other the grading of gravel shoulders; wheeled uses such as wheelchairs, strollers and in- 5 Toolbox 59 Multi-use/ Boulevard Trail 2.0m line skaters, so intended uses should be considered Single-Track Trails prior to the specification of surface materials. In high volume or tourist areas, it may be desirable to Many experienced off-road cyclists prefer single- separate slower users from faster ones by track trails. In rural areas they are often providing separate trails. associated with large public conservation areas, provincial parks, municipal/regional forests as Cyclists often find busy multi-use trails to be well as privately owned lands such as cross ineffective for commuter and utilitarian purposes country and downhill ski resorts. In urban areas, due to potential conflicts with other user groups. single-track trails are often found in public Pedestrians and other trail users can often feel valleys, forest blocks and public parks. uncomfortable on multi-use trails amongst high volumes of cyclists and inline skaters. Single-track trails may or may not be connected by off-road routes. Single-track trails tend to be narrower (0.6 m to 1.0 m), have a natural earth surface, and have the widest variety in 5 Toolbox 60 topographic and surface conditions. Typically, predictable movement of cyclists, motorists and corner radii are smaller and grades are steeper pedestrians. Since intersections are the most than bi-directional multi-use trails to provide the likely areas for conflict between various users of greatest variety for off-road cyclists. Extensive the roadway, care should be taken to design and single-track trail systems can be organized into a mark the intersection approach such that all users understand and anticipate the potential movements of other road users. Off-Road Multi-Use Trail Typical Cross Section spine, loop, stacked loop or maze arrangement. Obstacles such as logs, rocks and boulders can be left on the trail bed to increase the level of difficulty and to challenge riders. In reality, single-track trails tend to be multi-use, since they Off-Road Single are often used by bikers and cross-country skiers. Track Trail Intersection Treatments Bikeway approaches to intersections should be carefully designed to encourage the safe and Photo: Guelph, Ontario 5 Toolbox 61 One of the most common conflicts at intersections occurs between right turning motor vehicles and cyclists proceeding straight through, since it is necessary for these two road users to cross paths. Pavement markings and signing should be designed to encourage such crossings in advance of the intersection, rather than in the immediate vicinity of the intersection. Left turning cyclists must also undertake a similar crossing with vehicular traffic whether they elect to undertake a “vehicular style” left turn by using the motor vehicle left turn lane, or they choose to complete a “pedestrian style” turn by proceeding straight through the intersection, then turning left to cross again on the intersecting road. Photo: St. George Street – Toronto, Ontario Bicycle lane at the intersection of St. George St. and Harbord St. in Toronto (above). Note pavement markings compared to the TAC standard in the picture (right) Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines 5 Toolbox 62 For the above noted reasons, it is usually desirable to discontinue bike lane markings, or to change from a solid to a broken line on the approach to the intersection. The bike lane marking should be discontinued at the start of the taper when right turn lanes or channelizations are provided, or otherwise a broken line should be used a minimum of 30m from a signalized and 15m from an unsignalized intersection. This allows cyclists to merge with Typical Mid-Block other traffic and prevent right turning motorists Crossing from having to cross through a bike lane to make their turn, thereby cutting off cyclists at the intersection. By discontinuing the solid bike lane Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads marking, both the cyclists and motorists are made aware of the fact that they are sharing a common lane and should react accordingly. Mid-Block Crossing Typical Stopping Many municipalities are now including hydro and Sight Distance at abandoned/active rail corridors in their cycling Mid-Block networks. Abandoned rail corridors in urban areas Crossing are especially suited for multi-use trail systems, with many offering grade separated crossings of major arterial roads. Hydro corridors provide excellent opportunities for linear trail links, but they also result in road crossing challenges, often because they occur at mid-block locations. Where a bike path crosses a street, mid-block crossings traditionally tend to be avoided. This is largely Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads 5 Toolbox 63 because a motorist may not expect conflicts with The aforementioned traffic control devices should cyclists crossing mid-block, and it may be difficult be designed and installed in accordance with the to satisfy the warrants for either a traffic signal or Bikeway Traffic Control Guidance (TAC, 1998) crossover. and the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Canada (TAC, 1998). Mid-block crossings should be designed to provide advance warning to both motorists and Bicycle Lane at cyclists of the impending crossing. The bikeway Skewed Railroad should be designed to encourage the cyclist to Crossing with reduce speed and to stop if necessary. Grade Restricted Right-of- changes on the bikeway in advance of the crossing Way Width. combined with adequate sight distances, signing, textural surface contrast and bollards should be considered. Mid-block crossings of arterial or collector roads may warrant consideration of a separate traffic signal or a pedestrian crossover (PXO). Railway Crossings Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines Any intersections with track crossings can be extremely dangerous for cyclists, and therefore extra caution should be applied to assure their safe Bicycle Lane at operation. It is strongly recommended that Skewed Railroad appropriate traffic control devices be installed at Crossing with the intersections of railway tracks and bikeways. Restricted Right-of- Way Width and These include: Gate Control. pavement markings; signage; and lift gates. Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines 5 Toolbox 64 Furthermore, it is recommended that bikeways be designed to cross railways at as close to right Bicycle Lane at angles as possible. In many situations this may Skewed Railroad require widening of the trail or bikeway in Crossing with advance of the crossing, thereby allowing cyclists Unrestricted to reduce their speed and position themselves for Right-of-Way crossing at right angles. Rubber track guards are Width also recommended to assure better friction between bike tires and the pavement, and also to narrow the rail gaps. Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines Bicycle Friendly Road Crossing Source: MTO, 1991. Guidelines for the Design of Bikeways – Ontario 5 Toolbox 65 Cyclists Crossing at Traffic Signals It is recommended that municipalities consider the addition of coloured and/or textured pavement Bicycles should be considered in the timing of treatments at interchange ramps and advance traffic signals and in the selection, sensitivity and warning signs to inform both cyclists and placement of vehicle detection devices wherever motorists of the bicycle crossing. there is bicycle traffic. It is very important that loop detectors at signalized intersections be Illumination sensitive to bicycles, otherwise cyclists are likely to disobey the unchanged signal. Another Effective lighting is an important influence on alternative is to utilize a pedestrian style push- safe travel on bikeways, particularly after sunset. button to actuate traffic signals for cyclists. These Modern lighting equipment on bicycles is should be located on the curb side, separate from generally inadequate to illuminate potholes and the pedestrian push-button. other hazards to the cyclist while travelling at reasonable speeds. Specific bikeway illumination Coloured and/or Textured Pavement is recommended for routes expected to have significant nighttime use. Intersections, crossings and interchange ramps are considered to be the most difficult elements in a It is recommended that the area bordering bicycle network. It has been recognized that the bikeways for a width of two to five metres on each application of coloured and/or textured pavement side be lighted to levels of at least 1/3 of that for to illustrate pedestrian and bicycle crossing points the bikeway. The level of horizontal illumination at intersections may significantly improve the needs to be sufficient to easily follow the safety of cyclists by informing both cyclists and bikeway, avoid potholes and other obstacles and motorists of a bicycle crossing and the space it to read pavement markings. Adequate vertical comprises. Coloured pavement treatments are illumination should make vertical surfaces such as widely used in European cities. In North fences, walls, curbs, trees and shrubs clearly America, a number of cities are now visible. The lighting system as a whole should: experimenting with coloured pavement and enable cyclists to see other cyclists; concrete treatments at crossings – Portland, Oregon being one notable example. Textured enable cyclists to read signs; pavement or concrete is also used in certain allow motorists to see cyclists where the jurisdictions. path intersects a road or is in close proximity to a road; and 5 Toolbox 66 provide adequate illumination along the places where clearance to obstructions is entire length and width of the bikeway. minimal; Lighting of hazards or areas that are potentially areas where pedestrian volumes are high; hazardous to cyclists is recommended. This could locations with special security include: problems/issues; and intersections with other trails or roads; special facilities such as stair and multi-unit bicycle parking facilities. sharp horizontal and vertical curves; steep grades; ramps to structures; portals of tunnels and subways; Lighting for a Bikeway Crossing a Street Source: MTO, Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. 1996. 5 Toolbox 67 Table 5.8 summarizes the recommended location of the trail, there may be enough ambient illumination levels for various on-road and off- light from nearby roads or parking lots to light the road locations. trail. Finally, vegetation adjacent to the trail may need darkness to permit time to “rest”. The principal components that determine the performance of a lighting system are the lamppost, Placement of the lighting poles must be carefully the luminaire and the light source. There are considered. The minimum clear-zone should be many types of light sources including applied to the placement of lighting poles. Signs incandescent, fluorescent, mercury vapour, should be installed in accordance with roadway halogen, high-pressure sodium and metal halide. signage standards and be placed so that they are Metal halide, mercury vapour, halogen and high- well lit. pressure sodium vapour are most often used because they are high-intensity lamps that are It is also important to ensure that tree branches activated by electrical discharges. They provide and other obstacles do not obstruct the passage of much greater luminous efficiency and have very light. Therefore, periodic inspection and pruning long lamp lives. Although high-pressure sodium of tree growth is necessary. vapour is the most energy efficient and bulb life is the longest, the colour spectrum is artificial. As a Support Facilities result, human perception and behaviour in the nighttime environment can be enhanced with the The provision of bicycle parking plus related use of low wattage metal halide lighting for off- support and end-of-trip facilities is a key and road multi-use trails. The quality of low wattage sometimes overlooked element of bikeway system metal halide light allows trail users to discern both design. Developing and maintaining a the trailway surface and the surroundings. High comprehensive network of on and off-road pressure sodium vapour lighting is the common bikeway facilities does not automatically mean standard for roadways, and therefore applies to cyclists will use the network. The network has to on-road bicycle facilities. be promoted, cyclists need to feel comfortable and safe in using it, and they must have access to Note that not all off-road trails need to be lit. adequate parking and end-of-trip facilities. For Unlit trails can be easier to use at night since commuters, this means secure bicycle parking cyclists’ eyesight can adjust to the darkness. facilities, showers and change rooms. Lighting off-road trails can be very costly to implement and maintain, and depending on the 5 Toolbox 68 Table 5.8 Bikeway illumination Levels LOCATIONS MINIMUM AVERAGE UNIFORMITY RATIO MULTI-USE TRAIL Horizontal 1 5 5/1 Vertical 1 5 5/1 INTERSECTION ON UNLIT AND LIT STREET Horizontal 1 3 3/1 Vertical 2 5 2.5/1 DESIGNATED SIGNED ROUTE OR BIKE LANE Horizontal 2 5 2.5/1 Vertical 2 5 2.5/1 TUNNEL (>10 METRES) Horizontal 10 43 4.3/1 Vertical 12 54 4.5/1 TUNNEL (<10 METRES) Horizontal 6 20 3.3/1 Vertical 7 24 3.5/1 Source: MTO, 1999. Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines 5 Toolbox 69 Rest Areas Rest areas should be provided along off-road bikeway systems where highly visible and space permits. Areas where cyclists tend to stop such as interpretative stations, lookouts, restaurants, museums and other attractions or services are logical locations for rest areas. Ideally, there should be a rest area every five kilometres on a recreational bikeway. Typical furnishings to be considered include benches or tables, washrooms, drinking fountains, trash cans, information signing complete with mapping, plus bicycle parking facilities. Additional services may include an air pump, shelter and telephones. Parking for automobiles should be provided at key locations throughout the network, providing opportunities for both recreational cyclists using off-road cycling trails as well as commuters who may be encouraged to include cycling as part of their commute where “car-pool” lots are conveniently located. The number of spaces required should be Typical Elements determined on a site-specific basis, and should in a Rest Area account for factors such as supply and demand of Design automobile parking elsewhere throughout the network. Source: ESG International design, 2001. 5 Toolbox 70 Bollards and Offset Gates Although not a preferred solution, offset gates can be used as a bicycle traffic calming measure, To prevent access by unauthorized users such as particularly at busy intersections. Offset gates motor vehicles, barriers should be installed at the should be designed to provide uninterrupted trail entrances. Barriers must be clearly marked through access for bicycle trailers. and visible, otherwise they can become a hazard to cyclists. Trailside signage alerting cyclists of Bollards are typically used to control access to the upcoming roadway, intersection or other bikeways. A single, central bollard should be hazards should be appropriately located to provide used to prevent collisions between cyclists and adequate time to slow down and/or stop as prevent motorized vehicle access. The use of two required. bollards is typically not recommended because it can cause congestion and collisions as Source: MMM, 2001. Design adapted from Community Cycling Manual – A Planning and Design Guide, Canadian Institute of Planners, 1990. 5 Toolbox 71 Stairs with a side ramp. Source: TAC, 1991. Guidelines for the Design of Bikeways cyclists converge into the narrow central opening. Stairways with Side Ramps Bollards should be at least 1.2 metres high and coated with a reflective material to be visible at Staircases are a nuisance to cyclists, and in night. extreme cases can become a barrier to cycling. New staircases should be designed with a channel Both bollards and offset gates should be for bicycles, and existing staircases should be removable by trail management staff to allow examined for opportunities for retrofitting. A access for maintenance vehicles. concave or channel-shaped ramp on the side of the staircase will allow cyclists to roll their bicycle while walking up or down the stairs. 5 Toolbox 72 On-Road Traffic Control (BTCGC), 1998 is the current national guideline for the signing of bikeways. The three different Signs, pavement markings and other traffic categories of signs as outlined in the BTCGC are control devices for on-road bikeways should be regulatory, warning and information. designed and installed to comply with the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices published by the Ministry of Transportation, as well as the TAC Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines. Examples of typical It is also recommended that traffic control signs regulatory signs. for off-road trails be designed with the same characteristics as on-road signs. This helps to establish consistency throughout the system. It can be assumed that adult cyclists who are also motor vehicle operators will be familiar with this Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada. signing system. Following these standards will also benefit child cyclists who will be familiar Regulatory: The regulatory signs convey traffic with on-road signing by the time they become laws or regulations which would not otherwise be licensed motor vehicle operators. apparent. For example, bicycle lane signs should be located prior to the beginning of a marked bike Signage lane to advise motorists and cyclists of the upcoming roadway designation. The objective of using traffic signs is to inform users of traffic regulations, warn of road characteristics and road hazards, and provide information necessary for route selection. Signs must be designed with these objectives in mind and installed properly to maximize their effectiveness. Only TAC approved bikeway signs are recommended for on-road bikeway facilities. The Transportation Association of Canada (TAC) Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada Photo: Windsor, Ontario 5 Toolbox 73 Warning: These signs warn motorists or cyclists The Windsor Trail Signage Guidelines were of potentially hazardous conditions on or adjacent developed in 1994 to provide a framework for to the road or path. The use of warning signs signage on the off-road trail network. These should be limited to areas where the conditions guidelines have been reviewed and adopted by the might not be apparent to avoid overuse of a sign. City for use on their on-road bicycle network as well. Where there exists a conflict between the Windsor Trail Signage and the BTCGC, however, the national guideline would take precedence. Examples of typical warning signs. Examples of appropriate signs and pavement Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada. markings that can be used for mid- block discontinued bike lanes (top) and contra-flow lanes (bottom). Examples of typical guide and information signs. Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada. Guide and Information: These signs provide cyclists with information relating to route identification and direction to ensure that the route is accurately followed. Source: TAC, 1998. Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada 5 Toolbox 74 Curbs While typically not a major consideration in the design of bicycle facilities, the type and location of curbs should be considered among other factors such as lane width, on-street parking, vehicle speeds and volume. Generally, there are three types of curbs: barrier, semi-mountable and Examples of mountable. barrier (top) and mountable (middle) Barrier curbs are the preferred types of curb and semi-moutable separation for sidewalks, which are usually curbs (bottom). located in boulevard areas outside the travelled roadway. On lower speed urban roads, the barrier curb provides an added measure of safety for pedestrians by tending to keep errant vehicles, including bicycles, from leaving the road. Barrier curbs have a near-vertical face and are typically 150 mm high. They are constructed both with and without an integral gutter. Barrier curbs are the most commonly used type of curbing, and are found on most local, collector and arterial urban roads. Semi-mountable curbs are more rounded in shape than barrier curbs, with somewhat less vertical difference (125 mm) between the gutter and top of curb. They are typically not found in Source: TAC, 1999. Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads. cycling environments. From a cycling perspective, however, their characteristics are Mountable curbs (sometimes referred to as more like those of mountable curbs. gutters) have a relatively flat “vee” shaped cross section which is designed to contain drainage without presenting a significant obstruction or 5 Toolbox 75 hazard to vehicles. They are often found in rural These solutions demonstrate how the following or semi-urban conditions, separating the traveled challenging areas may be overcome: lanes from an adjacent paved boulevard or shoulder. 1. Howard Avenue Multi-Use Trail (Devonshire Mall Area). Since they can be easily crossed, and their height 2. Memorial Drive Multi-Use Trail Connection is such that it does not interfere with pedaling, at Walker Road. cyclists will not perceive mountable curbs as a substantial hazard. Catch basin grates are often 3. Huron Church Road/E.C. Row Expressway contained entirely within the width of the Underpass. mountable curb, and therefore do not take away 4. Intersection of Cabana Road and Dougall from the usable width of the roadway. The lateral Avenue. clearance requirement for mountable curbs is therefore likely to be less than for barrier type 5. Howard Avenue/Ypres Boulevard Connection. curbs. Therefore, where roadway width is 6. Walker Road/E.C. Row Expressway constrained, a narrow bicycle lane could possibly Underpass. be created adjacent to a mountable curb, whereas a similar width roadway with barrier curbs may not be a candidate for bicycle lanes. The fact that a cyclist can easily cross mountable curbs also provides greater opportunity for the cyclist to take evasive action in an emergency situation. Barrier curbs are the recommended design. 5.2 Site Specific Applications Implementing the proposed network recommended in this plan will require the municipality to overcome various barriers as discussed in Chapter 4. To assist in this process, six potential design solutions are illustrated on the following pages. GRAND MAR GRAND MAR NORTH SERVICE E.C. R.O.W. EX SYDNEY AIS ROA AIS DR Pedestrian Connection " connection to off-road trail ROAD through intersection. AIN " ”cyclist dismount” and walk AV P D bicycles through intersection RESSWAY AD EN EAST RO U DEVONSHIRE MALL N IO E S D IVI Trail Crossing of Railway " align trail to cross railway at Trail Junction with 90 degrees Howard Ave. " align trail to meet Howard Ave. Paved shoulders at 90 degrees. " Note: proposed paved E.C. R.O.W. BRIDGE HOWARD AVENUE shoulders (north and south-bound) along Howard Ave. South A RD Signing EV " cyclists dismount to cross UL Signing BO " cyclists dismount to ON ER cross M H CA UT SO not to scale LEGEND proposed bike lane City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study proposed off-road multi-use trail Conceptual Site Specific Details proposed signed route Figure 5.1 Howard Avenue Multi-Use Trail (Devonshire Mall Area) Wa lk er Ro Ba ad r ri er 1.5 cur m b sid Grand Marais Road ew Cu al k tc ur Existing b driveway Bollards 1.5 m sidewalk Ba Plantings Barrier r rie Memorial Drive Trail Sign rc " no cycling on sidewalk ur (north of Gr and Marais b Road) Multi-use Trail (bidirectional) Cu Trail Connection t (bidirectional) cu " to proposed multi-use rb trail along Grand Marais Bollards Rd. " trail signing at intersection (cyclists to Ba cross intersection as r ri pedestrian) er Trail Sign cur " cyclists dismount and walk b across intersection " shared use trail along Walker Note: Road to connect with Grand " Marais Road (to provide for a To Grand interim solution pending finalization of brige structure recommended in common crossing of railway Marais the Walker Road ESR. tracks) Road not to scale LEGEND City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study proposed off-road multi-use trail Conceptual Site Specific Details pedestrian crossing through intersection Figure 5.2 Memorial Drive Multi-Use Trail Connection at Walker Road NORTHWOOD STREET . ST AY. multi-use trail " LE through park to connect with bike NORTHWAY AVENUE ESSW lanes on Northwood L Street BE create opening in fence LA off-road shared use (multi- off-road multi-use trail use) trail " within E.C. R.O.W. Right of way, between " EXPR fance and existing planting fence along east side of Huron Church Road below E.C. R.O.W. expressway " note: guide rail to off ramp to be extended signing " cyclists dismount DAYTONA AVENUE to cross off-road multi-use trail " trail within Huron Church Road R.O.W. on east side of road . R.O.W HURON CHURCH ROAD HURON CHURCH ROAD signing " at Huron Church Road and E.C. signing R.O.W. off ramp off-road multi-use trail E.C. " ”no cycling on sidewalk” - north " cyclists dismount to cross E bound on Huron Church Road " within Huron Church Road R.O.W. on west side of road U north of inter section " ”shared-use” on sidewalk south EN D bound on Huron Church Road signing south of intersection OA " cyclists dismount AV to cross R AL EN NT RO T. ) D RE M S AD INE AR TU HE GG NT (FU THLE CO off-road multi-use RIN trail " connection to Malden Park SP BE not to scale LEGEND proposed bike lane City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study proposed off-road multi-use trail Conceptual Site Specific Details proposed signed route Figure 5.3 Huron Church Road/E.C.Row Expressway Underpass Proposed Bike Lanes " north on Dougall Ave. Proposed Bike Lanes " east and west-bound on Cabana Rd. (both sides) " through Dougall Ave. intersection New Sign Dougall Ave. " cyclists dismount and walk bicycles through intersection New Sign " cyclists dismount and walk Proposed Signed Route bicycles through intersection " along Roselawn Dr. E xi k al Existing Sign st ew in " vehicular sign “do not enter” g id " add “bicycles excepted” tab S S id below ng ew ti . is al na Rd Ex k Caba Proposed Signed Route D r. la wn M se cG o re R go rP l. not to scale LEGEND proposed bike lane City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study proposed off-road multi-use trail Conceptual Site Specific Details proposed signed route Figure 5.4 Intersection of Cabana Road and Dougall Avenue pedestrian crossing through intersection Caboto ST. Club M INA L TER MERCER ST. LOGAN ST. Jackson Park FOCH ST. VE. SA WOODLAWN AVE. MARENTETTE AVE. AY LE N Continuity of Parent Ave. facility. WELLESLEY AVE. W AIL " seek opportunity through agreement with ELSMERE AVE. R FOREST AVE. Caboto Club to provide signed route LOUIS AVE. connection along private driveway belonging to Club. " seek opportunity to develop at-grade pedestrian crossing of railway PARENT AVE. Howard Avenue " multi-use trail on the west side subject to available width between the right-of-way Off Road Trail OUELLETTE AVE. and existing buildings " adjacent to railway, RAI (north side of tracks) LWA Parent Ave. between Howard and Y ME McDOUGALL ST. McDougall MO " on-road signed route south of Optimist Park/South Pacific Ave. " Bike lanes along RIA YPRES BLVD. McDougall, Eugenie LD HOLDEN R. and Remington Ypres Blvd. " off-road trail through DOTY SO " on-road signed route or bike lanes Jackson Park BRAZIL UTH PA CIF Optimist IC Optimist Park EUGENIE ST. AV E. Park " existing off-road trail to make connection with Memorial Ave. . Pedestrian Crossing of Howard VE BENSETTE AVE. DA Ave. W AR REMINGTON ST. HO PARENT AVE. HILDEGARDE ST. ELSMERE AVE. LILLIAN ST. CHARLOTTE ST. LANGLOIS CT. STANLEY ST. JACOB EDINBOROUGH not to scale HOWARD AVE. LEGEND proposed bike lane VANIER ST. proposed off-road multi-use trail City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study proposed signed route Conceptual Site Specific Details existing signalized intersection Figure 5.5 Howard Avenue/Ypres Boulevard Connection Off-road to Digby Street and North Ser vice Road signing " cyclists dismount to cross Signalized intersection On-ramp Bridge abutments E.C.Row Expressway (elevated ) Off-ramp On-ramp to E.C.Row Expressway Signalized intersection Proposed off-road signing Existing sidewalk - multi-use trail " cyclists dismount to cross continue off-road route to connect with Walker Road proposed bike lanes Walker Road Existing sidewalk to on Rhodes Drive South Service Road C&O railway Riberdy Road overpass signing " cyclists dismount to cross not to scale LEGEND proposed bike lane City of Windsor Bicycle Use Master Plan Study proposed off-road multi-use trail Conceptual Site Specific Details proposed signed route Figure 5.6 Walker Road/E.C. Row Expressway Underpass pedestrian crossing through intersection 6 Implementation 77 2. A practical implementation strategy that identifies and sets out a recommended approach to implement the Plan, and also addresses priorities and phasing; 3. An administrative structure or organization T he BUMP is not intended to be a static document. The timing and details related to implementation, particularly the location of responsible for implementing all components of the Plan, as well as for co-ordinating multi- departmental resources, including funding recommended routes and bikeway types, can and commitments; should evolve through community consultation and detailed technical studies when appropriate. 4. Funding by Council for the entire Plan within At the same time, however, the extensive a specified timeframe (20 years); and community effort that established the overall direction for this Plan should be respected. 5. Monitoring of the Plan to assess implementation results and to serve as The following implementation strategy is intended feedback to refine on-going implementation of “The challenge to provide the tools and mechanisms necessary to the Plan. and success of any implement the BUMP, and is consistent with the master plan is community’s cycling vision. Chapters 1 through 5 of the BUMP establish a measured in part concise Cycling Master Plan that is based on a by the ease with 6.1 Implementation Strategy clear vision, principles and goals, plus a set of which it can be supporting recommendations. implemented.” The challenge and success of any master plan is measured in part by the ease with which it can be The following provides the implementing actions, implemented. Ease of implementation is typically administrative structure, funding and monitoring measured by five criteria: elements that are recommended to successfully implement the BUMP. 1. The quality and clarity of the plan in terms of its vision, principles and goals that guide it, Implementing Actions and the set of recommendations that provide the strategy to achieve the plan; The implementation of the BUMP will be accomplished through both short and long term 6 Implementation 78 actions. Short term action is for Council to adopt That the City, during road resurfacing or the BUMP, thereby committing the City of rehabilitation projects, consider the BUMP Windsor to the implementation of its recommendations prior to proceeding. recommendations. 6.2 Administrative Structure Long term action is to commit annual funding to: People and leadership are the keys to setting the initiate the cycling awareness, cycling- implementation of the BUMP in motion. The transit and end-of-trip recommendations formal relationships between individuals and identified in Chapter 4; and organizations and their operational practices are important factors in determining whether a BUMP “People and construct the cycling network generally in initiative will proceed and be successful. leadership are the keeping with the phasing illustrated on Maximizing participation and removing obstacles keys to setting the Maps 5 and 6. to the flow of information between participants implementation of are two of the main objectives in managing the BUMP in Recommendations implementation. motion.” That Council adopt the BUMP, thereby The current administrative structure for organizing committing the City of Windsor to the and implementing cycling initiatives within the implementation of its recommendations. City of Windsor largely rests with four departments, Traffic Engineering, Parks and That the City of Windsor commit annual Recreation, Planning and Building Services and funding to: Public Works, plus one committee of Council, the Windsor Bicycling Committee. It is lead by the a) initiate the cycling awareness, cycling- Traffic Engineering Department. However, there transit and end-of-trip recommendations is no staff person solely responsible for co- as identified in Chapter 4; and ordinating all cycling activities as was envisioned in the BUDS. The BUMP confirms the earlier b) construct the cycling network generally BUDS recommendation that the City establish a in keeping with the phasing illustrated full time staff position to oversee cycling related on Maps 5 and 6. issues in Windsor. 6 Implementation 79 The BUMP recommends that this Cycling The Windsor Bicycling Committee is a citizen Coordinator position be created in the Traffic advisory group appointed by City Council to Engineering Department since this department is represent cyclists. The role of the Committee is to responsible for the implementation of this Plan. provide input on the whole range of cycling The responsibilities of this position will include: programs and services offered by the City. The citizen volunteers have been an invaluable coordinating and championing the resource in developing new and innovative implementation of the BUMP across various policies and programs to encourage cycling and departments; improve safety, and have contributed to the development of the BUMP. liaison with the Windsor Bicycling Committee; The Windsor Bicycling Committee should be a partner in implementing the BUMP and should providing cycling input on various continue to have a valuable role in representing municipal and development projects; the interests of all cyclists in the City. The experience and knowledge of the members of this coordinating the bicycle parking program; committee are an asset that should be consulted for advice and input during the implementation of managing cycling related projects; the BUMP. They will provide input and assist staff in confirming priorities for implementation. coordinating cycling related projects with other agencies and adjacent municipalities; Recommendations inspiring participation within the community That the City of Windsor establish the for cycling; and position of Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic Engineering Department to oversee developing funding opportunities in both the cycling related issues and to coordinate public and private realm. implementation of the BUMP. That the Windsor Bicycling Committee continue in its current role, and assist staff in confirming priorities for implementation of the BUMP. 6 Implementation 80 It is recognized that the complete cycling network not require a detailed feasibility analysis. Where a and priorities recommended in this Plan will feasibility study is required, terms of reference for evolve through the environmental assessment, the study should be prepared and if necessary, planning and capital budget processes. Therefore, adopted by Council. as a guide it is recommended that the City adopt the cycling network implementation process Phase II: Determine Feasibility outlined in Figure 6.1 to implement and refine the recommended cycling network. When a feasibility study is required, it is intended that it be developed through a process similar to a The four phase cycling network implementation Class Environmental Assessment. This entails the process provides a formal mechanism to confirm collection and analysis of relevant information, the validity of each route recommended in this the identification and evaluation of alternative report. design solutions, public consultation and the selection of a preferred alternative. Phase 1: Define Need Whenever alternative design solutions or detailed When a project involves a proposed cycling route designs are prepared, they should be developed in identified in BUMP, or the opportunity to accordance with recognized and accepted design establish a new route not identified in BUMP, the guidelines as referenced in Section 5.1 of this Traffic Engineering Department and Bicycle report. Coordinator should be notified. From a roadway planning and maintenance perspective, this is why Where necessary, Council should be asked to criteria are recommended to be added to the City’s confirm the preferred design solution or the Strategic Roadway Improvement Program detailed design by resolution. (STRIP) and Roadway Improvement Management System (RIMS). Staff can then confirm that the It should also be noted that in situations where route is still valid based on a review of the BUMP there is a clear community demand for a cycling report and other relevant information. facility, but site specific circumstances prevent it from being constructed, other nearby parallel If the route is still valid, staff should confirm routes should also be closely examined for their whether or not a feasibility study is required to suitability. implement the route. It is recognized that certain routes, such as those through existing parks, may 6 Implementation 81 Figure 6.1 Cycling Network Implementation Process 1. A project is identified by staff 6. Collect and assess background 14. Confirm detailed 17. Monitor facility that may involve or impact a information such as road/lane design and and its use proposed bikeway designated configurations, width, signal associated costs in BUMP. timings, collision data, on street Communicate to Traffic Engineering 18. Determine if parking and adjacent land uses 15. Schedule into changes are and Bicycle Coordinator Capital Works required 7. Identify Alternative Design Program 2. Determine validity of the route: Solutions • Collect preliminary background information 16. Construction • Review BUMP route selection 8. Evaluate Alternative Design criteria Solutions and recommend • Inform Windsor Bicycle Committee Preferred Solution 9. Consult public and agencies to review Alternative Design 3. Meet with department heads to Solutions and Preferred determine if feasibility study is Solution required considering: • Information base/demand • Issues (e.g. maintenance) 10. Confirm Preferred Alternative • Alternative route options 11. Develop detailed design, consulting BUMP facility design guidelines 4. Define terms of reference 12. Council Meeting (if required) 5. Seek Council approval to proceed 13. Consider other routes 6 Implementation 82 Phase III: Development Implementation will require the co-ordination of resources and budgets of a number of City The development of cycling facilities involves: Departments, including Traffic Engineering, Public Works, Parks and Recreation and Planning. confirming the detailed design and associated costs for the facility; BUMP Capital Investment Council’s commitment of the funding; and The recommended BUMP cycling network requires a 20-year capital investment in the City’s construction. transportation and recreation system. As described in Chapters 2 and 3, such an investment has Phase IV: Monitoring significant individual, societal, environmental and economic benefits, and is consistent with existing Once cycling facilities are constructed, their use City of Windsor policies. and design should be monitored to ensure that they function as intended. When necessary, the The capital cost estimates to construct the facility should also be upgraded and maintained to recommended cycling network are based on the ensure continued safe use by cyclists. field evaluation of existing conditions at a master plan level of detail. As such, these estimates cover Recommendation the basic cost of installing the facility and do not include costs associated with site-specific major That the City adopt a cycling network improvements and/or additional site amenities. implementation process similar to that outlined in Figure 6.1. The cost estimates are based on the following unit prices: 6.3 Funding Signed route - $2.00/m of roadway, which The BUMP is both an infrastructure plan and an reflects the cost of installing route signs and operations plan. Therefore it requires both capital directional signs at intersections (on average investment and operations funding to ensure its every 100 m), on both sides of the road. successful implementation. Bike Lane (restriping/signage) - $20.00/m The BUMP is a comprehensive Plan that will of roadway, which reflects the cost of line require an integrated approach to implement it. 6 Implementation 83 painting (up to 4 traffic lanes) and installing determinations will be made on a site-by-site bike lane signage on both sides of the road. basis. It is recognized that site specific improvements may be necessary to ensure In preparing this estimate, the following general the continuity of a bike lane. For example, assumptions were made: this may include minor road widening and intersection improvements at specific construction costs are in 2001 dollars and do locations. These additional costs are not not include taxes; factored into the unit price of $20.00/m. costs associated with property acquisitions Bike Lane (reconstruction) - $180.00/m of are not included in unit prices; roadway, which reflects the cost of providing the additional pavement width to costs associated with utility relocations are accommodate bike lanes and bike lane not included in unit prices; and signage on both sides of the road. In this case, it is assumed that bike lanes are added costs associated with major site-specific during other roadway reconstruction (and projects, such as bridges, railway crossings, not as a stand alone project), therefore the retaining walls and stairways, are not cost of other items such as new curbs are included in the estimate. accounted for in the cost of roadway reconstruction. A comprehensive network implementation schedule is provided in Appendix B. This Multi-use Trail - $100.00/m of trail, which implementation schedule contains a detailed reflects the cost of installing a new 3.5 m breakdown of “order-of magnitude” costs for each wide asphalt surfaced trail under normal site individual route that forms part of the network in conditions. Alternative surface treatments accordance with the phasing plan identified through may also be considered, such as concrete, Maps 5 and 6. however we have assumed asphalt trails for our cost estimates. It is recognized that the The prioritizing of individual projects in each phase cost to add an asphalt surface to an existing will be dependent on a number of factors. These granular trail of sufficient width and include the schedule of projects in the City’s adequate base will be significantly less than existing RIMS and STRIP programs, other the unit price of $100.00/m. These 6 Implementation 84 planning, design and environmental assessment the City of Windsor. It is also a Plan intended to studies, as well as funding availability. make the City one of the premier cycling communities in North America, and a destination Recommendations for those interested in cycling tourism. That the Traffic Engineering Department The success of the BUMP will not only be and the Cycling Coordinator prioritize measured by how many kilometres of bikeway the individual bikeway projects on an annual City implements, but how the City of Windsor basis. The results of this exercise should be takes a leadership role in informing residents documented in a report to Council outlining about the network and its appropriate use. This the progress in implementing the BUMP, leadership begins with the Mayor and Members of and the plan for both network development Council adopting and promoting the BUMP, and and programming for the upcoming year. continues with a strong City Staff commitment to keep Windsor residents informed. The BUMP That staff review the costing of each route at therefore includes recommendations directed the appropriate time through a more detailed toward managing the implementation of this Plan, planning and design exercise in keeping increasing cycling awareness, improving the with the process identified in Figure 6.1. cycling-transit link and providing end-of-trip facilities. To assist staff in refining route construction costs, included in Appendix C is a detailed Unit Price These activities require appropriate levels of Schedule for site-specific design treatments and operational funding to be successful. The individual elements/amenities that may be part of a following provides order of magnitude cost bikeway or trail system. These unit prices are estimates for these operational commitments. based on averages from a number of related projects across Ontario, and can be used as a guide Management and Cycling Awareness when developing detailed designs for individual routes throughout the network. Through constructing the cycling network there is an inherent obligation on the City to inform and BUMP Operations Funding educate Windsor residents, both cyclists and non- cyclists, about the network and the benefits of The BUMP is more than a 20-year plan to develop cycling, as well as safe and appropriate cycling an on and off-road integrated cycling network in techniques. 6 Implementation 85 Management and cycling awareness costs Division of the Public Works Department. Costs associated with activities, such as the proposed associated with snow and debris removal are Cycling Coordinator position, CAN-BIKE and expected to be minimal and should be identified in Bike-to-Work Week initiatives, are difficult to the City’s annual Road Improvement Maintenance determine at the outset. These will need to be System (RIMS) program. Additional maintenance costed as they are developed. The City has a costs associated with BUMP may be partially number of on-going cycling initiatives, and the offset by simply reprioritizing the level of educational and awareness programming clearing/sweeping schedule to ensure that streets may vary from year to year. Further, several of with bike lanes are among those streets assigned a the BUMP initiatives have been designed to high priority. complement existing City initiatives. The responsibility for off-road bikeway facilities Recommendation outside the road rights-of-way should be assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation Department. That the City commit, as a minimum, annual This would include surface maintenance and funding in the order of $200,000 for BUMP snow/debris removal. management and cycling awareness initiatives. This would include the annual Continuity of pavement markings and signage salary of the Cycling Coordinator, seasonal between on-road and off-road facilities is essential contract staff, network promotion, special for the success of any cycling network. event costs, and partial costs associated with Maintenance of on-road and off-road bikeway the preparation of safety and education pavement markings and signage will be the materials. responsibility of the Traffic Engineering Department. Maintenance Based on the experience of the project team, As the cycling network is expanded, maintenance overall trail maintenance costs per kilometre vary costs associated with ensuring a safe cycling widely from $25.00/km per year for trails in a system will be incurred. suburban or rural setting to $340.00/km per year for a highly maintained trail system in an urban The responsibility for pavement surface setting. The operations budgets for both the maintenance for on-road cycling network facilities Public Works and Parks and Recreation should be assigned to the City’s Road Operations 6 Implementation 86 Departments should be reviewed by staff to End-of-Trip Facilities included these additional costs. The provision of end-of-trip facilities is an Recommendations important component of the Plan. It is inherently connected to the provision of new routes and the That the responsibility for pavement surface objective of increasing the number of people who maintenance for on-road cycling network cycle. Simply put, the City can build the proposed facilities be assigned to the City’s Road cycling network, but without appropriate end-of- Operations Division of the Public Works trip facilities, and in particular secure and Department. convenient bicycle parking, few cyclists will use it. That the responsibility for off-road bikeway facilities outside the road rights-of-way be Bicycles are somewhat like automobiles in this assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation respect. A city builds new roads or widens Department and include surface existing ones in response to increasing demand maintenance and snow/debris removal. and to stimulate economic growth. As part of this activity, a city also provides parking on public That maintenance of on-road and off-road rights-of-way and on public land to serve the bikeway pavement markings and signage be additional motorists who use these new roads. In the responsibility of the Traffic Engineering addition, a city, through its Official Plan and Department. zoning by-laws, encourages and/or requires the private sector to provide parking on private Cycling-Transit Link property. Failure to provide the necessary parking facilities will result in illegally parked vehicles. The improvement of the cycling-transit link will This affects traffic circulation and the movement require an additional investment in the bike racks of emergency services in the city. on City buses program. These costs will be incurred by Transit Windsor, subject to the Although not at the same scale, cycling is very success of the current program, and have not been similar. Evidence from other cities regarding identified in the BUMP. bikeways and cyclists clearly shows that “if you build it they will come”. Therefore increasing the number of cyclists travelling in the City of Windsor for both recreational and utilitarian 6 Implementation 87 purposes will require expanded end-of-trip Engineering Department. It is also proposed that facilities, especially secure bicycle parking. the City of Windsor investigate costs and suppliers for post-and-ring stands. Windsor The development and implementation of a bicycle should commence a post-and-ring program parking program includes two components: a starting in year two of the BUMP. It is further municipally funded program of installing bicycle proposed that an annual target of 200 post-and- parking on public rights-of-way and on public ring (or similar type of device) installations be set. land and by-law requirements for the private sector to provide bicycle parking for all new Recommendations developments. The City has already implemented by-law requirements as described in Chapter 4. That the City of Windsor budget $10,000 a year for the next 20 years to develop and The costs associated with implementing bicycle implement a bicycle parking program. parking facilities can vary depending on the type of facility and the number of units installed each That the responsibility for developing and year. The recommended approach is to provide managing this program be assigned to the simple short-term post-and-ring parking stands, City’s new Cycling Coordinator. similar to those developed by other municipalities. That the City investigate costs and suppliers The cost of installing post-and-ring style bicycle for post-and-ring stands. parking can be as little as $50 per unit. For comparison purposes, multi-unit bike racks that BUMP Implementation Costs can accommodate six bikes at a time cost approximately $600, and bicycle lockers, typically Figure 6.2 sets out the costs associated with the used for long-term parking and subject to a rental BUMP recommendations. Network development The total cost for fee, can range in price from $1,000 to $2,000. costs are estimated at $19,400,000 over 20 years. BUMP over the 20- Bicycle parking program costs are estimated at year horizon of the It is recommended that the City of Windsor $10,000 per year. Operations costs are estimated Plan is estimated at budget $10,000 a year for the next 20 years to at $300,000 per year over the 20-year horizon of $25,600,000. develop and implement a bicycle parking BUMP. The total cost for BUMP over the 20-year program. The responsibility for developing and horizon of the Plan is estimated at $25,600,000. managing this program should be assigned to the City’s new Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic 6 Implementation 88 Figure 6.2 BUMP Implementation Costs Component Short Term Long Term Total (0-5 years) (5-20 years) (20 years) Type of Improvement Lead Department Total Cost Average Per Year Total Cost Average Per Year Total Cost 1. Network Development Pavement Markings and Signage Traffic Engineering $1,468,400 $293,680 $55,710 $3,714 $1,524,110 Off-road Facilities Parks & Recreation $618,300 $123,660 $2,665,800 $177,720 $3,284,100 Road Reconstruction Public Works $2,454,600 $490,920 $12,124,620 $808,308 $14,579,220 Total All Departments $4,541,300 $908,260 $14,846,130 $989,742 $19,387,430 2. Bicycle Parking Traffic Engineering $50,000 $10,000 $150,000 $10,000 $200,000 Traffic Engineering $1,000,000 $200,000 $3,000,000 $200,000 $4,000,000 3. Operations Parks & Recreation $250,000 $50,000 $750,000 $50,000 $1,000,000 Public Works $250,000 $50,000 $750,000 $50,000 $1,000,000 TOTAL Traffic Engineering $2,518,400 $503,680 $3,205,710 $213,714 $5,724,110 Parks & Recreation $868,300 $173,660 $3,415,800 $227,720 $4,284,100 Public Works1 $2,704,600 $540,920 $12,874,620 $858,308 $15,579,220 Total All Departments $6,091,300 $1,218,260 $19,496,130 $1,299,742 $25,587,430 1 Public Works costs are assumed to be included in road resurfacing or reconstruction projects. 6 Implementation 89 Implementation of the BUMP can be achieved by organizations. For example, the Ontario Council allocating approximately $1,000,000 Trails Council has been able to hire two annually for capital expenditures (network people under this program; development) and $250,000 annually for operating costs. It is expected that the majority of BUMP Corporate Environmental Funds such as capital costs related to proposed on-road facilities Shell, Mountain Equipment Co-op and be identified and included as component costs Canada Trust tend to fund small, labour- within planned roadway reconstruction or intensive projects where materials or resurfacing projects (STRIP). There should also logistical support is required; be a continued emphasis on improving the off- road trail network. Corporate Donations may consist of money or services in-kind, and have been To assist in reducing municipal taxpayer costs, the contributed by a number of large and small City of Windsor should also pursue outside corporations over the years. A successful funding opportunities. It is the experience of the local example is Chrysler Canada’s support consulting team that funding sources available of ERCA’s Greenway project; and over the last few years for cycling and trail related projects is at or near an all time high, likely due to Service Clubs such as the Lions, Rotary and the enormous popularity of trails today. It is Optimists have assisted with a number of expected that this trend will continue high visibility projects at the community level. Examples of past funding sources include: The City of Windsor should investigate annual The Province of Ontario’s “Superbuild” public and private sector funding programs to fund; assist in implementing the BUMP. Ontario Trillium Foundation that was Recommendations recently expanded in response to the money collected throughout the Province by casinos; That the City commit annual funding to implement BUMP over 20 years. Human Resources Development Canada program that enables personnel positions to be made available to various groups and 6 Implementation 90 That the City investigate public and private verify the route selection process; and sector funding programs to assist in implementing the BUMP. identify the supply and demand for bicycle parking. 6.4 Monitoring Over time, the monitoring system should identify Implementation of the BUMP is expected to begin changes in route preference to assist in in 2001. Implementation of the City-wide cycling determining where to implement changes to “hard network infrastructure will be phased on an annual and soft” cycling infrastructure. basis in accordance with capital funding. In addition, other road improvements will be The results of this assessment may be used to completed in keeping with the design guidelines determine the success of implementing various and standards set out in this Plan. types of cycling facilities. However, caution must be used in relying on an immediate response to a Collecting data to monitor the different aspects of given improvement. An extended timeframe cycling behaviour will assist in evaluating the should be established to ensure that cycling effectiveness and overall contribution of various awareness initiatives are in place to assist in activities to achieve the stated vision and goals. changing travel patterns and habits. This data collection should begin in 2001 and Assessing the impact and costs of a cycling build off of the various BUMP initiatives, such as program should be based on information such as: the User Survey and Public Attitude Survey. The data will establish a benchmark with which to origin/destination counts; compare later data as the BUMP is implemented. screenline counts on a finer scale that are The data collection will be used to: appropriate to cycling travel patterns; and confirm the overall direction and intersection counts to coincide with routes implementation of the BUMP; on which improvements are proposed, and also on parallel routes. confirm statistics on the number and type of cyclists; This information should be collected in each of the next five years and in alternating years after 6 Implementation 91 that. The information must be collected during the cycling season. The Traffic Engineering department, through the Bicycle Coordinator, should also prepare an Annual Progress Report to Council and the Windsor Bicycling Committee. This report will outline the progress made towards achieving the primary goals of the plan, identify changes in direction or priorities for the upcoming year, and confirm budget requirements. Recommendations That the City, through the Traffic Engineering Department, establish a cycling data collection program. That Traffic Engineering, through the Bicycle Coordinator, report annually to Council and the Windsor Bicycling Committee on the BUMP implementation progress and priorities for the upcoming year. 7 Recommendations 92 5. Establish a full time Cycling Coordinator position in the Traffic Engineering Department. The primary responsibility of this individual is to implement the BUMP. 6. Add the appropriate criteria to the Strategic T he recommendations of the BUMP are provided in this Chapter for reference purposes. Readers are also directed to Chapters 4 Roadway Improvement Program (STRIP) and Roadway Improvement Management System (RIMS) to include Primary Network through 6 for a complete discussion and rationale connections. for each recommendation. 7. Continue to develop other off-road trails Recommendations through parks that were not identified in the BUMP. The City of Windsor will: 8. Construct every road as a bicycle friendly 1. Complete those sections of the Primary roadway. Network identified on Map 5 as achievable within five years. 9. Commit annual funds to the implementation of the BUMP. 2. Complete those sections of the Secondary Network identified on Map 6 as achievable 10. Develop safe cycling skills in children. within five years. 11. Teach adult cyclists their rights and 3. Complete those sections of the Primary responsibilities. Network identified on Map 5 as achievable in the longer term (years 5 through 20). 12. Teach motorists how to more effectively share the road with cyclists. 4. Complete those sections of the Secondary Network identified on Map 6 as achievable in 13. Work with the Ministry of Transportation to the longer term (years 5 through 20). develop and implement bicycle safety strategies. 7 Recommendations 93 14. Encourage the “share the road” bumper sticker • promoting cycling tourism by continuing campaign being conducted by the Windsor to provide route mapping information such Bicycling Committee to continue. as the Trails and Facilities Map both in print and potentially on a website. 15. Lead through example by: 16. Improve bicycle routes to transit centres. • improving cycling access to City Hall through the provision of additional secure 17. Increase bicycle parking at transit centres. bicycle parking facilities plus shower and change facilities; 18. Work with Transit Windsor to expand the provision of bicycle racks mounted to Transit • providing cycling skills programs such as Windsor buses. CAN-BIKE through Parks & Recreation programs; 19. Promote the use of cycling and transit. • creating an incentive program for 20. Conduct a Bicycle Parking Inventory. employees who cycle to work; • compensating employees who choose to 21. Increase the amount and quality of bicycle use their own bicycles for City business, parking facilities by: just as it compensates employees who • proactively installing short and long-term drive their motor vehicles for City bicycle parking in the public right-of-way; business; • promoting commuter cycling to the • making CAN-BIKE training courses University of Windsor, St. Clair College, available to City staff on staff time, to plus secondary and elementary schools, minimize the risk associated with using a and assist these institutions in the bicycle during the workday and to enhance purchasing and siting of bicycle parking; the cycling skills necessary to commute • developing partnerships with businesses to safely by bicycle; sponsor the installation of bicycle parking facilities; • continue to encourage special events such as Bike-to-Work Week; and • funding, on an annual basis, a post-and- ring (or similar) bicycle parking program 7 Recommendations 94 to provide facilities in areas where there is • initiate the cycling awareness, cycling- an identified demand; transit and end-of-trip recommendations as identified in Chapter 4; and • adopting the bicycle parking location guidelines described in the BUMP; • construct the cycling network generally in keeping with the phasing illustrated on • actively encouraging innovative bicycle Maps 5 and 6. parking facility designs, such as covered bicycle sheds in existing motor vehicle 26. That the City, during road resurfacing or parking spaces; and rehabilitation projects, consider the BUMP • working with community cycling recommendations prior to proceeding. associations to create permanent relationships for the provision of 27. That the City of Windsor establish the position temporary, long-term bicycle parking at of Cycling Coordinator in the Traffic special events. Engineering Department to oversee cycling related issues and to coordinate 22. Work with private businesses to promote implementation of the BUMP. bicycle commuting. 28. That the Windsor Bicycling Committee continue 23. Create bonus provisions in Windsor’s in its current role, and assist staff in confirming planning policies to encourage developers to priorities for implementation of the BUMP. provide showers, change space and bicycle parking above the minimum requirements. 29. That the City adopt a cycling network implementation process similar to that In order to effectively implement the BUMP, it is outlined in Figure 6.1. recommended: 30. That the Traffic Engineering Department and 24. That Council adopt the BUMP, thereby the Cycling Coordinator prioritize individual committing the City of Windsor to the bikeway projects on an annual basis. The implementation of its recommendations. results of this exercise should be documented in a report to Council outlining the progress in 25. That the City of Windsor commit annual implementing the BUMP, and the plan for funding to: both network development and programming for the upcoming year. 7 Recommendations 95 31. That staff review the costing of each route at 36. That the City of Windsor budget $10,000 a the appropriate time through a more detailed year for the next 20 years to develop and planning and design exercise in keeping with implement a bicycle parking program. the process identified in Figure 6.1. 37. That the responsibility for developing and 32. That the City commit, as a minimum, annual managing this program be assigned to the funding in the order of $200,000 for BUMP City’s new Cycling Coordinator. management and cycling awareness initiatives. This would include the annual 38. That the City investigate costs and suppliers salary of the Cycling Coordinator, seasonal for post-and-ring stands. contract staff, network promotion, special event costs, and partial costs associated with 39. That the City commit annual funding to the preparation of safety and education implement BUMP over 20 years. materials. 40. That the City investigate public and private 33. That the responsibility for pavement surface sector funding programs to assist in maintenance for on-road cycling network implementing the BUMP. facilities be assigned to the City’s Road Operations Division of the Public Works 41. That the City, through the Traffic Engineering Department. Department, establish a cycling data collection program. 34. That the responsibility for off-road bikeway facilities outside the road rights-of-way be 42. That Transportation Engineering, through the assigned to the City’s Parks and Recreation Bicycle Coordinator, report annually to Department and include surface maintenance Council and the Windsor Bicycling and snow/debris removal. Committee on the BUMP implementation progress and priorities for the upcoming year. 35. That maintenance of on-road and off-road bikeway pavement markings and signage be the responsibility of the Traffic Engineering Department. 8 Glossary 96 Child Cyclist is any person under 13 years of age. For the purpose of determining appropriate bicycle facilities, these children are usually operating a bicycle with wheels of a maximum diameter of 600 mm. Bicycle is a vehicle, under the Highway Traffic Cycling Network is the interconnected system of Act, propelled solely by human power, upon bikeways and recreationways. which any person may ride. For the purpose of these guidelines, bicycle includes adult tricycles, Cycling Route is any road or trail specifically tandem rider bicycles, unicycles, but does not designated as being open to bicycle travel, include motor assisted bicycles. regardless of whether or not such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles, or are Cyclist is a person riding a bicycle and in control to be shared with other modes of transportation. of the direction and speed of the bicycle. Experienced Cyclist is a rider assumed to have Bike Lane is a dedicated portion of the road the physical and judgmental skills needed to surface for exclusive bicycle use. They are safely and comfortably manoeuvre a bicycle in a designated by pavement markings that separate variety of traffic conditions. Usually considered the portion of the road used by motor vehicles an experienced adult cyclist over the age of 13. from that portion used by bicycles Grade Separation is the vertical separation of Bike Trail is a bikeway that is physically conflicting travelled ways through use of a separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an structure so that traffic crosses without open space and/or barrier, and is either within the interference. highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way. Highway is a general term denoting a public way for the purpose of vehicular travel, including the Bikeway is any road, trail or right-of-way entire area within the right-of-way. provided for bicycle travel. 8 Glossary 97 Inexperienced Adult Cyclist is a cyclist 13 years Roadway refers to the portion of the highway, of age or older who may have the judgmental and including shoulders, designed for vehicle use. physical maturity necessary to manoeuvre a bicycle in a variety of traffic conditions, but Shared Roadway/Bikeway is a type of bikeway typically does not feel secure or comfortable where cyclists and motorists share the same riding in all traffic situations. roadway lane, and where special signage is installed to emphasize the signed bicycle route. Motor Vehicle is a vehicle that is self-propelled and can convey more than one person. Shoulder refers to the portion of the roadway outside the edges of the motor vehicle travel lanes, Multi-use Trail is any off-road dedicated facility excluding curbs, and extending to the top of the for pedestrians and in-line skaters as well as non- front slopes of the ditch. The shoulders may be motorized vehicles such as cyclists. paved or unpaved. It is an area where motor vehicles could reasonably stop if necessary, and Pavement Markings refer to painted or applied where cyclists could ride if the shoulder is paved. lines or legends placed on any bikeway/roadway surface for guiding or warning traffic. Sidewalk refers to the portion of a highway or street designed for preferential or exclusive use by Pedestrian is a person whose mode of pedestrians. transportation is on foot. A person "walking a bicycle" is considered a pedestrian. Sight Distance is a measurement of the cyclist's visibility, unobstructed by traffic or objects beside Recreational Cyclist is an individual who uses a a bikeway or multi-use path, to the farthest visible bicycle for trip enjoyment, and usually takes point of the bikeway/roadway surface. relatively short trips at lower speeds. An ultimate destination is of secondary importance. Traffic Control Device refers to signs, signals or other fixtures, whether permanent or temporary, Right-of-way is a general term denoting land, placed on or adjacent to the travelled way by property, or interest therein, usually in a linear authority of a public body having jurisdiction to orientation, acquired for or devoted to public regulate, warn or guide traffic. transportation purposes. 8 Glossary 98 Utilitarian Cyclist is an individual who uses a bicycle primarily for travel to and from specific destinations such as work, school, shops or recreation centres. Vehicle is a wheeled means of conveyance which is driven by any kind of power, including muscular power, capable of moving itself and a person, or being moved from place to place. Vehicle includes any bicycle. Wide Curb Lane refers to a roadway lane which is wider than a normal vehicle lane for shared use by bicycles and motorized traffic. This curb lane is of such width that bicycles and motorized traffic can be accommodated side by side in the same lane. It is the through lane closest to the curb or the shoulder of the road when a curb is not provided. Bibliography 99 City of Windsor. 1999. The City of Windsor Official Plan. CROW. 1993. Record 10, The Netherlands, "Sign American Association of State Highway and Up for the Bike, Design Manual for a Cycle- Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 1991. Friendly Infrastructure”. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. Dinsmore, Darin F.. 1994. 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