Introduction to Greenhouse

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					Exploring Greenhouse Structures
Warm Up
 What building material can you recognize in this
Essential Question
 What are the common greenhouse designs?
   Common Green House
 4 Common designs
    Lean-to
    Even-Span
    Uneven-Span
    Ridge and Furrow
Lean-to Greenhouse
 shares a wall with a building and relies on the
 building structure to provide some support for
 the greenhouse roof.
Even-span Greenhouse
 Single houses that have roofs with an even pitch and
 an even width.
   Hoop House/Quonset: common even-span greenhouse
    that uses arching pipes for the framework
Uneven-Span Greenhouse
 Have unequal pitches and widths.
 Limited to hillside use
 Rarely Built
        Ridge and Furrow
 Structures consist of
  a number of
  connected along the
  length of the house.
 Shared interior walls
  reduce energy costs
  and allow for large
  interior spaces.
 Best oriented north
  and south to reduce
  permanent shadows on
  the crops created by
  the gutters.
Types of
Greenhouse Framework
 Supports the greenhouse
  covering material
 Should be:
   Strong, allow for
    maximum amount of light
    to enter, require little
 Aluminum is most popular
   Other materials include
    wood, steel, angle iron
Greenhouse Covering
 Covering= glazing
 Considerations
    Durable, light transmission, cost, heating
 Possible materials
    Polyethylene
         Stretched over greenhouse framework, cheap, not
          durable, not expensive
     Structured sheets
         polycarbonate, acrylic, and fiberglass materials have
          grown in popularity. Multi sheets= good insulation
Structured Sheets
 Polycarbonate structured sheets
    most widely used, good light transmission, resist
     hail damage, easy to work with
 Acrylic structured sheets
    high light transmission, costly, prone to hail
     damage, and are less flexible
 Fiberglass
    discolors after 7 to 10 years, is flammable,and
     provides poor insulation
 Considered best greenhouse glazing (covering)
 Highest light transmission
 Long lasting
 Attached to the greenhouse
 Used as a storage area, a potting area, an office,
 and/or a shipping area.
Retractable Roof
 Designs allow the roof to be opened and closed.
 Gives plants protection from weather when needed
 Reduced watering, rainwater can be used
Greenhouse Benches
 Holds the plants above the ground.
 Materials include:
   galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic, and rot
    resistant wood.
 Arranged in greenhouse with aisle space to walk
 Rolling Benches:
    movable bench used to maximize growing space by
     limiting space for aisles
    benches are placed on pipes, which allows them to
     be easily moved from side to side.
Rolling Bench
 Review Quiz 1
    Go over Review Quiz
 Hand out project worksheet
Controlling Greenhouse Climate
Warm Up
 Why is this plant wilting? What does wilting
Essential Question
 What are the common greenhouse climate control
 Hot water heat system
    heating water in a boiler and pumping the hot water
     through pipes located in the greenhouse located
     under benches, low maintenance, even heat
 Steam heat
    boilers that bring water to a boil and the resulting
     steam flows through pipes in the greenhouse
 Unit heaters
    heat air within the unit, then blow the air
     throughout the greenhouse. Polyethylene tubes
     evenly distribute air flow, cost more to operate
 Infrared heat systems
    produce heat energy that is absorbed by the plants,
     media, and benches, do not heat the air, suited for
     high greenhouses
 Fan and pad cooling system
    Number 1 system, based on evaporation of water,
     pads at one end of the house are kept wet, fans at
     the other end of the house pull air through the
     pads. Air entering the house is cooled as water in
     the pads evaporates.
 Fog systems
    involve an atomizer
     that produces water
     vapor, flash
     evaporation of this
     water cools the
 Vents
    consist of panels that
     open and allow air
     exchange with the
     outside, Natural
Energy Curtain
 Automated systems using fabrics that can
 insulate a greenhouse at night and shade the
 crops during the day
   Installed gutter to gutter, run by computers

 Short-day curtains
    Similar to energy curtains, provides darkness that
     will simulate a short-day effect.
Climate Control Systems
 Environmental controls
    Devices used to turn greenhouse systems on and
     off, including heating and cooling systems.
 Includes:
    Thermostats
    Analog controls
    Computer controls
    Computerized environmental management systems
Climate Control Systems
 Thermostats are low cost, easy to install
 environmental controls.
   On-off thermostats control fans, heaters, and
    vents with the change of temperatures.
 Analog controls use proportioning thermostats to
 run amplifiers and electronic circuitry.
   heating and cooling operations are integrated
    resulting in better performance
Climate Control systems
 Computer controls use microprocessors to make
 complex judgments based on information from a
 number of sensors.

 Computerized environmental management
 systems, although expensive, are accurate and can
 control all the automated systems together.
  Analog controls
  Computer controls
  Computerized environmental
     management systems
    Energy curtains
    Environmental controls
    Fan and pad cooling system
    Fog system
    Hot water heat system
    Infrared heat system
    Polyethylene tubes
    Short-day curtains
    Steam heat
    Thermostats
    Unit heaters
    Vents
 Represent Heating and Cooling and Systems
    Draw them on a separate piece of paper from your
     notes. This will be turned in.

 Review Quiz 2
    Go over Review Quiz
Automated Greenhouse Systems
Warm Up
 What does this machine do? Why is it convenient?
Essential Question
 What are some advantages of automated
Automated Systems
 Incorporate technological developments in the
 production of greenhouse crops.
   Automated systems cut down labor costs
   Automated systems allow for larger crops
  Automated Systems-
 Automated pot fillers
   used to fill pots with medium, medium is lightly
    packed, and the pots are stacked or move down a
    conveyor for planting.
 Automated seeders
   permit the sowing of entire flats or plug trays in a
    few moments, trays move down a conveyor to a
    germination room or move to the greenhouse
 Automated transplanters
   remove small plants from plug trays and transplant
    them directly to pots.
    Automated Systems-
 Transporting= most labor intensive part

 Conveyor belt systems are used to move plants
 from one area of the greenhouse to another.

 Tray mechanization, has grown in popularity in
 the U.S.
   Individual trays or palletized benches that hold 100
    pots or more roll on a series of rails from one area
    to another.
     Automated Systems:
 Spaghetti tubing
    Automated system
     that involves small
     tubes connected to a
     main line
    End of each small tube
     is placed in a pot, and
     when functioning,
     dribbles water onto
     the medium.
    Allows flowers and
     foliage to stay dry
Automated : Watering
            Drip irrigation
               a system like spaghetti
               differs = provides a
                slow steady drip
               Used with hanging
               Wastes less !!
Automated: Watering
 Ebb and flood
    Watering involves watertight benches in which
     pots are set
    Water or nutrient solutions are pumped into the
     bench, the medium absorbs the water, and the
     water drains away.
    Little water loss, nutrient levels are easily
     adjusted, plant foliage kept dry
Automated: Watering
 Capillary mats
    consist of porous
     mats placed on a
     bench and wetted.
    The medium in the
     pots absorbs the
     water through
     capillary action.
    Foliage stays dry,
     high humidity
Automated: Watering
             Irrigation booms
                Move across the
                 entire bench and
                 well-placed nozzles
                 flood the pots below
                 as they pass over the
                Commonly used with
                 bedding plants, plug
                 trays, and some
                 potted flowering
Automated: Watering
 Overhead sprinklers
   Stationary sprinkler heads placed throughout the
    growing space
   Large amount of water in a short period of time
   Often used with bedding plants.
Automated: Watering
 Intermittent mist
   Produce tiny droplets
    in the air for the
    purpose of keeping
    plant material wet
   Commonly used in the
    propagation phase of
    production to reduce
    water stress on
   Continuous or
    programmed times
   Automated pot fillers
   Automated seeders
   Automated transplanters
   Capillary mats
   Conveyor belt system
   Drip irrigation
   Ebb and flood
   Intermittent mist system
   Irrigation booms
   Overhead sprinklers
   Spaghetti tubing
   Tray mechanization
 Research Project
    1 page SINGLE space paper, size 12 font, times new
     roman or comic sans
    Which automated watering system is the best and

 Review Quiz 3
    Go over Review Quiz
Managing a Greenhouse Business
Warm Up
 What types of jobs are conducted in a
Essential Question
 What are the types of greenhouse businesses?
Greenhouse Businesses
 3 categories
    Specialty Growers
    Wholesale Growers
    Retail Growers
Specialty Growers
 Produce crops sold to wholesale or retail
  greenhouse growers
 Specialize in one, or multiple crops

 Can specialize in:
    Rooted cuttings
    Seed production
    Bulbs for forcing
Wholesale Growers
 Produce a limited number of crops

 Can Produce
    Cut roses
    Foliage Plants
    Potted flowering plants

 Products are sold to retail stores
Retail Growers
 Generally produce a variety of crops sold directly
 to the public through their own retail outlet.
Common Costs
 Direct materials costs
    those costs including plant materials, pots,
     chemicals, and growing media.
 Direct labor costs
    based on production activities such as planting
     crops, spacing crops, watering and fertilizing crops
     and managing pests and diseases.
Common Costs Continued…
  Overhead costs
    do not have a direct impact on the production of
     the crops.
        heating fuel, office management and secretarial support,
         taxes, depreciation, insurance, and utilities
  Marketing costs
    associated with advertising, packaging products,
     shipping, and billing.
Career Opportunities
  Greenhouse Manager
     responsible for the total greenhouse operation
  Grower
     charge of the day to day tasks involved in producing
      one or more crops.
  Marketing manager’s
     sell the crops
  Shipping room manager
     handling a crop from the time it leaves the
      greenhouse until it is shipped.
Skills Required
 Understand crops and how to care for them
 Mechanical Skills
 Understand the market
 Deliver plants in a healthy state
 Administrative Skills
 Good understanding of local, state, and national
 laws pertaining to plant growing, sale, and
 Direct labor costs
 Direct materials costs
 Greenhouse manager
 Grower
 Marketing costs
 Marketing manager
 Overhead costs
 Production manager
 Propagator
 Retail growers
 Shipping room manager
 Specialty growers
 Wholesale growers
 Review Quiz 4
 Analog controls           Automated pot
 Computer controls            fillers                Direct labor costs
 Computerized                Automated seeders      Direct materials costs
  environmental               Automated
  management systems                                  Greenhouse manager
 Energy curtains                                     Grower
                              Capillary mats
 Environmental controls
 Fan and pad cooling         Conveyor belt          Marketing costs
  system                       system                 Marketing manager
 Fog system                  Drip irrigation
                                                      Overhead costs
 Hot water heat system       Ebb and flood
 Infrared heat system        Intermittent mist      Production manager
 Polyethylene tubes           system                 Propagator
 Short-day curtains          Irrigation booms       Retail growers
 Steam heat                  Overhead sprinklers
 Thermostats                                         Shipping room manager
                              Spaghetti tubing
 Unit heaters                                        Specialty growers
                              Tray mechanization
 Vents
                                                      Wholesale growers
Growing Potted Flowering Plants
Warm Up
Essential Question
 What is one important aspect to keep in mind
 while growing flowering potted plants?