Exploring Greenhouse Structures Warm Up What building material can you recognize in this photo? Essential Question What are the common greenhouse designs? Common Green House Designs 4 Common designs Lean-to Even-Span Uneven-Span Ridge and Furrow Lean-to Greenhouse shares a wall with a building and relies on the building structure to provide some support for the greenhouse roof. Even-span Greenhouse Single houses that have roofs with an even pitch and an even width. Hoop House/Quonset: common even-span greenhouse that uses arching pipes for the framework Uneven-Span Greenhouse Have unequal pitches and widths. Limited to hillside use Rarely Built Ridge and Furrow Greenhouse Structures consist of a number of greenhouses connected along the length of the house. Shared interior walls reduce energy costs and allow for large interior spaces. Best oriented north and south to reduce permanent shadows on the crops created by the gutters. Types of Greenhouses Expanded Greenhouse Framework Supports the greenhouse covering material Should be: Strong, allow for maximum amount of light to enter, require little maintenence Aluminum is most popular Other materials include wood, steel, angle iron Greenhouse Covering Covering= glazing Considerations Durable, light transmission, cost, heating effectiveness Possible materials Polyethylene Stretched over greenhouse framework, cheap, not durable, not expensive Structured sheets polycarbonate, acrylic, and fiberglass materials have grown in popularity. Multi sheets= good insulation Structured Sheets Polycarbonate structured sheets most widely used, good light transmission, resist hail damage, easy to work with Acrylic structured sheets high light transmission, costly, prone to hail damage, and are less flexible Fiberglass discolors after 7 to 10 years, is flammable,and provides poor insulation Glass Considered best greenhouse glazing (covering) material Highest light transmission Long lasting Headhouse Attached to the greenhouse Used as a storage area, a potting area, an office, and/or a shipping area. Retractable Roof Greenhouses Designs allow the roof to be opened and closed. Gives plants protection from weather when needed Reduced watering, rainwater can be used Greenhouse Benches Holds the plants above the ground. Materials include: galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic, and rot resistant wood. Arranged in greenhouse with aisle space to walk Rolling Benches: movable bench used to maximize growing space by limiting space for aisles benches are placed on pipes, which allows them to be easily moved from side to side. Rolling Bench Vocabulary Activities Review Quiz 1 Go over Review Quiz Hand out project worksheet Controlling Greenhouse Climate Warm Up Why is this plant wilting? What does wilting mean? Essential Question What are the common greenhouse climate control systems? Heating Hot water heat system heating water in a boiler and pumping the hot water through pipes located in the greenhouse located under benches, low maintenance, even heat Steam heat boilers that bring water to a boil and the resulting steam flows through pipes in the greenhouse Heating Unit heaters heat air within the unit, then blow the air throughout the greenhouse. Polyethylene tubes evenly distribute air flow, cost more to operate Infrared heat systems produce heat energy that is absorbed by the plants, media, and benches, do not heat the air, suited for high greenhouses Cooling Fan and pad cooling system Number 1 system, based on evaporation of water, pads at one end of the house are kept wet, fans at the other end of the house pull air through the pads. Air entering the house is cooled as water in the pads evaporates. Cooling Fog systems involve an atomizer that produces water vapor, flash evaporation of this water cools the greenhouse. Vents consist of panels that open and allow air exchange with the outside, Natural cooling Energy Curtain Automated systems using fabrics that can insulate a greenhouse at night and shade the crops during the day Installed gutter to gutter, run by computers Short-day curtains Similar to energy curtains, provides darkness that will simulate a short-day effect. Climate Control Systems Environmental controls Devices used to turn greenhouse systems on and off, including heating and cooling systems. Includes: Thermostats Analog controls Computer controls Computerized environmental management systems Climate Control Systems Thermostats are low cost, easy to install environmental controls. On-off thermostats control fans, heaters, and vents with the change of temperatures. Analog controls use proportioning thermostats to run amplifiers and electronic circuitry. heating and cooling operations are integrated resulting in better performance Climate Control systems Computer controls use microprocessors to make complex judgments based on information from a number of sensors. Computerized environmental management systems, although expensive, are accurate and can control all the automated systems together. Vocabulary Analog controls Computer controls Computerized environmental management systems Energy curtains Environmental controls Fan and pad cooling system Fog system Hot water heat system Infrared heat system Polyethylene tubes Short-day curtains Steam heat Thermostats Unit heaters Vents Activities Represent Heating and Cooling and Systems Draw them on a separate piece of paper from your notes. This will be turned in. Review Quiz 2 Go over Review Quiz Automated Greenhouse Systems Warm Up What does this machine do? Why is it convenient? Essential Question What are some advantages of automated systems? Automated Systems Incorporate technological developments in the production of greenhouse crops. Automated systems cut down labor costs Automated systems allow for larger crops Automated Systems- Planting Automated pot fillers used to fill pots with medium, medium is lightly packed, and the pots are stacked or move down a conveyor for planting. Automated seeders permit the sowing of entire flats or plug trays in a few moments, trays move down a conveyor to a germination room or move to the greenhouse Automated transplanters remove small plants from plug trays and transplant them directly to pots. Automated Systems- Transporting Transporting= most labor intensive part Conveyor belt systems are used to move plants from one area of the greenhouse to another. Tray mechanization, has grown in popularity in the U.S. Individual trays or palletized benches that hold 100 pots or more roll on a series of rails from one area to another. Automated Systems: Watering Spaghetti tubing Automated system that involves small tubes connected to a main line End of each small tube is placed in a pot, and when functioning, dribbles water onto the medium. Allows flowers and foliage to stay dry Automated : Watering Drip irrigation a system like spaghetti tubing differs = provides a slow steady drip Used with hanging baskets Wastes less !! Automated: Watering Ebb and flood Watering involves watertight benches in which pots are set Water or nutrient solutions are pumped into the bench, the medium absorbs the water, and the water drains away. Little water loss, nutrient levels are easily adjusted, plant foliage kept dry Automated: Watering Capillary mats consist of porous mats placed on a bench and wetted. The medium in the pots absorbs the water through capillary action. Foliage stays dry, high humidity provided Automated: Watering Irrigation booms Move across the entire bench and well-placed nozzles flood the pots below as they pass over the plants Commonly used with bedding plants, plug trays, and some potted flowering crops. Automated: Watering Overhead sprinklers Stationary sprinkler heads placed throughout the growing space Large amount of water in a short period of time Often used with bedding plants. Automated: Watering Intermittent mist systems Produce tiny droplets in the air for the purpose of keeping plant material wet Commonly used in the propagation phase of production to reduce water stress on cuttings Continuous or programmed times Vocabulary Automated pot fillers Automated seeders Automated transplanters Capillary mats Conveyor belt system Drip irrigation Ebb and flood Intermittent mist system Irrigation booms Overhead sprinklers Spaghetti tubing Tray mechanization Activities Research Project 1 page SINGLE space paper, size 12 font, times new roman or comic sans Which automated watering system is the best and why? Review Quiz 3 Go over Review Quiz Managing a Greenhouse Business Warm Up What types of jobs are conducted in a greenhouse? Essential Question What are the types of greenhouse businesses? Greenhouse Businesses 3 categories Specialty Growers Wholesale Growers Retail Growers Specialty Growers Produce crops sold to wholesale or retail greenhouse growers Specialize in one, or multiple crops Can specialize in: Rooted cuttings Seed production Bulbs for forcing Wholesale Growers Produce a limited number of crops Can Produce Cut roses Foliage Plants Potted flowering plants Products are sold to retail stores Retail Growers Generally produce a variety of crops sold directly to the public through their own retail outlet. Common Costs Direct materials costs those costs including plant materials, pots, chemicals, and growing media. Direct labor costs based on production activities such as planting crops, spacing crops, watering and fertilizing crops and managing pests and diseases. Common Costs Continued… Overhead costs do not have a direct impact on the production of the crops. heating fuel, office management and secretarial support, taxes, depreciation, insurance, and utilities Marketing costs associated with advertising, packaging products, shipping, and billing. Career Opportunities Greenhouse Manager responsible for the total greenhouse operation Grower charge of the day to day tasks involved in producing one or more crops. Marketing manager’s sell the crops Shipping room manager handling a crop from the time it leaves the greenhouse until it is shipped. Skills Required Understand crops and how to care for them Mechanical Skills Understand the market Deliver plants in a healthy state Administrative Skills Good understanding of local, state, and national laws pertaining to plant growing, sale, and transport Direct labor costs Direct materials costs Greenhouse manager Grower Marketing costs Marketing manager Overhead costs Production manager Vocabulary Propagator Retail growers Shipping room manager Specialty growers Wholesale growers Activities Review Quiz 4 Vocabulary Analog controls Automated pot Computer controls fillers Direct labor costs Computerized Automated seeders Direct materials costs environmental Automated management systems Greenhouse manager transplanters Energy curtains Grower Capillary mats Environmental controls Fan and pad cooling Conveyor belt Marketing costs system system Marketing manager Fog system Drip irrigation Overhead costs Hot water heat system Ebb and flood Infrared heat system Intermittent mist Production manager Polyethylene tubes system Propagator Short-day curtains Irrigation booms Retail growers Steam heat Overhead sprinklers Thermostats Shipping room manager Spaghetti tubing Unit heaters Specialty growers Tray mechanization Vents Wholesale growers Growing Potted Flowering Plants Warm Up Essential Question What is one important aspect to keep in mind while growing flowering potted plants?