Selection of Animals A publication of Department of Agriculture RFU XI
Southern Mindanao Integrated
Agricultural Research Center
The success of estrus synchronization and artificial
Leaflet No.13 November 2003
insemination depends on the nutritional state and physiological
condition of the animals. Animals that have given birth are pre-
ferred in the selection. The body condition must be sound, indi-
Training of Artificial Breeding Technicians
cating good level of nutrition. Animals must have palpable cor-
pus luteum and free from any reproductive abnormalities. To
Artificial Insemination in animals requires a well-
avoid problems of dystocia (difficulty of calving), caracows with
small body conformation are not selected. trained technician who has the skills on proper insertion of Insemination in
the catheter into the cervix, diagnosing pregnancy through
Orientation of Farmer-Cooperators rectal palpation at least 90 days of conception, palpation of
the ovaries to determine corpus luteum and some abnor-
malities; determining in-heat caracows; and proper handling
Using this technology, the expected conception rate is
of frozen semen in refrigerated semen.
33% at first service up to 70% after the second repeat service.
In order to attain this expected conception rates, the farmers
must fulfill certain responsibilities. They are made aware of Availability of Supplies and Materials
these through farmer’s meetings. The technology requires pool-
ing of animal at a common place in the barangay. The farmer- High conception rate through estrus
cooperators must be willing to bring their animal to this pooling sychronization and artificial insemination greatly depends on
place for rectal palpation pregnancy diagnosis and insemina- the quality of semen used. Moreover, other supplies and
tion. The farmer cooperators are also made aware that to ex- material like prostaglandin, liquid nitrogen, straw sheats,
pect high conception rate, the animals must be well-fed and free catheter, liquid nitrogen tank and thawing box must be
of any disease or parasitism. The pregnant caracows must not always available .
be overworked to avoid unexpected abortion.
Traditionally, government technicians work individu-
ally in their respective area of responsibility. However, estrus For more information, please contact :
synchronization and arftificial insemination technology requires Dr. Alfredo M. Cayabyab
coordination. This technology requires pooling of animal which Chief, Research Division
may involve two or more barangays; farmer orientation, careful DA-SMIARC, Bago Oshiro, Davao City
selection of animals, and proper handling of high-quality semen.
Under these conditions, at least three technologist/technicians
are required at a time, e.g., a Veterinarian or a Livestock and
Poultry Technologist, and Extensionist, and an Artificial Breed- Technology, Vol. XI, 1990, DOST
ing Technician. They shall compose a working team and shall Carabao Production in the
approach the activities as a team. Department of Agriculture RFU XI
Philippines, 1992 Southern Mjndanao Integrated Agricultural
Department of Agriculture, Region 4 Research Center (DA-SMIARC)
The technology extremely requires proper timing;
hence, a specific calendar of activities should be laid-out. This Reproduced by :
has to be strictly followed; therefore, activities must be moni- Knowledge Management-Farmer Information and
tored very closely. At the proper time to ensure successful in- Technology Services (KMFITS) Center,
DA-SMIARC, Bago Oshiro, Tugbok, Davao City
semination and ultimately conception.
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN Basically, this technology requires that farmers poll - Inject selected caracows with 2 cc of pros-
CARABAO breedable caracows at a certain place in the barangay. The tech- taglandin PGF2-alpha subcutaneously if fenprostalene
nicians then induces the caracows to come to heat by injecting preparation is used, or with 5 cc of dinoprost or 2 cc of
The carabao is the major source of farm power in them with prostaglandin two times at an 11-day interval. Subse- cloprostenol preparation injected instramuscularly. In-
smallhold farms in the Philippines. Millions of farmers rely quently, caracows showing estrus within 72 to 96 hours are artifi- seminate artificially and immediately animal showing
on this animal for draft power for almost all farming opera- cially inseminated with semen from good quality bulls. natural heat. They should not be injected with pros-
tions. At the same time, the carabao provided the farmer Previous local data on estrus synchronization and artifi- taglandin.
with income from the sale of milk and live animal for slaugh- cial insemination in large ruminants, including dairy cattle and
carabao, indicated 10% to 12% average conception rate with 2.5 Day 2 - 5 Observe in-heat caracows for estrus and insemi-
ter. nate them twice (one day after the other).
The carabao population in the country has been insemination needed to impregnate the animals. Application of
declining since 1980 at an average rate of about 0.37% per the new technology, however, resulted in a 33% conception rate
of the caracows on the first service alone. At 33% conception rate Day 12- Inject prostaglandin again to animal that were not
year next to cattle which declined by 1.43% during the inseminated after the first injection of prostaglandin
same period. per service, repeat breeders bred for the second and the third
time, including those pregnant caracows from the first service, (second dose).
Low productivity of the Philippine Carabao is
attributed to low conception rate and calf crop caused by achieved on aggregate 70% calf drop. Day 15-16- Artificially inseminate caracows injected
poor management and nutrition; lack of good quality breed- with the second dose of prostaglandin.
ing bulls; reluctance of farmers to breed their female cara- Technology Package
baos when used for work; and the farmers’ practice of teth- Day 23-26-Observe the animals inseminated on days 2 to
ering the animals which limits the access of in-heat female The prostaglandin hormones are fatty acid derivatives 5, and artificially Inseminate them if heat is observed
carabao to be served by bull. occurring naturally in the animals various tissues. One of the (first repeat service). Those that did not come to
A significant percentage of female carabaos has prostaglandin series, PGF2-alpha, is a potent luteolytic com- heat are assumed to be pregnant.
not given birth until five years of age; others even up to ten pound in caracow and, therefore, a viable tool for synchronizing
years. The calving interval is two to three years, which or manipulating estrus. Day 36-47-Observe animals inseminated on days 15 and
means that female carabao can produce only two to three Estrus synchronization using prostaglandin PGF2-alpha 16 and artificially Inseminate them if heat is observed
offsprings throughout the animals’ productive life. This re- has been commercially applied to dairy and beef cattle in western (first repeat
productive rate is very low. Under this scenario, the produc- countries. It is done to plan precise calving dates to manage ani- service.) Those that did not come to heat are assumed to
tivity of the Philippine carabao will continuously decline if no mals better, reduce significantly the effort of detecting naturally be pregnant.
corrective measures are done. occurring estrus, shorten calving interval, and get the cow back
with calf increase production. Days 44-47-Observe animal inseminated on days 23 to 26
The use of natural breeding might be the best and
alternative in upgrading our Philippine carabao. Good qual- artificially Inseminate them if heat is observed ( seco nd
ity breeding bulls can be dispersed in the barangays to The following are the steps in applying synchronized breed-
ing technology for carabaos: repeat service). Those that do not come to heat are as-
breed in-heat carabaos naturally. However, limited number sumed to be pregnant.
of good quality breeding bulls is a major constraint. Good
native bulls are usually castrated as work animals while the Day 1 -Pool animals in one place and check pregnancy Days 57-58-Observed inseminated animal in days 36 to 37
exotic Murrah buffalo bulls are very limited. through rectal palpation. Separate pregnant caracows artificially Inseminate again those in estrus (second re-
Given this situation, the most logical strategy is to from nonpregnant ones. Only nonpregnant caracows peat service). Those that do not come to heat are
manipulate estrus through synchronization in combination are injected with prostaglandin. assumed to be pregnant.
with the artificial insemination technique. With this ap-
proach, the problem on silent heat is overcome. Hence, - Separate animals with reproductive abnormalities Day 105 - Diagnose pregnancy through rectal palpation
production of upgraded carabao which will be used eventu- such as endometritis, pyometra, pus sulfage, cystic of caracows bred/inseminated on day 1 to 5 and 15 to
ally in the breeding of carabaos in the barangay is acceler- ovaries, cervicities, and injured cervix. These are not 16.
ated. injected with the hormone. To attain high pregnancy
When the Philippine Carabao Research and De- rate, select only animals with palpable corpus luteum. Day 126 -Diagnose pregnancy through rectal palpation of
velopment Center (PCRDC) operationalized in 1981, the caracow bred/inseminated on days 23 to 26 and 36 to
center developed a technology on estrus synchronization in 37.
combination with artificial breeding which could help in-
crease the carabao’s productivity found in smallholder Day 147 - Diagnose pregnancy through rectal palpa-
farms. tion of caracows bred/inseminated on days 44 to 47 and