Docstoc

Cheryl's first doc

Document Sample
Cheryl's first doc Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                    March 2002




Toward A Global Dialogue on the Mining & Metals
  Industry: Issues and Institutional Options
   Selected Institutional Options
   Detailed Inventory of Mining and Metals-Related Activities
    on the International Environment and Sustainable Development Agenda




                                                 Prepared by
                    Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca

          PO Box 45 Douglas ON Canada K0J 1S0   Tel: 613 649-2437   Fax: 613 649-2456   beillard@renc.igs.net
Toward A Global Dialogue on the Mining and Metals Industry: Issues & Institutional Options   ii



                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                       Page

        INTRODUCTION                                                      1

        PHASE 1 INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT                                     2

               Key Observations                                           3

        PHASE 2 INSTITUTIONAL OPTIONS                                     3

               Underlying Assumptions and Criteria                        3
               Options, Screening and Analysis                            4

        RESULTS OF INITIAL SCREENING                                      5

        SELECTED INSTITUTIONAL OPTIONS                                    6

        1. International Metal Study Groups                               6
        2. Consultative Forum on Non-Ferrous Metals                       6
        3. Inter-Organization Programme on the Sound
           Management of Chemicals (IOMC)                                  7
        4. UN Forum on Forests (UNFF)                                     10
        5. World Commission on Dams                                       12

        CONCLUSIONS                                                       13

        Annex A        Inventory of Activities
        Annex B        Initial Criteria




   Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                         1


                      INTRODUCTION                                  metals sector and for which a global mechanism for
                                                                    information sharing and dialogue could usefully address.
In recent months, in preparing for the World Summit on
Sustainable Development in August (2002), a number of               This report provides an assessment of the initial inventory as
national governments with an interest in the mining and metals      well as a number of intergovernmental organizations and
sector have been considering the need for a Global Dialogue         processes which, in our view, may serve as possible models for
to address mining, minerals and metals-related issues.              the design of a mechanism for ensuring broader and sustained
                                                                    global discussion on mining and metals issues. We also include
In December 2001, Canada and South Africa invited Legwork           our assumptions and the criteria used to identify and assess
Environmental Inc. to conduct a two-phased study. Phase I           these institutional options.
called for a review of the international agenda to develop an
inventory of the major intergovernmental organizations and          The intent, in putting forward these ideas, is to facilitate further
processes which focus on:                                           discussion among national governments on the relative merits
                                                                    of these and other organizations and/or processes which might
a) the mining and the minerals and metals sector; and,              serve as models for the proposed Global Dialogue.

b) those whose mandates and activities directly or indirectly       One of the initiatives included in the final selection of possible
   affect mining operations and trade in minerals and metals.       models, the World Commission on Dams and subsequent
                                                                    process for continued stakeholder involvement and information
Phase II required the review of these and other                     sharing, fell outside our terms of reference. It was ultimately
intergovernmental bodies in terms of their potential to             included in at the suggestion of several contacts as
contribute to, or serve as models for, a future mechanism to        representative of a new form of partnership with 'civil society' I
support the proposed dialogue on mining and metals.                 addressing sustainable development.

As is quickly evident from a review of the inventory, there are     Readers are encouraged to comment and/or to identify missing
a host of institutions and processes at play, which affect the      information.
interests of this sector directly or indirectly. Our list is
illustrative, not exhaustive. It does, however, point to the
broad scope and large number of issues and related activities on
the international environment and sustainable development
agenda which have significant implications for the mining and




                                   Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        2


PHASE 1 INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT                                       which targets industry activities, including mining, as
                                                                    "underlying causes of biodiversity loss".
The first phase of the study called for development of an
inventory of activities on the intergovernmental agenda which       Different organizations and agreements carry different weight,
target the mining and metals sector directly or indirectly.         depending on whether their decisions are legally binding or
                                                                    voluntary in nature. We also considered the North/South split,
Annex A, attached to this report, highlights the mandate,           recognizing that many of the major policy and regulatory
objectives, structure, membership and nature of stakeholder         initiatives are driven by developed countries, and may not
participation for over 80 organizations and processes,              necessarily engage countries in the South where mining and
including:                                                          metals play a significant role in the national economy.

   mining and metals-specific bodies;                              We also went beyond the original terms of reference to include
   multilateral and regional organizations;                        as review of some industry-sponsored partnerships with
   related work programmes and/or projects;                        government, academe and civil society, along with the
   multilateral and regional environmental agreements; and,        priorities of some of the most influential environmental non-
   collaborative processes intended to support information         governmental organizations (NGOs).
    sharing and consensus building in other sectors or with
    respect to specific issues.                                     Organizations varied in size from large and complex
                                                                    bureaucracies within the United Nations system, to small
In selecting which organizations or processes to include, we        regional or sectoral projects operating with minimal
considered several factors. First on the list were those which      administrative support and funding to address a single issue.
directly address mining and metals generally, a specific
commodity or relevant issue. Second, we looked at the major         A further means of selecting organizations for review was a list
intergovernmental multilateral and regional organizations           of issues affecting the sector (see Section 5, Annex A), grouping
which address environmental protection and/or sustainable           them by theme (environment and human health, economic,
development.                                                        social or "other"). The list is extensive. Some, such as risk
                                                                    assessment and mine tailings, are specific to the sector, but
We also looked at organizations and broadly based programs          most are relevant for many other sectors.
and international environmental agreements, such as the Basel
Convention which addresses operations and trade. Another
example would be the Convention on Biological Diversity,




                                   Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        3


Key Observations                                                    The extent of activities across so many organizations speaks
                                                                    clearly to the need for increased international discussion on
Only a small number (8) of the 80-plus intergovernmental            the challenges facing the sector. It also underscores the need
organizations or processes reviewed are mandated specifically       for a comprehensive framework to promote the
to address the interests of the mining and metals sector. This      environmentally sound management and safe use of metals and
number can be reduced to four if you consider the very similar      minerals and create the critical mass needed to influence the
mandates of the three International Study Groups (on copper,        many different threads of the policy debate.
nickel, lead and zinc) which and differ mainly in their
commodity focus. Limiting the scope to those with a global                 PHASE 2 - INSTITUTIONAL MODELS
mandate further reduces this number.
                                                                    The inventory developed during Phase 1 provided the basis for
On the other hand, the list of issues and activities of the         identifying key features of a number of existing organizations
majority of organizations and programs reviewed is extensive.       and processes as possible options in designing an effective
Most view mining activities and trade in metal commodities          Dialogue on mining and metals.
through the lens of environment and health. For the most part,
they tend not to involve government or industry experts from        While it may be premature to suggest the ultimate shape that a
the mining and metals sector in their deliberations.                future Dialogue might take, at the time of writing, there did
                                                                    appear to be some consensus around a few basic ideas. Central
Also, the large number of parallel initiatives makes monitoring     to the concept is the idea that any future mechanism should
difficult. Consequently, the potential economic or trade            engage all stakeholders in addressing all three elements of
implications of existing or proposed policies or actions for the    sustainable development (economic, social and environment),
sector are not always apparent or taken into account in the         using a life cycle approach. There was also a strong sense that
decision-making process.                                            any new process must draw on, and make effective use of,
                                                                    existing organizations and resources.
Furthermore, many of the programs and processes related to
chemicals, toxicity, hazard and risk assessment do not              Underlying Assumptions and Criteria
distinguish between the behaviour of metals and their
compounds or between material destined for recovery and             Consequently, in reviewing and selecting institutional options,
recycling, rather than disposal.                                    we were guided by certain assumptions regarding what might
                                                                    be considered essential features of any future mechanism. First
                                                                    and foremost was the requirement that it be inclusive -- that is,




                                    Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        4


engaging and building on the activities of all existing mining         introducing new forms of stakeholder consultation;
and metals-focused organizations and processes.                        establishing new forms/channels for funding.

Other assumptions were that it should:                              Option 3 Create a new intergovernmental body or process
                                                                    which will:
   address environmental, economic and social objectives,
    including trade and market access issues;                          draw on and make effective use of existing organizations,
   be intergovernmental in nature and include representation           processes and related financial and human resources;
    from all interested national governments, including                engage all levels of government, relevant organizations;
    developed and developing countries;                                integrate relevant projects and activities;
   ensure continuous information-sharing/exchange on all              include all geographic regions and stakeholders; and,
    activities and issues at all levels;                               facilitate information sharing and build global consensus on
   facilitate integration of existing policy and regulatory            all issues and the environmentally sound management and
    activities relevant to the sector;                                  safe use of metals.
   include participation of all stakeholders (industry,
    environmental NGOs, local communities); and,                    Screening and Analysis
   rely on existing institutions and resources.
                                                                    Consequently, we looked at each organization or process in
Based on our understanding of the constraints, we assumed that      terms of its responsiveness to the following questions:
only three options are available in establishing the desired
mechanism.                                                          Objectives: Does the organization or process address all three
                                                                    dimensions of sustainable development (environmental,
Option 1      Assign responsibility for establishing and            economic and social)? Does it address metals and mining
maintaining the Dialogue to an existing organization or             directly;
process which meets all needs identified
                                                                    Scope: How broad is the focus or range of issues addressed?
Option 2     Adapt an existing organization or process              Does it target a single, several or all issues relevant to the
which meets most of the needs by:                                   mining and metals sector?

   expanding the mandate or membership;                            Role: Is it a policy, research or technically-oriented body?
   increasing the number or type of issues addressed;              Does it have a policy or regulatory role? Does it have a




                                    Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        5


monitoring, advisory, coordinating, capacity building,                 the three International Study Groups (as the sponsor of the
information sharing role?; and,                                         newly created Consultative Forum but limited in terms of
                                                                        focus);
Participation: Does it involve developed and developing
countries? To what extent does it engage and/or welcome the            the Consultative Forum on Non-Ferrous Metals
participation of stakeholders? What provisions exist for                (established by the International Study Groups);
inviting and taking into account the views of industry, NGOs
and the academic/research community? What weight is                    the United Nations Forum on Forests and its two
attached to those views in the decision-making process?                 precursors, the Intergovernmental Panel and the
                                                                        Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, which falls outside
Annex B provides the checklist used to select each of the above         the parameters of the initial survey but were included for
from the initial inventory of multilateral and regional bodies as       the value they add as examples of the evolution of a
the basis for comparison.                                               substantial global dialogue in another natural resource
                                                                        sector;
RESULTS OF INITIAL SCREENING
                                                                       the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound
Based on our review, it was clear that none of the existing             Management of Chemicals (IOMC) and related bodies, the
organizations immediately met all criteria we had established.          Inter-Organization Coordinating Committee (IOCC) and
Many met some, but were lacking in one or more key areas.               the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) -
This report suggests a limited number that could provide some           significant for its comprehensive and effectiveness in
valuable insights and might, in fact, be adapted or expanded to         coordinating the work of multiple intergovernmental bodies
meet the need for mining and metals-focused global Dialogue.            on chemical issues; and,
However, we want to stress that a much more in-depth review
and intergovernmental consultation would be needed to                  the World Commission on Dams (WCD) and subsequent
confirm our understanding of their structure and assess their           Dams and Development Project (DDP) which will include
effectiveness and potential for this purpose.                           Global Forum on the WCD as an example of a new type of
                                                                        mechanism which engages governments, as part of "civil
Those which were selected in the first round, for closer                society" in continued consultation and information
attention included:                                                     exchange during implementation of WCD
                                                                        recommendations.




                                    Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                  Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                           6


SELECTED INSTITUTIONAL OPTIONS
                                                                        Monthly global production, consumption and trade statistics
The following expands on the information provided in the                Semi-annual short-term production/consumption forecast
inventory (Annex A) for the three organizations and processes           World directories of nickel, copper, lead and zinc production
which may offer the best models for constructing an effective            facilities;
global Dialogue on mining and metals.                                   Annual report on environmental, health/safety regulations and
                                                                         sustainable development
INTERNATIONAL METAL STUDY GROUPS                                        Annual review of industry developments (mining, smelting,
                                                                         refining and closures)
Three intergovernmental UN bodies which support
intergovernmental consultations on international trade,              Initial Assessment
information exchange on supply and demand,               in four
commodities (lead and zinc, nickel and copper) and related              Intergovernmental in nature
issues. The first, on lead and zinc, established in 1959, was the       Accommodates stakeholder participation
model for establishment of the second and third (in 1990 and            Limited focus on specific commodities and economic and
1992 respectively).                                                      statistical information
                                                                        Not formally linked to other intergovernmental bodies
In terms of structure, they meet in general session at least            Primary focus on trade and statistics -- not Sustainable
annually and maintain Standing Committees and task forces on             Development (SD)
a range of topics, such as finance, environment, economics and          Limited policy development capacity
statistics. Each relies on input from an Industry Advisory Panel        Relevance and effectiveness of processes to be determined
drawn from industry representatives in respective Member
Countries.
                                                                     THE CONSULTATIVE FORUM ON NON-FERROUS
Membership across the three Study Groups includes 37 countries,        METALS
plus the European Union, primarily from metal-producing countries:
Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada,    Established in 1999 by the 3 International Study Groups (on non-
Chile, China, Cuba, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India,         ferrous metals) the Forum has met twice (September 2000,
Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico,         November 2001) and established 3 ad hoc working groups on
Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Russian        production, product stewardship and science/research and
Federation, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom    development to address 6 themes: stewardship; community
United States, Yugoslavia and Zambia. Outputs include:               consultation; recycling; research/development




                                     Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                  Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       7


Intended to promote open multistakeholder dialogue, the Forum         INTERGOVERNMENTAL FORUM ON CHEMICAL
engages governments, multilateral institutions, environmental non-       SAFETY (IFCS).
government organizations (NGOs) and industry representatives in
consideration of a broader range of issues than those traditionally   The idea of a Forum first surfaced during the preparatory
addressed by the Study Groups. Items on the current work program
                                                                      process for the UN Conference on Environment and
include:
                                                                      Development (UNCED). Recommended by an experts meeting
                                                                      in London in 1991, referred to in the agreements reached at
   Communication; information for decision making;
                                                                      UNCED in June 1992, endorsed by the UN General Assembly
   Analysis of sustainable development drivers;
   Community engagement (relative to production);
                                                                      that same year and formally established at the International
   Recycling policy issues;                                          Conference on Chemical Safety in 1994.
   Stewardship (pilot project, awareness raising); and,
   Science and sustainable development.                              The IFCS provides a global forum for government
                                                                      representatives to meet and provide advice and make
Initial Assessment                                                    recommendations to governments, international organizations,
                                                                      intergovernmental bodies and non-governmental organizations
   Multi-stakeholder forum (not intergovernmental in nature)         on chemical risk assessment and environmentally sound
   Policy-oriented agenda                                            management of chemicals.
   Broader spectrum of issues (SD), including environment and
    some social concerns                                              The objectives of the IFCS are to:
   Insufficient experience with the mechanism to evaluate its
    effectiveness                                                        promote cooperation among governments for the promotion
   Need to clarify roles of participants and organizational
                                                                          of chemical risk assessment and environmentally sound
    mandate
                                                                          management of chemicals;
   Relationship to other intergovernmental organizations not
    clear                                                                provide policy guidance with emphasis on regional and
                                                                          sub-regional co-operation;
                                                                         develop strategies in a coordinated and integrated manner;
                                                                          and,

                                                                         foster understanding of the issues & the policy support
                                                                          necessary to discharge these functions.




                                       Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                  Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                      8


Issues on the agenda of the IFCS include: harmonized                 Areas of activity include:
classification and labeling of chemicals;            international
strategies (hazard identification/risk assessment); national               evaluation of risks to human health/environment;
coordinating       mechanisms/capacities       for      chemicals          methodologies for risk assessment;
management; national response to chemical accidents; and,                  prevention/management of toxic exposures and
priorities for cooperative action on chemical safety                        chemical emergencies;
                                                                           exchange of information on chemical safety and
An Intersessional Group (ISG), comprised of Forum members                   communication of related hazards and risks; and,
and government representatives, develops recommendations                   capacity building for sound management of chemicals
to the Forum, conducts studies on special problems, and                     and risk reduction
advises on the implementation of strategies and programmes
approved by the Forum. The Forum is also supported by                Responsibilities for implementation of these different elements
various Ad Hoc Working Groups established by the Forum or            is shared across the 7 Member Organizations as follows:
the ISG for a set period of time to undertake specific tasks. In
addition, a Standing Committee was established by IFCS-2, to         World Health      Coordination and technical assistance in
advise and assist in preparations for meetings of the Steering       Organization      support of the International Programme
Group and the Forum. Some of the issues addressed by the             (WHO)             on Chemical Safety (IPCS), run jointly
ISG to date include: endocrine disruptors, persistent organic        Chemical          with the ILO and UNEP, and internal
pollutants (POPs), "chemicals of international concern other         Safety            coordination of WHO chemical safety -
than POPs", obsolete chemicals and pesticides.                                         related programmes (food safety,
                                                                                       occupational health/disease control).
The IFCS represents the consultative mechanism for the work
of the Inter-Organization Programme for Sound                        UN                Sound management of hazardous
Management Of Chemicals (IOMC)                                       Environment       chemicals and protection of the
                                                                     Program           environmental and human health from
The IOMC is a global initiative established in 1995 to               (UNEP)            the effects of toxic chemicals through
coordinate the work of seven major international organizations       Chemicals Unit    several legally binding instruments (Prior
involved in work on chemical safety. It is of particular interest,                     Informed Consent, Persistent Organic
not only from the perspective of the model it provides for                             Pollutants), risk assessment, information
intergovernmental collaboration, but also because so many of                           exchange, training/capacity building.
the initiatives being addressed are relevant to the mining and
metals sector.



                                     Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                     9


Organization    Test guidelines, good laboratory practice,         UN Institute     Capacity building for chemicals
for Economic    mutual acceptance of data, risk                    for Training     management through a variety of
Cooperation &   assessment, high production volume                 and Research     initiatives involving stakeholders and
Development     chemicals, pesticides, chemical                    Training and     international partner organizations, e.g.,
(OECD)          accidents, harmonizing regulatory                  Capacity         preparation of National Chemicals
Chemicals       oversight in biotechnology, pollutant              Building         Management Profiles, National Action
Programme       release/transfer registries and food safety.       Programme in     Programmes for Integrated Chemicals
                Technical coordination and internal                Chemicals and    Management (jointly with IOMC PO's),
                consultation/information exchange takes            Waste            specialized training for implementation
                place through various groups created to            Management       of Prior Informed Consent (jointly with
                address specific issues and may include                             UNEP Chemicals and FAO), Pollutant
                the participation of NGOs and national                              Release and Transfer Registers (in co-
                institutions.                                                       operation with OECD and UNEP
                                                                                    Chemicals), and Risk Assessment (jointly
                                                                                    with IPCS and UNEP Chemicals). Also
International   A Specialized Agency of the UN with a                               serves as the Secretariat for the
Labour          tripartite constituency: governments,                               UNITAR/IOMC Informal Capacity
Organization    employers and workers, which includes                               Network for the Sound Management of
Chemical        chemical safety as part of its mandate for                          Chemicals.
Safety Branch   worker protection.
                                                                   UN Food and      Includes promotion of the Code of
UN Industrial   Environmentally sound management of                Agriculture      Conduct on the Distribution and Use of
Development     chemicals in relation to occupational              Organization     Pesticides, technical assistance to
Organization    safety (a component of all technical               (FAO)            implement national plant protection
(UNIDO)         assistance programmes). Outputs include                             programmes in preventing/disposing of
Cleaner         National Cleaner Production and                                     obsolete and unwanted pesticides and
Production &    Ecotoxicology Centres, technology                                   serves as the Secretariat for the Joint
Environmental   transfer (monitoring/treatment, recycling,                          FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius
Management      disposal of toxic/hazardous wastes and                              Commission, which deals in support of
Branch:         site remediation) and regional networks                             the joint FAO/WHO Food Standards
                for safe pesticide production.                                      Programme. Other joint initiatives
                                                                                    involve the IAEA (agro-chemical usage



                                  Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                   10


                 in food and agriculture), UNEP                        Reflects a broad range of SD issues
                 (implementation of the Prior Informed                 Policy, research, monitoring, communication role
                 Consent procedure, the World Health                   Broad stakeholder participation (advisory role)
                 Organization (food additives, pesticide               Needs to be considered in a collective sense -- in
                 and veterinary drug residues and other                 relation to the overall global IOMC Programme, the co-
                 food contaminants).                                    ordinating mechanism (IOCC)

One of the most valuable features of the IOMC is its
coordinating function. Work across the Member organizations         4. UN FORUM ON FORESTS (UNFF)
is managed by the Inter-Organization Coordinating
Committee (IOCC) which oversees the network of interrelated         The Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD) is
activities, linked databases and mechanisms for dissemination       responsible for regular review of the implementation of Agenda
of public information on chemical safety. The IOCC is the           21. It is also the sponsor of two global processes on forests
vehicle for shared planning and harmonization of the respective     which led to establishment of a number of dialogues, including
work programmes of its Members, reducing duplication of             two on forests which have resulted in a permanent mechanism
effort and a source of information on implementation of not         for global discussions);
only joint projects as well as those of individual member
organizations.                                                      Step 1 In 1995, the Commission on Sustainable Development
                                                                    (CSD) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests
The IOMC is an example of a fully developed                         (IPF) as a means to promote global dialogue on forest issues.
intergovernmental process which harnesses and focuses               Charged with a two year mandate and required to report back to
existing activities of multiple intergovernmental bodies with       CSD-5, in 1997, its objective was to " pursue consensus and
separate but related mandates. It provides common objectives        formulate options for further actions in order to combat
and a trajectory for the evolution and integration of               deforestation and forest degradation and to promote
environmentally sound management as applied to chemicals            management, conservation, and sustainable development of all
throughout their life cycle                                         types of forests."

Initial Assessment                                                  The IPF Work Programme addressed eleven elements, covering
                                                                    5 broad areas (causes of deforestation, financing, technology
   Intergovernmental in nature                                     transfer, assessment of forest benefits and development of
   Integrates the activities of multiple intergovernmental         evaluation criteria and indicators for sustainable forest
    bodies with respect to relevant activities



                                   Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                  Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       11


management (SFM), trade/environment and review of                        the management, conservation and sustainable development
international organizations, multilateral institutions and               of all types of forests.
instruments).
                                                                     The UNFF was also asked to consider, within 5 years, the
Step 2 The Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) was              parameters of a mandate for a legal framework on all types of
established in June 1997 with a further 2 year mandate by the        forests.
Special Session of the UN General Assembly to continue the
work undertaken IPF. Its objective was to:                           Initial Assessment


   promote and facilitate implementation of the                        Intergovernmental forum
    recommendations of the IPF;                                         Policy oriented
   review, monitor and report on progress toward SFM and               SD focus
    consider matters not resolved by the IPF process; and,              Inclusive in terms of stakeholder participation
   identify “possible elements of and work towards a                   Product of the CSD
    consensus for international arrangements and mechanisms,
    e.g., a legally binding, global instrument” on forests.          Note: Many of the elements of the global discussions on
                                                                     forests offer insights into the issues which might form the basis
The IPF and IFF resulted in over 300 proposals, which                for a similar global agenda on mining and metals-related
collectively serve to promote the concept of Sustainable Forest      issues. Other sectoral and issues-based global programmes
Management (SFM) and enhance international policy                    and consultative mechanisms exist that could serve as models
coordination and cooperation.                                        in designing a parallel initiative on mining and metals, e.g., the
                                                                     Global Programme of Action on Land-Based Sources of
Step 3 The UN Forum on Forests was established in October            marine Pollution. Further work is needed to look beyond the
2000, as a permanent mechanism for continued global                  parameters set for this first review.
dialogue and policy development on SFM. Specific
responsibilities include:

   faciliating implementation of IPF/IFF recommendations;
   promoting enhanced international policy/programme
    cooperation and coordination;
   monitoring and assessment of national, regional and global
    progress on, and strengthening of political commitment to,



                                     Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                     12


5. WORLD COMMISSION ON DAMS                                            a global survey of 125 dams used to cross check the
                                                                        findings of the individual studies.
The 12 member advisory Commission was established in May
1998 with two objectives: first, to review the development           The Dams and Development Project (DDP) was established
effectiveness of dams and assess alternatives for water             in November 2001 by UNEP under the auspices of the
resources and energy development; and, second, to develop           Environmental Policy Implementation Division. The purpose
internationally-acceptable criteria and guidelines to inform        of the DDP is to:
future planning, design, construction, monitoring, operation,
and decommissioning of dams.                                           support country level, regional and global dialogues on the
                                                                        WCD report, with emphasis on stakeholders not currently
Members were selected to ensure both regional diversity and a           involve in the discussion;
wide range of expertise and stakeholder perspectives.                  strengthen interaction and networking among participants
Supported by a Secretariat in South Africa, the Commission              in the dams debate;
also relied on a 68 member Stakeholder Forum acting as an              support widespread dissemination of the WCD report and
advisory board. Funding came from 53 public, private and civil          the report of the Third WCD Forum; and,
society organizations. Its work was completed in November              facilitate the flow of information and advice concerning
2001 with the release of the report Dams and Development: A             initiatives relevant to dams and development.
New Framework for Decision-Making. Work done over the 2-
years in preparing the Report included:                             Policy direction is provided by a 14 member Steering
                                                                    Committee which includes representation from the World
   development of the WCD "Knowledge Base";                        Bank, World Conservation Union (IUCN), governments of
   regional consultations with 4representatives of 59              developing countries, affected peoples‟ movements, industry
    countries;                                                      and the private sector, NGOs, professional associations,
   NGO hearings on large dams in S. Africa and Europe;             researchers, bilateral development partners and UNEP.
   947 submissions from over 80 countries;                         Administrative support is provided by a 5 member staff and
   8 independent in-depth case studies of large dam projects       there are plans to create a wider Dams and Development
    and 2 country studies (India and China);                        Forum to ensure broader input.
   17 Thematic Reviews in 5 categories (social, environmental,
    economic/financial, options assessment and institutional        The work programme for the DDP is comprised of four
    issues (with over 100 papers commissioned with full peer        elements. In addition to maintaining an online information
    review); and,                                                   network, distributing the WCD and related reports and




                                   Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
                  Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                   13


promoting information sharing on good practices, the DDP is           support of common objectives and provides a formal vehicle
designed to support the continuing Forum by:                          for multi-stakeholder consultation may offer the most fertile
                                                                      ground for further research. Based on a quick review of some
   encouraging stakeholder involvement                               of the enabling documentation, it appears that some could be
   providing financial assistance and expertise in support of        directly adapted to meet the needs of a mining and metals-
    national/sectoral processes/workshops/dialogues;                  focused mechanism.
   facilitating financing of multi-stakeholder processes; and,
   assisting in improving guidelines/criteria for dams and their     However, the potential for existing intergovernmental bodies,
    alternatives.                                                     with established bureaucracies, a network of government and
                                                                      private sector experts to call on, and access to a pool of
Initial Assessment                                                    resources, must be balanced against the benefits of a free-
                                                                      standing initiative which would draw on multiple government
   Multi-stakeholder forum                                           and private sector bodies.
   Not intergovernmental in nature
   Environmental and technical in focus                              More detailed consideration needs to be given to the relative
   Consultative, communication and monitoring role                   importance of each design element. Some weighting of the
   Funded by government, industry and “civil society”                importance of the design elements in relation to the overall
    bodies                                                            objectives of the proposed mechanism, is also needed, to make
                                                                      the choices clearer.

                       CONCLUSIONS                                    The foregoing review is not intended to be exclusive or
                                                                      prescriptive. There may also be other very good models, and
None of the existing organizations and processes outlined             factors, which could have been considered.
above meets all of the initial criteria considered as essential for
ensuring an effective global Dialogue on mining and metals.           Rather, we hope that this initial assessment will stimulate
However, those selected illustrate a number of features that          further discussion that may lead to establishment of permanent
could be borrowed or adapted once there was some consensus            Dialogue on the many issues which affect the future of the
around the question of role.                                          mining and metals sector, as well as the environmental,
                                                                      economic and social well-being of our global society.
Of the initial group of organizations identified initially, the
IOMC, which unites multiple intergovernmental bodies in



                                     Legwork Environmental Inc. www.legwork.ca March 2002
Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options
                                                                                               ANNEX A
                            INVENTORY OF ACTIVITIES




                                  APPENDIX A


 Inventory of Mining & Metals-Related Activities




   Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                        Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options
                                                                                                                                    ANNEX A
                                                        INVENTORY OF ACTIVITIES
                                                                         Section 3 Industry Brief description of industry-led activities
In December 2001, Legwork Environmental Inc. was asked to                within the context of mining/metals and sustainable development.
develop an inventory of mining and metals-related activities on the
international and regional environment and sustainable development       Section 4 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Highlights
policy agenda.                                                           the main objectives, structure and activities of the major
                                                                         environmental and other organizations which target the
In structuring the review, it was agreed to consider:                    activities/operations of the mining and metals industry.

1. the mandate, scope, membership and activities of the                  Section 5 Mining and Metals Issues A summary list of
   intergovernmental organizations dedicated specifically to mining      environmental, health, economic, trade and science-based issues
   and metals; and,                                                      affecting the mining and metal sector internationally. The previous
                                                                         sections looked at fora carrying out sector related work. While
2. the intergovernmental and international organizations whose           further analysis is needed, this list indicates the wide range of issues
   mandates and/or current activities are likely to directly or          which form the basis for the activities undertaken by the major
   indirectly have significant implications for the mining and           intergovernmental and international organisations in support of
   metals sector.                                                        environmental objectives and sustainable development.

STRUCTURE                                                                CAVEATS

Section 1 Multilateral Organizations/Initiatives Two groups of           The inventory provides a preliminary, not exhaustive inventory of
organizations and/or processes and work in progress of primarily         the major intergovernmental bodies and related activities and issues
government-sponsored initiatives which represent:                        of interest to the mining and metals industry. While effort has been
                                                                         made to capture the most important and relevant initiatives, the size
a) the current core set of mining and metals-focused organizations       and complexity of many of the intergovernmental bodies means that
   or fora; and,                                                         inevitably there will be gaps and omissions. Different initiatives
b) the relevant activities of a much longer list of intergovernmental    will also have different implications for different countries and parts
   organizations which directly or indirectly will have significant      of the industry. Selection of topics is determined with reference to
   potential to affect the mining and metals sector.                     the relevance of activities in relation to the wide ranging list of
                                                                         issues which affect the sector (outlined in Section 5).
Section 2 Regional Organizations/Initiatives A similar review of
the components of relevant strategies or work programmes being
addressed by the major regional intergovernmental bodies.




                            Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options
                                                                                                                         ANNEX A
                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS


Section 1 MULTILATERAL                                                26. OECDWorking Party on Global & Structural Policies           9
                                                                      27. OECD Working Group on Waste Prevention & Recycling          9
Mining/Metals Organizations/Activity                                  28. OECD Chemicals                                             10
1. International Copper Study Group (ICSG)                  1         29. UNCTAD Natural Resource Management                         10
2. International Nickel Study Group (INSG)                  1         30. World Health Organization (WHO)                            10
3. International Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG)          2         31. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea                        11
4. Mines Ministries of the Americas (CAMMA)                 2         32. International Maritime Organization                        11
5. Non-Ferrous Metals Consultative Forum (NFMCF)            3         33. IMO London Convention on Marine Pollution                  11
6. Mineral Resources Forum (MRF)                            3         34. IMO Convention on Hazardous/Noxious Substances             12
7. APEC Expert Group on Minerals, Energy Exploration &                35. International Labour Organization                          12
   Development                                              3         36. UN Industrial Development Organization                     12
                                                                      37. International Materials Assessment & Application Center    13
Other                                                                 38. UN Institute for Training & Research                       13
8. UN Commission for Sustainable Development               4          39. Inter-Organizational Programme for the Sound
9. World Summit on Sustainable Development                                Management of Chemicals                                    14
    4                                                                 40. International Programme on Chemical Safety                 14
10. Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of HW       5          41. Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety                 14
11. Basel Protocol on Liability & Compensation             5          42. UNECE/WHO Convention on Transport/Env. & Health            14
12. Global Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants     6          43. World Bank Group on Mining                                 15
13. Convention on Biological Diversity                     6          44. World Bank Business Partners for Development               15
14. Framework Convention on Climate Change                 6          45. World Bank Communities and Small Scale Mining              15
15. Global Convention on Prior Informed Consent            7          46. World Bank Extractive Industries Review                    15
16. UNEP Consumption and Production                        7          47. International Standards Organization                       16
17. UNEP Chemicals                                         7          48. Global Reporting Initiative                                17
18. UNEP Code of Ethics on Trade in Chemicals              7
19. UNEP Regionally Based Assessment of Persistant Toxics  7          Section 2 REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS/ACTIVITY
20. UNEP Global Mercury Assessment                         7
21. UNEP Division of Technology, Industry & Economics      8          48. UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transport of
22. UNEP Cleaner Production Programme                      8              Air Pollutants                                             18
23. UN Forum on Forests                                    8          49. UN ECE Environment Programme for Europe                    18
24. Organization for Economic Cooperation/Development/OECD 9          50. UN ECE Convention on Access to Information/Public
25. OECD Working Party on National Environmental Policies  9              Participation Access to Justice in Environmental Matters   19




                    Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options
                                                                                                                           ANNEX A
                                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS


51. UN ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment 19
52. UN ECE Committee on Sustainable Energy                   19        74.   Association of the European Non-Ferrous Metals Industries   26
53. UN Economic Commission for L. America/Caribbean          19        75.   Global Mining Initiative                                    26
54. UN Economic Commission for Africa                        20        76.   International Council on Mining and Metals                  27
55. UN Economic & Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific           77.   Mining, Minerals & Sustainable Development Project          27
56. European Union Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy    20        78.   IDRC Mining Policy Research Initiative                      28
         th
57. EU 6 Environment Action Programme                        20        79.   World Business Council for Sustainable Development          28
58. EU Sustainable Development Strategy                      21
59. EU Council                                               21        Section 4 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
60. EU Directive on End-Of-Life Vehicles                     22
61. EU Directive on Packaging/Packaging Waste                22        80.   World Conservation Union                                    29
62. EU Directive on Waste Electrical/Electronic Equipment    23        81.   World Resources Institute                                   29
63. EU Directive on Certain Hazardous Substances in WEEE     23        82.   Friends of the Earth                                        30
64. NA CEC Group on the Sound Management of Chemicals        24        83.   World Wildlife Fund                                         30
65. CEC NA Pollutant Release & Transfer Registry             24        84.   Sierra Club                                                 31
66. Arctic Council Monitoring & Assessment Programme         24        85.   Greenpeace                                                  31
67. Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment              24        86.   Mineral Policy Centre Mining Campaign                       32
68. Ad Hoc Working Group on Arctic Council Action Plan       25
69. World Commission on Dams                                 25        Section 5 MINING & METALS ISSUES                                  33
70. UNEP Dams and Development Project                        25
Section 3 INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS/ACIVITY




                     Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       1
                                                                                                                           ANNEX A

Section 1 MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS                                    INTERNATIONAL NICKEL STUDY GROUP (INSG)
                                                                        www.insg.org
INTERNATIONAL COPPER STUDY GROUP (ICSG)
www.icsg.org                                                            Mandate Established to: collect/publish improved statistics on
                                                                        nickel markets, industry facilities and environmental regulations;
Mandate Promotes international cooperation on copper issues             provide a forum for discussions on nickel issues, including
through provision of information and consultations. The General         environmental; and undertake economic analysis. The General
Session meets twice yearly. Work is carried out by a Standing           Session meets annually and oversees work of a Standing Committee
Committee and 3 others (Finance, Environmental and Economics,           and 2 others on Statistics and Environment/Economics. An Industry
and Statistics). The Industry Advisory Panel involves industry          Advisory Panel, with corporate/industry representation from
representatives from Member Countries.                                  Member Countries provides advice on technical matters relating to
                                                                        statistics.
Members 24 national governments (Argentina, Belgium, Canada,
Chile, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia,       Members Governments of nickel-producing/consuming and trading
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru,            countries (Australia, Canada, Cuba, EC, Finland, France, Germany,
Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Spain, United Kingdom,            Greece, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Russian
United States, Zambia, and European Union) + the European Union.        Federation, Sweden, and United Kingdom).
Observers American Bureau of Metal Statistics; European Copper          Observers: Nickel Development Institute (NiDI), the Nickel
Institute; Eurometaux, International Copper Association;                Producers Environmental Research Association (NiPERA),
International Council on Mining and Metals; International Wrought       International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), Eurometaux,
Copper Council; and World Bureau of Metal Statistics                    Eurofer, OECD and UNCTAD.

Activities/Issues                                                       Activities/Issues

   Copper mine/plant/refinery directory (current & forecast               Annual report on environmental, health/safety regulations
    capacity)                                                              Annual review of new developments in nickel mining,
   Directory of copper mine/plant/refinery operations;                     smelting, refining and closures
   Global overview of health, environmental and SD                        Monthly global statistics
   Monthly copper production, consumption and trade statistics by
                                                                           Semi-annual short-term production/consumption forecast
    country
   World Conference on Copper Recycling (1997)
                                                                           World directory of nickel production facilities;




                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                      2
                                                                                                                           ANNEX A

INTERNATIONAL LEAD & ZINC STUDY GROUP (ILZSG)                              Semi-annual short-term production/use forecast
www.ilzsg.org                                                              World directory of lead and zinc production facilities;

Mandate An international forum for information exchange and
provision of industry statistics which meets twice yearly and           MINES MINISTRIES OF THE AMERICAS (CAMMA)
involves representation from lead/zinc-producing and consuming          www.camma.org
countries and industry. Activities are carried out through a Standing
Committee and three others (Statistics/Forecasting, Mine and            Mandate Annual meetings since 1996, CAMMA is intended to:
Smelter Projects, Economic/Environment). Industry Advisory Panel        encourage a proactive approach to defining mining policies in the
involves industry representatives from Member Countries.                context of sustainable development; promote the safe use of
                                                                        minerals/metals; reduce the environmental impact of mining;
Members Algeria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada,          promote the importance of mining to sustainable development;
China, Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Finland,           and foster international cooperation. Meetings are organized by a
France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Morocco,     Coordinating Committee comprised of a rotating Secretariat and
Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Russian Federation, South Africa,            representatives from North America, Central America, South
Spain, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and             America (non-MERCOSUR) and MERCOSUR countries. The
Yugoslavia                                                              annual Declaration, issued at the end of each session, defines
                                                                        activities for the year.
Observers: OECD, UNCTAD, UNEP, UNIDO, WTO, World Bank,
American Zinc Association, Association of the European Non-             Members Ministers and/or senior mining ministry officials from
Ferrous Metals Industries, Battery Council International, European      countries in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean
Zinc Institute, International Council on Mining and Metals,             (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
International Lead/Zinc Research Organization, International Zinc       Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,
Association, Lead/Zinc Development Association and Lead                 Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname,
Industries Association Inc.                                             United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela.)

Activities/Issues                                                       Activities/Issues

   Annual review of new developments in lead and zinc mining,             Adoption of the "safe use principle" and workshops on mine
    smelting, refining and closures                                         closure.
   Clarification of waste vs. recyclables under Basel                     Fair trade in minerals and metals
   Criteria for reclassification of materials linked to                   Funding for investment in small-scale mining and related
    technological change.                                                   sectoral policies
   Monthly global statistics                                              Sustainable development of mining communities
   Reports on environmental, health/safety regulations



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                    Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       3
                                                                                                                           ANNEX A

NON-FERROUS METALS CONSULTATIVE FORUM                                     Environmental impacts of mining, mineral
www.nfmsd.org                                                              processing/metals
                                                                          Hazardous waste disposal
Mandate Established in 1999 by the 3 International Study Groups           Mitigation of environmental damage
(on non-ferrous metals) the Forum has met twice (September 2000,          Planning for mine closure
November 2001) and established 3 ad hoc working groups on                 Risk assessment application of life cycle analysis
production, product stewardship and science/research and
development to address 6 themes: stewardship; community
consultation; recycling; research/development                          ASIA-PACIFIC EXPERT GROUP ON MINERALS &
                                                                       ENERGY EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT (GEMEED)
Members       An open multistakeholder dialogue involving              www.gemeed.cl
governments,     multilateral institutions, environmental non-
government organizations (NGOs), industry representatives.             Established in 1996 by the Energy Working Group, 1 of 5 sub-
                                                                       groups intended to accelerate energy exploration and resource
Activities/Issues                                                      development in strategic areas through technology and investment
                                                                       information exchange. Also seeks to advance sustainability and to
   Communication; information for decision making                     gather/disseminate information associated with minerals and energy
   Analysis of sustainable development drivers                        exploration within APEC, including data on market demand.
   Community engagement (relative to production)
   Recycling policy issues                                            Activities/Issues
   Stewardship (pilot project, awareness raising)
   Science and sustainable development                                   Information on minerals and energy exploration
                                                                          Life cycle inventory database for metals
MINERAL RESOURCES FORUM (MRF)                                             Market demand data
www.mineralresourcesforum.org                                             Sustainability of mining
A government/academic partnership providing an internet-based
forum for international cooperation between governments, resource
companies and others to promote information exchange and sharing
of knowledge/expertise.

Members UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
UNEP Technology, Industry and Economic Division (DTIE)
Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy,
University of Dundee.
Activities/Issues


                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                       Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       4
                                                                                                                             ANNEX A

OTHER                                                                        Awareness building
                                                                             Capacity building
UN COMMISSION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT                                    Economic growth
www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd.htm                                               Education, science
                                                                             Enabling environment.
Intergovernmental body established to review global, regional and            Financial resources
national progress in implementing the non-legally binding                    Information for decision-making
agreements reached at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and              Precautionary principle
Development and reflected in the 40 chapters of Agenda 21, the               Sustainable consumption and production patterns
Action Plan for the 21st century. Since 1997, the CSD annual                 Technology transfer
meetings have structured their negotiations according to economic,
                                                                             Trade and investment
sectoral and cross-cutting themes which pose issues for all phases of
mining/metals industry operations, including interpretation of the        WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Rio Principles (on precaution) and Chapter 19 (Chemicals).                www.johannesburgsummit.org
Secretariat for the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
                                                                          A Special Session of the UN General Assembly to secure new, high
Activities/Issues (partial list)                                          level political commitment to global sustainable development and
                                                                          accelerating implementation of A21 commitments. Initial priorities
Sectoral                                                                  identified by 5 Regional Preparatory Meetings.           Specific
 Atmosphere.                                                             themes/proposals to be determined by 3 remaining global
 Chemicals                                                               Preparatory Meetings. Expected to generate new priorities to
 Energy, transportation,                                                 advance implementation of existing and establish new commitments
 Forests                                                                 in areas as yet not addressed.
 Freshwater management
 Integrated land use planning/management                                 Activities/Issues
 Oceans and seas
 Sustainable mountains                                                      Biodiversity
                                                                             Climate change
Economic                                                                     Energy efficiency
 Industry                                                                   Decoupling economic growth and environment
 Land management                                                            Fresh water
 Sustainable agriculture                                                    Land use planning
 Tourism,                                                                   Minerals and metals
                                                                             Oceans/Coastal zone management
Cross-Cutting                                                                Subsidy elimination


                         Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                            5
                                                                                                                              ANNEX A

   Sustainable mountains,                                                 Ship Dismantling
   Sustainable production/consumption                                     Technical guidelines
   Sustainable resource management;
   Transport, environment and health                                   BASEL PROTOCOL ON LIABILITY & COMPENSATION
                                                                        www.basel.int/pub/Protocol.html
UN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM (UNEP)
                                                                        A comprehensive regime for financial liability and compensation
BASEL CONVENTION on Control of Transboundary                            (limitations described in Annex B) for damage resulting from the
Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal                        transboundary movement of hazardous and other wastes, from
www.basel.int                                                           loading to export, international transit, import, and final disposal,
                                                                        including incidents occurring because of illegal traffic in those
Adopted in 1989, entered into force in 1992, and ratified by 146        wastes. Imposes strict liability on the (notifier) until the waste is
countries (as of May 9, 2001), to control the transboundary             received by the disposer and movement document signed. If the
movement of hazardous wastes, monitor and prevent illegal traffic,      state of export is the notifier, the exporter is liable. Where the
provide assistance for the environmentally sound management of          importer has notified, the importer is liable until the disposer takes
hazardous wastes, promote cooperation between Parties, and              possession Individuals are liable for damage caused by lack of
develop technical guidelines for the management of hazardous            compliance and wrongful intentional, reckless or negligent acts or
wastes.    Activities take place through the Technical, Legal and       omissions.
Implementation Working Groups.          Preparation of Technical
Guidelines (waste lead-acid batteries, metal and metal compounds,       Activities/Issues
ship dismantling and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and
implementation of the 1999 Protocol on Liability and Compensation              Financial liability
and the Ministerial Declaration/Decision on Environmentally Sound              Limits on compensation
Management (ESM).

Activities/Issues                                                       GLOBAL CONVENTION ON PERSISTENT ORGANIC
                                                                        POLLUTANTS (POPs)
   Characterization/Listing of waste
   Environmentally Sound Management                                    Legal/administrative measures to eliminate production/use of 9
   Hazard/Risk Assessment                                              chemicals (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex
   Illegal traffic                                                     and toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated
   Lead-acid batteries                                                 biphenyls (PCBs), and restricted use of DDT. Measure to reduce
   Metals recovery/recycling                                           total releases from anthropogenic sources of dioxins, furans, HCB
   Metals/metal compounds                                              and PCBs and strategies for management of stockpiles/disposal of
   Persistent Organic Pollutants                                       waste and implementation plans within 2 years of entry into force.



                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                         6
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

Activities/Issues                                                       Signed at Rio, in 1992 to ensure stabilization of atmospheric
                                                                        greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level which will prevent
   Dioxins and furans                                                  dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system
   Unintentional releases (recycling of copper, zinc and               consistent with natural adaptation of ecosystems, maintenance of
    aluminum, iron/steel, automobiles)                                  food production and sustainable economic development. The 1997
                                                                        Kyoto Protocol of 1997 commits Annex 1 Parties (developed
                                                                        countries) to: 1) reduce overall emissions of CO2, methane, nitrous
CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (CBD)                                oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur
www.biodiv.org                                                          hexacfluoride by at least 6% below 1990 levels between 2008-12.

Conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its
components and the fair/equitable sharing of benefits (arising from        Clean Development Mechanism
the use of genetic resources) in relation to management of oceans          Elimination of fossil fuels
and coastal zones, marine areas, inland waters, forests, arid/semi-        Emissions trading
arid lands, agriculture and sustainable mountains. Includes a              Energy efficiency/intensity
Protocol on Biosafety. Measures addressing subsidies and                   Greenhouse gas emission reductions
"'underlying causes" of biodiversity loss.                                 Increased cost of energy/transportation
                                                                           Nature/treatment of carbon "sinks"
 Access and benefit sharing
 Access restrictions (land)
 Biosafety                                                             GLOBAL CONVENTION ON PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT
 Ecosystem approach,                                                   www.pic.int
 Environmental impact assessment
 Indigenous peoples rights                                             Mechanism for obtaining/disseminating information on decisions of
 Land claims/dispute resolution.                                       importing countries regarding future shipments of certain
 Land use/planning                                                     pesticides/industrial chemicals and ensuring compliance from
 Local community participation                                         exporting countries, as well as of notifications/nominations and
 Mining as underlying cause of biodiversity loss                       additions to the list of PIC chemicals. Not yet in force Linkages to
 Protected spaces                                                      other instruments focused on PIC, including the Basel Convention.
 Sustainable mountains
 Sustainable use
 Traditional knowledge
UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE                               Activities/Issues
www.unfcc.de
                                                                           Increased transportation cost



                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                           7
                                                                                                                              ANNEX A

   Listing of hazardous chemicals                                      The focal point for all activities dealing with the global sound
   Potential barriers to export/import of recyclable metals            management of hazardous chemicals, and protection of human
   Substance selection process                                         health and the environment from impacts of toxic chemicals,
   Trade-related impacts for mining/metals sector                      including participation in the Inter-organizational Committee for the
                                                                        Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), application of the PIC
UNEP CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION UNIT                                    procedure for certain hazardous chemicals, pesticides and
www.unepie.org/pc/homehtm                                               development of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
                                                                        Pollutants (POPs).
Works with international agencies, industry associations, and
institutes to promote global awareness and understanding of             Code Of Ethics On The International Trade In Chemicals A
sustainable production and consumption by: addressing sectors with      voluntary instrument by which industry commits to increasing
high environmental/safety impacts; environmentally sound                chemical safety and enhance the sound management
technology transfer through information exchange, capacity
building, and the development of sound environmental management         Regionally Based Assessment Of Persistent Toxic Substances A
procedures in industry; ensuring the integration and co-ordinated       project funded by the GEF aimed at making assessments of the
implementation of industrial issues in environmental conventions        damages/threats posed by Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS) in 12
and agreements; and establishing/maintaining international expert       regions globally to result in a Global Report identifying priority
networks and linking with technical and policy bodies in key            issues and proposing policy solutions.
industry sectors.
                                                                        Global Mercury Assessment          An initiative of the Inter-
   Sustainable consumption and production                              organizational Committee for the Sound Management of Chemicals
   Technical guides/policy reports/training manuals                    (IMOC) to develop a global assessment of mercury and its
   Environment Management Strategies and Tools                         compounds, indicating options for addressing significant global
   International Cleaner Production Information                        adverse impacts, for consideration by the 2003 UNEP Governing
    Clearinghouse                                                       Council.

                                                                        Activities/Issues

                                                                         Code of ethics on the international trade in chemicals
                                                                         Global mercury assessment
                                                                         Regionally based assessment of persistent toxic substances
                                                                         Strategic approach to international chemicals management
                                                                        UNEP DIVISION OF TECHNOLOGY, INDUSTRY AND
UNEP CHEMICALS                                                          ECONOMICS (DTIE)
www.chem.unep.ch/



                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                          8
                                                                                                                             ANNEX A

Activities on mining and environment, energy consumption, air,          UNEP CLEANER PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
water, land, health and safety, abandoned mines, tailings               www.unepie.or/pc/cp/home.htm
management, cyanide code (for gold mining), Emergency
Preparedness/APELL for Mining. UNEP/DTIE has recently joined            Responsible for preparation of publications on cleaner production,
with SETAC in a UNEP/SETAC life cycle initiative. The objective is      regional status reports, the International Cleaner Production
to promote the development of best practice in LCA modeling             Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC), cleaner production working
methodologies. When formally launched, this initiative is expected      groups (including one on metal finishing), national cleaner
to create several working groups to further study the many issues       production centres (in developing countries/economies in transition),
that are still unresolved. For example, in April 2002, a workshop on    a 4 year project on financing investments in cleaner production , a
metals LCA related issues will be held in Montreal under the            high-level seminars held every two years and the International
framework of this initiative. The objective of the workshop is to see   Declaration on Cleaner Production (IDCP), a voluntary and public
whether there is consistency between the results of experimental        statement of commitment to practice of cleaner production.
science and LCA methodologies when applied to the impacts of
mining/metals. The workshop will consider a large number of issues      Activities/Issues
throughout the whole life cycle, from mining to metals, including
recycling and disposal. LCA and environmental models require data          Sectoral working groups
to be fed into the model. Many international activities are underway       Cleaner production
to create life cycle inventory databases (LCI). Major LCI activities       Voluntary initiatives
exist in Japan, North America and the EU.

Activities/Issues                                                       UNITED NATIONS FORUM ON FORESTS (UNFF)
                                                                        www.un.org/esa/sustdev/unff_2001.htm
   Abandoned mines
   Cyanide code                                                        Established to facilitate implementation of the 300 + proposals of
   Emergency preparedness                                              the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) and Intergovernmental
   Health and safety                                                   Forum on Forests (IFF).
   Land
   Life cycle assessment                                               Activities/Issues
   Tailings management
   Water                                                                  Access and benefit sharing
   Cleaner production,                                                    Co-management indigenous people, local communities.
   Sustainable consumption,                                               Indigenous peoples/human rights
   Environmental technology assessment                                    Land use/tenure
                                                                           Mining/metals industry underlying cause of
                                                                            deforestation/degradation



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                        Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                           9
                                                                                                                                ANNEX A

   Protected areas                                                          strategies to promote the integration of environmental concerns in
   Traditional knowledge                                                    international structural and sectoral economic policies.

ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND                                    Activities/Issues
DEVELOPMENT (OECD)
www.oecd.org                                                                    Sustainable management of natural resources,
                                                                                Substitution principle (to promote the substitution of non-
The OECD has a number of committees with work program or activities,             renewable by renewable resources)
under the Environmental Policy Committee (EPOC), listed below, the
                                                                                Environmental impacts of globalisation.
Chemicals Committee, in particular, that have significant implications for
the sector
                                                                             OECD WORKING GROUP ON WASTE PREVENTION &
OECD WORKING PARTY ON NATIONAL                                               RECYCLING (WGWPR)
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES (WPNEP)
                                                                             Responsible for work related to waste prevention and minimization,
Mandated to define, oversee and co-ordinate development and                  extended producer responsibility, environmentally sound
implementation of environmental policies at the national and sub-            management of waste, recovery/recyclables and implementation of
national level, particularly integration of environmental, social and        the OECD Control System for Transboundary Movement of Wastes
economic policies.                                                           destined for Recovery Operations.

Activities/Issues                                                            Activities/Issues

 Corporate environmental management                                            Ecoindicators
 Economic and environmental policy integration (tradable                       Environmentally sound management (ESM) of recoverable
  permits and voluntary approaches)                                              wastes
 Environmentally sound management                                              Expanding extended producer responsibility
 Environmentally sustainable transport)                                        Guidelines for ESM for recovery/recyclables
 Extended producer responsibility                                              Incentives for reuse/recycling markets
 Resource efficiency (decoupling resource use and GDP                          Product take back programs
 Sustainable consumption                                                       Waste prevention/waste minimization
 Waste prevention performance indictors
OECD WORKING PARTY ON GLOBAL & STRUCTURAL
POLICIES (WPGSP)

Mandated to define, oversee and coordinate work on global and
international environmental policy issues, and analyse and propose


                          Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        10
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

OECD CHEMICALS                                                          frameworks; advice/training in regional planning and participatory
www.oecd.org                                                            development in areas dependent on exploitation of natural resources.

Much of the work program of this group on chemical safety and           Activities/Issues
human health, accident prevention and classification is undertaken in
collaboration with the Interorganizational Committee on Chemical           Sustainable natural resource management
Safety, is relevant to the sector. Metals and their compounds are          National mining legislation
considered chemicals.                                                      Mining taxation
                                                                           Co-management of natural resources
Activities/Issues                                                          Sustainable livelihood

   Chemical accident prevention/preparedness and response)
   Chemical testing methodologies                                      WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
   Chemical hazard classification/assessment                           wwww.who.org
   Globally harmonized system of chemical classification
   Risk management methodologies                                       Responsible for issues related to global human health, including
   Data/testing of high volume chemicals                               promoting improved nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation,
   Industrial chemical safety test procedures                          economic and working conditions, and other aspects of
   Mutual acceptance of data                                           environmental hygiene.
   Pollutant release and transfer registries
   Industry release estimation techniques                              Activities/Issues
   Product life cycle assessment/methodologies
   Material flow accounting                                               Chemical emergencies
                                                                           Chemical safety
                                                                           Environmental and human health risk assessment
UN CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT                                     Food safety
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM                                        Occupational health and safety
www.unctad .org                                                            Risk assessment methodologies
                                                                           Risk reduction.
Established to assist in ecologically sustainable management of            Sound management of chemicals
natural resources in developing countries through provision of             Toxic exposures
advice/capacity-building to governments and industry; training
event; research, online dissemination of information; support in
formulation of mining laws/taxation systems and foreign investment




                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                          11
                                                                                                                               ANNEX A

UN LAW OF THE SEAS (UNCLOS)                                              IMO LONDON CONVENTION ON PREVENTION OF
www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm                                           MARINE POLLUTION BY DUMPING OF WASTES
                                                                         www.imo.org
Comprehensive regime of law in world‟s oceans and seas governing
all uses of the oceans and their resources and framework for further     Regulates dumping of waste materials into the sea. A "black”-and-
development of specific areas of the law of the sea, covering all        grey list" approach is applied, with blacklist items being prohibited,
aspects of ocean space, including delimitation, environmental            and grey-listed materials requiring a special permit from a
control, marine scientific research, economic/commercial activities,     designated national authority. All other materials or substances can
transfer of technology and dispute settlement. It is supported by 3      be dumped after a general permit has been issued. Black list items
international bodies: International Seabed Authority (ISA);              include mercury and cadmium and the grey list includes arsenic,
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS); and               beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, vanadium, zinc, and
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.                       containers, scrap metal and other bulky wastes that can sink to the
                                                                         bottom and interfere with navigation and fishing.       When entered
Activities/Issues                                                        into force, will replace the London Convention and make the
                                                                         following changes: the precautionary approach is included as a
   Contractual arrangements for sea bed mining                          general obligation; a "reverse list" approach is adopted (all dumping
   Prospecting/exploration regulations                                  is prohibited unless explicitly permitted). Incineration of wastes at
   Sea bed mining                                                       sea and export of wastes for dumping /incineration at sea is
                                                                         prohibited.

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO)                                Activities/Issues
www.imo.org
                                                                            Ban on dumping of mercury/cadmium
Established in 1982, as part of an amendment to the 1948 UN                 Chemical hazard classification/listing
Convention on the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative                  Precautionary approach
Organization, the IMO is the mechanism for intergovernmental co-            Reverse list
operation on regulation and practices relating to technical matters of
all kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade and
standards for maritime safety, efficiency of navigation and
prevention/control of marine pollution from ships.

Activities/Issues

   Marine pollution
   Shipping costs



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                         12
                                                                                                                             ANNEX A

                                                                        ILO is responsible for harmonization of hazard communication tools
IMO CONVENTION ON LIABILITY & COMPENSATION                              (labeling and data sheets and provides secretariat services; and, the
FOR DAMAGE IN CONNECTION WITH CARRIAGE OF                               Global Information Network on Chemicals (world-wide information
HAZARDOUS AND NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES BY SEA (HNS)                           network for safe use of chemicals).

A 1996 agreement introducing strict liability for shipowners and a         Asbestos
system of compulsory insurance/insurance certificates and providing        Chemical labeling
for up to US $320 million in compensation for damage (loss of              Globally harmonized system of classification/labeling
life/personal injury, loss of/damage to property outside the ship,         Hazard classification criteria
including environmental contamination) involving hazardous and             Major industrial accident prevention
noxious substances or the costs of preventative measures and further       Safe use of chemicals
loss or damage caused by them. Not yet in force.

Activities/Issues                                                       UN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
                                                                        www.unido.org
   Adverse effects on trade in metal recyclables
   Environmental liability/insurance costs                             Work on chemical safety within the Cleaner Production and
   Solid bulk materials possessing chemical hazards                    Environmental Management Branch includes environmentally sound
   Transboundary movement of hazardous waste                           management of chemicals and biologicals and promoting safety,
                                                                        health and environmental protection.

INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO)                                  Activities/Issues
www.ilo.org
                                                                           Ecotoxicology centres
Chemical safety is part of ILO‟s mandate for protection of worker          Environmental management
health and safety. Conventions developed by the ILO include: 1990          Hazardous waste treatment
Chemicals Convention (emphasizes need for national policy of               National cleaner production centres
chemical safety including; 1993 Convention on Prevention of Major          Recycling/disposal of chemical wastes
Industrial Accidents; 1986 Asbestos Convention; Safety In The Use          Remediation of contaminated sites
Of Chemicals At Work Code Of Practice; Globally Harmonized
System for the Classification/Labeling of Chemicals (GHS)
harmonize classification criteria for health/environmental hazards
carried out by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), work on physical hazards carried out by UN
Committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous Goods, while the



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       13
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS ASSESSMENT AND                                  UNITED NATIONS INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND
APPLICATION CENTER (IMAAC)                                              RESEARCH (UNITAR) www.unitar.org

One of UNIDO‟s International Technology Centres, located at             Training and Capacity Building Programme in Chemicals and Waste
CETEM (Centro de Tecnologia Minera) in Brazil, the IMAAC was            Management.
established to:
                                                                        Activities/Issues
   develop and manage a materials information system including
    patents, quality norms and environmental standards;                    Integrated chemicals management
   review and assess developments and applications in the                 National chemicals management profiles
    materials field;                                                       Pollutant release and transfer registers
   provide information on technologies and opportunities in               Prior informed consent
    materials;                                                             Risk assessment
   establish collaborative internet projects;
   promote joint international projects and partnerships; and
   organize annual forums and training programmes.                     INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR THE
                                                                        SOUND MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS
The project, which is coordinated internationally by UNIDO and
Brazil and supported by a 5- member Advisory Committee, involves        A global initiative established in 1995 to coordinate the various
the current (pilot project) which precedes the operating phase. Work    international organizations in the area of chemical safety. This is
during the pilot stage will be coordinated by a small secretariat in    achieved through co-ordinating/improving the maintenance of
Brazil and supported                                                    databases and public dissemination of information on toxic
by an international network of scientists, industry leaders,            chemicals. The work of the organization is overseen by the Inter-
governments experts, professional/industry associations, research       Organization Coordinating Committee (IOCC).
institutes and universities, a 6-8 member Panel of advisers from
developing/developed countries; and,                                    Members
an initial information system. Activities will include:                 World Health Organization (WHO), UNEP Chemicals, OECD
 training of specialists in materials science;                         Chemicals, International Labour Organization (ILO) Chemical
 provision of advisory services to policy makers;                      Safety, United Nations Industrial Development Organization
 a multidisciplinary study on materials situation in developing        (UNIDO, United Nations Institute for Training and Research
     countries as the basis for the formulation of a long-term          (UNITAR), and UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
     programme for operational phase; and,
 development of a project document for the establishment of            Activities/Issues
     IMAAC
                                                                           Capacity building sound management of chemicals



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                     14
                                                                                                                         ANNEX A

   Harmonization of classification/labeling of chemicals                  National coordinating mechanisms/capacities for chemicals
   Information exchange of chemicals/chemical risks                        management
   International assessment of chemical risks                             National response to chemical accidents
   Prevention of illegal traffic in toxic/dangerous products              Priorities for cooperative action on chemical safety


INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY                              WHO/UN ECE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON
www.who.int/pcs/                                                        TRANSPORT, ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH

A cooperative program of UNEP, ILO and WHO with the roles of            A joint UN-ECE/WHO initiative to work toward possible
establishing the scientific, health and environmental risk assessment   development of a convention on these 3 areas, based on direction
basis for safe use of chemicals and strengthening national capacity.    from the 3rd Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health
                                                                        (June 1999) and subsequent adoption of the Charter on Transport,
Activities/Issues                                                       Environment and Health. Currently involves development of an
                                                                        overview of existing agreements/legal instruments dealing with
   Chemical emergencies/accidents                                      transportation, environmental and health.
   Environmental/health risk evaluation
   Exposure to hazardous chemicals                                     Activities/Issues
   Harmonization of classification/labeling of chemicals.
   Scientific basis for health/environmental risk assessment              Legally binding framework convention on transportation,
   Technical cooperation                                                   environment and health
                                                                           Operational costs for industry
INTERGOVERNMENTAL FORUM ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
www.who.int/ifcs/

A forum for government representatives to meet and provide advice
and make recommendations to governments, international
organizations, intergovernmental bodies and non-governmental
organizations on aspects of chemical risk assessment and
environmentally sound management of chemicals.

Activities/Issues
 Harmonized classification/labeling of chemicals.
 International strategies (hazard identification/risk
   assessment)


                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                    Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        15
                                                                                                                           ANNEX A

WORLD BANK (WB) MINING                                                 WB COMMUNITIES & SMALL SCALE MINING (CASM)
www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/mining/index.htm                            Coordinates donor support and exchange of best-practice on
                                                                       improving the livelihood of small scale miners globally, including a
Addresses work in 3 broad areas: equity investment in/loans to         proposed start-up small grants program for local initiatives,
mining companies, loans/grants to governments financing policies       innovation and networking.
supporting national/foreign investment, environmentally/socially
sustainable mining/ mine closure programs, local/regional              Membership        Sponsors include DFID (UK); World Bank;
development, and coal extraction strategies which minimize global      Conservation International; International Council for Mining &
warming effects and risk management instruments.                       Metals; International Labor Organization; UN Agencies and Institute
                                                                       of Geo-Sciences/Environment (Japan).
Activities/Issues
                                                                       Activities/Issues
   Investment climate
   Loans/grant programs for mining countries                             Best mining practice
   Mine closure                                                          Corporate social responsibility
   Strategies for coal extraction                                        Sustainable livelihoods
   Risk management                                                       Technology transfer

WB BUSINESS PARTNERS FOR DEVELOPMENT                                   WB EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES REVIEW
                                                                       www.eireview.org
Develops „focus projects‟ to demonstrate how government, industry
and civil society partnerships reduce social risks and promote         An international consultative process to develop recommendations
community development. Industry partners include Anglo American        on "Extractive Industries" by October 2002 to guide World Bank
Corp, BP plc, CARE Intl , UK Dept. for Intl. Development, Intl.        Group involvement in the oil, gas and mining sectors. The work is
Council on Mining/Metals, ICMP Ltd. (India), Norsk Hydo                being undertaken within the context of Group‟s overall mission of
(Norway), Placer Dome (Canada), Rio Tinto (UK), Shell Intl. (UK),      poverty reduction and promotion of sustainable development.
The World Bank Group, and WMC Resources (Australia).                   There will be 5 regional workshops (Asia Pacific, L.
                                                                       America/Caribbean, Africa/Middle East, E. Europe and C. Asia)
Activities/Issues                                                      involving 15 government, 25 civil society, 15 industry, 5 academic
                                                                       and 10 World Bank Group representatives; and 5 from academia.
   Corporate social responsibility
                                                                       Activities/Issues

                                                                          Energy Industry
                                                                          Mining Industry



                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                            16
                                                                                                                              ANNEX A

   Oil/Gas Industry                                                        Life cycle inventory analysis
   Poverty Reduction                                                       Life cycle impact assessment
   Sustainable development                                                 Environmental aspects of product standards

                                                                         Note: Life Cycle Assessment/Modeling To support the global
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO)                               effort to enhance environmental sustainability of production and
www.iso.ch                                                               consumption, a number of methodologies have been developed to
                                                                         measure the life cycle impact of products and processes. These
An international non-governmental federation of national standards       methodologies are being developed by academics, consultants,
bodies from 140 countries established to develop International           industry and governments. Results derived from these techniques
Standards and related activities to facilitate trade and intellectual,   are increasingly used to develop policies on products, green
scientific, technological and economic activity. In addition to          purchasing and sustainable consumption.
commodity/product standards for metals, also includes development
of a series of environmental standards (ISO 14000) and certification.    Modeling methodologies are important to the mining/metal
ISO collaborates with the IEC and the International                      sector.An inappropriate methodology could identify inaccurate
Telecommunication Union and is developing a strategic partnership        levels of impact and identify mining or a metal as a less
with the World Trade Organization (WTO) to provide technical             environmentally desirable process activity or substance than other
support to WTO programmes.                                               competing processes and substances. LCA and environmental
Membership Member Bodies (one from each country with a well              models require data to be fed into the model. Many international
developed standardization process, entitled to participate and           activities are underway to create life cycle inventory databases
exercise full voting rights on any Technical or Policy Committee.        (LCI) in Japan, North America and the EU.
Correspondent Members (countries without fully developed national
standards activities and no active role in technical/policy
development) and Subscribers (countries with small economies and
paying reduced fees to maintain contact with international
standardization process).

Activities/Issues

   Environmental management systems
   Environmental auditing
   Environmental site assessments
   Environmental labeling
   Environmental performance evaluation
   Life cycle principles


                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options             17
                                                                                                                    ANNEX A

GLOBAL REPORTING INITIATIVE (GRI)

Established in 1997 to develop globally applicable Sustainability
Guidelines for reporting public/private sector economic,
environmental and social performance. Convened by the Coalition
for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES) in partnership
with the UNEP. To be established in 2002 as a permanent,
independent international body with multi-stakeholder governance
with a mandate to maintain, enhance, and disseminate the
Guidelines through ongoing consultation/stakeholder engagement.

Membership       A steering group comprised of the following:
Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (UK); Canadian
Institute of Chartered Accountants; CECODES (Colombian
Business Council for Sustainable Development); Centre for Science
and Environment (India); Coalition for Environmentally Responsible
Economies (US); Council on Economic Priorities (US);
Environmental Auditing Research Group (Japan); General Motors
Corporation (US); Green Reporting Forum (Japan); Institute of
Social and Ethical Accountability (United Kingdom); Investor
Responsibility Research Center (US); ITT Flygt (Sweden); New
Economics Foundation (UK); United Nations Environment
Programme; World Business Council for Sustainable Development;
and World Resources Institute

Activities/Issues

   Economic, environmental and social reporting
   Multisectoral Sustainability Guidelines
   Performance evaluation methodologies/approaches




                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                    Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                    18
                                                                                                                        ANNEX A

Section 2 REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS/ACTIVITIES                               improve resource efficiency and reduce environmental/health
                                                                           impacts of transportation through better land-use planning,
UN ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE (UN ECE)                                 strengthened public transport systems, and measures to
                                                                           encourage further use of unleaded petrol;
UN ECE CONVENTION ON THE LONG RANGE                                       minimize harmful discharges into transboundary water;
TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS                                               implement sustainable water management systems; and,
www.Unece.Org/Env/Lrtap/                                                  promote the sustainable management and conservation of
                                                                           forests.
Provides for cooperative action among members through negotiation
of legally binding Protocols to control specific pollutants.           Activities/Issues
long term financing of monitoring/evaluation
                                                                          Climate change implementation
Activities/issues                                                         Discharges into transboundary water
                                                                          Energy efficiency targets
   Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-Level Ozone                  Environment/economy integration
   Heavy Metals                                                          Improved resource efficiency
   Nitrogen Oxides;                                                      Land-use planning
   Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)                                  Life-cycle assessment methodologies
   Sulphur Emissions                                                     Polluter pays principle
   Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)                                     Precautionary principle
                                                                          Product stewardship
                                                                          Reduced environmental/health impacts of transportation
UN ECE ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME FOR EUROPE                                 Sustainable water management system
www.unece.org/env/europe/

Adopted in 1995, at the 3rd Ministerial Conference covering
recommendations to:
 ensure integration of environmental considerations into
    decision-making and application of the precautionary and
    polluter pays principle in all key sectors;
 introduce measures to ensure all European countries reached a
    high level in energy efficiency by 2010;
 implement national commitments on climate change;
 carry out life-cycle assessments and encourage implementation
    of product stewardship from cradle to grave;


                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                          19
                                                                                                                               ANNEX A

UN ECE CONVENTION ON ACCESS TO INFORMATION,                                UN ECE COMMITTEE ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING &                                  www.unece.org/energy/nrgcommitt.html
ACCESS TO JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
www.unece.org/press/00env8e.htm                                            Principal intergovernmental body responsible for promoting
                                                                           International cooperation in energy. Provides a forum for the
Requires each Party to guarantee the rights of access to information,      exchange information, views and experiences on general energy
public participation in decision-making, and access to justice in          issues.
environmental matters through legislative, regulatory and other
measures, provision of guidance to the public in seeking access to         Activities/Issues
information, facilitate participation in decision-making and seeking
access to justice and promotion of environmental education and                Energy industry restructuring
awareness.                                                                    Energy market liberalization
                                                                              Energy pricing
Activities/Issues                                                             Sustainable energy

   Mineral production
   Production/ processing of metals                                       UN ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA
   Waste management 0recovery facilities, recycling)                      AND THE CARIBBEAN (UN ECLAC)
                                                                           www.eclac.cl

CONVENTION ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT                                         The Environment and Human Settlements Division and Division of
ASSESSMENT IN A TRANSBOUNDARY CONTEXT                                      Natural Resources and Infrastructure Services conduct activities for
www.unece.org/env/eia                                                      implementation of Agenda 21.

Stipulates the obligations of Parties to assess the environmental          Activities/Issues
impact of certain activities at an early stage of planning. It also lays
down the general obligation of States to notify and consult each              Economics and the environment
other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to            Human settlements and land use
have a significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries.            Legal instruments
                                                                              Mining and energy resources
Activities/Issues                                                             Multiple/sustainable use of water
                                                                              Sustainable development strategies
   Environmental impact assessment




                        Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                          20
                                                                                                                               ANNEX A

UN ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA (UNECA)                                (PBT) and very persistent, very bioaccumulative (VPVB) chemicals,
www.uneca.org/cnrst_main.htm                                             making their use subject to authorisation. Once agreement is reached
                                                                         on scientific test methods and criteria, known endocrine disruptors
The Committee on Natural Resources and Science and Technology            may also be added to the list of substances of very high concern and
is composed of high level experts from governments, academia,            become subject to control.
research institutions, industry and NGOs which meets twice a year        Will also include new and transparent chemical screening/test
and provides a forum for discussion of issues related to natural         methodologies and chemical grouping and modeling techniques.
resources, science and technology, providing advice to member
states and UNECA
The Mineral and Energy Resource Development Programme                    Activities/Issues
focuses on: integration and public-private sector partnership; inter-
country collaboration; regional and sub-regional institutional              Future bans on 'harmful' chemicals
framework; promote adoption of sound micro-and macro-economic               Increased access/transparency of data on chemicals
strategies and policies; and capacity building.                             Industry responsibility/risk assessment
                                                                            Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances
Activities/Issues                                                           Very persistent, very bioaccumulative (VPVB) chemicals

   Capacity building
   Enabling policy framework                                            EU 6TH ENVIRONMENT ACTION PROGRAMME
   Institutional framework                                              europa.eu.int/comm/environment/newprg
   Intergovernmental forum on natural resource issues
                                                                         As the environmental component of the EU Strategy For Sustainable
                                                                         Development Provides, the Programme provides strategic direction
EUROPEAN UNION STRATEGY FOR A FUTURE                                     for the next decade and commitments in 4 priority areas: climate
CHEMICALS POLICY                                                         change, nature and bio-diversity, environment and health, and
europa.eu.int/                                                           sustainable use of natural resources and waste management. Seven
                                                                         new strategies will be developed to set further quantifiable and time-
The EU Commission White Paper (February 2001) proposes to                bound targets in the following areas: air quality, the marine
reform existing chemicals policy and management, introduce a             environment, resource use, pesticides, waste recovery, land use
single regulatory framework to clarify producer/user responsibilities,   issues and the urban environment.
cover chemicals of concern in products and ensure that no harmful
chemicals are produced or in use by 2020. Other elements include         Activities/Issues
provision of information on chemical safety and risks (by industry),
chemical substitution and expanding of the groups of substances of          Air quality
very high concern to include persistent bioaccumulative and toxic           Biodiversity



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                           21
                                                                                                                                ANNEX A

   Climate change
   Environment and health                                                  Alternatives fuels
   Land use                                                                Biodiversity and natural resource use indicators
   Marine environment                                                      Climate change
   Pesticides                                                              Comprehensive strategy on worker health/safety
   Resource use                                                            Elimination of fossil fuel production/consumption subsidies
   Urban environment.                                                      Energy efficiency
   Unsustainable use of natural resources                                  Environmental liability legislation
   Waste management                                                        Integrated Product Policy

EU SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
                                                                         EU COUNCIL (Environment)
At Gothenburg, in June, the European Council reviewed the                europa.eu.int
Commission's Sustainable Development Strategy for the EU, which
is intended to ensure that sustainable development is a core objective   Issues relevant to mining/metals interest dealt with recently include
of all EU policies, that future reviews of EU Common Policies            decisions on:
(Agricultural Policy, Fisheries Policy, Common Transport Policy,
Cohesion Policies) reflect their contribution to sustainable             Clean Air For Europe Programme: To be adopted in 2004
development and integration of science/research and decision-            following a programme of technical analysis/policy development.
making. Key commitments fall in four main priority areas:
                                                                         Activities/Issues
  Climate Change: (Kyoto, phasing out fossil fuel
   production/consumption subsidies by 2010; a new framework                Fine pariculates and Nox
   for energy taxation; tradable permits for CO2; alternative fuels;        Heavy metal/pops strategy
   energy efficiency);                                                      Large combustion/vehicles directives
 Public Health: Establishment of a European Food Authority                 New air quality standards
   (2002); phasing out of tobacco subsidies; clear food labeling;
   and a comprehensive strategy on workers health and safety;
 Natural Resources: Indicators for biodiversity and resource use;
   reduced EU fishing fleets; integrated Product Policy to cut
   waste; and legislation on environmental liability by 2003; and
 Transport and Land Use: Framework for transport pricing;
   public transport/railways; inland waterways and short sea
   shipping; open markets within EU for for railways/air traffic.        Biodiversity Action Plans Covers 4 sectors: agriculture, fisheries,
Activities/Issues                                                        environment and development cooperation.


                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                      22
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

                                                                         ensure that materials and components of vehicles put on the market
Activities/Issues                                                        after 1 July 2003 not contain lead, mercury, cadmium or hexavalent
                                                                         chromium (with some materials excepted in specific circumstances).
   Fine particulates and nox
   Habitat fragmentation                                                Activities/Issues
   Heavy metal/pops strategy
   Large combustion/vehicles directives                                     Lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium
   Liability instruments                                                    Metal recycling
   Precautionary principle
   Source-based measures to air emissions                               EU DIRECTIVE ON PACKAGING/PACKAGING WASTE
   Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices                     europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/lif/dat/1994/en_394L0062.html
                                                                         Adopted in 1994 to harmonize national measures to manage and
Environmental Indicators For Sustainable Development                     reduce final disposal of all packaging/packaging waste in the EU
                                                                         used/released by industry and households, regardless of material.
Agreement has been reached by Ministers on the 7 indicators.             Initial target of 1996 for recovery of a minimum 50% (65% by
                                                                         weight) and recycling of 25- 45% of that waste. Restrictions on
Activities/Issues                                                        concentration levels of lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent
                                                                         chromium and controls on use of noxious/hazardous constituents.
   Energy intensity (energy consumption/GDP)                            Linked to 6 voluntary standards (prevention, reuse, and material,
   GHG emissions in absolute terms (related to Kyoto target)            energy and organic recovery) and one on their application.
   Municipal waste (collected/landfilled/incinerated,
    kg/inhabitant)                                                       Activities/Issues
   Share of renewable in electricity consumption
   Sustainable transport                                                    Concentrations of heavy metals in packaging
   Urban population exposure to air pollution


EU DIRECTIVE ON END-OF-LIFE VEHICLES
europa.eu.int/comm/environment/waste/endvehic.htm

The Directive sets out measures aimed at preventing waste from
vehicles and the re-use, recycling and other forms of recovery of
end-of-life vehicles and their so as to reduce the disposal of waste,
as well as the improvement in the environmental performance of all
operators involved in the life cycle of vehicles. Member states are to


                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                         Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                                 23
                                                                                                                                        ANNEX A

EU DIRECTIVE ON WASTE ELECTRICAL AND                                              PBDE). Exemptions will be allowed where substitution is not
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT (WEEE)                                                       possible, including:

Measures to prevent waste from electrical/electronic equipment, affecting            mercury in compact fluorescent lamps and laboratory equipment
collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of WEEE. Member States                 lead as radiation protection, in glass of cathode ray tubes, light
required to establish separate collection system and ensure proper treatment,         bulbs and fluorescent tubes as an alloying element in steel
recovery and disposal, funded by producers. Treatment standards contain               containing up to 0.3% lead by weight, and in electronic ceramic
minimum recovery rates (60-80%) no later than 2006. Financing obligations
                                                                                      parts;
delayed by 5 years to minimise the impact on producers associated with
"historical waste" (pre-entry into force of the Directive). Free product return      aluminum containing up to 0.4% lead by weight and as a copper
for consumers for WEEE used but not treated before going to incinerators or           alloy containing up to 4% lead by weight; cadmium oxide on the
landfills as well as information technology/telecommunication equipment.              surface of selenium photocells, cadmium passivation as an anti-
Separate collection for: PCB and mercury containing components;                       corrosion in specific applications
batteries; printed circuit boards; toner cartridges; asbestos waste; gas             cadmium, mercury and lead in hollow cathode lamps for atomic
discharge lamps (containing mercury); cathode ray tubes; and CFC, HCFC                absorption spectroscopy and other instruments to measure heavy
or HFCs.                                                                              metals; and
                                                                                     hexavalent chromium as an anti-corrosion of the carbon steel
                                                                                      cooling system in absorption refrigerators.
Activities/Issues

   Batteries                                                                     Activities/Issues
   Extended Producer Responsibility
   Metal Recovery/recycling                                                         Ban on heavy metals in electric/electronic equipment
   Waste electrical/electronic equipment                                            Implications for scrap metal recovery/recycling


EU DIRECTIVE ON RESTRICTION OF USE OF CERTAIN
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT (WEEE)
europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/electr_equipment/emc

Calls for substitution (by 2008) for substances in electrical and
electronic equipment which create environmental problems during
disposal/recycling (including lead, mercury, cadmium and
hexavalent chromium and 2 brominated flame retardants, PBB and




                          Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        24
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

NA COMMISSION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL                                            Targeting of metals and their compounds as
COOPERATION (CEC)                                                           prominent polluters

CEC SOUND MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS
                                                                        ARCTIC COUNCIL MONITORING & ASSESSMENT
Regional Action Plans (NARAPs) on chemicals of concern. To date,        PROGRAMME (AMAP)
three have been approved (PCBs, DDT and chlordane). A fourth (on        www.amap.no/ol-docs/ol-docs.htm
mercury) has been completed as the first step of a comprehensive
action plan on mercury. Phase I NARAPs for dioxins/furans (metal        Monitoring/assessment of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on
smelting), hexachlorobenzene and coplanar PCBs was prepared.            the Arctic environment and human health.
Future plans to address: persistent toxic substances (PTS); lindane,
regional implementation of commitments on POPs and a review of          Activities/Issues
the substance selection process. Depending on definitions adopted,
these activities could have implications for metals.                       Acidification and Arctic haze
                                                                           Heavy metals
Activities/Issues                                                          Persistent organic pollutants (pops)

   Action Plans on Mercury, Dioxins/Furans, POPs
   revisions to Substance Selection Process


CEC NORTH AMERICAN POLLUTANT RELEASE &
TRANSFER REGISTRY

Annual reporting on NA Pollutants Release and Transfer Registry
(PRTR) covering point source emissions for all 3 countries and
analysis which ranks facilities and sectors in terms of volume of
chemicals released in which mining is prominent. The most recent
report noted that almost one third of releases were metals and their
compounds, most of which end up in landfills.

Activities/Issues

   Methodology for reporting metal emissions
   Pollutant release and transfer registry reporting



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                         25
                                                                                                                             ANNEX A

AC PROTECTION OF ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT                              WORLD COMMISSION ON DAMS
www.arctic-council.org/rpa.asp                                          www.dams.org

Policy and non-emergency pollution prevention/control measures          Established in May 1998 to review the effectiveness of dams related
related to the protection of the Arctic marine environment from land    to development and assess alternatives for water resources and
and sea-based activities, including: land-based activities; dumping     energy development, including internationally-acceptable criteria
of wastes at sea, shipping and offshore oil and gas activities.         and guidelines for planning, design, construction, monitoring,
Substances of concern are persistent organic pollutants (POPs),         operation, and decommissioning of dams. Work completed in
radionuclides, heavy metals, and oil. Action will include a regional    November 2001 with the release of its report, Dams and
programme to address land-based activities.                             Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making.

Activities/Issues                                                       Membership: 12 members, reflecting diverse regions, expertise and
                                                                        stakeholder views, supported by a 68-member Stakeholder Forum
   Increased regulation of coastal zone industrial activities          (advisory board) and funded by 53 public/civil society organizations.
   Northern mining access to land
   Regional programme on land-based activities                         Following release of the WCD Report, in November 2001, UNEP's
                                                                        Environmental Policy Implementation Division established the Dams And
   Transportation in arctic waters
                                                                        Development Project (DDP) to support: national/regional and global
                                                                        dialogues on the WCD report. The work programme includes promoting A
                                                                        Global Dialogue (on WCD findings) involving stakeholders, including
AC ACTION PLAN TO ELIMINATE ARCTIC POLLUTION                            funding for workshops and multi-stakeholder processes, information
                                                                        networks, dissemination and exchange.            The DDP involves
The Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic was developed      participation from national governments, industry, NGOs and
to prevent adverse effects and reduce/eliminate pollution of the        community-based organizations and a Steering Committee (policy
Arctic, focusing on actions which complement the work of existing       advice) with representation from the World Bank, World
Council bodies aimed at pollution prevention. Current priorities        Conservation Union, developing countries, affected peoples and
include heavy metals, phase-out PCB use, evaluation of                  other stakeholders. A wider Forum will be established for broader
dioxins/furans and environmentally sound management of stocks of        input.
obsolete pesticides and reduce atmospheric mercury releases from
all Arctic states.                                                      Activities/Issues

Activities/Issues                                                          Water/energy development
                                                                           Support for national/regional and global dialogue
   Controls on atmospheric mercury releases                               Information exchange/dissemination
   Evaluation of dioxins/furans                                           Multistakeholder consultation/participation
   Heavy metals



                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                 26
                                                                                                                       ANNEX A

Section 3 INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS/ACTIVITIES                             GLOBAL MINING INITIATIVE (GMI)
                                                                        www.globalmining.com
ASSOCIATION OF THE EUROPEAN NON-FERROUS
METALS INDUSTRIES (EUROMETAUX)                                          Commissioned by the World Business Council on Sustainable
                                                                        Development (WBCSD) to provide analysis of sustainable
www.eurometaux.org                                                      development. GMI is organizing a workshop, Resourcing the
                                                                        Future: Mining, Minerals and Metals for Sustainable
A Brussels-based industry association representing the                  Development, scheduled for May in Toronto. It will be open to
views/interests of the non-ferrous industry in Europe, comprised of     government, business, and civil society organizations.
national members, 'Metals Groups" (copper, lead, nickel, precious
metals) and international members (European Aluminium                   Membership 10 companies that make up the Mining and Minerals
Association, Euromines, International Zinc Association, OECAM) to       Working Group of the WBCSD: Anglo American, BHP, Billiton,
European and international or intergovernmental bodies in all areas     Codelco, Newmont, Noranda, Phelps Dodge, Placer Dome, Rio
of policy and legislation affecting the industry. Process, scientific   Tinto, and WMC.
and product-related issues are addressed through Committees on
Environment, Health and Safety, Trade, Competitiveness and              Activities/Issues
Communication,
                                                                           Access to land and resources
Membership         European Community Countries, European                  Consumption, recycling and disposal
Aluminium Association, Euromines, Copper, Lead, Nickel &                   Energy use
Precious Metals Groups, International Zinc Association, OECAM              Exploration
                                                                           Governance of mining projects
Activities/Issues                                                          Mine closure
                                                                           Mining operations
   Energy taxation                                                        Project development
   Environmental liability                                                Rent capture and distribution
   Environment/health and safety                                          Resource stewardship
   Market access/trade                                                    Secondary development impacts
   Public awareness/education                                             Trade in materials
   Recycling                                                              Waste management
   Transparency/reporting
   Visibility




                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                        27
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON MINING AND METALS                              MINING, MINERALS & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
 www.icmm.com                                                           PROJECT
                                                                        www.iied.org/mmsd
Represents the mining and metals industries on sustainable
development issues, promotes best practices and assists the             A 2-year project of the International Institute for Environment and
industries to achieve sustainable development goals.                    Development (IIEC) commissioned by the WBCSD to explore ways
                                                                        in which mining and minerals sector can contribute to the transition
Membership        Anglo American plc, AngloGold Limited,                to sustainable development. The 2002 World Mines Ministers
Antofagasta Minerals SA, Asarco/Grupo Mexico, Barrick Gold              Forum will engage ministers, policy makers, senior government
Corporation, BHP Billiton, Boliden Mineral AB, Codelco-Chile,           officials, mining company executives and non-governmental
Falconbridge Limited, Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold Inc.,            organizations in discussion of key issues facing mining countries.
Inco Limited, Industrias Penoles, Luismin S.A. de CV, Metaleurop        The 2002 World Mines Ministries Forum takes place in Toronto in
S.A., Newmont Mining Corporation, Noranda Inc., Outokumpu Oy,           March.
Pasminco Limited, Phelps Dodge Corporation, Placer Dome Inc.,
Rio Algom Limited, Rio Tinto plc, Southern Peru Copper                  Membership Sponsored by the World Bank, Natural Resources
Corporation, Umicore, and WMC Limited.                                  Canada, UNEP, International Institute for Environment and
                                                                        Development (sponsored by the World Business Council on
Associations: Camara Minera de Mexico, Eurometaux, Industrial           Sustainable Development) and the Ontario Ministry of Northern
Minerals Association, Instituto Brasileiro de Mineracao,                Development and Mines.
International Copper Association, International Lead Zinc Research
Organization (ILZRO), Japan Mining Industry Association, Nickel         Activities/Issues
Development Institute (NiDI), Sociedad Nacional de Mineria
(SONAMI), and World Coal Institute.                                        Armed conflict
                                                                           Baseline assessment of current corporate practices
                                                                           Corporate citizenship
   Best mining/metals practice                                            Corruption
   Sustainable mining issues                                              Global financial dialogue
                                                                           Global information dialogue
                                                                           Health and safety
                                                                           Human rights
                                                                           Indigenous people
                                                                           Life cycle analysis




                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       28
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

IDRC MINING POLICY RESEARCH INITIATIVE                                  WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE
                                                                        DEVELOPMENT (WBCSD)
Mandate:                                                                www.wbcsd.ch

A project launched in 1998 by the International Development             A coalition of 150 international companies with the mission of
Research Centre (IDRC) to supporting applied/participatory research     providing business leadership as a catalyst for change toward
on issues related to mining and sustainable development in mining       sustainable development. It is governed by a Council composed of
regions and communities in Latin America and the Caribbean, and         the Chief Executive Officers of its member companies, or other top-
improve access to information for all stakeholders in the region. The   level executives, meeting annually to decide priorities and discuss
project is guided by an advisory group consisting of representatives    strategic issues. The Mining and Minerals Group is involved in
from the World Bank, mining companies, academic and research            both
institutions, and government.                                           the Global Mining Initiative (GMI) and Mining, Minerals and
                                                                        Sustainable Development Project (MMSD).
Activities
                                                                        Membership 150 multinational companies. Mining and Minerals
   Applied/participatory research                                      Working Group: Anglo American, BHP, Billiton, Codelco,
   Latin America/Caribbean focus                                       Newmont, Noranda, Phelps Dodge, Placer Dome, Rio Tinto, and
                                                                        WMC.

                                                                        Activities/Issues

                                                                           Corporate social responsibility
                                                                           Eco-efficiency
                                                                           Innovation




                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                      29
                                                                                                                           ANNEX A

Section 4 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS                                   Species & species survival
                                                                           Protected areas
THE WORLD CONSERVATION UNION (IUCN)                                        Socio-economics program
www.iucn.org                                                               West/Central Asia and North Africa program.

The largest international environmental knowledge network,
established in 1948 to bring together government and private sector     WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE (WRI)
experts to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout world    www.wri.org
to conserve nature‟s integrity and diversity and to ensure the
equitable and ecologically sustainable use of natural resources.        An environmental think tank conducting research and providing
                                                                        information and ideas to resolve global environmental problems
The work program is undertaken within the framework of global           including projects on: global marine strategy; critical flows,
conventions and 6 IUCN Commissions on: Protected Areas; Species         capturing the value of ecosystem services, marine protected areas,
Survival; Environmental, Economic & Social Policy; Ecosystem            clean development mechanism design project, and resource policy.
Management; Education & Communication; and Environmental                The Institute also publishes the annual World Resources which in
Law. There is also a Global Secretariat (8 offices worldwide) to        1998-99 included a chapter on heavy metals and health.
facilitate work of 1000 employees, distributed across regional and
country offices, including 100 at Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland    Membership         Madrona Venture Group; Leadership for
and a further 10, 000 volunteers with expertise in natural resource     Environment and Development (LEAD) International; Natural
management, environmental science, policy, law and education. To        Resources Defense Council; Dow Chemical Company; League of
date, the IUCN has assisted over 75 countries to prepare/implement      Conservation Voters; National Organization on Disability (US);
national conservation and biodiversity strategies.                      Deep Ocean Exploration and Research; The Mellon Foundation;
                                                                        World Economic Forum; National Religious Partnership for the
Membership: 78 states (including all EU members, the USA,               Environment; WorldWIDE (World Women in the Env.); Kennedy
Japan, Switzerland & Canada) 112 government agencies (of which 6        School of Government (Harvard); World Conservation Union.
are US and 10are Canadian), 735 NGOs, 35 affiliates, and some 10,
000 volunteer scientists/experts from 181 countries                     Activities/Issues

Activities/Issues                                                          Agroecoystems
                                                                           Climate change Clean Development Mechanism
   Natural resource management                                            Coastal zone and marine management
   Ecosystem management                                                   Ecosystem valuation
   Biodiversity                                                           Forests
   Wetlands and water resources                                           Freshwater
   Forest conservation                                                    Grasslands


                       Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                      Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                          30
                                                                                                                               ANNEX A

   Heavy metals and health
   Marine Protected Areas                                                 Founded as an international fundraising organization to collaborate
   Oceans                                                                 with existing conservation groups to bring substantial financial
                                                                           support to worldwide conservation efforts. Now the largest privately
                                                                           supported international conservation organization in the world with
FRIENDS OF THE EARTH (FOE)                                                 representation in more than 50 countries and 5 continents, the WWF
www.foe.org                                                                has invested in over 13,100 projects in 157 countries during its 41
                                                                           year existence. Founded by a group of scientists, naturalists and
A non-profit federation of environmental advocacy groups and about         political and business leaders in 1961, it combined forces in 1991
1 million activists established in 1971 to undertake publicity             with the Conservation Foundation to form a single organisation with
campaigns and mobilize public opinion to persuade government and           more than 1 million members in the U.S. alone. Objectives are to
industry to take action at the international, national and local levels.   stop environmental degradation, preserve biodiversity, promote
Includes member organizations in 66 countries and 13 affiliate             sustainable development of natural resources reduction of pollution
groups. Their objective is to protect the planet from environmental        and wasteful consumption.
degradation; preserve biological, ethnic and cultural diversity; and
empower citizens to influence environmental decision-making.               Headquartered in Gland, Switzerland, the Secretariat leads and
FOE Canada operates as a virtual organization, with a small critical       coordinates the worldwide network by developing policies &
core staff and experienced persons heading campaigns on a                  priorities, fostering global partnerships, and providing general
contractual basis, supported by a group of expert volunteers.              organizational support. Local offices carry out local conservation
                                                                           work, advise local and national governments on environmental
Activities/Issues                                                          policy, and promote education and awareness of environmental
                                                                           issues.
   Forest quality & conservation
   Management of protected areas                                          Activities/Issues
   Natural resource management
   Biodiversity                                                              Endangered Spaces
                                                                              Forests
                                                                              Oceans
                                                                              Toxic Chemicals




WORLD WILDLIFE FUND (WWF)
www.panda.org



                        Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                       31
                                                                                                                            ANNEX A

SIERRA CLUB                                                             GREENPEACE
www.sierraclub.org                                                      www.greenpeace.org

U.S. grassroots-based conservation group with some 700,000              An independent, international environmental activist organization,
members and affiliated clubs worldwide, established in 1892 to          begun in 1971 that professes to use non-violent, creative
protect wilderness and promote sustainable ecosystem and natural        confrontation to expose global environmental problems and preserve
resource management. Overseen by a Board of directors and 6             earth‟s natural resources and its diverse plant and animal life.
governing units addressing policy priorities working with volunteer     Based in Amsterdam with chapters in 30 5 million members and
support, 12 Regional Conservation Committees and 22 eco-system          more than 40 offices in 30 countries and headed by an international
Task Forces.                                                            Board and small core of paid managers who take decisions on behalf
                                                                        of the organization.
Activities/Issues
                                                                        Activities/Issues
   Clean energy
   Air quality                                                            Climate; toxics
   Pollution;                                                             Nuclear power/disarmament
   Toxics                                                                 Oceans
   Hazardous chemicals                                                    genetic engineering
   Trade in hazardous waste                                               Ancient forests
   Solid waste                                                            Safe trade.
   POPs
   Climate change
   Population control
   Forests
   Human rights and environment
   Endangered species
   Responsible trade




                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                    Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues and Institutional Options                    32
                                                                                                                        ANNEX A

MINERAL POLICY CENTRE MINING CAMPAIGN                                  Network, Indonesia; Oxfam America; Pergamon and Adramytteion
www.globalmining.campaign.org                                          Society, Turkey; Project Underground, USA; Third World Network,
                                                                       Ghana; and World Resources Institute, USA.
Building a Global Mining Campaign" involves advocacy, research
and policy groups and mining communities involved in promoting         Activities/issues
community accountability in the mining sector and overall
sustainability of the industry.                                           Environmental protection
                                                                          Human rights
Membership: Bankwatch, Hungary; ECO Peru, Environmental                   Economic and social development
Mining Council of British Columbia; Food First Information and            Cultural rights
Action Network, Germany; Indigenous Mining Campaign Project,              Integrity
USA; Mineral Policy Center, USA; Mineral Policy Institute,
Australia; Mines, Minerals and People, India; Mining Advocacy




                      Prepared by Legwork Environmental Inc., www.legwork.ca FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues And Institutional Options               33


Section 6 ISSUES ON THE INTERNATIONAL AGENDA                               Life cycle assessment
                                                                           Material flow accounting
These issues are presently debated in one international fora or            Material substitution
another. Most often, in those that do not have a mining or metals-         Metals dispersive uses
specific mandate.                                                          Mine waste disposal
                                                                           Municipal Waste practice
Environment and Health                                                     Orphan and abandoned mines
                                                                           Persistence, Bio-accumulation and Toxicity
   Acid mine drainage
                                                                           Pollutants releases and transfer registry (PRTRs)
   Air, water and surface quality
                                                                           Pollution Prevention
   Biodiversity loss
                                                                           Precautionary principle
   Carcinogenicity
                                                                           Product Stewardship
   Chemical Classification
                                                                           Protected areas
   Classification of alloys
                                                                           Recycling issues
   Cleaner Production
                                                                           Reporting methodologies
   Climate change
                                                                           Resource depletion measurement
   Comparative land use
                                                                           Resource efficiency
   Design for recycling
                                                                           Risk Assessment
   Eco-indicators
                                                                           Risk Management
   Eco-labeling
                                                                           Socio-economic analysis
   Emissions trading
                                                                           Substitution (Renewables)
   End of mine life                                                       Supply-chain management
   Energy taxation                                                        Sustainable Chemistry
   Energy use and intensity                                               Toxicity/Ecotoxicity
   Environmental auditing                                                 Transport of Products
   Environmental insurance/liability                                      Voluntary initiatives
   Environmental stewardship                                              Waste Minimisation
   Exposure issues                                                        Waste Prevention
   Extended Producer Responsibility                                       World heritage sites
   Green Purchasing
   Green taxes -
   Habitat
   Hazard Characterization                                             Social issues




                   Prepared for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) by Legwork Environmental Inc., FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
                     Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues And Institutional Options        34


   Access and benefit sharing                                          Economic
   Community participation
   Corporate social responsibility                                        Price volatility
   Corruption                                                             Minerals cycles
   Economic development                                                   Access to land
   Employment                                                             Investment climate/taxation
   Environment, health and safety                                         Governance
   Environmental right to know                                            Investment
   Gender equity
   Human rights                                                        Other
   Illegal activities
   Indigenous rights                                                      North-South issues
   Measuring social performance                                           Global
   Poverty alleviation                                                    Transparency
   Resettlement                                                           Accountability
   Small scale and artisanal mining                                       Business confidentiality
   Social justice                                                         Standard development
   Sustainable livelihoods
   Technology transfer
   Traditional knowledge
   Wealth distribution issues




                   Prepared for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) by Legwork Environmental Inc., FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002
 Toward A Global Dialogue On The Mining And Metals Industry: Issues And Institutional Options         35


                                      INITIAL CRITERIA

                                          Mandate
                                             Environmental
                                             Social
                                             Economic

                                          Role
                                                Policy
                                                Research
                                                Regulatory
                                                Monitoring
                                                Advisory
                                                Coordinating
                                                Capacity Building
                                                Information Sharing

                                          Decision Making
                                              Governments
                                              Multilateral
                                              Regional

                                          Members
                                             Governments
                                             Developed Countries
                                             Developing Countries

                                          Observers
                                             Industry
                                             NGOs
                                             Academe



Prepared for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) by Legwork Environmental Inc., FINAL DRAFT MARCH 2002

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:6/12/2011
language:English
pages:54