callahan by keralaguest



    Sean Callahan, Executive Vice President, Overseas Operations







              Mike McIntyre, North Carolina, Chairman


                           July 16, 2008
Good afternoon Chairman McIntyre, Ranking Member Musgrave, and members of the


       Thank you for calling this very timely hearing on delivering international food aid and

providing foreign agricultural development assistance. I would like to express my gratitude for

providing Catholic Relief Services the opportunity to share our insights -- based on our long

experience of programming food aid for emergencies and long-term development, including our

support of agricultural development with poor farmers around the world.

       My name is Sean Callahan, Executive Vice President of Overseas Operations for

Catholic Relief Services (CRS). Operating in more than 100 countries around the world, CRS is

the international development and relief agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops,

drawing support from among the 68 million members of the U.S. Catholic community. And for

more than half a century, we have been in a partnership with Food for Peace that has tangibly

expressed the goodwill and compassion of the American people.

       In my testimony, I will spotlight what I call the “Global Food Crisis” by citing the actual

experiences of hungry people, including my personal observations. I will then focus on the deep

roots of this crisis. Last, I will make five recommendations on food security to guide Congress in

its response to the emergency: $2.1 billion for Title II, $300 million for the McGovern-Dole

program, $230 million to replenish the Emerson Trust, more cash for local purchases and

vouchers, and stronger partnerships with recipient nations.

Hungry People Suffer in the Global Food Crisis

       As you all know, high commodity prices are affecting people in every country of the

world, including our own. The average American family spends less than 10 percent of its

income on food, while low-income Americans spend a larger proportion of their limited

resources on food. An impoverished family overseas that typically spends about half its income

on food is now spending up to 75 percent or more because of the Global Food Crisis. These

price increases have made food truly unaffordable to the very poor — and sometimes the not-so-

poor. This desperation is fueling the urban demonstrations and riots that have been springing up

around the world over the past several months. The problem for CRS relief efforts is not the

availability of food, but the soaring prices

that make food less and less affordable for the poor in both urban and rural settings

       CRS staff around the world has heard stories of families who are stretched to the limit by

the high price of food. Some are having to make do with eating less at each meal. Some are

already skipping meals, or even not eating on a particular day. Few can afford to buy meat or

chicken for any of their meals. The most desperate will sell off precious resources, such as a

water jug, a hoe or even the tin roof of their home in order to buy food. Tragically, they may

even have to decide which child or children may have the best chance of survival and which,

already ill and weak, will be allowed to die. These are the agonizing choices the global food

crisis is forcing the poor to make.

       Frequent reports from our CRS field offices document that this awful scenario is being

repeated in many countries in the developing world. In some regions of Niger, families have

started eating only one meal a day. In dire circumstances, some families have resorted to eating

anza, a wild plant with bitter leavers, to supplement their diet. In northern Ghana, students have

been taking CRS-provided lunches home to share with hungry family members. For some

children, this means sharing their only meal of the day.

       In southern and eastern Ethiopia, two consecutive seasons of poor rains have led to total

crop failure. Many people in these areas now have nothing—literally nothing—to eat. And with

food prices soaring worldwide, they cannot afford to buy the dwindling and increasingly

expensive supplies in the market. As a result, we are beginning to see cases of severe

malnutrition, especially in children.

       I was in eastern Ethiopia last month, and I saw how the people there are already

suffering. I visited a feeding site run by the Ethiopian Catholic Church and the Missionaries of

Charity in a largely Muslim area where, over the previous five weeks, 28 children had died of

malnutrition. The conditions there are already dire. They are going through a “green drought,”

where there was just enough rain to allow stocks to sprout 3 to 5 inches, but there is no yield.

       I saw one Ethiopian parent bring a very sickly, lethargic child to the center for emergency

treatment. The parent told the sisters, “I brought this child because I thought he could make it.

My weakest child is at home.” Nearby, a grandfather fed his grandson sips of milk every 30

seconds from a plastic syringe.

This Food Crisis Has Deep Roots

       My first reaction on seeing all this was simply to bite my lip, to contain my emotion. My

second reaction was anger. How could we let this happen? But the more I observed, I realized

that this was a place of hope. I saw kids being fed and stabilized, getting better. Parents were

thanking the workers for saving the lives of their children. This is an area that has had good

production over the past five years, and they just need some immediate food assistance so that

they can make it until the next harvest. And much of that help is coming in the form of food aid

from the American people. They also asked for help to increase their planting for the next

season. But if the next rainy season is poor and the next harvest fails, these people will be even

worse off.

       What really concerns me about his food crisis is that it is not a blip on the screen. This

food crisis is structural. Its causes are complex and are based on fundamental changes in the

global marketplace. The Economist magazine has called these changes “The end of cheap food,”

in recognition of a consensus that prices will not return to pre-food crisis levels.

       This food crisis will be long-lasting. And it is just beginning. Its effects are being seen

first in urban areas where people cannot produce their own food and cannot absorb the steep

price increases. There is widespread drought in East Africa, and there may be other crop failures

this year, beginning with the massive destruction of rice in Myanmar. Farmers who are

struggling to feed their families will not be able to invest in fertilizer that has doubled in price

and continues to rise, so their yields will be lower. By next February, this crisis will be deeper

and broader as more segments of society are pushed into poverty by the combination of higher

food prices and reduced availability worldwide.

       Over the long term, there are several factors that could exacerbate the food crisis,

including an increased demand for food generally, an increased demand for animal protein,

higher fuel prices and the diversion of grain and oilseed crops for biofuel production. In addition,

there is an emerging scientific consensus that there is evidence of global climate change, and that

this phenomenon is having a significant impact on global agriculture. Earlier this month, the

head of the UN’s Framework Convention on Climate Change said the Global Food Crisis will

only worsen because of climate change, as he urged the leaders of the G8 to set goals to reduce

carbon emissions within the next dozen years. It is a fact that droughts and severe storms and

other natural disasters are occurring more frequently and are adversely affecting food production.

And it is inevitably those least responsible for the factors leading to climate change, the poor,

who will bear the brunt of its effects. In terms of the response to this Global Food Crisis, we are

looking at short-term measures as well as longer term initiatives.

       In the short term, CRS believes we need to get cash and food into the hands of the urban

and rural poor, so people can eat. Our plan is to provide cash vouchers to help both urban and

rural families afford sufficient food during the crisis, where food is available. Eligible families

would receive a set amount of food vouchers to supplement their food supplies when rising

prices limit their purchasing power. This approach was successfully applied by CRS in 2006 as

part of a drought response in Kenya with 2,500 expectant and nursing mothers and 3,500

families with malnourished children receiving food vouchers to supplement their food resources.

Where there isn’t sufficient food available, we are working with Food for Peace and the World

Food Program to ensure delivery of imported food.

       We are also providing an opportunity for people to receive cash for working on projects

that better prepare communities to weather disasters like hurricanes or cyclones. For example, in

Haiti, cash for work projects have helped to clear drainage canals that will help prevent flooding

when a storm hits. We are also seeking to help farmers in the developing world by investing in

seeds, fertilizer and other materials that will help them in the next planting season. For example,

we have used a voucher approach to enable rice farmers in Burkina Faso to acquire both

improved seed and fertilizer in order to boost production of this urban staple that is in such short

supply. In Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Nigeria we are hoping to expand this approach, and we

have a proposal waiting for funding to expand production in 16 countries across Africa, and to

move from rice to pulses and eventually to roots and tubers such as cassava.

           Unfortunately, within the current food aid framework, there are not enough cash

resources available from Food for Peace to fund these types of programs, especially at the scale

that is needed. In addition to using valuable food aid resources, CRS will also be devoting

private resources to fund some of these short-term measures. This Global Food Crisis is bigger

than food aid alone. The U.S. government should provide much more cash in the International

Disaster Assistance and Development Assistance accounts to complement current food aid


           In the longer term, CRS agrees with the general consensus among international PVOs

that there must be a much more robust investment in agricultural productivity and market

infrastructure in the developing world to reverse the decade-long decline in aid for agriculture.

Ironically, the food crisis presents us with an opportunity to make a major impact in the fight

against extreme poverty, particularly in Africa. Timely initiatives that increase agricultural

productivity and expand small farmers’ access to markets could go a long way toward easing the

suffering caused by hunger. As Pope Benedict XVI said in his message to last month’s FAO

summit on food security:

           Hunger and malnutrition are unacceptable in a world which has, in fact, levels of

           production, resources and knowledge sufficient to put an end to such dramas and their

           consequences. The great challenge of today is to 'globalize,' not just economic and

           commercial interests, but also the call for solidarity, while respecting and taking

           advantage of the contribution of all components of society.

Congress Can Help to Reverse the Global Food Crisis

       The response by Congress to the Global Food Crisis has already been substantial, and I

must commend you for this. The 2008 Farm Bill will greatly help us in this fight against global

hunger. I would in particular like to commend Chairman Peterson and Ranking Member

Goodlatte for their bipartisan leadership in crafting the 2008 Farm Bill. A number of initiatives

that strengthen food aid and food security were included in the Trade Title that was enacted into

law. Perhaps the most important of these is the $450 million safebox for developmental food

aid. CRS views this provision as an important first step in reshaping United States international

food and agriculture assistance policy and increasing global food security. United States

international food and agriculture policy must integrate Title II, McGovern-Dole, and regular

bilateral and international agricultural programs, while continuing to provide adequate and

practical resources for emergencies.

       I must point out, however, that the structural changes in commodity prices will likely

erode any increases to developmental food aid in the safebox. The volume of commodities that

can be procured and shipped will continue to decline as prices of food, fuel, and transportation

skyrocket. Even with the recent supplemental appropriation, Food for Peace is not in a position

to provide more food aid than it did in 2007, which had the lowest volume (at 2.6 million metric

tons) in many years. So, in fact, we are right back to where we started unless we take other

urgent steps. We must remember that Food for Peace operates programs fighting long-term

hunger in only 18 or so countries. The World Food Program has identified more than 30

countries that are now affected by the current Global Food Crisis.

       Moreover, as part of a broad Catholic coalition working on the Farm Bill, CRS had

sought real price support payment reform, especially to level the playing field for poor small

farmers in our partner nations so they can compete fairly and help their countries respond to the

global food crisis. A major opportunity for real reform was lost and what functions as a subsidy

system continues to help those who need it least instead of those who need help the most, both in

the United States and abroad.

       At the same time, we would like to thank the Congress and the Administration for acting

to pass the FY2008/2009 Supplemental Appropriations Act. It will provide vitally needed

resources to begin an emergency response, as well as to continue developmental food aid

programs that build long-term food security.

       Looking ahead, we would like to ask you to work with your colleagues on the

Appropriations Committee to help enact the following five initiatives build food security:

          First, in addition to the $395 million included in the supplemental, we recommend

           that Congress fund the FY2009 regular appropriation for Title II at $2.1billion. This

           appropriation will bring the total appropriation for FY 2009 to $2.5 billion, the

           maximum level authorized in the Farm Bill. A level of $2.5 billion also ensures that

           we can provide enough food aid to match closely the average tonnage level of the last

           five years of 2.77 MMT (assuming a cost of $700 per metric ton). Only robust

           funding will fill the safebox and maintain the U.S. contribution to global food aid,

           while ensuring that we can respond to additional needs and ever-rising prices.

          We also recommend that Congress provide complementary funding of $300 million

           for the McGovern-Dole Nutrition and Education program. This level would equal the

           amount that would be authorized by the Global Food for Education Pilot Program. It

           would ensure that the McGovern-Dole program could also keep pace with rising food

    aid costs while also responding more completely to the rising demand for integrated

    education and nutrition programs.

   Third, the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust complements regular Title II emergency

    aid as an important reserve for responding to acute hunger. We urge Congress to

    replenish $230 million, the amount withdrawn in April and May of this year to

    address the current food-price crisis. We need an incremental replenishment now or

    the next withdrawal likely will deplete the Trust, the most timely and flexible

    resource for handling unanticipated food emergencies.

   Fourth, the Administration and Congress must also recognize the need for cash

    resources as a necessary complement to commodities. In addition to new cash

    resources included in the 2008 Farm Bill, we urge you to work with your colleagues

    on the Appropriations Committee to ensure that cash resources are provided in the

    International Disaster Assistance and Development Assistance accounts. We direly

    need cash to buy food locally or to support voucher and food-for-work programs, as

    may be appropriate.

   Finally, we need to build stronger partnerships with the hungry and poor overseas.

    Money alone will not solve the problem of food security. We need real commitments

    from beneficiary nations to energize their own resources in the fight against acute and

    chronic hunger. We also need to rely on private voluntary organizations like CRS

    because we have durable and effective partnerships with the poor overseas. We

            further need to ensure that we integrate all food security programs in close

            cooperation with recipients and host governments. Such integration includes using

            cash wisely and making effective investments in agricultural development.

         In conclusion, I want to once again thank you, Chairman McIntyre, and all the members

of the subcommittee for your leadership on food security in the 2008 Farm Bill and for holding

this hearing on responding to the needs of the hungry around the world. At Catholic Relief

Services, we believe that the current food crisis will add another 100 million people to the 850

million people already suffering from hunger. This troubling reality requires the continued and

augmented leadership of the U.S. government in providing for both chronic and acute hunger


         I would be pleased to respond to any questions that the Committee may have.

                                                               Sean Callahan
                                                          Executive Vice President
                                                             Overseas Operations

As the Vice President for Overseas Operations, Sean Callahan is
responsible for the oversight of programmatic activities in more than 90
countries, with a budget of over $500 million and a staff of over 3,500.
He ensures the fulfillment of the agency’s mission while particularly
focusing on assistance to the poor, respect for human dignity, justice
and peace and partnership with local institutions.

Mr. Callahan was the Regional Director for South Asia from January
1998 to May 2004. His priority responsibilities included overseeing CRS
operations in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and
Nepal. Mr. Callahan has previous experience working in India, as the
Representative of the CRS program in Eastern India/Kolkata (1994-
1996). During his tenure in Kolkata, Mr. Callahan managed operations
in Eastern India, including a USAID/CRS Title II food program and a
child survival program in Patna, Bihar.

Mr. Callahan has had a wide variety of experiences in South Asia, including representing CRS
at the Asian Bishops Synod in 1998; working closely with Mother Teresa of the Missionaries of
Charity in Calcutta; responding to flood, drought, earthquake and man-made emergencies;
experiencing a terrorist attack by the LTTE (Tamil Tigers) in the Sri Lankan airport; and
facilitating programming in Afghanistan during and after the Taliban.

Immediately prior to his assignment as the South Asia Regional Director, he was the Director of
Human Resources for CRS at its world headquarters in Baltimore. Mr. Callahan has served as
the Director of the CRS/Nicaragua Program and worked in Central America in varying
capacities, in addition to earlier work in headquarters as the public donor liaison for West,
Central and Southern Africa.

Mr. Callahan holds a B.A. in Spanish from Tufts University and an M.A. in Law and Diplomacy
from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.

                                                 Committee on Agriculture
                                                U.S. House of Representatives
                                              Required Witness Disclosure Form

House Rules* require nongovernmental witnesses to disclose the amount and source of Federal grants
received since October 1, 2004.

Name:            Sean Callahan______________________________________

Address:         228 W. Lexington St. Baltimore, Maryland 21201-3413 ______

Telephone:       410-625-2220              __________________________________

Organization you represent (if any): _______Catholic Relief Services_______


1.      Please list any federal grants or contracts (including subgrants and subcontracts) you have received since
        October 1, 2004, as well as the source and the amount of each grant or contract. House Rules do NOT
        require disclosure of federal payments to individuals, such as Social Security or Medicare benefits, farm
        program payments, or assistance to agricultural producers:

Source:__________________________________________                      Amount:_______________

Source:__________________________________________                      Amount:_______________

2.      If you are appearing on behalf of an organization, please list any federal grants or contracts (including
        subgrants and subcontracts) the organization has received since October 1, 2004, as well as the source and
        the amount of each grant or contract:

See attached.

Please check here if this form is NOT applicable to you:               _________________________


* Rule XI, clause 2(g)(4) of the U.S. House of Representatives provides: Each committee shall, to the greatest extent practicable,
require witnesses who appear before it to submit in advance written statements of proposed testimony and to limit their initial
presentations to the committee to brief summaries thereof. In the case of a witness appearing in a nongovernmental capacity, a
written statement of proposed testimony shall include a curriculum vitae and a disclosure of the amount and source (by agency and
program) of each Federal grant (or subgrant thereof) or contract (or subcontract thereof) received during the current fiscal year or
either of the two previous fiscal years by the witness or by any entity represented by the witness.


2.      If you are appearing on behalf of an organization, please list any federal grants or contracts (including
        subgrants and subcontracts) the organization has received since October 1, 2004, as well as the source and
        the amount of each grant or contract:

                                          Catholic Relief Services
                  General Grant Information for the period October 1, 2004 to July 9, 2008

                                                                 Begin      Expiration
     Country        Award #                         Donor        Date       Date             Award $      Status
     NICARAGUA      SUB-AWARD-MICHIGAN STATE UN     USAID/MSU     10/1/04    4/30/07          1,048,610   CLOSED
     INDONESIA      FFP-A-00-04-00069-00            FFP           10/1/04    9/30/09          1,358,949   OPEN
     BRAZIL         E-9-K-4-0063                    LABOR         10/1/04    4/30/08     D    1,500,000
     ERITREA        FFP-A-00-04-00091-00            FFP           10/1/04    9/30/07     D    2,898,079
     ERITREA        FFP-A-00-04-00091-00            FFP           10/1/04    9/30/07          7,370,091   CLOSED
     MALAWI         FFP-A-00-04-00066-00            FFP           10/1/04    9/30/09          9,094,026   OPEN
     MALAWI         FFP-A-00-04-00066-00            FFP           10/1/04    9/30/09         20,683,089   OPEN
     HONDURAS       AED Subgrant #3421-04-FOG-007   OTHER        10/15/04    12/31/04           10,020    CLOSED
     JERUSALEM      294-A-00-04-00217-00            USAID/M      10/15/04    3/31/07          3,150,000   CLOSED
     KENYA          DFD-G-00-05-00008-00            OFDA         10/24/04     8/7/05           256,426    CLOSED
     HAITI          DFD-G-00-05-00005-00            OFDA         10/26/04    7/31/05           331,111    CLOSED
     KOSOVO         SG-258-04S                      USIP          11/1/04    3/31/06            40,000    CLOSED
     NEW DELHI      SUB-AWARD-FHI216850             USAID/FHI     11/1/04    9/30/06            93,566    CLOSED
     ANGOLA         690-A-00-04-00271-00            USAID/M       11/2/04    4/30/07          1,951,000   CLOSED
     SUDAN          SUB-AWARD-CARE-53041            USAID/CARE    11/5/04    11/4/05           793,665    CLOSED
     East Timor     SUB-AWARD-DAI-002               USAID/DAI    11/19/04    10/31/05           58,647    CLOSED
     East Timor     SUB-AWARD-DAI-004               DAI/USAID    11/23/04    1/15/05            33,702    CLOSED
     GHANA          Sub-Award-WVI/CORE              USAID/WVI     12/1/04    12/31/04            5,000    CLOSED
     ETHIOPIA       FFP-A-00-05-00027-00            FFP           12/1/04    6/30/08     D    4,653,086
     SIERRA LEONE   SUB-AWARD-CARE                  USAID         12/2/04    9/30/08          2,258,647   OPEN
     ETHIOPIA       663-A-00-05-00404-00            USAID/M      12/13/04    12/12/07         3,700,663   CLOSED
     BOSNIA         168-A-00-05-00101-00            USAID/M      12/14/04    9/30/06          2,546,526   CLOSED
     KENYA          SG-256-04S                      USIP          1/1/05     12/31/06           40,000    CLOSED
     NEW DELHI      386-G-00-05-00029               USAID/M       1/1/05     9/30/07          4,878,511   CLOSED
     HONDURAS       AED Subgrant #3421-05-SG-005    OTHER         1/3/05     2/28/06           127,090    CLOSED
     Headquarters   GPO-A-00-05-00003-00            USAID/W       1/10/05    1/11/10          3,431,294   OPEN
     LIBERIA        FFP-A-00-05-00064-00            FFP           1/25/05    1/24/07          6,540,693   CLOSED
     SRI LANKA      386-A-00-05-00044               USAID/M       2/1/05     11/1/05          3,048,000   CLOSED
     AFGHANISTAN    DFD-G-00-05-00066-00            USAID/W       2/14/05    12/31/06         1,499,999   CLOSED
     HAITI          521-G-00-05-00023-00            USAID/M       2/18/05    4/30/06           900,000    CLOSED
     LIBERIA        DFD-G-00-05-00093-00            OFDA          2/20/05    12/31/06         1,946,282   CLOSED
     SUDAN          DFD-G-00-05-00019-00            OFDA          2/28/05     1/4/06          8,324,962   CLOSED
     INDONESIA      DFD-G-00-05-00063-00            OFDA          3/4/05     3/31/06           488,435    CLOSED
     East Timor     SUB-AWARD-DAI-033               USAID/DAI     4/1/05     4/30/07           475,997    CLOSED
RY                  U51HA02521-02-00                HRSA          4/1/05     2/28/06         60,782,328   CLOSED
     ZAMBIA         Sub-Award - WVI                 USAID/WV      4/21/05                      172,166    OPEN
     MADAGASCAR     Sub-award, Chemonics Int'l      USAID         6/14/05    3/31/08            84,693    EXPIRE

ASA)                   USIP-255-04F                    USIP             7/1/05    6/30/07          39,395    CLOSED
       BURUNDI         CLSI 001 Sub, CARE              USAID            7/1/05    9/30/07        1,121,394   CLOSED
       GHANA           624-A-00-05-00025               USAID/M         7/13/05    7/12/07         734,873    CLOSED
       NIGER           DFD-G-00-05-00119-00            OFDA            7/15/05    7/31/07        1,012,399   CLOSED
       BOSNIA          Sub-award SBK800-05-GR-097      USEMB           7/25/05    7/25/06           9,800    CLOSED
       HAITI           521-G-00-05-00078-00            USAID/M         7/25/05    8/31/05          50,000    CLOSED
       HAITI           521-G-00-05-00071-00            USAID/M         7/25/05    9/30/05         198,315    CLOSED
       NICARAGUA       SG-259-04F                      USIP             8/1/05    9/30/06          45,000    CLOSED
       NICARAGUA       S-LMAQM-05-GR-073               STATE            8/1/05    9/30/07         350,000    CLOSED
       CHAD            SPRMCO05CA066                   STATE            8/1/05    7/31/06         352,133    CLOSED
       HQ South Asia
m                      386-G-00-05-00157               USAID/M          8/5/05    10/4/05          50,000    CLOSED
       SENEGAL         685-A-00-05-00149-00            USAID/M          8/5/05    6/30/08    D   2,144,410
       ERITREA         DFD-G-00-05-00136-00            OFDA            8/10/05    6/30/07        1,110,167   CLOSED
       CHAD            DFD-G-00-05-00169-00            OFDA            8/26/05    7/31/06         408,049    CLOSED
                       DFD-G-00-05-00167-00            OFDA            8/26/05    12/31/06        575,945    CLOSED
       AFGHANISTAN     SPRMCO05CA127                   STATE            9/1/05    9/30/06         781,125    CLOSED
       SUDAN           SPRMCO05CA090                   STATE            9/1/05    11/30/06       1,279,158   CLOSED
       YUGOSLAVIA      SPRMCO05CA059                   STATE           9/16/05    9/15/06         399,999    CLOSED
       HQ South Asia
m                      S-INLEC-05-GR-0011              STATE           9/16/05    3/31/08         959,269    CLOSED
       KENYA           DFD-G-00-05-00214-00            OFDA            9/18/05    6/30/07         815,871    CLOSED
       YUGOSLAVIA      S-SR100-05-GR-329               USEMB           9/21/05    9/21/06           9,978    CLOSED
ASA)                   DFD-G-00-05-00227-00            OFDA            9/25/05    5/26/06         125,203    CLOSED
       VIETNAM         486-A-00-05-00019-00            USAID/M         9/27/05    9/30/08        2,383,856   OPEN
       NIGER           FCC-683-2005/071-00             USDA            9/28/05                    313,498    OPEN
       MEXICO          523-A-00-05-00040-00            USAID/M         9/28/05    9/30/08         421,000    OPEN
       NIGER           FCC-683-2005/071-00             USDA            9/28/05                    775,054    OPEN
       HONDURAS        FFE-522-2005/157-00             USDA            9/28/05                   3,651,999   OPEN
       PHILIPPINES     GHS-A-00-05-00029-00            USAID/GH/HIDN   9/30/05    9/29/09        1,257,289   OPEN
ASA)                   GHS-A-00-05-00028-00            USAID/GH/HIDN   9/30/05    9/29/10        1,756,626   OPEN
ASA)                623-A-00-05-00342-00               USAID/M         9/30/05    9/29/09        2,676,229   OPEN
                    Sub-Award, TechnoServe - RAA                                                             EXPIRE
       KENYA                                           OTHER/USDA      10/1/05    2/29/08    D    767,523
       MALAWI          690-G-00-05-00161-00            USAID/M         10/1/05    9/30/09         850,000    OPEN
       East Timor      Sub Award, DAI-074              USAID/DAI       10/5/05    1/31/06          72,018    CLOSED
       EL SALVADOR     519-G-00-06-00001-00            OFDA            10/5/05    11/5/05         100,000    CLOSED
       GUATEMALA       520-G-00-06-00017-00            OFDA            10/24/05   4/30/07        1,309,295   CLOSED
       YUGOSLAVIA      USIP SG-189-05S                 USIP            11/1/05    9/30/06          44,901    CLOSED
       HQ South Asia
m                      DFD-G-00-06-00016-00            OFDA            11/10/05   3/31/06         170,000    CLOSED
                       CHF Subgrant #23601-SA-05-10-
       RWANDA                                          OTHER           11/15/05   9/21/08        2,553,529   OPEN

     PAKISTAN      DFD-G-00-06-00015-00            OFDA               11/18/05   1/31/07         5,874,573   CLOSED
     MALAWI        DFD-G-00-06-00020-00            OFDA               11/28/05   9/30/07         1,973,125   CLOSED
     INDONESIA     FFP-A-00-04-00069-00            FFP                12/22/05   9/30/09          399,202    OPEN
     ZAMBIA        Sub-Award Care                  USAID/CARE         12/29/05   8/31/06          256,602    CLOSED
                   Sub-Award - Carlos F. Novella
     GUATEMALA                                     USAID/OTHER         1/5/06    11/30/06          46,077    CLOSED
     MADAGASCAR    Sub-Award, CARE                 USAID/CARE         1/10/06    8/15/06          143,955    CLOSED
     SUDAN         Sub-Award JSI #51/2005          USAID/JSI          1/24/06    3/31/07          490,276    CLOSED
     TANZANIA      621-A-00-06-00002-00            USAID/M             2/6/06     5/6/08    D     375,010
RY                 U51HA02521-03-00                HRSA                3/1/06    2/28/07        62,386,176   CLOSED
     East Timor    Sub-award BASICS #04-CRS-01     OTHER               3/6/06    3/31/08    D     129,089
     NIGERIA       620-A-00-06-00031-00            USAID/M            3/10/06     3/9/09         5,330,303   OPEN
                   Sub-Award - Plan Int'l. USA     USAID/Plan Int'l   3/17/06    8/16/08         8,111,980   OPEN
     HONDURAS      AED SUBGRANT#3421-06-SG-005     USAID/AED           4/1/06    3/31/07          156,616    CLOSED
     AFGHANISTAN   306-G-00-06-00511-00            USAID/M             4/2/06    3/31/07          631,243    CLOSED
                   DFD-G-00-06-00080-00            OFDA                4/6/06    9/30/08         6,401,438   OPEN
                   Sub-Award, CARE 306-A-00-06-
     AFGHANISTAN                                   USAID/CARE         4/10/06     4/9/11          315,471    OPEN
     UGANDA        617-G-00-06-00006-00            USAID/M            4/13/06    8/13/06           81,849    CLOSED
     MULTI-                                                                                                  EXPIRE
RY                 623-A-00-06-00027-00            USAID/M            4/15/06    4/15/08    D    4,525,000
     BURKINA                                       USAID/Plan
                   Sub-Award Plan Burkina                              5/1/06    8/16/08          281,831    OPEN
     GUATEMALA     Sub-Award Share                 SHARE/USAID         5/1/06    9/30/07          491,864    CLOSED
     East Timor    Sub-Award - DAI-118             OTHER               5/9/06     8/9/06           98,874    CLOSED
     KOSOVO        167-A-00-06-00103-00            USAID/M            5/22/06    5/21/09          893,636    OPEN
     KOSOVO        167-A-00-06-00102-00            USAID/M            5/30/06    5/29/08    D     800,000
     SUDAN         DFD-G-00-06-00071-00            OFDA                6/6/06    12/31/06        7,072,943   CLOSED
     KENYA         Sub-Award, FHI                  USAID/FHI           6/7/06     6/6/11          867,760    OPEN
     KENYA         Sub-Award, FHI                  USAID/FHI           7/1/06     6/6/11         1,809,151   OPEN
     ZAMBIA        690-A-00-06-00093-00            USAID/W             7/1/06    9/30/08         8,840,000   OPEN
     East Timor    DFD-G-00-06-00154-00            USAID/OFDA         7/26/06     1/3/07          355,652    CLOSED
     PAKISTAN      DFD-A-00-06-00151-00            USAID/OFDA         7/26/06    5/31/09          600,000    OPEN
     LEBANON       DFD-G-00-06-00223-00            USAID/OFDA         7/31/06    1/30/07         3,430,818   CLOSED
     ETHIOPIA      Sub-award/MWA                   OTHER               8/1/06    9/30/08          169,906    OPEN
     CHAD          SPRMCO06CA091                   STATE               8/1/06    1/31/08    D     497,900
     MADAGASCAR    687-A-00-06-00106-00            USAID/M             8/7/06     8/6/08          380,000    OPEN
     BENIN         FFE-680-2006/147-00             USDA                8/8/06                    3,759,742   OPEN
     VIETNAM       S-PMWRA-06-GR-072               STATE               8/9/06    2/28/08           74,677    CLOSED
     MALI          FFP-A-00-06-00049               FFP                 8/9/06    12/31/07         615,538    CLOSED
     ETHIOPIA      DFD-G-00-06-00164-00            USAID/OFDA         8/10/06     8/8/08         2,542,735   OPEN
     East Timor    DFD-G-00-06-00175-00            USAID/OFDA         8/30/06     4/1/09         1,234,064   OPEN
     YUGOSLAVIA    US Embassy/Serbia               USEMB               9/1/06    12/31/06          10,000    CLOSED

       ECUADOR        S-LMAQM-06-GR-082                STATE             9/1/06     9/1/08           80,000    OPEN
       BURUNDI        DFD-G-00-06-00191-00             USAID/OFDA        9/7/06    3/31/07          301,860    CLOSED
       AFGHANISTAN    SPRMCO06CA075                    STATE            9/15/06    9/14/07          514,489    CLOSED
       YUGOSLAVIA     SPRMCO06CA118                    STATE            9/16/06    9/15/07          839,184    CLOSED
       ETHIOPIA       Sub-Award IRC                    USAID/IRC        9/18/06    10/18/06          38,671    CLOSED
ASA)                  DFD-G-00-06-00199-00             USAID/OFDA       9/18/06    12/15/07         692,159    CLOSED
       MADAGASCAR     FCC-687-2006/105-00              USDA             9/18/06                    1,206,100   OPEN
ASA)                  Sub-Grant IMA                    USAID/IMA        9/18/06    9/17/09         2,814,838   OPEN
       BENIN          S-LMAQM-06-GR-078                STATE            9/25/06    10/25/08         156,476    OPEN
       MADAGASCAR     S-LMAQM-06-GR-079                STATE            9/25/06    10/25/08         156,476    OPEN
       MEXICO         S-LMAQM-06-GR-083                STATE            9/25/06    10/25/08         159,950    OPEN
       BOLIVIA        S-LMAQM-06-GR-080                STATE            9/25/06    10/25/08         159,951    OPEN
       GUATEMALA      S-LMAQM-06-GR-081                STATE            9/25/06    10/25/08         160,000    OPEN
       EGYPT          263-G-00-06-00086-00             USAID/W          9/25/06    9/24/08          987,505    OPEN
       LEBANON        DFD-G-00-06-00247-00             USAID/OFDA       9/26/06    9/30/07         8,861,457   CLOSED
       East Timor     486-A-00-06-00012-00             USAID/M          9/27/06    9/30/09          742,611    OPEN
       BULGARIA       183-A-00-06-00106-00             USAID/M          9/29/06    3/31/08    D     450,000
ASA)                  623-A-00-06-00050-00             USAID/M          9/29/06    9/28/08          556,682    OPEN
       NEW DELHI      Sub-award/IntraHealth #2006-47   USAID/IHI        10/1/06    7/31/11           35,851    OPEN
       MALAWI         SG-222-05F                       USIP             10/1/06    11/30/07          40,000    CLOSED
       SIERRA LEONE   Sub-Award, CARE                  USAID/CARE       10/1/06    9/30/09          355,598    OPEN
       SIERRA LEONE   Sub-Award, CARE                  USAID/CARE       10/1/06    9/30/09          655,857    OPEN
       GUATEMALA      FFP-A-00-07-00005-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/11          706,738    OPEN
       LESOTHO        Sub-Award WVI                    OTHER            10/1/06    12/31/07   D     810,025
       GUATEMALA      FFP-A-00-07-00005-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/11         2,075,277   OPEN
       NIGER          FFP-A-00-07-00006-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/11         2,170,952   OPEN
       NEW DELHI      FFP-A-00-07-00025-00             USAID/FFP        10/1/06    9/30/11         3,824,881   OPEN
       LIBERIA        FFP-A-00-07-00008-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/09         5,132,623   OPEN
       ZAMBIA         FFP-A-00-07-00004-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/11         5,577,088   OPEN
       NIGER          FFP-A-00-07-00006-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/11         7,638,799   OPEN
       LIBERIA        FFP-A-00-07-00008-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/09        10,185,440   OPEN
       ZAMBIA         FFP-A-00-07-00004-00             FFP              10/1/06    9/30/11        11,607,743   OPEN
       CHAD           DFD-G-00-06-00237-00             USAID/OFDA       10/6/06    4/30/09         1,142,282   OPEN
                      Sub-Award NicaSalud #FRN-FS-
       NICARAGUA                                       OTHER            10/9/06     9/8/09           69,534    OPEN
       EARO           Sub-award/CIAT                   OTHER            10/24/06   12/31/08          76,500    OPEN
       TANZANIA       Sub-Award, TUN2006-02            USAID/Deloitte   11/1/06    10/25/11         477,740    OPEN
       AFGHANISTAN    DFD-G-00-07-00012-00             USAID/OFDA       11/15/06   6/15/07          466,019    CLOSED
       VIETNAM        Sub-Award/CA PAI 0107            OTHER            12/1/06    11/30/07   D      77,029
       SENEGAL        Sub-award, FHI #FCO 607063       USAID/FHI        12/1/06    9/30/08          349,998    OPEN
       HAITI          521-G-00-07-00003-00/CRS         USAID/M          12/19/06   2/28/07           50,000    CLOSED
       MADAGASCAR     687-G-00-07-00031-00             USAID/OFDA       12/21/06   2/28/07           50,000    CLOSED

      KENYA           Sub-Award, AGA Khan Found.       USAID/AGA Khan     1/1/07    9/30/11          165,570    OPEN
      NIGERIA                          Univ.
                      Sub-Award, Columbia University                      1/1/07    9/30/07          372,076    CLOSED
      KENYA           Sub Award, MWA                   USAID/CA           1/1/07    8/30/08         2,499,642   OPEN
      ZIMBABWE        Sub-award/World Vision           OTHER              1/1/07    9/30/08        14,708,362   OPEN
      AFGHANISTAN     306-A-00-07-00504-00             USAID/M            1/8/07     1/7/09          592,056    OPEN
      MADAGASCAR      DFD-G-00-07-00022-00             USAID/OFDA         1/24/07   9/30/07          158,010    CLOSED
      SUDAN           DFD-G-00-07-00029-00             USAID/OFDA         2/15/07   2/28/09         5,349,904   OPEN
      INDONESIA     497-G-00-07-00008-00               USAID/M            2/20/07   3/30/07           25,000    CLOSED
                    Subcontract, TSG #111-C-00-06-
      ARMENIA                                          USAID/M            3/1/07    8/31/07           28,000    CLOSED
      MULTI-                                                                                                    EXPIRE
RY                  U51HA02521-04-00                   HRSA               3/1/07    2/29/08    D 94,554,475
      UGANDA          DFD-G-00-07-00055-00             USAID/OFDA         3/6/07    2/28/08    D    1,424,580
      HONDURAS        Subgrant, AED #3421-07-SG-004    USAID/AED          4/1/07    6/30/08    D     149,418
      AFGHANISTAN     306-A-00-08-00511-00             USAID/M            4/1/07    12/3/10         1,400,000   OPEN
      HAITI           USIP-199-05S                     USIP               5/1/07    4/30/08    D      44,887
CA                    E-9-K-7-0004                     LABOR              5/1/07    4/26/11         4,500,000   OPEN
      AFGHANISTAN     Sub-Award, LGCD                  USAID/LGCD         5/15/07   5/14/08    D      99,952
      RWANDA          Sub-Award, CIAT                  OTHER              6/1/07    3/31/08    D      19,000
      VIETNAM         Sub-Award, FHI #610068           USAID/OTHER        6/1/07    9/30/08          258,698    OPEN
      LEBANON         SPRMCO07CA065                    STATE              6/1/07    6/30/08    D     750,358
      SYRIA           SPRMCO07CA050                    STATE              6/1/07    9/30/08         1,211,579   OPEN
      SRI LANKA       DFD-G-00-07-00200-00             OFDA               6/13/07   3/11/08          250,277    CLOSED
      SENEGAL         Sub-Award, CCF #1-055            USAID/CCF          7/1/07    6/30/10           88,714    OPEN
      VIETNAM         S-PMWRA-07-GR-051                STATE              7/1/07    6/30/08    D     108,000
ry)                   S-LMAQM-07-GR-165                STATE              7/3/07     7/3/09          600,000    OPEN
      PAKISTAN        DFD-G-00-07-00183-00             OFDA               7/24/07   2/22/08          802,031    CLOSED
                      Sub-Award, Chemonics/FIDEM       USAID/Chemonics,                                         EXPIRE
      BOLIVIA                           Int'l                             7/30/07   3/30/08    D      49,079
                      Sub-Award, WVI CRS-DFD-G-00-
      ZIMBABWE                                         USAID/WV           8/1/07    12/31/08         636,286    OPEN
      ANGOLA          S-LMAQM-07-GR-161                STATE              8/10/07   8/10/09          551,000    OPEN
      PAKISTAN        SPRMCO07CA105                    STATE              8/15/07   8/14/08          123,715    OPEN
      MADAGASCAR      DFD-G-00-07-00145-00             OFDA               8/15/07   9/14/08          556,796    OPEN
      AFGHANISTAN     Sub-Contract #ARD-LGCD-SC-025    USAID/ARD-LGCD     8/16/07   10/15/07          60,252    CLOSED
                      Sub-Award, Chemonics #ASAP-
      AFGHANISTAN                                      USAID/Chemonics    8/22/07   10/5/07           92,294    CLOSED
      JAMAICA         532-G-00-07-00039-00             USAID/M            8/29/07   11/30/07          35,000    CLOSED
      HQ South Asia
m                     FFP-G-00-07-00072-00             FFP                8/31/07    9/1/08           99,925    OPEN
                                                       USSD/OPA US
      YUGOSLAVIA      S-SR100-07-GR-189 Embassy                           9/1/07    12/31/07          12,000    CLOSED
      UGANDA          Sub-Award, PACT #M0-048          USAID/PACT         9/1/07    4/30/08           44,056    EXPIRE

      SUDAN           SPRMCO07CA130                    STATE             9/1/07    8/31/08         576,582    OPEN
      NICARAGUA       524-G-00-07-00013-00             USAID/M           9/7/07    10/5/07          68,924    CLOSED
      NICARAGUA       524-A-00-07-00015-00             USAID/M          9/13/07    3/12/10        3,000,000   OPEN
      AFGHANISTAN     SPRMCO07CA121                    STATE            9/15/07    9/14/08         587,327    OPEN
      YUGOSLAVIA      SPRMCO07CA157                    STATE            9/15/07    9/14/08        1,011,330   OPEN
      MALI            FFE-688-2007/024-00              USDA             9/18/07                   7,726,170   OPEN
      GHANA           641-G-00-07-00029-00             USAID/M          9/20/07    12/20/07         50,000    CLOSED
      MADAGASCAR      DFD-G-00-07-00215-00             OFDA             9/20/07    9/19/09         400,000    OPEN
      ERITREA         DFD-G-00-07-00214-00             OFDA             9/20/07    8/20/08         686,337    OPEN
      SYRIA           SPRMCO07CA162                    STATE            9/24/07    9/23/08         789,827    OPEN
      LESOTHO         DFD-G-00-07-00210-00             OFDA             9/25/07    9/24/08         399,185    OPEN
      MALAWI          DFD-G-00-07-00211-00             OFDA             9/26/07    3/31/09         400,000    OPEN
      VIETNAM         S-GTIP-07-GR-012                 STATE            9/30/07    10/1/09         185,000    OPEN
      HQ South Asia
m                     S-GTIP-07-GR-017                 STATE            9/30/07    10/1/09         299,100    OPEN
      BURKINA                                                                                                 EXPIRE
                      SUV70007GR016                    USEMB            10/1/07    10/31/07   D     50,000
                      Sub-Grant CRS FFP-A-00-07-                                                              EXPIRE
      LESOTHO                                          FFP/WV           10/1/07    6/30/08    D    725,218
      NICARAGUA       FFP-A-00-08-00001-00             FFP              10/1/07    9/30/08        1,199,000   OPEN
      MALI            688-G-00-08-00001-00             USAID/M          10/6/07    12/5/07          50,000    CLOSED
LIC                   517-G-00-08-00101-00             USAID/M          11/1/07     2/1/08          50,000    CLOSED
                      Subagreement, Purdue Univ.
      AFGHANISTAN                                      OTHER            11/1/07    10/30/09        214,543    OPEN
      HONDURAS        S-HO800-08-GR-003                USEMB            11/5/07     5/4/09          80,000    OPEN
LIC                   517-G-00-08-00103-00             USAID/M          11/13/07   8/13/08         215,937    OPEN
      NICARAGUA       DFD-G-00-08-00023-00             OFDA             11/13/07   5/12/08    D    311,854
      MADAGASCAR      687-A-00-08-00004-00             USAID/M          11/28/07   9/30/09         200,000    OPEN
                      Sub-contract, ARD/LGCD 039-                                                             EXPIRE
      AFGHANISTAN                                      USAID/ARD/LGCD   12/1/07    1/31/08    D     21,075
      ANGOLA          Sub-Grant GHN-A-00-07-00014-04   USAID/WV         12/1/07    8/30/12          63,640    OPEN
      HQ South Asia
m                     Sub-Grant GHN-A-00-07-00014-15   USAID/WV         12/1/07    9/30/08         323,000    OPEN
      SUDAN           Sub-Award 08-06970-SUD.0-646     USAID/NDI        12/1/07    10/31/08       1,098,865   OPEN
LIC                   Sub-contract EDUCA               LABOR/EDUCA      12/14/07   12/30/10        195,435    OPEN
                      Sub-Award, Chemonics                                                                    EXPIRE
      LEBANON                                          OTHER            12/17/07   6/16/08    D    244,907
      ZAMBIA          Sub-grant EDH-A-00-07-0009-00    USAID/WV          1/1/08    12/31/10         70,000    OPEN
      HQ South Asia
m                     DFD-G-00-08-00044-00             OFDA              1/1/08    9/30/08         352,038    OPEN
                      Sub-Award, SEEP 107-200908-HA-
      RWANDA                                           USAID/SEEP        1/7/08    8/30/09          17,600    OPEN
      LEBANON         Sub-Award 08-07260-LEB.0-661     STATE/NDI        1/15/08    10/15/08        118,070    OPEN
      KENYA           DFD-A-00-08-00055-00             OFDA             1/15/08    1/15/09        5,815,884   OPEN
                      Sub-Award 08-01-01
      AFGHANISTAN                                      USAID/LGCD       1/30/08     2/8/08          50,002    CLOSED

      HAITI           FFP-A-00-08-00023-00             FFP          2/12/08    2/11/12           994,870    OPEN
      HAITI           FFP-A-00-08-00023-00             FFP          2/12/08    2/11/12         13,220,200   OPEN
      LEBANON         S-LMAQM-08-GR-510                STATE        2/14/08    2/14/10           825,000    OPEN
      HAITI           DFD-G-00-08-00087-00             USAID/OFDA   2/15/08    6/15/08    D      149,995
      HAITI           Sub-grant G-1000165-13           USAID/DAI    2/21/08    12/31/08           10,083    OPEN
      MADAGASCAR      Sub-award Care Madagascar        OFDA/CARE    3/1/08     2/28/09           100,000    OPEN
      VIETNAM                            Vietnam
                      Sub-award, Pact Vietnam #AL031                3/1/08     9/30/09           162,854    OPEN
      HQ South Asia
m                     SPRMCO08CA035                    STATE        3/1/08     2/28/09           875,000    OPEN
      HAITI           Sub-grant GSM-039                USAID/WL     3/1/08     12/31/08         2,500,000   OPEN
RY                    U51HA02521-05-00                 HRSA         3/1/08     2/28/09        141,696,926   OPEN
      BOLIVIA         511-A-00-08-00050-00             USAID        3/3/08      3/2/10           398,894    OPEN
      HONDURAS        Sub-award 3180-14                USAID/AED    3/10/08    7/31/09           200,000    OPEN
      BANGLADESH      DFD-G-00-08-00123-00             USAID/OFDA   4/1/08      1/1/09          2,000,000   OPEN
                      DFD-G-00-08-00130-00             USAID/OFDA   4/15/08    10/14/08          600,000    OPEN
      MALAWI          DFD-G-00-08-00161-00             OFDA         5/15/08    11/15/08          455,943    OPEN
LIC                   517-G-00-08-00106-00             USAID        5/20/08    5/19/10           300,000    OPEN
      HAITI           FFP-A-00-08-00054-00             FFP          5/22/08    5/21/09          2,133,938   OPEN
      AFGHANISTAN     Sub contract No.068 ARD/LGCD     USAID/ARD    6/1/08     8/30/08            52,128    OPEN
      NICARAGUA       Pre authorization                OSAID/OFDA   6/13/08                      114,140    OPEN
      GUYANA          SINLEC08GR0013                   STATE        6/15/08    12/15/09           99,668    OPEN

                                                                              Total       720,117,593


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