The Christ of the Gospels 1. ―Who do you say that I am?‖ 2. The synoptic problem: the Two-Source hypothesis. 3. Distinctive features of each gospel. Who do you say that I am? …On the way [Jesus] asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?" And they answered him, "John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets." He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah." And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him. Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. He said all this quite openly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. But turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, ―Get behind me, Satan! For you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things.‖ Mk 8: 27-33. NT Canon: 27 books • Gospels – Synoptic: Mark, Matthew, Luke – John • Acts of the Apostles • 21 Epistles + Book of Revelation Four gospel codices in a bookcase Two Source Hypothesis The Gospel of Mark: Jesus the Suffering Servant • The earliest and the shortest gospel • written c. 70 AD • ―passion narrative with an extended introduction‖ (Isa 53). • Jesus as the offense • Did Jesus speak about himself openly? – Healing of a leper 1:44 – Resuscitation of Jairus’ daughter 5: 43 • The gospel of questions – 1:27 exorcism in synagogue – 4:41 rebuking the wind • ―I believe; help my unbelief‖ 9:24 Outline of the Gospel of Mark 1:1-2:45 The beginning of Jesus’ ministry Title; John the Baptist; Baptism; Temptation; proclamation of the kingdom; the call of first disciples; day in Capernaum. 2:1-6:13 Conflicts with authorities Paralytic cured; Jesus & Jewish observances: association with sinners, fasting Sabbath; man cured on Sabbath; controversy over authority; parables of the kingdom; four miracles; rejected at Nazareth. 6:14-8:26 Ministry in Galilee and beyond 8:27-10:52 Turning point Peter’s confession—passion prediction; Transfiguration; second passion prediction; discipleship; teaching on marriage; third passion prediction. Outline of Mark (cont’d) 11:1-13:37 Jesus in Jerusalem Entry into Jerusalem; cursing the fig tree; cleansing the Temple; controversies with authorities; small apocalypse 14:1-16:8 Passion narrative Judas’ betrayal; Last Supper; Gethsemane; Arrest; before Sanhedrin; Peter’s denial; before Pilate; mockery; crucifixion; burial; empty tomb. Gospel look Mark: study his reaction tohis of up Matthew 3:1-6), appearance, • Group 1. Describe John the Baptist, hisquestions message (also Jesus, and the circumstances of his death (Mark 1:1-8; 6: 17-29) • Group 2. In the conflicts with authorities, what is Jesus accused of? 2:1-28; 3:1-6; 3: 20-27; 11:15-19. • Group 3. What are the characteristics of a true disciple of Jesus? 8:34-38; 9:33-41; 10:32-45. • Group 4. How are the disciples portrayed? What is their reaction to teachings and miracles of Jesus? 4:1-13, 4: 35-40; 6:47-52; 7:14-23; 8:14-21. • Group 5. Summarize Jesus’ moral exhortation concerning the end time (chap. 13). What are the signs of the eschaton (end time)? What are the implications for human behavior follow from the apocalyptic world-view? John the Baptist The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus the Living Torah • Written after Mark, c. 80-85 AD • Compare Mk 1: 9 & Mt 3:13-15 • Jesus the Emmanuel: God with us Isa 7:14 • Jesus & the Law Beatitudes • Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Cf. Lk 6:20 • Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. Cf. Lk 6:21 • Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. Mt 5: 3,6,8 Jesus’ attitude towards the Law Matthew 5: 21-48 • You have heard that it was said… – You shall not murder, commit adultery, swear falsely, etc. • But I say to you – Do not be angry, lustful, swear at all – Love your enemies Jesus and the Law ―Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill…‖ 5:17. ―For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.‖ 5:20. The Gospel of John: Christ the Divine Logos • The latest gospel, c. 90 AD • ―the spiritual gospel‖ • John 1:1-18. Who is the Word? • ―I am‖ sayings. 6:35; 8:12, 11:25; 14:6; 15:1. Ancient manuscript of John’s Prologue. ca. 200. P66 INTHEBEGINNINGWAS THEWORDANDTHE WORDWASWITHGDAN THEWORDWASGD The Gospel of Luke: The Good Shepherd • Written c. 80-85 AD • Luke-Acts written by one person • the social gospel (parable of the good Samaritan 10: 29-37) • Parables of the lost coin, lost sheep, prodigal son (chap. 15).