A Constructed Response on the Regents Exam

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					A Constructed Response Question on the Regents Exam
     Name _________________________________________________


Base your answers to questions on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.


  1. A human is a complex organism that develops from a zygote. Briefly explain
     some of the steps in this developmental process. In your answer be sure to:
     • explain how a zygote is formed [1]
     • compare the genetic content of the zygote to that of a body cell of the
     parents [1]
     • identify one developmental process involved in the change from a zygote
     into an embryo [1]
     • identify the structure in which fetal development usually occurs [ 1]
     • identify two factors that can affect fetal development and explain how
     each factor affects fetal development [2]
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  2. Which phrase best describes a process represented in the diagram below?




     (1) a zygote dividing by mitosis (3) a gamete dividing by mitosis
     (2) a zygote dividing by meiosis (4) a gamete dividing by meiosis
Answer Key for Constructed Response Question on the
                   Regents Exam
     1. Allow a maximum of 6 credits for a brief explanation of some of the steps
        in the process of human development, allocated as follows:

       Allow 1 credit for explaining how a zygote is formed. Acceptable responses
     include, but are not limited to:
     — Gametes fuse.
     — Fertilization occurs.
     — Sperm and egg fuse.

         Allow 1 credit for comparing the genetic content of the zygote to that of
     a body cell of the parents. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited
     to:
     — The zygote is not genetically identical to a body cell of either parent.
     — The zygote has the same chromosome number as a body cell of the
     parents.
     — Half of the zygote’s chromosomes come from each parent.

        Allow 1 credit for identifying one developmental process involved in the
     change from a zygote into an embryo. Acceptable responses include, but
     are not limited to:
     — differentiation
     — mitosis
     — cell division
     — cleavage

        Allow 1 credit for uterus.

        Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two factors that can
     affect fetal development and an explanation of how each factor affects
     fetal development. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
     — Alcohol can affect development of the brain.
     — Smoking can result in premature births/low birth weight.
     — Crack can cause the placenta to separate prematurely resulting in brain
     damage or death.
     — Malnutrition in the mother can result in low birth weight.
     — Genes will affect how the baby develops.
     — The amnion provides a watery environment and protection.
     — Good nutrition by the mother favors healthy development.

 —      In humans, when the male and female gametes fuse, a zygote is formed.
        This process is fertilization and the result is a cell with the same amount of
        genetic information as a body cell of the parents. The zygote will develop
        into an embryo by the processes of mitosis and differentiation. Most fetal
        development occurs in the uterus. Many factors affect development. If
        the genetic information is incomplete or faulty, the embryo may not
        develop correctly or may die. The environment is also very important. X
        rays can cause mutations and alcohol can result in brain damage.
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