Vocabulary

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					Developmental Review                                                          Name: ___________________________

PART A: VOCABULARY MATCHING

fetus, teratogens, rooting reflex, schemas, assimilation, cognition, sensorimotor, object permanence,
preoperational, conservation, egocentrism, concrete operational, formal operational, stranger anxiety,
critical period, imprinting, basic trust, self-concept, adolescence, puberty, menarche, identity, intimacy,
menopause, Alzheimer’s disease, maturation, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, social clock,
attachment, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), accommodation, zygote, embryo, developmental psychology

1. _________________________ _________________________ is the branch of psychology concerned with physical,
cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
2. The _________________________ (a term derived from the Greek word for “joint”) is the fertilized egg, that is, the
cluster of cells formed during conception by the union of sperm and egg.
3. The _________________________ is the developing prenatal organism from about 2 weeks through 2 months after
conception.
4. The _________________________ is the developing prenatal human from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
5. _________________________ (literally, poisons) are, any drugs, viruses, or other substances that cross the mother’s
placenta and can harm the developing embryo or fetus.
6. The ______________________ _______________________ _______________________ (____) refers to the physical
and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause in the developing child.
7. The _____________ ____________ is the newborn’s tendency, when his or her cheek is stroked, to orient toward the
stimulus and begin sucking.
8. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, _________________________ are mental concepts that organize and
interpret information.
9. In Piaget’s theory, _________________________ refers to interpreting a new experience in terms of an existing
schema.
10. In Piaget’s theory, _________________________ refers to changing an existing schema to incorporate new
information that cannot be assimilated.
11. _________________________ refers to the mental processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
communicating.
12. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive stages, the _________________________ stage lasts from birth to about age 2. During
this stage, infants gain knowledge of the world through their senses and their motor activities.
13. _________________________ _________________________ , which develops during the sensorimotor stage, is the
awareness that things do not cease to exist when not perceived.
14. In Piaget’s theory, the _________________________ stage lasts from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age. During this stage,
language development is rapid, but the child is unable to understand the mental operations of concrete logic.
15. _________________________ is the principle that properties such as number, volume, and mass remain constant
despite changes in the forms of objects; it is acquired during the concrete operational stage.
16. In Piaget’s theory, _________________________ refers to the difficulty that preoperational children have in consid-
ering another’s viewpoint. “Ego” means “self,” and “centrism” indicates “in the center”; the preoperational child is “self-
centered.”
17. Our ideas about our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and perceptions and the behaviors these might predict
constitute our _________________________ ___ _________________________
18. During the _________________________ _________________________ stage, lasting from about ages 6 or 7 to 11,
children can think logically about concrete events and objects.
19. In Piaget’s theory, the _________________________ _________________________ stage normally begins about age
twelve. During this stage people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. Memory aid: To help differentiate
Piaget’s stages remember that “operations” are mental transformations. Preoperational children, who lack the ability to
perform transformations, are “before” this developmental milestone. Concrete operational children can operate on real,
or concrete, objects. Formal operational children can perform logical transformations on abstract concepts.
20. _________________________ _________________________ is the fear of strangers that infants begin to display at
about 8 months of age.
21. _________________________ is an emotional tie with another person, shown in young children by their seeking
closeness to a caregiver and showing distress on separation.
22. A ______________________________ __________________________ is a limited time shortly after birth during
which an organism must be exposed to certain experiences or influences if it is to develop properly.
23. _________________________ is the process by which certain animals form attachments early in life, usually during a
limited critical period.
24. _________________________ -_________________________ is a person’s sense of identity and personal worth.
25. _________________________ refers to the life stage from puberty to independent adulthood, denoted physically by
a growth spurt and maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics, cognitively by the onset of formal operational
thought, and socially by the formation of identity.
26. _________________________ is the early adolescent period of’ sexual maturation, during which a person becomes
capable of reproduction.
27. In Erikson’s theory, establishing an _________________________ , or one’s sense of self, is the primary task of
adolescence.
28. In Erikson’s theory, _________________________ , or the ability to establish close, loving relationships, is the primary
task of late adolescence and early adulthood.
29. _________________________ is the cessation of menstruation and typically occurs in the early fifties. It also refers to
the biological and psychological changes experienced during a woman’s years of declining ability to reproduce.
30. _________________________ _________________________ is a progressive and irreversible brain disorder caused
by deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine. It is characterized by a gradual loss of memory, reasoning,
language, and, finally, physical functioning.
31. _________________________ _________________________ refers to those aspects of intellectual ability, such as
vocabulary and general knowledge, that reflect accumulated learning. This tends to increase with age.
32. _________________________ _________________________ refers to a person’s ability to reason speedily and
abstractly. This tends to decline with age.
33. The _________________________ _________________________ refers to the culturally preferred timing of social
events, such as leaving home, marrying, having children, and retiring.

PART B: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

1. Assume a person has the schema, “Abstract art is easy to make; any child could do it.” Then, they are confronted with a
scenario in which they are asked to create abstract art and find that their painting is not very good.
If they assimilate, they might think…



If they accommodate, they might think…



2. Give an example of a statement that each of the following types of parents might say to their children:

Authoritative:




Authoritarian:




Permissive:
3. Into which stage of Piaget’s developmental theory do each of the following fit:

a) A child saying “that’s my star in the sky!” __________________________
 b) A child getting anxious if someone other than their parent holds them. _______________________
 c) The ability to do a liquid conservation test. ____________________
 d) The ability to pretend. _______________________
 e) The ability to add, subtract, and do multiplication tables. __________________________


4. What type of development did each of the stage theorists that we discussed focus on?

 a) Erikson: _____________________________________
 b) Kohlberg: ___________________________________
 c) Piaget: ______________________________________


 According to these three theorists, at what stages of development would a three year old be?




 According to these three theorists, at what stage of development would a fourteen year old be?




5. What was the specific relevance of Harry Harlow’s experiments?



6. What did Mary Ainsworth conclude from her research on types of attachment?




7. Give an example of a problem that you’d use your:
 a) crystallized intelligence to solve



 b) fluid intelligence to solve




 Which type of intelligence fades with age?




8. Describe some of the physical changes associated with aging and adulthood



9. If you’re looking for a mate to share the rest of your life with, what kind of characteristics should you seek?
10. What are some major problems associated with nursing homes?




PART C: STAGE THEORIES

                     Piaget’s Stages of ____________________________ Development

                      Name of the Stage                                      Age of the Child

1.

2.

3.

4.



                   Kohlberg’s Stages of ____________________________ Development

               Name of the Stage                                      Characterized by:

1.

2.

3.



                    Kubler-Ross’ Stages of _____________________________________

          Name of the Stage                                       Characterized by:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
               Erik Erikson’s Stages of ___________________________________ Development

                   Name of the Stage                                                  Crisis

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.


PART D: PSYCHOLOGISTS

In one word or two, describe the contributions of the following psychologists to the field of Developmental Psychology

a) Jean Piaget:

b) Mary Ainsworth:

c) Harry Harlow:

d) Konrad Lorenz:

e) Diana Baumrind:

f) Erik Erikson:

g) Lawrence Kohlberg:

h) Elisabeth Kubler-Ross:

i) Laura Carstenson:

j) Warner Schaie:

				
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