VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 31 POSTED ON: 6/12/2011
Asthma Basics CHILDREN • 8.6 million U.S. children under age 18 diagnosed w/asthma • 3.8 million of them have had an asthma attack (episode) in the last 12 months. • Asthma is the leading cause of school absenteeism • Asthma is the leading, serious chronic illness among children What is Asthma? • Asthma is the leading, serious chronic illness among children. • The airways of a person with asthma are inflamed. • Asthma causes episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing. An Asthma Episode An asthma episode usually happens after one or several exposures to an irritant/allergen (trigger) to which they are sensitive. The response is narrowing of the airways. The airway becomes narrower from: Increased inflammation The muscles surrounding the airways tighten The lungs produce a thick mucus Normal Lungs Inflamed Lungs Signs of an Asthma Episode • Shortness of Breath • Wheeze • Cough • Chest Tightness Asthma Warning Signals • Itchy, watery/glassy eyes • Cough/Congestion (night cough) • Wheezing • Fatigue not related to activity • Unusual paleness; undereye circles • Medicine not helping • Hunched position / squatting • Difficult Breathing • Retractions • Flared nostrils • Scared look • Vomiting (from coughing/stress) Triggers • Smoke • Nighttime • Dust Mites • Pollen/Molds • Weather & Air Pollution • Animal Dander • Pests (Cockroaches) • Strong Scents/Odors • Exercise • Respiratory Infections • Emotions What Actions Can You Take to Reduce Potential Episodes in the Home? Home Modifications • Change forced air heating filters (every 2/3 months) • Avoid strong odors: Art/craft supplies,chemical fumes,cleaning fluids • Vacuum/dust regularly • Restrict application of pesticides for non-use hours • Use dust-proof bedding covers Medications Rescuers: • Relax tightened muscles • Short-Acting • Nebulizer or Puffer • Treat acute episodes and symptoms Controllers: Reduce inflammation in airways Reduce # of times children need to take rescuers Long-Acting Take on a regular basis “Rules of Two” When do you need more than a bronchodilator? •Quick relief > 2X/week •Nighttime waking > 2X/month •Refill quick relief inhaler > 2X/year Asthma Medications and Supplies Meter Dose Dry Powder Inhalers - MDI Inhaler - DPI Spacers (use Nebulizer / Compressor with MDIs) Peak Flow Meter Bronchodilator Inhalers - Short Acting albuterol Generic albuterol Proventil HFA albuterol Ventolin albuterol Combivent ipratropium Ventolin bromide and Rotahaler albuterol albuterol (Recalled, 6-6) Bronchodilator Inhalers - Short Acting Alupent Brethaire Maxair Maxair metaproteranol terbutaline Inhaler Autohaler pirbuterol pirbuterol (recalled, 5-8) Atrovent recalled Xopenex ipratropium bromide - levalbuterol used w/ one of the other bronchodilators Inhaled Corticosteroids ("Steroids") Vanceril Vanceril beclomethasone Double Strength QVAR40 QVAR80 84 mcg/puff beclomethasone Beclovent beclomethasone Aerobid Pulmicort Azmacort flunisolide budesonide triamcinolone Inhaled Corticosteroids ("Steroids") fluticasone Flovent 44 - Flovent 110 - Flovent 220 - fluticasone 44 fluticasone 110 fluticasone 220 mcg/puff mcg/puff mcg/ puff Flovent Rotahaler Flovent 100mcg 250mcg Rotadisks 50 fluticasone,50mcg Cromolyn Sodium and Nedocromil Tilade Intal nedocromil cromolyn sodium sodium inhalation aerosol Metered dose Metered dose 1.75 mg/actuation 800 mcg/inhalation • Inhaled medications that work to prevent bronchial tube swelling as part of a regular maintenance plan • Also taken before exercise • Not for sudden symptoms Bronchodilator Inhalers - Long Acting reduce the narrowing of lung passages by relaxing airway muscles Serevent - salmeterol Serevent Discus Foradil Aerolizer -formoterol Inhaled Corticosteroids with Long-acting Bronchodilator Flovent Serevent Advair + = (fluticasone and salmeterol) Inflammation & muscle tightness Oral Corticosteroids Drug Class Generic Name Trade Name Cortan Oral Prednisone Deltasone Corticosteroids Prednicen-M Sterepred Prelone Oral Pediapred Prednisolone Corticosteroids Delta-cortef Oral Methyl- Medrol Corticosteroids prednisolone SoluMedrol Leukotriene modifiers For long-term control/prevention of asthma symptoms, especially inflammation. Pediatric patients 2 to 5 years of age 4mg One 4-mg cherry chewable tablet daily in the evening Pediatric patients 6 to 14 years of age 5 mg One 5-mg cherry chewable tablet daily in the evening Adults and adolescents 15 years and older 10 mg One 10-mg tablet daily in the evening Also Accolate ; Zyflo How Should a Child Use an Inhaler? How Should a Child Use an Inhaler – with a Spacer? 1. Ask child to breathe out 2. Have child place spacer in mouth 3. Press down on inhaler 4. Ask child to take a slow deep breath 5. Encourage child to hold breath for five (5) seconds 6. Remove spacer for exhalation 7. Wait one minute before repeating the process if there is a second puff ordered Communication Good communication with physician Communication – Asthma Medicine/Management Plan • Fill out an Asthma Medicine/Management Plan for your child • Review form with physicians • Keep form accessible Helpful Hints Ways to Help Child Calm Down/Relax Belly Breathing • Sit up straight on a chair • Place both hands on your belly • Breathe slowly through your nose • Blow the air slowly out of your mouth Summary Remember: Asthma can’t be cured, but it can be controlled with • Medication • Avoiding triggers • Knowing what to do in case of an attack Most children with asthma can do anything they want; it’s just a matter of controlling and managing the disease. What you can do: • Listen to what the child says and watch the child for telling signs. • Initiate environmental changes at home. • Increase early detection of asthma episodes. • Increase communication between yourselves and your physicians. WHEN YOU CAN’T BREATHE, NOTHING ELSE MATTERS This program is sponsored by a grant from the New York State Department of Health, through the Asthma Coalition of Western New York. Contact our office at (716) 699-4042
"A IS FOR ASTHMA"