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                                   FELLOW A.P.H.A.
                 Consulting Chemist and Consulting Engineer, Cleveland, 0.

GOLF OR COUNTRY CLUBS be-                      main sources: toilets, showers, kitchen
1 3~ing situated as a rule remote from         and laundry, the amount from each de-
public sewer systems require some inde-        pending upon the size and general use
pendent method for treating their sewage.      of the club house. It differs from muni-
   In order to dispose of the sewage from      cipal domestic sewage in that the percent-
a golf club, several requirements must be      age of soapy water and grease is relatively
met. In the first place, the whole treat-      much higher.
ment plant must be as inconspicuous as            The methods usually employed in
possible. A sewage plant under the best        treating the sewage .from country clubs
conditions is not particularly attractive;     are combinations of sedimentation and
as part of a recreation ground it should       filtration, with perhaps the septic tank
be hidden. In the next place, the final        followed by sub-surface irrigation of
effluent must be of good appearance; it        some kind the most common. However,
should not attract even passing notice,        these plants are often constructed with-
especially if the brook or run into which      out due regard to soil conditions, and
it is discharged passes through the course.    trouble sometimes follows.
Then, too, the plant must operate with a          The purpose of discussing the possible
minimum amount of attention. No ground         ways of treating the sewage from golf
keeper wants to be bothered with a sew-        clubs, may best be accomplished by out-
age plant. He usually has enough other         lining briefly the method employed at one
troubles. It is fair to assume,. therefore,    club to satisfactorily dispose of its sew-
that unless the devices function success-      age, and by drawing conclusions from this
fully and practically automatically, the       installation which may be applied gen-
plant as. a whole will soon fall into ill      erally.
repute.                                                        DESCRIPTION
   The most stringent requirement, and            The Canterbury Golf Club is situated
perhaps the one hardest to meet in some        in one of the suburbs of Cleveland at too
instances, is that the sewage plant must       great a distance from a public sewer to
operate and produce a satisfactory efflu-      make a connection. A proprietary septic
ent without creating odors. Absence of         tank, far too small, followed by an ab-
odor in such cases cannot be relative, it      sorption system which did not absorb but
must be absolute. Good golf demands            produced a vile smelling swamp, made it
that there be no distractions. Conse-          necessary to institute a change in the
quently, even a slight sewage odor may         method of sewage disposal.
be considered a mental hazard, and just           The accompanying plan shows the lay-
blame for high score cards.                    out of a plant which, after a study of the
   The sewage from a country club varies       problem, was recommended and built at a
greatly in rate of flow, but its character     total cost of about $3,600.
in most cases probably is essentially simi-.      The treatment plant includes a septic
lar. It is generally derived from four         tank, grease chamber, by-pass overflow.
                                                 FIGURE I

               Y s
                           nS     ID

grease  screen, siphon chamber, dosing                 lines, one from the kitchen and the other
tank, trickling filter and final clarification         from the toilets and showers. It was
tank or bed. The sewage treated includes               not feasible to put a grease trap in the
wastes from the kitchen, toilets and show-             kitchen line. The septic tank 20 feet
ers. No roof water is admitted to the                  long by 5 feet wide, and having a water
sanitary sewers. The flow of sewage is                 depth averaging 6 feet, gives a detention
estimated at 40 gallons per capita per                 period of approximately 13 hours. The
day of 16 hours, the total daily volume                sludge can be removed in winter by open-
being estimated at 8,000 gallons. On the               ing a sluice gate, and discharging by grav-
above basis, the plant can serve 200                   ity either onto low ground or into a brook
persons.                                               at high water. The tank is just below
   The plant is located about 150 feet                 ground level and is covered, with pro-
from the club house, the portion above                 vision for entry through two manholes.
ground being hidden for the most part by                  From the septic tank the sewage flows
trees and the topography. The sewage                   into a grease chamber, whence it passes
enters the septic tank from two main                   through a removable screen into a siphon
                        SEWAGE TREATMENT FOR GOLF CLUBS                                                                                                                             483
                                                                                  FIGURE II

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cham)ber. In thle grease cham-ber, balls of                                                             effluent discharges into                 a   small   run              which
grease which pass through the septic tank                                                               is   dry in summer.
are floated and held back by the 4 mesh                                                                    The distinctive features of this plant
wire screen. In winter this screen is                                                                   are   the grease chamber and screen, the
removed and a stop plank substituted.                                                                   dosing tank separate from the siphon
Any sewage flowing through the tank                                                                     chamber, the tightly covered trickling
then rises and passes through an over-                                                                  filter with a ventilating system used at
flow direct to the creek. After passing                                                                 night, and the final clarification filter.
the screen the sewage enters a small si-
phon chamber equipped with a 5-inch                                                                                            OPERATING RESULTS
M\iller siphon.                                                                                            The plant as a whole has operated sat-
   The siphon, which empties the chamber                                                                isfactorily from the start, when viewed
in about one-half minute, discharges the                                                                from mechanical and biological stand-
settled sewage into a small dosing tank                                                                 points. From the esthetic viewpoint,
which feeds two nozzles on the trickling                                                                however, it did not do so well at first,
filter. The dosing tank holding 185 gal-                                                                and various means were tried to eliminate
lons operates under an effective head of                                                                the occasional odors which in a municipal
from 5 to 0 feet, the flow from the siphon                                                              plant would have been considered negligi-
occurring in such short time that full                                                                  ble, but which on the nearby tenth tee was
b)enefit is derived.                                                                                    a cause of grave concern.
    The trickling filter is 26 feet by                                                                     Boarding up the 6 inch screened open-
13 feet in plan and 10 feet deep, under-                                                                ing in the sides, suspending trays of
(Irained by half tile abutting on a central                                                             chloride of lime inside the building,
drain. The filtering material is a local                                                                ameliorated, but did not entirely do away
slag 1 inch to 2 inches in size and is con-                                                             with the odors which escaped occasionally.
tained within a water-tight timber crib                                                                 Finally, an 18 inch Ventura electrically
which is roofed over, entry being obtained                                                              operated fan was installed in one gable
through a small door in one end. The                                                                    of the filter building. This fan is oper-
sewage is distributed over the surface by                                                               ated usually at night and so changes the
two Pacific Flush Tank nozzles operating                                                                air inside the building and dissipates it.
as stated previously under a falling head,                                                              that during the past summer there have
of from 5 to 0 feet. The filter building                                                                been very few complaints. Before pass-
is ventilated by means of an electric fan.                                                              ing into the atmosphere, the air from the
    The effluent from the trickling filter                                                              filter is forced downward through a col-
 (lischarges into a small tank 7 by 4 by 5                                                              umn of charcoal, recently added.
 feet deep, which may be used as a settling                                                                Except during some peak conditions,
 tank, or be filled with sand or cinders to                                                             when all the showers are in use, the final
operate as a strainer. At the present time,                                                             effluent is clear. It does not cause nuisance
 it is operated as a strainer. The final                                                                even when discharged into the dry run.
   The plant has been in operation for the
                                         that in order to satisfy the demands of a
past 2 years from early spring till late supercritical membership, the logical and
fall, and thus far has required little at-
                                         most satisfactory manner to dispose of
tention. The septic tank, siphon chamber the sewage is to discharge it into a public
and dosing tank are all below ground, yetsewer, if it is at all possible. If, how-
readily accessible. The trickling filter ever, this is found to be impracticable,
                                         the problem should receive careful study
sets in the hillside, and the final tank or
                                         and a method adopted which will produce
strainer near the creek. The visible parts
of the plant are not conspicuous; the    satisfactory results without odor, with a
                                         minimum of operating attention, and from
effluent is satisfactory and the devices re-
quire little attention to keep them work-(levices as inconspicuous as possible.
ing in such a manner that the player can Where suitable sub-surface irrigation or
do his regular number of holes without   filtration is impracticable, a plant of the
the distraction of sewage odors.         type described above will prove satis-
                                         factory, particularly if the topography
                                         permits a gravity installation. Such a
  Our experience with the sewage prob- l)lant requires relatively small area and
lem at the Canterbury Golf Club and can be made to harmonize with the
other country clubs clearly demonstrates surrotln(lings.

                    VITAL STATISTICS TRAINING*
T HIS COMMITTEE was appointed                             to consider this matter and report to this
     to consider the possibility of offering              section its ideas as to what should be
special training in vital statistics. It is               included in such courses.
unreasonable to suppose that any large                       It seems necessary to make some divi-
number of employed persons now en-                        sion of the groups of persons who pre-
gaged in some field of public health or                   pare or who use vital statistics and con-
allied science can, or would, leave their                 sider the training required by each, if
positions for the time necessary to take                  they are to make intelligent use of avail-
the work in vital statistics here discussed.              able knowledge of this subject. The fol-
If this training is to reach the group now                lowing divisions are offered:
employed, it will be necessary to offer                   I. Health officers.
this work through correspondence study                       By this term we mean to include those
courses.                                                  men who are acting as administrators of
   Johns Hopkins Universitv has indi-                     health departments, state or municipal,
cated its willingness to consider the giving              bureau directors, epidemiologists an(d
of correspondence courses in statistics                   others occupying administrative or execu-
under certain conditions, and it is pos-                  tive positions. These persons are sup-
sible that some other schools will do the                 posed to have an(l to be keeping in repair
same, and this committee was appointed                    the necessary foundation in medicine,
   * Report of the Committee presented before the Vital   public health and hygiene, laboratory
Statistics Section of the American Public Health
Association at the Fifty-fourth Annual Meeting at
                                                          sciences, epidemiology and sociology.
St. Louis, Missouri, October 20, 1925.                    They are called upon to use vital statistics